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1

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Name NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005...

2

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project Summary Full Title: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project ID: 143 Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Brief Description: Examines the social, environmental and economic impacts of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles. Purpose This project aims to investigate fuel cell vehicles through environmental impact, life cycle assessment, sustainability, and thermodynamic analyses. The project will assist in the development of highly qualified personnel in such areas as system analysis, modeling, methodology development, and applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Organization: University of Ontario Institute of Technology

3

LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of the repository design. (4) A simple, but arguably conservative, estimate for the dose from a repository containing 63,000 MT of spent LIFE fuel would have similar performance to the currently planned Yucca Mountain Repository. This indicates that a properly designed 'LIFE Repository' would almost certainly meet the proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission standards for dose to individuals, even though the waste in such a repository would have produced 20-30 times more generated electricity than the reference case for Yucca Mountain. The societal risk/benefit ratio for a LIFE repository would therefore be significantly better than for currently planned repositories for LWR fuel.

Shaw, H; Blink, J A

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

4

LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The worldwide energy consumption in 2003 was 421 quadrillion Btu (Quads), and included 162 quads for oil, 99 quads for natural gas, 100 quads for coal, 27 quads for nuclear energy, and 33 quads for renewable sources. The projected worldwide energy consumption for 2030 is 722 quads, corresponding to an increase of 71% over the consumption in 2003. The projected consumption for 2030 includes 239 quads for oil, 190 quads for natural gas, 196 quads for coal, 35 quads for nuclear energy, and 62 quads for renewable sources [International Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0484, Table D1 (2006) p. 133]. The current fleet of light water reactors (LRWs) provides about 20% of current U.S. electricity, and about 16% of current world electricity. The demand for electricity is expected to grow steeply in this century, as the developing world increases its standard of living. With the increasing price for oil and gasoline within the United States, as well as fear that our CO2 production may be driving intolerable global warming, there is growing pressure to move away from oil, natural gas, and coal towards nuclear energy. Although there is a clear need for nuclear energy, issues facing waste disposal have not been adequately dealt with, either domestically or internationally. Better technological approaches, with better public acceptance, are needed. Nuclear power has been criticized on both safety and waste disposal bases. The safety issues are based on the potential for plant damage and environmental effects due to either nuclear criticality excursions or loss of cooling. Redundant safety systems are used to reduce the probability and consequences of these risks for LWRs. LIFE engines are inherently subcritical, reducing the need for systems to control the fission reactivity. LIFE engines also have a fuel type that tolerates much higher temperatures than LWR fuel, and has two safety systems to remove decay heat in the event of loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow. These features of LIFE are expected to result in a more straightforward licensing process and are also expected to improve the public perception of risk from nuclear power generation, transportation of nuclear materials, and nuclear waste disposal. Waste disposal is an ongoing issue for LWRs. The conventional (once-through) LWR fuel cycle treats unburned fuel as waste, and results in the current fleet of LWRs producing about twice as much waste in their 60 years of operation as is legally permitted to be disposed of in Yucca Mountain. Advanced LWR fuel cycles would recycle the unused fuel, such that each GWe-yr of electricity generation would produce only a small waste volume compared to the conventional fuel cycle. However, the advanced LWR fuel cycle requires chemical reprocessing plants for the fuel, multiple handling of radioactive materials, and an extensive transportation network for the fuel and waste. In contrast, the LIFE engine requires only one fueling for the plant lifetime, has no chemical reprocessing, and has a single shipment of a small amount of waste per GWe-yr of electricity generation. Public perception of the nuclear option will be improved by the reduction, for LIFE engines, of the number of shipments of radioactive material per GWe-yr and the need to build multiple repositories. In addition, LIFE fuel requires neither enrichment nor reprocessing, eliminating the two most significant pathways to proliferation from commercial nuclear fuel to weapons programs.

Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

5

Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET  

SciTech Connect

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

6

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Agency/Company /Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/results.asp?ptype=Models/Too References: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model [1] NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model This model calculates the 2005 national average life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for petroleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United

7

Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative Fuel Production Speaker(s): Corinne Scown Date: January 31, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Sohn If the goal of science is to understand the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world, and the goal of engineering is to design, build, and manage systems that serve society's needs, then the study of civil infrastructure systems acts as a link between the two. Understanding the reliance of engineered systems on constrained natural resources, as well as their impact on human well-being and the environment, is key to building and maintaining infrastructure that is sustainable in the broader sense. This talk will explore the important role of life-cycle assessment and optimization in assessing such questions as: a.)

8

A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used...

Burlatsky, S F; O'Neill, J; Atrazhev, V V; Varyukhin, A N; Dmitriev, D V; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

Stratton, Russell William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Fuel Oxygenate Production from California Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Historically, more than 90% of the excess agricultural residue produced in California (approximately 10 million dry metric tons per year) has been disposed through open-field burning. Concerns about air quality have prompted federal, state, and local air quality agencies to tighten regulations related to this burning and to look at disposal alternatives. One use of this biomass is as an oxygenated fuel. This report focuses on quantifying and comparing the comprehensive environmental flows over the life cycles of two disposal scenarios: (1) burning the biomass, plus producing and using MTBE; and (2) converting and using ETBE.

Kadam, K. L. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Camobreco, V. J.; Glazebrook, B. E. (Ecobalance Inc.); Forrest, L. H.; Jacobson, W. A. (TSS Consultants); Simeroth, D. C. (California Air Resources Board); Blackburn, W. J. (California Energy Commission); Nehoda, K. C. (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection)

1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used for lifetime prediction of a GORE-SELECT membrane.

S. F. Burlatsky; M. Gummalla; J. O'Neill; V. V. Atrazhev; A. N. Varyukhin; D. V. Dmitriev; N. S. Erikhman

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

13

Life Cycle Engineering Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for green manufacturing and construction applications; conduct life cycle engineering assessments for energy efficiency and environmental ...

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

14

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

144 Figure 63: Impact of Hydroelectricity on the Life-Cycle157 Figure 64: Impact of Hydroelectricity on the Water68 Table 14: Hydroelectricity-Related FWSE (Data Source: (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of current and near-future transportation fuel production inof current and future transportation fuel production in theof existing and near-future transportation fuel production

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethanol; NGCC = natural gas combined-cycle; BIGCC =gasification combined-cycle. P ART III U NCERTAINTY Aaverage, (ii) natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC), (iii) coal

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

United States (Data Source: (98)) Petroleum fuel consumption31 Table 4: Petroleum Refinery Allocation (Data Source (Table 4: Petroleum Refinery Allocation (Data Source (48))

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compressed natural gas (CNG) and electricity also maintain asuch as electricity, CNG, and hydrogen require completelyThe remaining fuels are CNG and electricity, both of which

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and maintenance, and decommissioning of the infrastructure,material extraction to decommissioning/end of life. As shownmaintaining, and decommissioning infrastructure must be

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Bioethanol and Petroleum Gasoline. Argonne NationalMolburg, J. Allocation of Energy Use in Petroleum Refineriesto Petroleum Products. The International Journal of Life

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. study reported results for E85 rather than for pureresults presented herein. For E85 from cellulose and cornto be sold in the form of E85. If so-called “drop-in” fuels

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well-to-pump GHG emissions for petroleum refineryRFS2 protocol . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4. Petroleum reboundthe climate effects of petroleum fuels 5.5.2. Limitations of

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact Analysis for a Shale Oil Complex at Parachute Creek,of Paraho Crude Shale Oil Into Military Specification Fuels.CO, 1974; An Assessment of Oil Shale Technologies. Office of

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Life-cycle assessment of Greenhouse Gas emissions from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key motivation for this work was the potential impact of alternative jet fuel use on emissions that contribute to global climate change. This work focused on one specific aspect in examining the feasibility of using ...

Wong, Hsin Min

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Divisions Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division Jeffrey Binder, Division Director Jeffrey Binder, Division Director The Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division (FCID) of the Nuclear Science...

28

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effic. Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants (NGCC turbine) K2Orecovery effic. Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants (Simple CycleNG recovery effic. Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants (Utility

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

iii 3.4. Co-products of biofuels . . . . . .CYCLE GHG EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR BIOFUELS 3.1. Purpose and10.3.1. Low-GWI biofuels required to meet a 12-state

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane reformer FTR: Fischer-Tropsch reactor LCA: life3–8, 17 Mark E. Dry, The Fischer–Tropsch process: 1950–2000,From the internet, Fischer–Tropsch process Wikipedia site:

Hu, Sangran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Program Record 13006 (Offices of Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies: Life-Cycle Costs of Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Vehicle Technologies & Fuel Cell Program Record (Offices of Vehicle Technologies & Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 13006 Date: April 24, 2013 Title: Life-cycle Costs of Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles Originator: Tien Nguyen & Jake Ward Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Pat Davis Date: April 25, 2013 Items: DOE is pursuing a portfolio of technologies with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and petroleum consumption while being cost-effective. This record documents the assumptions and results of analyses conducted to estimate the life-cycle costs resulting from several fuel/vehicle pathways, for a future mid-size car. The results are summarized graphically in the following figure. Costs of Operation for Future Mid-Size Car

32

USCEA fuel cycle '93  

SciTech Connect

The US Council for Energy Awareness sponsored the Fuel Cycle '93 conference in Dallas, Texas, on March 21-24, 1993. Over 250 participants attended, numerous papers were presented, and several panel discussions were held. The focus of most industry participants remains the formation of USEC and the pending US-Russian HEU agreement. Following are brief summaries of two key papers and the Fuel Market Issues panel discussion.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hour LC Life Cycle LCA Life Cycle Analysis LCC Life Cycle Costing LCI Life Cycle Inventory LCOE Levelized Cost of Delivered Electricity LNB Low NO x Burner LNG Liquefied...

34

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

NONE

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

life cycle inventory | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

life cycle inventory life cycle inventory Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system for eGrid regions (AKGD, AKMS, AZNM, CAMX, ERCT, FRCC, HIMS, HIOA, MROE, MROW, NEWE, NWPP, NYCW, NYLI, NYUP, RFCE, RFCM, RFCW, RMPA, SPNO, SPSO, SRMV, SRMW, SRSO, SRTV, SRVC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory forms (xls and xml) . A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included.Datasets include generation and transmission of electricity for each of the eGrid regions. It is representative of the year 2008 mix of fuels used for utility generations for each of the eGrid regions Source USLCI Database Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords eGrid Electricity grid LCI life cycle inventory US Data application/zip icon egrid_electricity_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 7 MiB)

37

Building Technologies Office: Life Cycle Inventory Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Inventory Database to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Life Cycle Inventory Database on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Life...

38

Fuel Cycle Subcommittee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report to NEAC Report to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of April 23, 2013 Washington D.C. June 13, 2013 Burton Richter (Chair), Margaret Chu, Darleane Hoffman, Raymond Juzaitis, Sekazi K Mtingwa, Ronald P Omberg, Joy L Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC met in Washington on April 23, 2013. The meeting focused on issues relating to the NE advanced reactor program (sections II, III, and IV), and on storage and transportation issues (section V) related to a possible interim storage program that is the first step in moving toward a new permanent repository as recommended by the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) and discussed in the recent response by DOE to Congress on the BRC report 1 . The agenda is given in

39

Fuel-cycle costs for alternative fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares the fuel cycle cost and fresh fuel requirements for a range of nuclear reactor systems including the present day LWR without fuel recycle, an LWR modified to obtain a higher fuel burnup, an LWR using recycle uranium and plutonium fuel, an LWR using a proliferation resistant /sup 233/U-Th cycle, a heavy water reactor, a couple of HTGRs, a GCFR, and several LMFBRs. These reactor systems were selected from a set of 26 developed for the NASAP study and represent a wide range of fuel cycle requirements.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The closed fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe [AREVA NC (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

42

Life Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reichl, H. “Life cycle inventory analysis and identificationAllen, D.T. ; “Life cycle inventory development for waferLife Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip Sarah Boyd and David

Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David; Krishnan, Nikhil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

NETL Life Cycle Analysis Fact Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis Fact Sheets Life Cycle Analysis Role of Alternative Energy Sources - Wind Technology Assessment PDF-372KB (Sept 2012) Role of Alternative Energy Sources -...

44

Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

San Martin, Robert L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

San Martin, Robert L.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal electricity production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A life cycle analysis (LCA) is presented for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy use associated with geothermal electricity production with a special focus on operational GHG emissions from hydrothermal flash and dry steam plants. The analysis includes results for both the plant and fuel cycle components of the total life cycle. The impact of recent changes to California's GHG reporting protocol for GHG emissions are discussed by comparing emission rate metrics derived from post and pre revision data sets. These metrics are running capacity weighted average GHG emission rates (g/kWh) and emission rate cumulative distribution functions. To complete our life cycle analysis plant cycle results were extracted from our previous work and added to fuel cycle results. The resulting life cycle fossil energy and greenhouse gas emissions values are compared among a range of fossil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle and Fuel Systems with the GREET Model - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Michael Wang (Primary Contact), Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han and Hao Cai Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) ESD362 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Phone: (630) 252-2819 Email: mqwang@anl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 2009 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Evaluate environmental benefits of hydrogen fuel * cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) with various renewable hydrogen production pathways relative to baseline gasoline pathways. Conduct vehicle-cycle analysis of hydrogen FCEVs. *

49

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles for Canada Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles for Canada Project Summary Full Title: Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles Powered by a Fuel Cell and by Internal Combustion Engine for Canada Project ID: 117 Principal Investigator: Xianguo Li Purpose In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station.

50

Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual  

SciTech Connect

Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Greenhouse impact due to the use of combustible fuels: Life cycle viewpoint and relative radiative forcing commitment  

SciTech Connect

Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels.

Kirkinen, J.; Palosuo, T.; Holmgren, K.; Savolainen, I. [VTT Technical Research Center Finland, Espoo (Finland)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fuel cycles for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.(DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation factsheet Download the Fact Sheet The U.S. Department of Energy enlisted NREL to review and "harmonize" life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation technologies. Hundreds of assessments have been published, often with considerable variability in results. These variations in approach, while usually legitimate, hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Learn more about life cycle assessments of energy technologies. By harmonizing this data, NREL seeks to reduce the uncertainty around estimates for environmental impacts of renewables and increase the value of

60

Green Building- Efficient Life Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy saving does not just apply to traffic, production or agriculture. Buildings are also contributing to the climate change. The focus here is on the energy they use and on their CO2 emissions. Each year, Siemens invests more than two billion euros in the appropriate research and development. For customers, this means that Siemens is already providing them with energy efficient solutions that save resources and reduce emissions. Siemens Real Estate (SRE) has taken on the task of ensuring that Siemens AG will become 20 percent more energy efficient by 2011, and it has turned an efficiency program for existing real estate, which has been in existence since 2005, into an integrated green building initiative. This initiative comprises the components “Sustainable Building Design”, “Life Cycle Cost Analysis”, “Green Building Certification” and “Natural Resources Management”. These components are deliberately arranged around the life cycle of the real estate concerned. This allows a different emphasis to be placed on the different questions in each project phase and each phase of a building’s life and for them to be answered in a targeted manner. “Sustainable Building Design” comes into effect during the tasking and preliminary planning phase of a building project; and, by providing a specially developed sustainability manual, it helps with the definition of target values and the drawing up of efficiency strategies for the planning of the building. The manual epitomizes, and sets out clearly, the attitude of SRE to all building-specific sustainability matters. In addition, it is used in the offering of rewards for project competitions. As a result, through a selection of different energy-efficiency measures that have been roughly conceived beforehand, the primary energy consumption can already be restricted in the project definition phase. “Life Cycle Cost Analysis” comes into effect when the blueprint for buildings is being drawn up. Up to now, when components and systems were being chosen, the main focus was usually on the investment costs involved. By using a cost tool developed specifically to meet the needs of the company, SRE will in future be able to estimate the component-specific utilization costs – such as cleaning, maintenance, and the use of energy – at an early planning stage. “Green Building Certification” is used in building projects during the planning and implementation phase, and it thus ensures the quality of the new real estate over the long term. Siemens is implementing the Green Building Program of the European Commission in new building projects and renovation work in EU countries. In all other countries that are not taking part in the EU Green Building Program, SRE uses certification in accordance with LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). In the LEED certification, a transparent and easy-to-use catalog of criteria is employed to make an assessment of the use of energy and other aspects of sustainability, such as the selection of the plot of land, the efficient use of water, the quality of air within buildings, and the selection of materials. This ensures that a neutral and independent assessment is made of all new building and large-scale renovation projects. The action program “Natural Resources Management” rounds off the range of measures in the area of existing real estate. The aim of the program is to identify and highlight all latent efficiency potential in existing buildings. This includes, for instance, modernizing the control equipment used for the heating and ventilation systems. This entails replacing electrical power units with more efficient models, and retrofitting fans and pumps with frequency converters. Sixty buildings have now been inspected, and savings of almost eight million Euros have been achieved. The average payback period is less than two years. One example of this is an old Siemens building from the 1970s at the Munich-Perlach site. Through energy optimization, it has been possible to cu

Kohns, R.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National...

62

Automotive Magnesium Applications and Life Cycle Environmental ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 22, 2008 ... Life cycle energies and emissions are compared for steel, aluminum and ... 3rd International Conference on SF6 and the Environment, 2004.

63

The feasibility study of small long-life gas cooled fast reactor with mixed natural Uranium/Thorium as fuel cycle input  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme has been performed. In this study, design GCFR with Helium coolant which can be continuously operated by supplying mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium without fuel enrichment plant or fuel reprocessing plant. The active reactor cores are divided into two region, Thorium fuel region and Uranium fuel region. Each fuel core regions are subdivided into ten parts (region-1 until region-10) with the same volume in the axial direction. The fresh Natural Uranium and Thorium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh natural Uranium/Thorium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions in both cores area, i.e. shifted the core of i{sup th} region into i+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. For the next cycles, we will add only Natural Uranium and Thorium on each region-1. The calculation results show the reactivity reached by mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium with volume ratio is 4.7:1. This reactor can results power thermal 550 MWth. After reactor start-up the operation, furthermore reactor only needs Natural Uranium/Thorium supply for continue operation along 100 years.

Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal,; Monado, Fiber; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134, Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Department of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Department of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134, Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Reserach of Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

64

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Application of the thorium fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis of the application of the thorium fuel cycle to thermal reactors is presented. (JWR)

Kasten, P.R.; Tobias, M.L.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

Brent Dixon

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CrossCut Group CrossCut Group 1 NERAC Briefing: Assessment of Dose of Closed vs Open Gen-IV Fuel Cycles David Wade NERAC Meeting September 30, 2002 Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 2 Public Dose and Worker Dose Comparison of Open vs Closed Fuel Cycles * Gen-IV fuel cycle options are meant to address all stated Gen-IV Goals - Dose to workers and to the public is one of the numerous elements to be evaluated by Gen-IV R&D - The Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group was assigned to take an early look at dose implication tradeoffs of open and closed fuel cycles * FCCG Interpretation of Assignment: - Collect already-existing evaluations and prepare a briefing on what is currently known Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 3 Approach * Look at Actual Historical Doses Based on Operational Experience - Data compiled by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic

71

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development Program Presentation to Office of Environmental Management Tank Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline Fuel Cycle R&D Mission Changes from the Former Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative The Science-Based Approach Key Collaborators Budget History Program Elements Summary July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 3 Fuel Cycle R&D Mission The mission of Fuel Cycle Research and Development is to develop options to current fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while reducing proliferation risks by conducting

72

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Abdellatif M. Yacout Argonne National Laboratory Nuclear Engineering Division The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex system with multiple components and activities that are combined to provide nuclear energy to a variety of end users. The end uses of nuclear energy are diverse and include electricity, process heat, water desalination, district heating, and possibly future hydrogen production for transportation and energy storage uses. Components of the nuclear fuel cycle include front end components such as uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, and the reactor component. Back end of the fuel cycle include used fuel coming out the reactor, used fuel temporary and permanent storage, and fuel reprocessing. Combined with those components there

73

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

NREL: Energy Analysis: Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life cycle assessment (LCA) harmonization helps lenders, utility executives, and lawmakers get the best, most precise information on greenhouse gas emissions from various sources of energy. LCA has been used to estimate and compare GHG emissions from utility-scale power systems for three decades, often with considerable variability in results. Harmonization provides more exact estimates of greenhouse-gas emissions for renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature and reducing uncertainty. Highlights of Recent Studies Chart that compares published and harmonized lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster.

76

Fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of /sup 235/U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Life Cycle Inventory Database | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings » Research Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Commercial Buildings » Research Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Database Life Cycle Inventory Database The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials, components, and assemblies. The database helps manufacturers, building designers, and developers select energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials, products, and processes for their projects based on the environmental impact of an item over its entire lifespan. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the database in 2003 with input from a variety of partners. NREL maintains and updates the database with support from the

79

The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The ...

Patrick Hamill; Eric J. Jensen; P. B. Russell; Jill J. Bauman

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Life Cycles of Moist Baroclinic Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction between moisture and baroclinic eddies was examined through eddy life-cycle experiments using a global, primitive equation model. How condensation affects the structural evolution of eddies, their fluxes of heat, moisture, and ...

William J. Gutowski Jr.; Lee E. Branscome; Douglas A. Stewart

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cycle Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle This is an illustration of a nuclear fuel cycle that shows the required steps to process natural uranium from ore for preparation for fuel to be loaded in nuclear reactors. This is an illustration of a nuclear fuel cycle that shows the required steps to process natural uranium from ore for preparation for fuel to be loaded in nuclear reactors. The mission of NE-54 is primarily focused on activities related to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle which includes mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment. Uranium Mining Both "conventional" open pit, underground mining, and in situ techniques are used to recover uranium ore. In general, open pit mining is used where deposits are close to the surface and underground mining is used

84

Life cycle evolution and systematics of Campanulariid hydrozoans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to study campanulariid life cycle evolution and systematics. The Campanulariidae is a hydrozoan family with many life cycle variations, and provide an excellent model system to study life cycle ...

Govindarajan, Annette Frese, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

86

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Jones, R.; Carter, J.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

87

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Carter, J.

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

WEB RESOURCES: The Nuclear Fuel Cycle - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... A compilation of links to websites describing the nuclear fuel cycle. A link to a short overview of the entire cycle is included as well as a ...

89

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Separations and Waste Form. Campaign Objectives. ?Develop the next generation of fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that enable a.

90

2012 Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

meeting is to review findings and help advance research and development in the Fuel Cycle Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies area. It will include a campaign...

91

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Related Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Links Related Links Below are links to life cycle inventory (LCI) databases, life cycle assessment (LCA) information, LCA tools, research institutes utilizing LCA, labeling initiatives and organizations, international LCA initiatives, LCA online forums. Life Cycle Inventory Data Ecoinvent: Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories IVAM LCA Data 4: Dutch LCA Database KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology): Korea National Cleaner Production Center LCI Database Life Cycle Assessment Information IERE (The Institute for Environmental Research and Education): The American Center for Life Cycle Assessment SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry): SETAC Life Cycle Assessment SPOLD (Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment Development): 2.0 LCA Consultants homepage

92

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Basics

93

Vehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GHG emissions of future transportation modes. These resultsVehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycleVehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycle

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Webmaster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Life Cycle Inventory Home About the Project Database Publications Life Cycle Assessments Related Links...

95

Practical introduction of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The pracitcal introduction of throrium fuel cycles implies that thorium fuel cycles compete economically with uranium fuel cycles in economic nuclear power plants. In this study the reactor types under consideration are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), and fast breeder reactors (FBRs). On the basis that once-through fuel cycles will be used almost exclusively for the next 20 or 25 years, introduction of economic thorium fuel cycles appears best accomplished by commercial introduction of HTGRs. As the price of natural uranium increases, along with commercialization of fuel recycle, there will be increasing incentive to utilize thorium fuel cycles in heavy water reactors and light water reactors as well as in HTGRs. After FBRs and fuel recycle are commercialized, use of thorium fuel cycles in the blanket of FBRs appears advantageous when fast breeder reactors and thermal reactors operate in a symbiosis mode (i.e., where /sup 233/U bred in the blanket of a fast breeder reactor is utilized as fissile fuel in thermal converter reactors).

Kasten, P.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with early breeder demonstration reactors. Although subject to continuing debate, progress continued on the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) with startup anticipated near the end of this decade, while plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic R and D programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990s. An important objective of the reprocessing program is to develop advanced technology for the recovery of fissile materials in systems that minimize environmental emissions and doses to plant workers, and that also provide effective fissile material safeguards. Major improvements include technology for remote operation and maintenance, low-flow ventilation systems coupled with more effective off-gas treatment, and advanced process monitoring for control and safeguards.

Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D.

Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The next major step in Argonne`s Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

Fuel cycle problems in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle problems of fusion reactors evolve around the breeding, recovery, containment, and recycling of tritium. These processes are described, and their implications and alternatives are discussed. Technically, fuel cycle problems are solvable; economically, their feasibility is not yet known. (auth)

Hickman, R.G.

1976-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Revision 2, March 2012 DOE/NETL-2012/1551 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

103

Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Fuel Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding research and development of nuclear fuel and waste management technologies that meet the nation's energy supply, environmental, and energy security needs. GC-52 also advises DOE on issues involving support for international fuel cycle initiatives aimed at advancing a common vision of the necessity of the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes worldwide in a safe and secure manner. In addition, GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the management and disposition of excess uranium in DOE's uranium stockpile. GC-52 attorneys participate in meetings of DOE's Uranium Inventory Management Coordinating Committee and provide advice on compliance with statutory requirements for the sale or transfer of uranium.

104

Back end of an enduring fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Nuclear fuel cycles for mid-century development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles was carried out. Fuel cycles reviewed include: once-through fuel cycles in LWRs, PHWRs, HTGRs, and fast gas cooled breed and burn reactors; single-pass recycle schemes: plutonium ...

Parent, Etienne, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Life cycle support for sensor network applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing applications for sensor networks is a challenging task. Most programming systems narrowly focus on programming issues while ignoring that programming represents only a tiny fraction of the typical life cycle of an application. Furthermore, ... Keywords: assessment, middleware, sensor networks, separation of concerns, software engineering

Urs Bischoff; Gerd Kortuem

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

TYLER ALGEO i Life Cycle Analysis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

building envelope would recover the energy invested in additional insulation within less than two yearsTYLER ALGEO i Life Cycle Analysis of The Civil and Mechanical Engineering Building University envelope of the Civil and Mechanical Engineering (CEME) Building at the University of British Columbia (UBC

108

Economic Analyiss of "Symbiotic" Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle costs are included in the analysis, with the fast reactors having a higher $/kw(e) capital cost than the LWRs, the overall busbar generation cost ($/MWh) for the closed cycles is approximately 12% higher than for the all-LWR once-through fuel cycle case, again based on the expected values from an uncertainty analysis. It should be noted that such a percentage increase in the cost of nuclear power is much smaller than that expected for fossil fuel electricity generation if CO2 is costed via a carbon tax, cap and trade regimes, or carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).

Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Shropshire, David E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

111

Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Production and Handling Slide 1: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Handling The Uranium Fuel Cycle Skip Presentation Navigation Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image...

113

Department of Energy Awards $15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development Department of Energy Awards 15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development August 1,...

114

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the...

115

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2012a. “Analysis & Projections - Models & Documentation. ”Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions MetricsGovernment purposes. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Sustainable NREL: Laboratory Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental Footprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has used life cycle assessment to create a carbon dioxide (CO2) environmental footprint. Transportation, water, natural gas and electricity, and solid waste disposal are the major CO2 emission contributors at the Laboratory. In FY 2003 (October 2002-September 2003), these categories yielded a total of 29 million kg CO2 -equivalent. The major components were electricity, 22.3 million kg CO2-equivalent.; and natural gas, 3.275 million kg CO2 (these yield 77% and 11%, respectively, to the CO2 footprint). Other contributors were domestic air travel and commuter travel, both of which came in at 5%, and international air travel at 2%. Solid waste disposal, water, and fleet vehicle emissions were negligible in relation to the other components. NREL is enacting several measures to reduce emissions at the front end of the material life cycle. Green purchasing, reducing water use, reducing the need for travel, and purchasing alternative fuel fleet vehicles are all ways to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In addition, recycling helps reduce CO2 emissions in the final stage of the waste disposal life cycle. The large area of interest is obviously the electricity and natural gas consumed at the Laboratory. The Laboratory has implemented almost all life cycle cost effective energy efficiency measures and all new construction is state of the practice. The Laboratory continues to examine ways of simultaneously reducing energy use and maintaining the integrity of its research and development activities.

Huffnagle, S.; Westby, R.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline...

118

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Life Cycle Assessments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

impacts of products, processes, and services. Its quality depends on the life cycle inventory (LCI) data it uses. "In principle, all decisions that affect or are meant to improve...

119

Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle  

SciTech Connect

Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul [Physics.Dept., Bandung Institute of Technology.Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

120

Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction  

SciTech Connect

The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Richmond, C.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Transportation implications of a closed fuel cycle.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation for each step of a closed fuel cycle is analyzed in consideration of the availability of appropriate transportation infrastructure. The United States has both experience and certified casks for transportation that may be required by this cycle, except for the transport of fresh and used MOX fuel and fresh and used Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel. Packaging that had been used for other fuel with somewhat similar characteristics may be appropriate for these fuels, but would be inefficient. Therefore, the required neutron and gamma shielding, heat dissipation, and criticality were calculated for MOX and ABR fresh and spent fuel. Criticality would not be an issue, but the packaging design would need to balance neutron shielding and regulatory heat dissipation requirements.

Bullard, Tim (University of Nevada - Reno); Bays, Samuel (Idaho National Laboratory); Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Dixon, Brent (Idaho National Laboratory); Greiner, Miles (University of Nevada - Reno)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Fuel ..to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle (Wu et al. Renewableby the heat content of nuclear fuel. In this analysis we use

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Physics of fusion-fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of nuclear fusion fuels for a magnetic fusion economy must take into account the various technological impacts of the various fusion fuel cycles as well as the relative reactivity and the required ..beta..'s and temperatures necessary for economic steady-state burns. This paper will review some of the physics of the various fusion fuel cycles (D-T, catalyzed D-D, D-/sup 3/He, D-/sup 6/Li, and the exotic fuels: /sup 3/He/sup 3/He and the proton-based fuels such as P-/sup 6/Li, P-/sup 9/Be, and P-/sup 11/B) including such items as: (1) tritium inventory, burnup, and recycle, (2) neutrons, (3) condensable fuels and ashes, (4) direct electrical recovery prospects, (5) fissile breeding, etc. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of the different fusion fuel cycles will be discussed. The optimum fuel cycle from an overall standpoint of viability and potential technological considerations appears to be catalyzed D-D, which could also support smaller relatively clean, lean-D, rich-/sup 3/He satellite reactors as well as fission reactors.

McNally, J.R. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hybrid Cycles with Hydrogen as Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle fueled with hydrogen have an overall high efficiency. The virtues of the supercritical steam turbine, the high temperature gas turbine and the low pressure steam turbine are fully expressed in this system. ... Keywords: gas turbine, new energy, combined cycle, hydrogen energy, thermal efficiency, energy conversion

Jing Rulin; Xu Hong; Hu Sangao; Gao Dan; Guo Xiaodan; Ni Weidou

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).  

SciTech Connect

The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).  

SciTech Connect

The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Life-Cycle Analysis Process Steps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Example of a life-cycle inventory for an unspecified product...70 Nontoxic chemicals 2,000 Water effluents, mg COD 1,000 BOD 150 Acid, as H + 75 Nitrates 5 Metals 300 Ammonium ions 5 Chloride ions 120 Dissolved organics 20 Suspended solids 400 Oil 100 Hydrocarbons 100 Phenol 1 Dissolved solids 400 Phosphate 5 Other nitrogen 10 Sulfate ions 10 COD, chemical...

128

Nuclear Plant Life Cycle Management Implementation Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The day-to-day pressures of operation, limited budgets, and regulatory scrutiny of nuclear power plants focus on the present or short term, and may preempt cost-beneficial activities with long-term pay-off. This guide to implementing life-cycle management (LCM) fosters long-range thinking and decision making focused on profitability in the new competitive era of electricity production.

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

129

Integrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life Cycle Performance Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life Cycleenables the integration of green manufacturing principlesKeywords Life cycle cost, green manufacturing, monitoring 1

Niggeschmidt, Stephan; Helu, Moneer; Diaz, Nancy; Behmann, Benjamin; Lanza, Gisela; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The Life Cycle of Steel (LCA/LCI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 3, 2008 ... A life cycle inventory (LCI) looks at the resources, energy and emissions from the steel production to the end of its life. The International Iron ...

131

Fuel Cycle Technology Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Technology Documents Fuel Cycle Technology Documents January 11, 2013 Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Issued on January 11, 2013, the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste is a framework for moving toward a sustainable program to deploy an integrated system capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power generation, defense, national security and other activities. October 30, 2012 2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security

132

Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Resources Information Resources Site Map Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on AddThis.com... Publications Software FAQs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs

133

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications Planning Documents U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap, February 2009 U.S. Life Cycle Inventory User Survey, February 2009 U.S. LCI Database Factsheet, March...

134

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

Deru, M.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with ...

Elizabeth M. Stone; William J. Randel; John L. Stanford

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Estimation of Waste Packaging Containers Generated by Households in Taiwan · The Life Cycle Assessment of Copper Metallurgical Processes.

138

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Dataset Additions - November...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Inventory Database Dataset Additions - Type Category Dataset Name Chemical Manufacturing Polylactide Biopolymer Resin, at plant Chemical Manufacturing Recycled...

139

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

Leigh, I.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies Learn about how NREL research analysts are evaluating various LCA studies in the Life Cycle Analysis Harmonization Project. NREL is a leader in the field of life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy technologies, both renewable and conventional. Life cycle assessment is a standardized technique that tracks all material, energy, and pollutant flows of a system-from raw material extraction, manufacturing, transport, and construction to operation and end-of-life disposal. Life cycle assessment can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate comparisons of energy technologies. Life cycle assessments provide a well-established and comprehensive framework to compare renewable energy technologies with fossil-based and

142

GREET Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Li Li 收件人 School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology Battery Recycling: How to Make It Happen Analysis can help identify a clear path for battery production and recycling  Purpose is to clear the road for mass-market introduction of battery-powered vehicles by identifying any roadblocks on the way  Life cycle analysis (LCA) is used to identify significant environmental issues  Availability of recycling processes can:  Assure against major waste problems at end-of-life  Reduce environmental impacts  Reduce raw material supply issues  Reduce net material costs  Create viable business opportunities  Economic and institutional constraints must also be accounted for

143

Solid oxide fuel cell combined cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The integration of the solid oxide fuel cell and combustion turbine technologies can result in combined-cycle power plants, fueled with natural gas, that have high efficiencies and clean gaseous emissions. Results of a study are presented in which conceptual designs were developed for 3 power plants based upon such an integration, and ranging in rating from 3 to 10 MW net ac. The plant cycles are described and characteristics of key components summarized. Also, plant design-point efficiency estimates are presented as well as values of other plant performance parameters.

Bevc, F.P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Lundberg, W.L.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

The role of life cycle analysis in considering product change  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle analysis is an important tool for determining the environmental impacts of products and packaging. A complete life cycle analysis consists of three phases: life cycle inventory, impact analysis, and improvement analysis. Life cycle inventory examines the energy and resource usage and environmental releases associated with a product system from cradle to grave, that is, from the extraction of raw materials through raw material processing; manufacture, transportation, and use of the product; and, finally, disposal, reuse, or recycling of the product. Life cycle inventory results can be used to identify areas for improving product and packaging systems in terms of reducing energy usage, resource usage, and environmental releases.

Rethmeyer, D.A. (Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, KS (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle: Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer - CIMS 2011.07.10, Lee, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15, Zhang, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: ARM Mobile Facility 2 Aerosol Observing System 2011.06.15, Sedlacek, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10, Hallar, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01 - 2011.08.31 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below.

146

NREL: Energy Analysis - Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Factsheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Download the Factsheet Flowchart that shows the life cycle stages for concentrating solar power systems. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Figure 1. Process flow diagram illustrating the life cycle stages for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The yellow box defined by the grey line shows the systems boundaries assumed in harmonization. Enlarge image NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review literature on life cycle assessments of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, identify

147

Cycling Operation of Fossil-Fueled Plants: Volume 6: Evaluation and Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, the sixth volume in a series (GS-7219), describes tools to help utilities define and evaluate strategies for cycling fossil-fueled power plants. To assist companies in their cycling decisions, the report describes far-reaching guidelines on cycling units, including economics, the effects on equipment life, and operations and maintenance. In developing a stepwise plant to cycling operation, EPRI investigators reviewed an extensive database of worldwide and U.S. experience with cycling. The re...

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

Solar has a vested interest in integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuels (particularly solid oxide fuel cells[SOFC]); this would be a backup for achieving efficiencies on the order of 60% with low exhaust emissions. Preferred cycle is with the fuel cell as a topping system to the gas turbine; bottoming arrangements (fuel cells using the gas turbine exhaust as air supply) would likely be both larger and less efficient unless complex steam bottoming systems are added. The combined SOFC and gas turbine will have an advantage because it will have lower NOx emissions than any heat engine system. Market niche for initial product entry will be the dispersed or distributed power market in nonattainment areas. First entry will be of 1-2 MW units between the years 2000 and 2004. Development requirements are outlined for both the fuel cell and the gas turbine.

White, D.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings < Back Eligibility State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Bioenergy Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Energy Sources Solar Water Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Energy Standards for Public Buildings Provider Office of Administration Several provisions of Missouri law govern energy efficiency in state facilities. In 1993 Missouri enacted legislation requiring life-cycle cost analysis for all new construction of state buildings and substantial

150

FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 * November 2010 3 * November 2010 Electricity Natural Gas Power Heat Natural Gas or Biogas Tri-Generation Fuel Cell Hydrogen Natural Gas Converted to hydrogen on site via steam-methane reforming electrolyzer peak burner heat sink FC SYSTEM + H 2 Renewables H 2 -FC H 2 -storage 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) * Grid electricity (hourly) * Fuel prices * Water price 0 2 4

152

Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m/sup 3//GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m/sup 3//GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste.

Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Westinghouse fuel cell combined cycle systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficiency (voltage) of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should increase with operating pressure, and a pressurized SOFC could function as the heat addition process in a Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) engine. An overall cycle efficiency of 70% should be possible. In cogeneration, half of the waste heat from a PSOFC/GT should be able to be captured in process steam and hot water, leading to a fuel effectiveness of about 85%. In order to make the PSOFC/GT a commercial reality, satisfactory operation of the SOFC at elevated pressure must be verified, a pressurized SOFC generator module must be designed, built, and tested, and the combined cycle and parameters must be optimized. A prototype must also be demonstrated. This paper describes progress toward making the PSOFC/GT a reality.

Veyo, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products : implications for life-cycle energy use and emission inventory of petroleum transportation fuels.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation underestimates gasoline energy use, relative to the process-level based gasoline efficiency. For diesel fuel, the well-to-pump energy use for the process-level allocations with the mass- and energy-content-based weighting factors is smaller than that predicted with the refinery-level allocations. However, the process-level allocation with the market-value-based weighting factors has results very close to those obtained by using the refinery-level allocations. For LPG, the refinery-level allocation significantly overestimates LPG energy use. For naphtha, the refinery-level allocation overestimates naphtha energy use. The GHG emission patterns for each of the fuels are similar to those of energy use.We presented a refining-process-level-based method that can be used to allocate energy use of individual refining processes to refinery products. The process-level-based method captures process-dependent characteristics of fuel production within a petroleum refinery. The method starts with the mass and energy flow chart of a refinery, tracks energy use by individual refining processes, and distributes energy use of a given refining process to products from the process. In allocating energy use to refinery products, the allocation method could rely on product mass, product energy contents, or product market values as weighting factors. While the mass- and energy-content-based allocation methods provide an engineering perspective of energy allocation within a refinery, the market-value-ased allocation method provides an economic perspective. The results from this study show that energy allocations at the aggregate refinery level and at the refining process level could make a difference in evaluating the energy use and emissions associated with individual petroleum products. Furthermore, for the refining-process-level allocation method, use of mass -- energy content- or market value share-based weighting factors could lead to different results for diesel fuels, LPG, and naphtha. We suggest that, when possible, energy use allocations should be made at the lowest subprocess level

Wang, M.; Lee, H.; Molburg, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Life Cycle Nitrogen Trifluoride Emissions from Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF{sub 3}, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF{sub 3} in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF{sub 3} and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF{sub 3} at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF{sub 3} in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO{sub 2eq}/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

Fthenakis, V.

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

157

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate more consistent comparisons of energy technologies. Figure 1. Generalized life cycle stages for energy technologies Source: Sathaye et al. (2011) Life cycle GHG emissions from renewable electricity generation technologies are generally less than those from fossil fuel-based technologies, based on evidence assembled by this project. Further, the proportion of GHG emissions from each life cycle stage differs by technology. For fossil-fueled technologies, fuel combustion during operation of the facility emits the vast majority of GHGs. For nuclear and renewable energy technologies, the majority of GHG emissions occur upstream of operation. LCA of Energy Systems

158

World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

Not Available

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

159

Production and Handling Slide 3: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle See caption below for image description The second step in the uranium fuel cycle...

160

Production and Handling Slide 23: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The fourth major step in the uranium fuel cycle is uranium enrichment. Slide 23...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Natural Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System.combined with separate accounting for the use of energy in fuel production, is referred to as full- fuel- cycle (

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Kinetics of pyroprocesses in ATW fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) combines the technologies of accelerators and reactors to treat the nuclear waste problem. An ATW system uses a high-current accelerator to generate spallation neutrons to initiate the transmutation of actinides and select fission products in a subcritical nuclear assembly surrounding the target volume. For high burnup and efficient operation, an ATW system requires simple, reliable, and efficient fuel preparation and cleanup procedures to periodically remove {open_quotes}neutron poisons.{close_quotes} We have identified several fuel cycles based on pyroprocessing.

Li, Ning; Hu, Y.C.; Park, B.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings October 4, 2013 - 4:54pm Addthis To help facility managers make sound decisions, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials assume discount rates and energy price projections determined

164

NREL: Energy Analysis - Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Over the last 30 years, analysts have conducted life cycle assessments on the environmental impacts associated with a variety of nuclear power technologies and systems. These life cycle assessments have had wide-ranging results. To better understand greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from nuclear power systems, NREL completed a comprehensive review and analysis of life cycle assessments focused on light water reactors (LWRs)-including both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs)-published between 1980 and 2010. NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review life cycle assessment literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions

165

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Maximum Fuel Energy Saving of a Brayton Cogeneration Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An endoreversible Joule-Brayton cogeneration cycle has been optimized with fuel energy saving as an assessment criterion. The effects of power-to-heat ratio, cycle temperature ratio, and user temperature ratio on maximum fuel energy saving and efficiency ... Keywords: cogeneration cycle, fuel energy saving, thermodynamic optimization

Xiaoli Hao; Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Life cycle assessment parameters adaptation for Brazilian electricity production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Electricity is a major concern in the life cycle assessment (LCA) of most products since it is a required input for production of almost all… (more)

Coelho, Carla

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Integrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life Cycle Performance Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Manufacturing and Sustainability, University of CaliforniaIntegrating Green and Sustainability Aspects into Life CycleManufacturing and Sustainability, University of California

Niggeschmidt, Stephan; Helu, Moneer; Diaz, Nancy; Behmann, Benjamin; Lanza, Gisela; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

both of NREL, lent their expertise in life cycle assessment modeling and Jatropha production, and Dr. Mark Pitterle of Symbiotic Engineering aided in the literature survey...

170

NREL: Energy Analysis - Hydropower Results - Life Cycle Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Hydropower OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas...

171

NREL: Energy Analysis - Biopower Results - Life Cycle Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biopower Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Bioenergy OpenEI: Data,...

172

Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of life-cycle assessment and optimization in assessing such questions as: a.) How will future transportation energy production impact water resource availability in the US? b.)...

173

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Life Cycle ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 2, 2008 ... This report was prepared by Pricewaterhouse Coopers, LLP/Ecobalance for Nickel Industry LCA Group. The report describes the life cycle ...

174

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Life Cycle ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This document provides the most comprehensive life-cycle information for the North American aluminum industry. Carried out for the calendar ...

175

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATABASE ROADMAP rsed e Goals of the U.S. LCI Database Project * Maintain data quality and transparency. * Cover commonly used materials, products, and...

176

Life Cycle Inventory Report for the North American Aluminum ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This document provides the most comprehensive life-cycle information for the North American aluminum industry. Carried out for the calendar ...

177

Global Primary Aluminium Industry 2010 Life Cycle Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within this framework, the Primary Aluminium Industry has established a global Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data set. Inventory flows include inputs of raw materials  ...

178

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

image Published Results The published life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) estimates for hydropower, ocean, geothermal, biopower, solar (crystalline silicon photovoltaic, thin...

179

An Integrated Life Cycle Engineering Model: Energy and Greenhouse...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Life Cycle Engineering Model: Energy and Greenhouse Gas Performance of Residential Heritage Buildings, and the Influence of Retrofit Strategies and Appliance...

180

Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity.

Leuze, R.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

Trond Bjornard; Humberto Garcia; William Desmond; Scott Demuth

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fuel Cycle Research & Development | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Research & Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit proliferation risk. The FCRD program will develop a suite of options to enable future policymakers to make informed decisions about how best to manage used fuel from nuclear reactors. The overall goal is to demonstrate the technologies necessary to allow commercial deployment of solutions for the sustainable management of used

184

An Economic Analysis of Select Fuel Cycles Using the Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycles Schemes (SMAFS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is currently considering alternatives to the current U.S. once-through fuel cycle. This report evaluates the relative economics of three alternative fuel cycles to determine those cost components important to overall fuel cycle costs and total generation costs. The analysis determined that the unit cost of nuclear reactors is the most important nuclear generation cost parameter in future fuel cycles. The report also evaluates ...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

185

The principles of life-cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Life-cycle of Operons  

SciTech Connect

Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) May 2007 total system cost estimate for the disposal of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TSLCC analysis provides a basis for assessing the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) Fee as required by Section 302 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended. In addition, the TSLCC analysis provides a basis for the calculation of the Government's share of disposal costs for government-owned and managed SNF and HLW. The TSLCC estimate includes both historical costs and

188

Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Development » Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents November 8, 2011 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation's current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. July 11, 2011 Nuclear Separations Technologies Workshop Report

189

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials provided here assume discount rates and energy price projections (TXT 17 KB) determined annually by FEMP and the Energy Information Administration. Building Life Cycle Cost Software FEMP's Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) software can help you calculate life cycle costs, net savings, savings-to-investment ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period for Federal energy and water conservation projects funded by agencies or alternatively financed. BLCC also estimates emissions and emission reductions. An energy escalation rate calculator (EERC) computes an average escalation rate for energy savings performance contracts when payments are based on energy cost savings.

190

Life Cycle Management of Chemicals: Conceptual Design for Information Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tracking the acquisition, use, and disposition of chemicals allows companies to reduce costs; manage risks to health, safety, and the environment; and improve compliance and reporting efficiency. This report provides a means of identifying and evaluating chemical life cycle information management needs. The conceptual design presented here will guide utilities through development of a custom system for managing chemical life cycle data.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Life-Cycle Decision Making: Volume 1: Getting Started  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Decision Making (LCDM) 2.0 is a suite of integrated tools for making a wide range of decisions based on life-cycle costs and revenues. LCDM puts powerful methods and tools at the fingertips of employees, empowering them to quickly make better day-to-day business decisions based on the true costs and benefits to the company.

1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

193

Semantic modelling of dependency relations between life cycle analysis processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment provides a well-accepted methodology for modelling environmental impacts of human activities. This methodology relies on the decomposition of a studied system into interdependent processes. Several organisations provide processes ... Keywords: environmental information management, life cycle assessment, ontology

Benjamin Bertin; Marian Scuturici; Jean-Marie Pinon; Emmanuel Risler

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Life Cycle Management Sourcebooks — Volume 10: Feedwater Heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is producing a series of Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, each containing a compilation of industry experience and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific type of system, structure, or component (SSC). This sourcebook provides information and guidance for implementing cost-effective life cycle management (LCM) planning for feedwater heaters.

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

195

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and module manufacturing. · System/Plant Decommissioning · Disposal · PowerPlant Decommissioning · Waste life cycle GHG emissions from solar PV systems are similar to other renewables and nuclear energy.nrel.gov/harmonization. · Life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si and TF PV technologies appear broadly similar; the small number

196

Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, Volume 5: Main Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is producing a series of "Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks," each containing a compilation of industry experience and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific type of system, structure, or component (SSC). This sourcebook provides information and guidance for implementing cost-effective life cycle management (LCM) planning for main generators.

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

197

Plant Support Engineering: Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks - Chillers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is producing a series of Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, each containing a compilation of industry experience information and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific type of system, structure, or component (SSC). In addition, this sourcebook provides information and guidance for implementing cost8212effective life cycle management (LCM) planning for chillers.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

198

Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Home > Our Mission > Managing the Stockpile > Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Nuclear weapons are developed, produced, and maintained in the stockpile, and then retired and dismantled. This sequence of events is known as the

199

Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Partner: National Institute of Standards and Technology Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Phase: Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan Topics: Finance, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_blcc.html Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, Building Life-Cycle Cost, BLCC References: Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs[1] Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BLCC[2]

200

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Future nuclear fuel cycles: prospects and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solvent extraction has played, from the early steps, a major role in the development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies, both in the front end and back end. Today's stakes in the field of energy enhance further than before the need for a sustainable management of nuclear materials. Recycling actinides appears as a main guideline, as much for saving resources as for minimizing the final waste impact, and many options can be considered. Strengthened by the important and outstanding performance of recent PUREX processing plants, solvent-extraction processes seem a privileged route to meet the new and challenging requirements of sustainable future nuclear systems. (author)

Boullis, Bernard [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Centre de Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Optimization of Transmission Line Design Using Life Cycle Costing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When an overhead line is designed, all costs incurred during the expected life of the line should be considered. The total cost during the life or life-cycle cost of a transmission line is a combination of the initial capital cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, cost of electrical losses over its entire life, and dependability associated costs. The option that has the lowest life-cycle cost is selected as the optimized design. A tool is required by utility engineers to help them readily select an ...

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

Optimization of Transmission Line Design Using Life-Cycle Costing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When an overhead line is designed, all costs incurred during the expected life of the line should be considered. The total cost during the life, or life-cycle cost, of a transmission line is a combination of the initial capital cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost, cost of electrical losses over its entire life, and dependability-associated costs. The option that has the lowest life-cycle cost is selected as the optimized design. A tool is required by utility engineers to help them readily select a...

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe Dominique Warin Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Report 6/15/2011 2 I. Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue

205

Fuel Cycle Science & Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Radiochemical Separation & Processing Recycle & Waste Management Uranium Enrichment Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Fusion Nuclear Science Isotope Development and Production Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation Nuclear Systems Technology Reactor Technology Nuclear Science Home | Science & Discovery | Nuclear Science | Research Areas | Fuel Cycle Science & Technology SHARE Fuel Cycle Science and Technology The ORNL expertise and experience across the entire nuclear fuel cycle is underpinned by extensive facilities and a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability ORNL supports the understanding, development, evaluation and deployment of

206

Distributed Control System Life Cycle Management: Guidelines for Planning and Managing the Life Cycle of Distributed Control Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power producers are often not concerned with the life cycle of a control system until they receive a notification from the manufacturer that the system is no longer supported. This situation results in a reactive effort to gain information, develop a plan, obtain funding, and execute an upgrade project. Effectively managing the life cycle of a control system requires a proactive approach, including gaining information about the installed system and its expected life span and the available ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

207

A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Framework   for   Nuclear   Fuel   Cycle   Concepts,”  Of   Used   Nuclear   Fuel”,   Nuclear  Engineering  and  Radiotoxicity  of  Spent  Nuclear   Fuel,”   Integrated  

Djokic, Denia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Title Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Masanet, Eric R., Yuan Chang, Anand R. Gopal, Peter H. Larsen, William R. Morrow, Roger Sathre, Arman Shehabi, and Pei Zhai Journal Annual Review of Environment and Resources Volume 38 Date Published 2013 Keywords electricity, energy policy, environmental analysis, life-cycle impact, life-cycle inventory Abstract The application of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to electric power (EP) technologies is a vibrant research pursuit that is likely to continue as the world seeks ways to meet growing electricity demand with reduced environmental and human health impacts. While LCA is an evolving methodology with a number of barriers and challenges to its effective use, LCA studies to date have clearly improved our understanding of the life-cycle energy, GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water use implications of EP technologies. With continued progress, LCA offers promise for assessing and comparing EP technologies in an analytically-thorough and environmentally-holistic manner for more robust deployment decisions. This article summarizes: (1) major challenges in applying LCA to EP technologies thus far, (2) LCA results to date on the various impacts of EP technologies, and (3) opportunities for improving LCAs as applied to EP technologies moving forward.

209

Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.  

SciTech Connect

Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. Examples of systems in this class include the small modular reactors being considered internationally; e.g. 4S [Tsuboi 2009], Hyperion Power Module [Deal 2010], ARC-100 [Wade 2010], and SSTAR [Smith 2008]. (2) Systems for Resource Utilization - In recent years, interest has developed in the use of advanced nuclear designs for the effective utilization of fuel resources. Systems under this class have generally utilized the breed and burn concept in which fissile material is bred and used in situ in the reactor core. Due to the favorable breeding that is possible with fast neutrons, these systems have tended to be fast spectrum systems. In the once-through concepts (as opposed to the traditional multirecycle approach typically considered for fast reactors), an ignition (or starter) zone contains driver fuel which is fissile material. This zone is designed to last a long time period to allow the breeding of sufficient fissile material in the adjoining blanket zone. The blanket zone is initially made of fertile depleted uranium fuel. This zone could also be made of fertile thorium fuel or recovered uranium from fuel reprocessing or natural uranium. However, given the bulk of depleted uranium and the potentially large inventory of recovered uranium, it is unlikely that the use of thorium is required in the near term in the U.S. Following the breeding of plutonium or fissile U-233 in the blanket, this zone or assembly then carries a larger fraction of the power generation in the reactor. These systems tend to also have a long cycle length (or core life) and they could be with or without fuel shuffling. When fuel is shuffled, the incoming fuel is generally depleted uranium (or thorium) fuel. In any case, fuel is burned once and then discharged. Examples of systems in this class include the CANDLE concept [Sekimoto 2001], the traveling wave reactor (TWR) concept of TerraPower [Ellis 2010], the ultra-long life fast reactor (ULFR) by ANL [Kim 2010], and the BNL fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR) concept [Fisher 1979]. (3) Thermal systems for resource extensio

Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

210

Strategy for the practical utilization of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

There has been increasing interest in the utilization of thorium fuel cycles in nuclear power reactors for the past few years. This is due to a number of factors, the chief being the recent emphasis given to increasing the proliferation resistance of reactor fuel cycles and the thorium cycle characteristic that bred /sup 233/U can be denatured with /sup 238/U (further, a high radioactivity is associated with recycle /sup 233/U, which increases fuel diversion resistance). Another important factor influencing interest in thorium fuel cycles is the increasing cost of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ ores leading to more emphasis being placed on obtaining higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactor systems, and the fact that thorium fuel cycles have higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactors than do uranium fuel cycles. Finally, there is increasing information which indicates that fast breeder reactors have significantly higher capital costs than do thermal reactors, such that there is an economic advantage in the long term to have combinations of fast breeder reactors and high-conversion thermal reactors operating together. Overall, it appears that the practical, early utilization of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors requires commercialization of HTGRs operating first on stowaway fuel cycles, followed by thorium fuel recycle. In the longer term, thorium utilization involves use of thorium blankets in fast breeder reactors, in combination with recycling the bred /sup 233/U to HTGRs (preferably), or to other thermal reactors.

Kasten, P.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Analysis of Nuclear Proliferation Resistance of DUPIC Fuel Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with other fuel cycle cases. The other fuel cycles considered in this study are PWR of once-through mode (PWR-OT), PWR of reprocessing mode (PWR-MOX), in which spent PWR fuel is reprocessed and recovered plutonium is used for making MOX (Mixed Oxide), CANDU with once-through mode (CANDU-OT), PWR fuel and CANDU fuel in a oncethrough mode with reactor grid equivalent to DUPIC fuel cycle (PWR-CANDU-OT). This study is focused on intrinsic barriers, especially, radiation field of the diverted material, which could be a significant accessibility barrier, amount of special nuclear material based on 1 GWe-yr that has to be diverted and the quality of the separated fissile material. It is indicated from plutonium analysis of each fuel cycle that the MOX spent fuel is containing the largest plutonium per MTHM but PWR-MOX option based on 1 GWe-yr has the best benefit in total plutonium consumption aspects. The DUPIC option is containing a little higher total plutonium based on 1 GWe-yr than the PWR-MOX case, but the DUPIC option has the lowest fissile plutonium content which could be another measure for proliferation resistance. On the whole, the CANDU-OT option has the largest fissile plutonium as well as total plutonium per GWe-yr, which means negative points in nuclear proliferation resistance aspects. It is indicated from the radiation field analysis that fresh DUPIC fuel could play an important radiation barrier role, more than even CANDU spent fuels. In conclusion, due to those inherent features, the DUPIC fuel cycle could include technical characteristics that comply naturally with the Spent Fuel Standard, at all steps along the DUPIC linkage between PWR and CANDU. KEYWORDS: DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU), (DUPIC) fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle analysis, nuclear proliferaion resistance, proliferation resistance barrier, safeguards, plutonium analysis, candu type reactors, spent fuels, fuel cycles I.

Won Il Ko; Ho Dong Kim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Preparations for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) have been in progress since mid-1988 to ready the facility for demonstration of the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) pyroprocess fuel cycle. This paper updates the last report on this subject to the American Nuclear Society and describes the progress made in the modifications to the facility and in fabrication of the new process equipment. The IFR is a breeder reactor, which is central to the capability of any reactor concept to contribute to mitigation of environmental impacts of fossil fuel combustion. As a fast breeder, fuel of course must be recycled in order to have any chance of an economical fuel cycle. The pyroprocess fuel cycle, relying on a metal alloy reactor fuel rather than oxide, has the potential to be economical even at small-scale deployment. Establishing this quantitatively is one important goal of the IFR fuel cycle demonstration.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Joe T. Carter, SRNL Alan J. Luptak, INL Jason Gastelum, PNNL Christine...

214

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Fully Closed Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results from a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for a closed fuel cycle with multi-recycling of plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides in fast reactors (FRs) compared to an open, once-through fuel cycle using pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The study examines the impact on fuel cycle costs from changes in the unit costs of uranium, advanced plutonium and uranium recovery by extraction (PUREX) reprocessing of discharged fast-reactor mixed-oxide (FR-MOX) fuel, and fabric...

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

215

Production and Handling Slide 37: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The enrichment process generates two streams of uranium hexafluoride, one enriched in...

216

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Updated Uranium Fuel Cycle Environmental Impacts for Advanced Reactor Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to update the environmental impacts from the uranium fuel cycle for select advanced (GEN III+) reactor designs.

Nitschke, R.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

218

Production and Handling Slide 5: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refer to caption below for image description The third step in the uranium fuel cycle involves the conversion of "yellowcake" to uranium hexafluoride (UF6), the chemical form...

219

Production and Handling Slide 43: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description Enriched uranium hexafluoride, generally containing 3 to 5% uranium-235, is sent...

220

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Sciences October 12-14, 2011, Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Understanding and Reducing...

222

Current Projects for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis > Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis > Current Projects Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics...

223

Parametric Study of Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of front-end fuel cost components for nuclear plants, specifically uranium concentrates, uranium conversion services, uranium enrichment services, and nuclear fuel fabrication services. A parametric analysis of light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle costs is also included in order to quantify the impacts that result from changes in the cost of one or more front-end components on overall fuel cycle costs.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

224

Description of alternative steady-state fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

This study provides a first cut analysis for the FRAD program of a range of reference, steady-state, fresh and spent fuel compositions for the development of alternative fuels refabrication technology. Included are the resource requirements and separative work requirements and the material flows for each fuel cycle evaluated. However, since steady-state represents only a portion of the complete fuel cycle, a more in depth evaluation of each alternative fuel cycle will follow this analysis. Each of the fuel types investigated is composed of either plutonium-uranium (Pu-U), denatured uranium-thorium (DU-Th), plutonium-thorium (Pu-Th), highly enriched uranium-thorium (HEU-Th) or low enriched uranium (LEU). Seven ''closed cycles'' were formed by coupling two or more of the above fuel types. The closed cycle concept assumes that all fissile material recovered from spent fuel is either recycled into fresh fuel, or retired to waste when its net reactivity worth is equal to or less than tails equivalence. Additional fissile material required as makeup is introduced to the system from the enrichment cascade only. Each closed system presented in this study simulates the production of 1000 MWe in steady-state operation. The findings of this preliminary study indicated that, at equilibrium, those closed cycles which employ DU-Th or HEU-Th as the primary fuel are more efficient with respect to resource consumption than those cycles where LEU is used as the primary fuel.

Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, E.T.; Newman, D.F.; Nolan, A.M.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

NREL: Energy Analysis - Geothermal Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geothermal Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review Geothermal Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Geothermal Energy OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for geothermal technologies. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal power generation Credit: Goldstein, B., G. Hiriart, R. Bertani, C. Bromley, L. Gutiérrez-Negrín, E. Huenges, H. Muraoka, A. Ragnarsson, J. Tester, V. Zui, 2011: Geothermal Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press. Figure 4.6 Enlarge image

226

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and Impacts of Innovative Technologies Speaker(s): Oliver Jolliet Date: July 15, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone This seminar starts by providing a short introduction to the field of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) through a practical example of packaging. It will then develop the case of the Life Cycle Benefits and Impacts of the Internet; raising the different scientific challenges that LCA faces to provide relevant results for innovative technologies.--The rapid development of the Internet and the related potential impacts on and benefits for the environment deserves attention. The infrastructure that supports a university's use of the Internet has been comprehensively

227

NREL: Energy Analysis - Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Ocean Energy OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for ocean power technologies. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of wave and tidal range technologies. Credit: Lewis, A., S. Estefen, J. Huckerby, W. Musial, T. Pontes, J. Torres-Martinez, 2011: Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press. Figure 6.11 Enlarge image

228

title Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems journal Annual Review of Environment and Resources volume year month abstract p The application of life cycle assessment LCA to electric power EP technologies is a vibrant research pursuit that is likely to continue as the world seeks ways to meet growing electricity demand with reduced environmental and human health impacts While LCA is an evolving methodology with a number of barriers and challenges to its effective use LCA studies to date have clearly improved our understanding of the life cycle energy GHG emissions air pollutant emissions and water use implications of EP technologies With continued progress LCA offers promise for assessing and comparing EP technologies in an analytically thorough and environmentally holistic manner for more robust deployment

229

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Speaker(s): Roger Sathre Date: December 5, 2011 - 3:30pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Anita Estner Barbara Adams In this presentation we describe the prospective life-cycle modeling of metal-organic frameworks (MOF), a novel type of material with the potential for efficiently capturing CO2. Life-cycle modeling of emerging technologies, conducted early in the innovation process, can generate knowledge that can feed back to inform scientific discovery and development. We discuss the challenges of credibly modeling a system that does not yet exist, and describe methodological approaches including parametric system modeling (quantifying relations between system elements), scenario projections (defining plausible pathways for system scale-up),

230

Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings < Back Eligibility Institutional Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Energy Standards for Public Buildings Provider Ohio State Architect's Office In 1995 Ohio passed legislation requiring that all state agencies perform life-cycle cost analyses prior to the construction of new buildings, and energy consumption analyses prior to new leases. Both analyses are to be primary considerations in either building design or leasing decisions. The

231

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs October 8, 2013 - 2:14pm Addthis The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings. BLCC5 Program Register and download. BLCC 5.3-13 (for Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux). BLCC is programmed in Java with an XML file format. The user's guide is part of the BLCC Help system. BLCC version 5.3-13 contains the following modules: FEMP Analysis; Energy Project Federal Analysis; Financed Project Office of Management and Budget Analysis MILCON Analysis; Energy Project MILCON Analysis; Energy Conservation Investment Program Project MILCON Analysis; Non-Energy Project

232

Incorporating uncertainty in the Life Cycle Cost Analysis of pavements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an important tool to evaluate the economic performance of alternative investments for a given project. It considers the total cost to construct, maintain, and operate a pavement over its ...

Swei, Omar Abdullah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Life cycle analysis of shea butter biodiesel using GREET software.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this study, life cycle analysis (LCA) of shea butter biodiesel from Well-to-Pump (WTP) is considered utilizing information gathered from Anuanom Industrial Bio Products Ltd.… (more)

Quansah, Solomon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Public Facilities (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All facilities using public funds for construction or renovation must undergo a life cycle analysis, which will consider energy efficiency and on-site energy equipment using the sun, wind, oil,...

235

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and Impacts of Innovative Technologies Speaker(s): Oliver Jolliet Date: July 15, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90...

236

The Mesoscale Kinetic Energy Spectrum of a Baroclinic Life Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric mesoscale kinetic energy spectrum is investigated through numerical simulations of an idealized baroclinic wave life cycle, from linear instability to mature nonlinear evolution and with high horizontal and vertical resolution (?x ...

Michael L. Waite; Chris Snyder

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Life Cycle and Mesoscale Frontal Structure of an Intermountain Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution analyses and MesoWest surface observations are used to examine the life cycle and mesoscale frontal structure of the “Tax Day Storm,” an intermountain cyclone that produced the second lowest sea level pressure observed in Utah ...

Gregory L. West; W. James Steenburgh

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Response of Baroclinic Life Cycles to Barotropic Shear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclonic barotropic shear of incrementally increasing magnitude is imposed on an idealized midlatitude jet, and the life cycles of baroclinically unstable wavenumber 6 perturbations growing on these jets are studied. When the barotropic shear ...

Dennis L. Hartmann; Peter Zuercher

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

The Life Cycle of the South American Monsoon System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The South American monsoon system (SAMS) life cycle plays an important role in the distribution and duration of the rainy season mainly over southwestern Amazonia, and the central west and southeast Brazil regions, affecting the economy through ...

Adma Raia; Iracema Fonsecade Albuquerque Cavalcanti

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Life Cycle of the Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite life cycle of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is constructed from the cross covariance between outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), wind, and temperature. To focus on the role of convection, the composite is based on episodes when a ...

Harry H. Hendon; Murry L. Salby

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Improving the quality and transparency of building life cycle assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment, or LCA, is a powerful method for measuring and reducing a building's environmental impacts. Its widespread adoption among designers would allow the environmental component of sustainability to gain ...

Hsu, Sophia Lisbeth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Life cycle analysis of hybrid poplar trees for cellulosic ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main purpose of this paper is to assess the energy and environmental benefits of cultivating hybrid poplars as a biomass crop for cellulosic ethanol. A "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) methodology is used to systematically ...

Huang, Jessica J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

Sheehan, J. (NREL); Camobreco, V. (Ecobalance); Duffield, J. (USDA); Shapouri, H. (USDA); Graboski, M. (CIFER); Tyson, K. S. (NREL Project Manager)

2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

244

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Speaker(s): Roger Sathre Date: December 5, 2011 - 3:30pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Anita...

245

Life-cycle assessment of wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprints analysis of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. In previous research, the issue of global warming is often related ...

Dong, Bo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Role of Recycling in the Life Cycle of Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ROLE OF RECYCLING IN THE LIFE CYCLE OF BATTERIES ROLE OF RECYCLING IN THE LIFE CYCLE OF BATTERIES J.L. Sullivan, L. Gaines, and A. Burnham Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division Keywords: battery, materials, recycling, energy Abstract Over the last few decades, rechargeable battery production has increased substantially. Applications including phones, computers, power tools, power storage, and electric-drive vehicles are either commonplace or will be in the next decade or so. Because advanced rechargeable batteries, like those

247

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATABASE LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATABASE ROADMAP rsed e Goals of the U.S. LCI Database Project * Maintain data quality and transparency. * Cover commonly used materials, products, and processes in the United States with up-to-date, critically reviewed LCI data. * Support the expanded use of LCA as an environmental decision-making tool. * Maintain compatibility with international LCI databases. * Provide exceptional data accessibility.

248

2012 Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Site Hydrogen Research Center 301 Gateway Drive Aiken, SC 29803 Accommodations Country Inn & Suites Aiken 3270 Whiskey Road Aiken, SC 29803 (803) 649-4024 RESERVATIONS: The cut-off date for guest room block reservations is Wednesday, February 22, 2012. We have a block of rooms reserved at this hotel at the government per diem rate of $86.00 per night. Please reference DOE -NE Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group Meeting when making your reservations to the get the government rate. Reservations will be by individual call-in, per your institutional protocol. Here is a listing of other hotels that offer government room rates. Please note that we do not have rooms reserved at the list locations, only Country Inn & Suites in Aiken. Maps Maps to SRNL from Columbia, Aiken, and Augusta

249

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive...

250

NFCSim: A Dynamic Fuel Burnup and Fuel Cycle Simulation Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Core Physics and Fuel Management Methods, Analytical Tools, and Benchmarks

Erich A. Schneider; Charles G. Bathke; Michael R. James

251

THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIAS ASSOCIATED WITH THORIUM-BASED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES FOR PHWRS  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the continued evaluation of the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with thorium based nuclear fuel cycles. Specifically, this paper examines a thorium fuel cycle in which a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) is fueled with mixtures of natural uranium/233U/thorium. This paper uses a PHWR fueled with natural uranium as a base fuel cycle, and then compares material attractiveness of fuel cycles that use 233U/thorium salted with natural uranium. The results include the material attractiveness of fuel at beginning of life (BoL), end of life (EoL), and the number of fuel assemblies required to collect a bare critical mass of plutonium or uranium. This study indicates what is required to render the uranium as having low utility for use in nuclear weapons; in addition, this study estimates the increased number of assemblies required to accumulate a bare critical mass of plutonium that has a higher utility for use in nuclear weapons. This approach identifies that some fuel cycles may be easier to implement the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approach and have a more effective safeguards by design outcome. For this study, approximately one year of fuel is required to be reprocessed to obtain one bare critical mass of plutonium. Nevertheless, the result of this paper suggests that all spent fuel needs to be rigorously safeguarded and provided with high levels of physical protection. This study was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy /National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). The methodology and key findings will be presented.

Prichard, Andrew W.; Niehus, Mark T.; Collins, Brian A.; Bathke, Charles G.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Hase, Kevin R.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Robel, Martin; Smith, Brian W.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

252

A Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Scope De?nition and Inventory Analysis; Internationalin life- cycle inventories using hybrid approaches. Environ.Reichl, H. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis and Identi?cation

Krishnan, Nikhil; Boyd, Sarah; Somani, Ajay; Dornfeld, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Technology Analysis - Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis diagram of the battery recycling life cycle Several types of recycling processes are available, recovering materials usable at different stages of the production cycle- from metallic elements to materials that can be reused directly in new batteries. Recovery closer to final usable form avoids more impact-intensive process steps. Portions courtesy of Umicore, Inc. To identify the potential impacts of the growing market for automotive lithium-ion batteries, Argonne researchers are examining the material demand and recycling issues related to lithium-ion batteries. Research includes: Conducting studies to identify the greenest, most economical recycling processes, Investigating recycling practices to determine how much of which

255

Effect of Highly Enriched/Highly Burnt UO2 Fuels on Fuel Cycle Costs, Radiotoxicity, and Nuclear Design Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Increased Enrichment/High Burnup and Light Water Reactor Fuel Cycle Optimization

Robert Gregg; Andrew Worrall

256

Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Davis-Besse Cycle 16 Fuel Deposit Analysis and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel deposit samples were collected from Davis-Besse Unit 1 during the EOC16 outage. The impetus behind collecting crud samples came from the observation of unusual deposits on fuel during EOC15, as well as measured crud-induced power shape (CIPS) during Cycle 16. The purpose of EOC16 sample campaign therefore was to determine the nature of the fuel deposits. Samples were collected from two fuel assemblies, one after one cycle of exposure and the other after two cycles of exposure. Samples were collected...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

IAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium fuel cycle --Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1985 - 1989 Lingen, Germany BWR Irradiation-testing 60 MW(e) Test Fuel (Th,Pu)O2 pellets Terminated achieved a maximum burnup of 60 000 MWd/t without any fuel failure. In India, there has always beenIAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium fuel cycle -- Potential benefits and challenges May 2005 #12;IAEA

Laughlin, Robert B.

260

Benefits and concerns of a closed nuclear fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear power can play an important role in our energy future, contributing to increasing electricity demand while at the same time decreasing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States today is unsustainable. As stated in the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of spent nuclear fuel generated by commercial nuclear power plants operating in a “once-through” fuel cycle in the deep geologic repository located at Yucca Mountain. However, unyielding political opposition to the site has hindered the commissioning process to the extant that the current administration has recently declared the unsuitability of the Yucca Mountain site. In light of this the DOE is exploring other options, including closing the fuel cycle through recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of closing the fuel cycle is receiving special attention because of its ability to minimize the final high level waste (HLW) package as well as recover additional energy value from the original fuel. The technology is, however, still very controversial because of the increased cost and proliferation risk it can present. To lend perspective on the closed fuel cycle alternative, this presents the arguments for and against closing the fuel cycle with respect to sustainability, proliferation risk, commercial viability, waste management, and energy security.

Widder, Sarah H.

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites  

SciTech Connect

Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is gaining momentum with the pressure to lightweight vehicles, however energy-intensity and cost remain some of the major barriers before this material could be used in large-scale automotive applications. A representative automotive part, i.e., a 30.8 kg steel floor pan having a 17% weight reduction potential with stringent cash performance requirements has been considered for the life cycle energy and emissions analysis based on the latest developments occurring in the precursor type (conventional textile-based PAN vs. renewable-based lignin), part manufacturing (conventional SMC vs. P4) and fiber recycling technologies. Carbon fiber production is estimated to be about 14 times more energy-intensive than conventional steel production, however life cycle primary energy use is estimated to be quite similar to the conventional part, i.e., 18,500 MJ/part, especially when considering the uncertainty in LCI data that exists from using numerous sources in the literature. Lignin P4 technology offers the most life cycle energy and CO2 emissions benefits compared to a conventional stamped steel technology. With a 20% reduction in energy use in the lignin conversion to carbon fiber and free availability of lignin as a by-product of ethanol and wood production, a 30% reduction in life cycle energy use could be obtained. A similar level of life cycle energy savings could also be obtained with a higher part weight reduction potential of 43%.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Life cycle assessment and biomass carbon accounting  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Biomass feedstocks Biomass feedstocks and the climate implications of bioenergy Steven Hamburg Environmental Defense Fund Slides adapted from Reid Miner NCASI On the landscape, the single-plot looks like this 75 Harvested and burned for energy In year zero, the plot is harvested and the wood is burned for energy 1.1 Year 1 After regeneration begins, the growing biomass sequesters small amounts of CO2 annually 2.1 Year 2 2.8 Year 3 ??? Year X, until next harvest Σ = . Over time, if carbon stocks are returned to pre-harvest levels... ...the net emissions over this time are zero. single plot analysis Net Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Time Time Biomass energy Fossil fuel energy single plot analysis Net Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Cumulative

263

Configuration and performance of fuel cell-combined cycle options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel-cell-bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural-gas/solid-oxide fuel-cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) are introduced as novel power-plant systems for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20-200 mega-watt (MW) size range. The novel NG-IFCFC power-plant system configures the ambient pressure molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger: The topping solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) combined cycle is not new. The purpose of combining a gas turbine with a fuel cell was to inject pressurized air into a high-pressure fuel cell and to reduce the size, and thereby, to reduce the cost of the fuel cell. Today, the SOFC remains pressurized, but excess chemical energy is combusted and the thermal energy is utilized by the Carnot cycle heat engine to complete the system. ASPEN performance results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC or NG-SOFCCC are better than conventional fuel cell or gas turbine steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. Fuel cell and gas turbine systems should not be viewed as competitors, but as an opportunity to expand to markets where neither gas turbines nor fuel cells alone would be commercially viable. Non-attainment areas are the most likely markets.

Rath, L.K.; Le, P.H.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map Photo of a green field with an ocean in the background. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database NREL and its partners created the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database to help life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners answer questions about environmental impact. This database provides individual gate-to-gate, cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with producing a material, component, or assembly in the U.S. The goals of the U.S. LCI Database project are: Maintain data quality and transparency Cover commonly used materials, products, and processes in the United States with up-to-date, critically reviewed LCI data Support the expanded use of LCA as an environmental decision-making

266

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Analysis October 16, 2013 - 4:41pm Addthis Constructed Costs of a Net-Zero Office Building Facility: Research Support Facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado Operational: August 2010 Constructed cost: $259/ft2 to achieve 50% less energy use than code Constructed cost of similar office buildings in area: $225 to $300/ft2 Reaching Net-Zero: A 1.27 MW photovoltaic system was added to the project in two phases to bring the system to net-zero. This system was financed through a power purchase agreement and did not add to the constructed cost of the building. If those costs were included in the capital costs, the total constructed cost would have been 291/ft2 to reach net-zero energy use. Learn more about the Research Support

267

NREL: Energy Analysis - Wind Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet) Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet) Cover of the LWind LCA Harmonization Fact Sheet Download the Fact Sheet Wind Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization To better understand the state of knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from utility-scale wind power systems, NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review life cycle assessment literature, identify sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a meta-analytical process called "harmonization." Over the last 30 years, several hundred life cycle assessments have been conducted for wind power technologies with wide-ranging results. Harmonization for onshore and offshore wind power systems was performed by adjusting published greenhouse gas estimates to achieve:

268

Filling Knowledge Gaps with Five Fuel Cycle Studies  

SciTech Connect

During FY 2010, five studies were conducted of technology families’ applicability to various fuel cycle strategies to fill in knowledge gaps in option space and to better understand trends and patterns. Here, a “technology family” is considered to be defined by a type of reactor and by selection of which actinides provide fuel. This report summarizes the higher-level findings; the detailed analyses and results are documented in five individual reports, as follows: • Advanced once through with uranium fuel in fast reactors (SFR), • Advanced once through (uranium fuel) or single recycle (TRU fuel) in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in light water reactors (LWRs), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in molten salt reactors (MSR), and • Several fuel cycle missions with Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH). Each study examined how the designated technology family could serve one or more designated fuel cycle missions, filling in gaps in overall option space. Each study contains one or more illustrative cases that show how the technology family could be used to meet a fuel cycle mission, as well as broader information on the technology family such as other potential fuel cycle missions for which insufficient information was available to include with an illustrative case. None of the illustrative cases can be considered as a reference, baseline, or nominal set of parameters for judging performance; the assessments were designed to assess areas of option space and were not meant to be optimized. There is no implication that any of the cases or technology families are necessarily the best way to meet a given fuel cycle mission. The studies provide five examples of 1-year fuel cycle assessments of technology families. There is reasonable coverage in the five studies of the performance areas of waste management and uranium utilization. The coverage of economics, safety, and proliferation resistance and physical protection in the five studies was spotty. Some studies did not have existing or past work to draw on in one or more of these areas. Resource constraints limited the amount of new analyses that could be performed. Little or no assessment was done of how soon any of the technologies could be deployed and therefore how quickly they could impact domestic or international fuel cycle performance. There were six common R&D needs, such as the value of advanced fuels, cladding, coating, and structure that would survive high neutron fluence. When a technology family is considered for use in a new fuel cycle mission, fuel cycle performance characteristics are dependent on both the design choices and the fuel cycle approach. For example, the use of the sodium-cooled fast reactor to provide recycle in either breeder or burner mode has been studied for decades, but the SFR could be considered for once-through fuel cycle with the physical reactor design and fuel management parameters changed. In addition, the sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in LWR could be achieved with a heterogeneous assembly and derated power density. Therefore, it may or may not be adjustable for other fuel cycle missions although a reactor intended for one fuel cycle mission is built. Simple parameter adjustment in applying a technology family to a new fuel cycle mission should be avoided and, if observed, the results viewed with caution.

Steven J. Piet; Jess Gehin; William Halsey; Temitope Taiwo

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse, enablement of material accountability, and decreasing material attractiveness.

S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Back-end costs of alternative nuclear fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its charter, the Alternate Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) was directed to evaluate the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The principal conclusion from this study is that the costs for recycling a broad range of reactor fuels will not have a large impact on total fuel cycle costs. For the once-through fuel cycle, the costs of fresh fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, and associated transportation is about 1.2 to 1.3 mills/kWh. For the recycle of uranium and plutonium into thermal reactors, the back-cycle costs (i.e., the costs of irradiated fuel storage, transportation, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste disposal) will be from 3 to 3.5 mills/kWh. The costs for the recycle of uranium and plutonium into fast breeder reactors will be from 4.5 to 5 mills/kWh. Using a radioactive spikant or a denatured /sup 233/U-Th cycle will increase power costs for both recycle cases by about 1 mill/kWh. None of these costs substantially influence the total cost of nuclear power, which is in the range of 4 cents/kWh. The fuel cycle costs used in this study do not include costs incurred prior to fuel fabrication; that is, the cost of the uranium or thorium, the costs for enrichment, or credit for fissile materials in the discharged fuel, which is not recycled with the system.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Economics of nuclear fuel cycles : option valuation and neutronics simulation of mixed oxide fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In most studies aiming at the economic assessment of nuclear fuel cycles, a primary concern is to keep scenarios economically comparable. For Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels, a traditional way to achieve ...

De Roo, Guillaume

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The damage function approach for estimating fuel cycle externalities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the methodology used in a study of fuel cycle externalities sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. The methodology is the damage function approach. This paper describes that approach and discusses its application and limitations. The fuel cycles addressed are those in which coal, biomass, oil, hydro, natural gas and uranium are used to generate electric power. The methodology is used to estimate the physical impacts of these fuel cycles on environmental resources and human health, and the external costs and benefits of these impacts.

Lee, R.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Irradiation studies - Fuel-clad interactions - Elastic property measurement - Thermal properties - Failure model analysis - Quench testing Technology development -...

274

Design and fuel management of PWR cores to optimize the once-through fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once-through fuel cycle has been analyzed to see if there are substantial prospects for improved uranium ore utilization in current

Fujita, Edward Kei

275

Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs.

Pond, R.B.; Freese, K.E.; Matos, J.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Design and fuel management of PWR cores to optimize the once-through fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The once-through fuel cycle has been analyzed to see if there are substantial prospects for improved uranium ore utilization in current light water reactors, with a specific focus on pressurized water reactors. The types of changes which have been examined are: (1) re-optimization of fuel pin diameter and lattice pitch, (2) axial power shaping by enrichment gradation in fresh fuel, (3) use of 6-batch cores with semi-annual refueling, (4) use of 6-batch cores with annual refueling, hence greater extended (approximately doubled) burnup, (5) use of radial reflector assemblies, (6) use of internally heterogeneous cores (simple seed/blanket configurations), (7) use of power/temperature coastdown at the end of life to extend burnup, (8) use of metal or diluted oxide fuel, (9) use of thorium, and (10) use of isotopically separated low sigma/sub a/ cladding material. State-of-the-art LWR computational methods, LEOPARD/PDQ-7/FLARE-G, were used to investigate these modifications.

Fujita, E.K.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Closed DTU fuel cycle with Np recycle and waste transmutation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear energy scenario for the 21st century that included a denatured thorium-uranium-oxide (DTU) fuel cycle and new light water reactors (LWRs) supported by accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) systems was previously described. This coupled system with the closed DTU fuel cycle provides several improvements beyond conventional LWR (CLWR) (once-through, UO{sub 2} fuel) nuclear technology: increased proliferation resistance, reduced waste, and efficient use of natural resources. However, like CLWR fuel cycles, the spent fuel in the first one-third core discharged after startup contains higher-quality Pu than the equilibrium fuel cycle. To eliminate this high-grade Pu, Np is separated and recycled with Th and U--rather than with higher actinides [(HA) including Pu]. The presence of Np in the LWR feed greatly increases the production of {sup 238}Pu so that a few kilograms of Pu generated enough alpha-decay heat that the separated Pu is highly resistant to proliferation. This alternate process also simplifies the pyrochemical separation of fuel elements (Th and U) from HAs. To examine the advantages of this concept, the authors modeled a US deployment scenario for nuclear energy that includes DTU-LWRs plus ATW`s to burn the actinides produced by these LWRs and to close the back-end of the DTU fuel cycle.

Beller, D.E.; Sailor, W.C.; Venneri, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Herring, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., ID (United States)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options A Screening Method for Guiding R&D Decisions: Pilot Application to Screen Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) invests in research and development (R&D) to ensure that the United States will maintain its domestic nuclear energy capability and scientific and technical leadership in the international community of nuclear power nations in the years ahead. The 2010 Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap presents a high-level vision and framework for R&D activities that are needed to keep the nuclear energy option viable in the near term and to expand its use in the decades ahead. The roadmap identifies the development

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies Overview Modeling and analysis Unit Process Modeling Mass Tracking System Software Waste Form Performance Modeling Safety Analysis, Hazard and Risk Evaluations Development, Design, Operation Overview Systems and Components Development Expertise System Engineering Design Other Major Programs Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE Division on Flickr Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies Overview Bookmark and Share Much of the NE Division's research is directed toward developing software and performing analyses, system engineering design, and experiments to support the demonstration and optimization of the electrometallurgical

282

Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fuel Cycle Options for Optimized Recycling of Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reduction of transuranic inventories of spent nuclear fuel depends upon the deployment of advanced fuels that can be loaded with recycled transuranics (TRU), and the availability of facilities to separate and reprocess ...

Aquien, A.

284

Information Resources: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL alternatives. The reports for Parts 1 and 2 were published in February 2012 and June 2012, respectively, providing a literature review and life-cycle assessment (LCA) for lamps utilizing these three light source technologies. Presenters Jason Tuenge of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Brad Hollomon of Compa Industries focused on findings from Part 3, which augments the LCA results with chemical analysis of a variety of lamps using standard testing procedures from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of California. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different lamps, were tested to ascertain whether potentially toxic elements are present in concentrations that exceed regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste.

285

Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry Lorie Hamelin, Marianne Wesnæs and Henrik AND ALTERNATIVES 28 2.2.1 Reference Scenario (Scenario A) 28 2.2.2 Biogas from raw pig slurry and fibre fraction from chemical- mechanical separation (Scenario F) 29 2.2.3 Biogas from raw cow slurry and fibre

286

Life Cycle Human Capital Formation, Search Intensity, and Wage Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents and estimates a unified model where both human capital investment and job search are endogenized. This unification not only enables me to quantify the relative contributions of each mechanism to life cycle wage dynamics, but also to investigate potential interactions between human capital investment and job search. Within the unified framework, the expectation of rising rental rates of human capital through searching in the future gives workers more incentive to invest in human capital. In the meantime, unemployed workers reduce their reservation rates to leave unemployment quickly to take advantage of human capital accumulation on the job. The results show that these interactions are well supported by data. Allowing for these interactions as well as heterogeneity in search technology, the unified model predicts that both human capital accumulation and job search contribute significantly to the wage growth over the life cycle with human capital accumulation accounting for 40 % of total wage growth and job search accounting for 50%. The remaining 10 % is due to the interactions of the two forces. Furthermore, job search dominates wage growth earlier in the life cycle while human capital accumulation dominates later in the life cycle. ?This paper is one of the chapters in my Ph.D. thesis. I thank my committee members, Audra Bowlus, Hiroyuki Kasahara, and Lance Lochner for their continuous guidance and support. I would also like to thank Chris Robinson, Fabien Postel-Vinay, Todd Stinebrickner, Ben Lester as well as

Huju Liu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Ambient Intelligence in Product Life-cycle Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To fulfil the increasing demands today the short innovation time and the high quality of production itself is not enough in production of goods, but all phases of a product (from idea to recycling) should be managed by advanced tools and means. Nowadays ... Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Product Life-cycle Management, Service engineering

G. Kovács; S. Kopácsi; G. Haidegger; R. Michelini

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A Weakly Nonlinear Primitive Equation Baroclinic Life Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A weakly nonlinear baroclinic life cycle is examined with a spherical, multilevel, primitive equation model. The structure of the initial zonal jet is chosen so that the disturbance grows very slowly, that is, linear growth rate less than 0.1 day?...

Steven B. Feldstein

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Wave Activity Diagnostics Applied to Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wave activity diagnostics are calculated for four different baroclinic wave life cycles, including the LC1 and LC2 cases studied by Thorncroft, Hoskins, and McIntyre. The wave activity is a measure of the disturbance relative to some zonally ...

Gudrun Magnusdottir; Peter H. Haynes

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Life Cycle Variations of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Americas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using GOES-7 ISCCP-B3 satellite data for 1987–88, the authors studied the evolution of the morphological and radiative properties of clouds over the life cycles of deep convective systems (CS) over the Americas at both tropical and middle ...

L. A. T. Machado; W. B. Rossow; R. L. Guedes; A. W. Walker

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Life-cycle cost analysis project. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to demonstrate the impact of life-cycle costing in Ohio's residential building sector. Typical single-family, townhouse, and multifamily housing units were modeled using sophisticated computer programs to predict annual energy comsumption. Energy conservation techniques were applied to the typical units and the resulting utility savings were computed. Installed costs were estimated for each energy conservation technique.

Davies, G.R.; Temming, S.J.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

292

Life cycle cost and risk estimation of environmental management options  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation process is demonstrated in this paper through comparative analysis of two alternative scenarios identified for the management of the alpha-contaminated fixed low-level waste currently stored at INEL. These two scenarios, the Base Case and the Delay Case, are realistic and based on actual data, but are not intended to exactly match actual plans currently being developed at INEL. Life cycle cost estimates were developed for both scenarios using the System Cost Model; resulting costs are presented and compared. Life cycle costs are shown as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Although there are some short-term cost savings for the Delay Case, cumulative life cycle costs eventually become much higher than costs for the Base Case over the same period of time, due mainly to the storage and repackaging necessary to accommodate the longer Delay Case schedule. Life cycle risk estimates were prepared using a new risk analysis method adapted to the System Cost Model architecture for automated, systematic cost/risk applications. Relative risk summaries are presented for both scenarios as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Relative risk of the Delay Case is shown to be higher than that of the Base Case. Finally, risk and cost results are combined to show how the collective information can be used to help identify opportunities for risk or cost reduction and highlight areas where risk reduction can be achieved most economically.

Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Modelling life cycle and population dynamics of Nostocales (cyanobacteria)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales found in lakes in temperate regions are generally assumed to benefit from climate change. To predict their future development under varying environmental conditions, we developed a mathematical model that simulates ... Keywords: Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Hasse diagram, Life cycle, Nostocales, Population dynamics, Shallow lake

K. D. Jöhnk; R. Brüggemann; J. Rücker; B. Luther; U. Simon; B. Nixdorf; C. Wiedner

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Comparison of Life Cycle Emissions and Energy Consumption for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of Life Cycle Emissions and Energy Consumption for Environmentally Adapted Metalworking to significantly influence the environmental burdens of all fluids, energy consumption was relatively constant and consumed without long-distance transportation. MWF Production Each MWF is composed of lubricant oil

Clarens, Andres

295

Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR){sup 1} and Integral Fast Reactor (IF){sup 2} technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle.

Michaels, G.E.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microtur

297

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide: (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs; and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 4  

SciTech Connect

This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids - international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

In-Situ Electrolyte Replenishment for Long Fuel Cell Life. Phase II Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The carbonate fuel cell has many advantages over conventional methods of producing electricity. It converts hydrocarbon fuels directly into electricity with a high efficiency (>70% in a co-generation plant configuration) and consequently releases less carbon dioxide greenhouse gases (>30% less compared to a combined cycle gas turbine plant). Its adaptability to meet the customers' specific power requirements is ideally suited for distributed power generation. The advantages of distributed power generation include site flexibility, fuel source flexibility, less capital investment risk and elimination of transmission and distribution investments. The fuel cell becomes economically competitive if its life exceeds 40,000h. The current predicted lifetime of the central cells of a stack is 44,000h, based on electrolyte inventory considerations. Methods of extending fuel cell life even further are being sought to enhance its commercial competitiveness.

Johnsen, R.

2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Safety aspects of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the important safety considerations related to the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle technology, the pyroprocess. Argonne has been developing the IFR since 1984. It is a liquid metal cooled reactor, with a unique metal alloy fuel, and it utilizes a radically new fuel cycle. An existing facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) is being modified and equipped to provide a complete demonstration of the fuel cycle. This paper will concentrate on safety aspects of the future HFEF/S operation, slated to begin late next year. HFEF/S is part of Argonne's complex of reactor test facilities located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. HFEF/S was originally put into operation in 1964 as the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) (Stevenson, 1987). From 1964--69 FCF operated to demonstrate an earlier and incomplete form of today's pyroprocess, recycling some 400 fuel assemblies back to EBR-II. The FCF mission was then changed to one of an irradiated fuels and materials examination facility, hence the name change to HFEF/S. The modifications consist of activities to bring the facility into conformance with today's much more stringent safety standards, and, of course, providing the new process equipment. The pyroprocess and the modifications themselves are described more fully elsewhere (Lineberry, 1987; Chang, 1987). 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Forrester, R.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Charak, I.; Tessier, J.H.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gabor, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SiC Research for SiC Research for Accident Tolerant Fuels Shannon Bragg-Sitton Idaho National Laboratory Advanced LWR Fuels Technical Lead Advanced Fuels Campaign Advanced LWR Fuels Pathway Lead Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program August 2013 Outline  Overview of DOE SiC research  Severe accident modeling: MELCOR analysis w/SiC  Recent characterization test results - Oxidation kinetics - Irradiation studies - Fuel-clad interactions - Elastic property measurement - Thermal properties - Failure model analysis - Quench testing  Technology development - ASTM standards development - SiC/SiC joining technology 2 SiC Gap Analysis and Feasibility Study  SiC Gap Analysis / Feasibility - Milestone report issued July 30, 2013 - Incorporates results of work funded

304

Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Assessment of Browns Ferry 2 Cycle 12 Fuel Corrosion Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods from 63 bundles of the Reload 10 GE13 (9x9) design developed leaks during Cycle 12 at Browns Ferry 2 (BF-2). Corrosion failures also occurred in Browns Ferry 3 (BF-3) and Vermont Yankee (VY) in a similar time frame. These fuel failures were investigated in the spent fuel pool and in two separate hot cell examination campaigns. This report compiles and assesses the significant findings of the root cause investigation.

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-7 by M. Wu, M. Wang ................................................................................ 6 2 Simplified Process Flow Diagram of Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover to Ethanol with Steam

Argonne National Laboratory

307

Impact of the 3Cs of Batteries on PHEV Value Proposition: Cost, Calendar Life, and Cycle Life (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Battery cost, calendar life, and cycle life are three important challenges for those commercializing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; battery life is sensitive to temperature and solar loading.

Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.; Markel, T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents  

SciTech Connect

Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993  

SciTech Connect

This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

Not Available

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Novel electrolyte additives to enhance zinc electrode cycle life  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical power sources that utilize zinc electrodes possess many advantages. Zinc is abundantly available, benign, inexpensive, stable over a wide operating temperature range, and has a high oxidation potential. In spite of these advantageous characteristics, rechargeable electrochemical systems based on zinc chemistry have not found widespread use. The major disadvantages of zinc electrodes are that they have limited cycle life due to zinc slumping and zinc electrode shape changes in alkaline solutions resulting from the solubility of zincate (Zn(OH){sub 4}{sup 2-}) in these solutions. As a result, premature cell failure often results due to cell shorting caused by dendritic growth as well as zinc slumping. In this paper we describe the chemical and physical characteristics of electrolyte solutions employing additives, particularly for zinc based electrochemical systems. These electrolytes are prepared using the alkali metal salts of 1,3,5-phenyltrisulfonic acid in combination with potassium hydroxide. The alkali metal salts of the acid possess good thermal stability, good ionic conductivity, and have a wide electrochemical voltage window in aqueous systems. With these electrolyte solutions improved cycle life was achieved in Zn/NiOOH and Zn/AgO. Improved cycle life with this additive is attributed to decreased zincate solubility, resulting in reduced zinc slumping and electrode shape changes. In addition, increased shelf-life and reduced self-discharge were also observed in many alkaline power sources.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Introduction to Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Advanced Nuclear Fuels: Jon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2012 ... Increased use of fossil fuel will result in. • Resource shortfalls and regional conflicts,. • Serious environmental impact. • Worldwide expansion of ...

312

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7) 7) Distribution Category UC-950 Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 September 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Contacts Energy Information Administration/ Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 ii The Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report is prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. Questions and comments concerning the contents of the report may be directed to:

314

2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report 2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. In order to continue or expand the role for nuclear power in our long- term energy platform, the United States must: Continually improve the safety and security of nuclear energy and its associated technologies worldwide. Develop solutions for the transportation, storage, and long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel and associated wastes.

315

Fuel Cycle Technologies | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the fossil fuel supply. As the only large-scale source of nearly greenhouse gas-free energy, nuclear power is an essential part of our energy mix, generating about 20...

316

Cost-effective fuel cycle closure  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. government is moving toward meeting its obligation to accept spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in 1998 by providing an interim storage facility. Site work and analysis of the deep, geologic repository at Yucca Mountain will continue at a reduced level of effort. This provides the time required to reevaluate the use of spent-fuel recycling instead of direct disposal. A preliminary assessment of this option is presented in this paper.

Ehrman, C.S. [Burns & Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (United States); Boardman, C.E. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

MARVEL: A PC-based interactive software package for life-cycle evaluations of hybrid/electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

As a life-cycle analysis tool, MARVEL has been developed for the evaluation of hybrid/electric vehicle systems. It can identify the optimal combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and performance requirements, on the basis of either life-cycle cost or fuel efficiency. Battery models that allow trade-offs between specific power and specific energy, between cycle life and depth of discharge, between peak power and depth of discharge, and between other parameters, are included in the software. A parallel hybrid configuration, using an internal combustion engine and a battery as the power sources, can be simulated with a user-specified energy management strategy. The PC-based software package can also be used for cost or fuel efficiency comparisons among conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles.

Marr, W.W.; He, J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

SAFEGUARDS EXPERIENCE ON THE DUPIC FUEL CYCLE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards have been applied to the R and D process for directly fabricating CANDU fuel with PWR spent fuel material. Safeguards issues to be resolved were identified in the areas such as international cooperation on handling foreign origin nuclear material, technology development of operator's measurement system of the bulk handling process of spent fuel material, and a built-in C/S system for independent verification of material flow. The fuel cycle concept (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU, DUPIC) was developed in consideration of reutilization of over-flowing spent fuel resources at PWR sites and a reduction of generated high level wastes. All those safeguards issues have been finally resolved, and the first batch of PWR spent fuel material was successfully introduced in the DUPIC lab facility and has been in use for routine process development.

J. HONG; H. KIM; ET AL

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells developed in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9%. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted to identify an economically competitive system and an efficiency over 65%. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency over 70%; it is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95% of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72% of the power. The portion of fuel cell anode exhaust not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to compressed air from a gas turbine, heating it to 1800 F. The stream is then heated to 2000 F in gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13% of the power. Half the gas turbine exhaust flows to anode exhaust burner and the rest flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Studies of the TTC for 200 and 20 MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6%; estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr. A 20-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 65.2% and a cost of electricity of 50 mills/kWhr.

Steinfeld, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Velocity of Money in a Life-Cycle Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The determinants of the velocity of money have been examined based on life-cycle hypothesis. The velocity of money can be expressed by reciprocal of the average value of holding time which is defined as interval between participating exchanges for one unit of money. This expression indicates that the velocity is governed by behavior patterns of economic agents and open a way to constructing micro-foundation of it. It is found that time pattern of income and expense for a representative individual can be obtained from a simple version of life-cycle model, and average holding time of money resulted from the individual's optimal choice depends on the expected length of relevant planning periods.

Wang, Y; Wang, Yougui; Qiu, Hanqing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Eric Masanet, 1 Yuan Chang, 1 Anand R. Gopal, 2 Peter Larsen, 2,3 William R. Morrow III, 2 Roger Sathre, 2 Arman Shehabi, 2 and Pei Zhai 2 1 McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208; email: eric.masanet@northwestern.edu, yuan.chang@northwestern.edu 2 Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720; email: argopal@lbl.gov, wrmorrow@lbl.gov, rsathre@lbl.gov, ashehabi@lbl.gov, pzhai@lbl.gov 3 Management Science and Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email: phlarsen@lbl.gov Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2013. 38:107-36 First published online as a Review in Advance on August 7, 2013 The Annual Review of Environment and Resources is online at http://environ.annualreviews.org

323

Frostbite Theater - Monarch Butterflies - Life Cycle of the Monarch  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measure the Diameter of the Sun! Measure the Diameter of the Sun! Previous Video (Let's Measure the Diameter of the Sun!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Monarch Butterfly Pupation) Monarch Butterfly Pupation Life Cycle of the Monarch Butterfly Follow the life cycle of the Monarch butterfly from egg to adult! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a field that used to house a bunch of ugly trailers that were used for office space. A couple of years ago the Lab tore them down and in an effort to cut the cost of lawn maintanence, they planted a bunch of wild flowers in their place. Steve: Last year Joanna and I planted this plant. This is milkweed. It's a

324

The FIT Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010] are an initial step by the FCR&D program toward a global analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. The question originally posed to the “system losses study” was the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, waste management, etc. versus the separation efficiency. In other words, are the costs associated with marginal reductions in separations losses (or improvements in product recovery) justified by the gains in the performance of other systems? We have learned that that is the wrong question. The right question is: how does one adjust the compositions and quantities of all mass streams, given uncertain product criteria, to balance competing objectives including cost? FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles using common bases to determine how chemical performance changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say used fuel cooling times or separation efficiencies) affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT estimates impurities in fuel and waste via a rough estimate of physics and mass balance for a set of technologies. If feasibility is an issue for a set, as it is for “minimum fuel treatment” approaches such as melt refining and AIROX, it can help to make an estimate of how performances would have to change to achieve feasibility.

Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Meliisa C Teague; Gregory M Teske; Kurt G Vedros

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Combined cycle phosphoric acid fuel cell electric power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By arranging two or more electric power generation cycles in series, combined cycle systems are able to produce electric power more efficiently than conventional single cycle plants. The high fuel to electricity conversion efficiency results in lower plant operating costs, better environmental performance, and in some cases even lower capital costs. Despite these advantages, combined cycle systems for the 1 - 10 megawatt (MW) industrial market are rare. This paper presents a low noise, low (oxides of nitrogen) NOx, combined cycle alternative for the small industrial user. By combining a commercially available phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with a low-temperature Rankine cycle (similar to those used in geothermal applications), electric conversion efficiencies between 45 and 47 percent are predicted. While the simple cycle PAFC is competitive on a cost of energy basis with gas turbines and diesel generators in the 1 to 2 MW market, the combined cycle PAFC is competitive, on a cost of energy basis, with simple cycle diesel generators in the 4 to 25 MW market. In addition, the efficiency and low-temperature operation of the combined cycle PAFC results in a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions with NO{sub x} concentration on the order of 1 parts per million (per weight) (ppmw).

Mollot, D.J.; Micheli, P.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE: PROSPECTS FOR REDUCING ITS COST  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh would make nuclear power competitive with conventional power in lowcost coal areas if capital and operating costs can be brought to within about 10 percent of those of coal-fired plants. Substantial decreases in fuel fabrication cost are anticipated by 1970: other costs in the fuel cycle are expccted to remain about the same as at present. Unit costs and irradiation levels that would be needed to give a fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh are believed to be attainable by 1970. (auth)

Albrecht, W.L.

1959-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

Metracker version 1.5: Life-cycle performance metricstracking  

SciTech Connect

Buildings often do not perform as well in practice as expected during pre-design planning, nor as intended at the design stage, nor even as measured during commissioning and maintenance operations. While this statement is generally considered to be true, it is difficult to quantify the impacts and long-term economic implications of a building in which performance does not meet expectations. This leads to a building process that is devoid of quantitative feedback that could be used to detect and correct problems both in an individual building and in the building process itself. A key element in this situation is the lack of a standardized method for documenting and communicating information about the intended and actual performance of a building. This deficiency leads to several shortcomings in the life-cycle management of building information. Planners have no means of clearly specifying their expectations. Designers do not concisely document their design intent. Commissioning personnel have no standardized method for documenting the results of performance testing. Post-occupancy building performance cannot readily be compared to expectations in an attempt to evaluate and improve design and operation decisions. Lastly, without quantification of the magnitude of performance problems it is difficult to motivate building process participants to alter their current practice. This document describes an information management concept and a prototype tool based on this concept that has been developed to address this situation. The Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) has been designed to manage a wide range of building related information across the life cycle of a building project. Metracker is a prototype implementation of BLISS based on the International Alliance for Interoperability's (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The IFC is an evolving data model under development by a variety of architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry firms and organizations (IAI, 2001). Metracker has been developed to demonstrate and explore the process of tracking performance metrics across the building life cycle.

Hitchcock, Robert J.

2002-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

328

Life Cycle Assessment of Amonix 7700 HCPV Systems  

SciTech Connect

We estimated the energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the life cycle of the Amonix high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system with III-V solar cells. For a location in the southwest United States, the Amonix 7700 has an EPBT of only 0.86 yrs and GHG emissions of 24g CO{sub 2}-eq./kWh we expect further decreases in both by 2011.

Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Title Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-55088 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Whitehead, Camilla Dunham, Victor H. Franco, Alexander B. Lekov, and James D. Lutz Document Number LBNL-55088 Pagination 22 Date Published May 31 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated.The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

330

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 2: Data Gathering and Analysis Project Description It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher first costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches.

331

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

332

Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.  

SciTech Connect

This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Fuel cycle optimization of thorium and uranium fueled PWR systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The burnup neutronics of uniform PWR lattices are examined with respect to reduction of uranium ore requirements with an emphasis on variation of the fuel-to-moderator ratio

Garel, Keith Courtnay

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fuel cycle options for optimized recycling of nuclear fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accumulation of transuranic inventories in spent nuclear fuel depends on both deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics (TRU), and on availability of the facilities that separate and ...

Aquien, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

350 MW(t) design fuel cycle selection. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document discusses the results of this evaluation and a recommendation to retain the graded fuel cycle in which one-half of the fuel elements are exchanged at each refueling. This recommendation is based on the better performance of the graded cycle relative to the evaluation criteria of both economics and control margin. A choice to retain the graded cycle and a power density of 5.9 MW/m{sup 3} for the upcoming conceptual design phase was deemed prudent for the following reasons: the graded cycle has significantly better economics, and essentially the same expected availability factor as the batch design, when both are evaluated against the same requirements, including water ingress; and the reduction in maximum fuel pin power peaking in the batch design compared to the graded cycle is only a few percent and gas hot streaks are not improved by changing to a batch cycle. The preliminary 2-D power distribution studies for both designs showed that maximum fuel pin power peaking, particularly near the inner reflector, was high for both designs and nearly the same in magnitude. 10 figs., 9 tabs.

Lane, R.K.; Lefler, W.; Shirley, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modeling and design of a reload PWR core for a 48-month fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to use state-of-the-art nuclear and fuel performance packages to evaluate the feasibility and costs of a 48 calendar month core in existing pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, considering the full range of practical design and economic considerations. The driving force behind this research is the desire to make nuclear power more economically competitive with fossil fuel options by expanding the scope for achievement of higher capacity factors. Using CASMO/SIMULATE, a core design with fuel enriched to 7{sup w}/{sub o} U{sup 235} for a single batch loaded, 48-month fuel cycle has been developed. This core achieves an ultra-long cycle length without exceeding current fuel burnup limits. The design uses two different types of burnable poisons. Gadolinium in the form of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) mixed with the UO{sub 2} of selected pins is sued to hold down initial reactivity and to control flux peaking throughout the life of the core. A zirconium di-boride (ZrB{sub 2}) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) coating on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-UO{sub 2} fuel pellets is added to reduce the critical soluble boron concentration in the reactor coolant to within acceptable limits. Fuel performance issues of concern to this design are also outlined and areas which will require further research are highlighted.

McMahon, M.V.; Driscoll, M.J.; Todreas, N.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

TRITIUM SYSTEMS KEYWORDS: tritium fuel cycle, re-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by long execution times. The large divergence in values be- tween characteristic time constants in fuel integrated simulation run is duplicated on a larger scale for the time period of interest such as doubling for the time- scale in the studies conducted here. When tritium decay is included in the net accumulation

Abdou, Mohamed

338

Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis - Nuclear Engineering Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Analysis Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Overview Current Projects Software Nuclear Plant Dynamics and Safety Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Bookmark and Share Reactor physics and fuel cycle analysis is a core competency of the Nuclear Engineering (NE) Division. The Division has played a major role in the design and analysis of advanced reactors, particularly liquid-metal-cooled reactors. NE researchers have concentrated on developing computer codes for

339

2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting 1 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation's current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. To support nuclear energy's continued and expanded role in our energy platform, therefore, the United States must continually improve its knowledge, technology, and policy in order to:

340

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book: Revision 9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. The Fact Book contains: national summaries in which a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; and international agencies in which a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement, and a listing of nuclear societies. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States.

Leigh, I.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Life Cycle Assessment goes to Washington : lessons from a new regulatory design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a quantitative tool that measures the bundled impact of an individual product over its entire life cycle, from "cradle-to-grave." LCA has been developed over many decades to improve industry's ...

Edwards, Jennifer Lynn, M. C. P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Inertia–Gravity Waves Spontaneously Generated by Jets and Fronts. Part I: Different Baroclinic Life Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spontaneous generation of inertia–gravity waves in idealized life cycles of baroclinic instability is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Two substantially different life cycles of baroclinic instability are ...

Riwal Plougonven; Chris Snyder

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Two Types of Baroclinic Life Cycles during the Southern Hemisphere Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baroclinic eddy life cycles of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) summer are investigated with NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data. A composite analysis is performed for the years 1980 through 2004. Individual life cycles are identified by local maxima in ...

Woosok Moon; Steven B. Feldstein

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Life cycle assessment of materials and construction in commercial structures : variability and limitations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment has become an important tool for determining the environmental impact of materials and products. It is also useful in analyzing the impact a structure has over the course of its life cycle. The ...

Hsu, Sophia Lisbeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Solid-State Lighting: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmenta...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and...

347

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

SciTech Connect

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D. (Knoxville, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities  

SciTech Connect

With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

Amanda Rynes

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6) 6) Distribution Category UC-950 Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1996 October 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1996 ii Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Coal, Nuclear, report should be addressed to the following staff Electric and Alternate Fuels by the Analysis and Systems

350

Decision Framework for Evaluating Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is working to develop tools to support long-term strategic planning for research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies for electricity generation. The development of a decision framework to help guide the eventual deployment of advanced nuclear technologies represents a key component of this effort. This interim report describes the structure of a prototypical EPRI decision framework and illustrates how that framework can be applied to assess nuclear fuel...

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Life Cycle Assessments Confirm the Need for Hydropower and Nuclear Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the use of life cycle assessments to confirm the need for hydropower and nuclear energy.

Gagnon, L.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

352

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

SciTech Connect

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

353

22.351 Systems Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-depth technical and policy analysis of various options for the nuclear fuel cycle. Topics include uranium supply, enrichment fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, thorium and other fuel types, ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

354

GUIDE TO NUCLEAR POWER COST EVALUATION. VOLUME 4. FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

Information on fuel cycle cost is presented. Topics covered include: nuclear fuel, fuel management, fuel cost, fissionable material cost, use charge, conversion and fabrication costs, processing cost, and shipping cost. (M.C.G.)

1962-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.

Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

356

Assessment of Hatch 1, Cycle 21 Fuel Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 19 October 2003, Hatch Unit One located near Baxley, Georgia, experienced six duty-related fuel failures following a control blade notching adjustment. The Hatch 1 reactor was shut down for the End of Cycle 21 refueling outage on 14 February 2004. The duty associated with the Hatch 1 notching event was analyzed in detail and found to be relatively high. Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF), in collaboration with EPRI Fuel Reliability Program and Southern Nuclear Company, sponsored a hot cell examination to estab...

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

358

Poolside Fuel Inspection and Fuel Desposit Evaluation at LaSalle-1 (Cycle 10)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LaSalle Unit 1 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant running a noble metals chemical addition (NMCA) chemistry program starting with Cycle 10. Fuel inspection and deposit samples were obtained from two fuel assemblies after Cycle 10. These two assemblies contained rods failed by mechanisms unrelated to corrosion or crud. Results of a poolside examination, bulk sample analysis of 15 crud samples, and detailed flake analysis are reported in this document.

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

359

Characterization of Fuel Cell Vehicle Duty Cycle Elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers research done as part of US Department of Energy contract DE-PS26-99FT14299 with the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute on the fuel cell RATLER{trademark} vehicle, Lurch, as well as work done on the fuel cells designed for the vehicle. All work contained within this report was conducted at the Robotic Vehicle Range at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque New Mexico. The research conducted includes characterization of the duty cycle of the robotic vehicle. This covers characterization of its various abilities such as hill climbing and descending, spin-turns, and driving on level ground. This was accomplished with the use of current sensors placed in the vehicle in conjunction with a Data Acquisition System (DAS), which was also created at Sandia Labs. Characterization of the two fuel cells was accomplished using various measuring instruments and techniques that will be discussed later in the report. A Statement of Work for this effort is included in Appendix A. This effort was able to complete characterization of vehicle duty cycle elements using battery power, but problems with the fuel cell control systems prevented completion of the characterization of the fuel cell operation on the benchtop and in the vehicle. Some data was obtained characterizing the fuel cell current-voltage performance and thermal rise rate by bypassing elements of the control system.

MAISH, ALEXANDER B.; NILAN, ERIC J.; BACA, PAUL M.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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361

Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and clarifying the central tendency of those estimates in ways useful for decision makers and analysts. Each article took a slightly different approach, demonstrating the flexibility of the harmonization approach. Each article also discusses limitations of the current research, and the state of knowledge and of harmonization, pointing toward a path of extending and improving the meta-analysis of LCAs.

Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

(front end fuel cycle) 2.1 (CANDU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 (front end fuel cycle) 2.1 (CANDU: CANada Deuterium Uranium; . ( 2.2) . 70-80% , (uranium concentrate) . () 2.1 . 2.2 2.3 #12; 2; . Mine Car Load Skip Geiger Counter 8"~3/2"" . (2

Hong, Deog Ki

365

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles -- Main Challenges and Strategic Choices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a critical review of the technological challenges to the growth of nuclear energy, emerging advanced technologies that would have to be deployed, and fuel cycle strategies that could conceivably involve interim storage, plutonium recycling in thermal and fast reactors, reprocessed uranium recycling, and transmutation of minor actinide elements and fission products before eventual disposal of residual wastes.

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

366

Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability  

SciTech Connect

The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty  

SciTech Connect

High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

Charles Park

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN A GRAPHITE MODERATED SLIGHTLY ENRICHED FUSED SALT REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle economic study has been made for a 315Mwe graphite- moderated slightly enriched fused-salt reactor. Fuel cycle costs of less than 1.5 mills may be possible for such reactors operating on a ten-year cycle even when the fuel is discarded at the end of the cycle. Recovery of the uranium and plutonium at the end of the cycle reduces the fuel cycle costs to approximates 1 mill/kwh. Changes in the waste storage cost, reprocessing cost or salt inventory have a relatively minor effect on fuel cycle costs. (auth)

Guthrie, C.E.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4  

SciTech Connect

This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

ASSESSING THE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE OF INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments to support the development and implementation of U.S. nonproliferation policy. This paper summarizes the key results of that effort. Proliferation resistance is the degree of difficulty that a nuclear material, facility, process, or activity poses to the acquisition of one or more nuclear weapons. A top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed here from a hierarchy of metrics. At the lowest level, intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation are defined. These barriers are recommended as a means to characterize the proliferation characteristics of a fuel cycle. Because of the complexity of nonproliferation assessments, the problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The spectrum of potential threats of nuclear proliferation is complex and ranges from small terrorist cells to industrialized countries with advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Two general categories of methods have historically been used for nonproliferation assessments: attribute analysis and scenario analysis. In the former, attributes of the systems being evaluated (often fuel cycle systems) are identified that affect their proliferation potential. For a particular system under consideration, the attributes are weighted subjectively. In scenario analysis, hypothesized scenarios of pathways to proliferation are examined. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and estimates the likelihood of success in achieving a proliferation objective. An attribute analysis approach should be used at the conceptual design level in the selection of fuel cycles that will receive significant investment for development. In the development of a detailed facility design, a scenario approach should be undertaken to reduce the potential for design vulnerabilities. While, there are distinctive elements in each approach, an analysis could be performed that utilizes aspects of each approach.

BARI,R.; ROGLANS,J.; DENNING,R.; MLADINEO,S.

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

372

Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

373

End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products  

SciTech Connect

Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g. electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g. Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is useful, the latter being the target of enacted legislation aiming at increasing reuse.

Tsiliyannis, C.A., E-mail: anion@otenet.gr [ANION Environmental Ltd., 26 Lykoudi Str., Athens, GR 11141 (Greece)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Incorporation of excess weapons material into the IFR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) provides both a diversion resistant closed fuel cycle for commercial power generation and a means of addressing safeguards concerns related to excess nuclear weapons material. Little head-end processing and handling of dismantled warhead materials is required to convert excess weapons plutonium (Pu) to IFR fuel and a modest degree of proliferation protection is available immediately by alloying weapons Pu to an IFR fuel composition. Denaturing similar to that of spent fuel is obtained by short cycle (e.g. 45 day) use in an IFR reactor, by mixing which IFR recycle fuel, or by alloying with other spent fuel constituents. Any of these permanent denaturings could be implemented as soon as an operating IFR and/or an IFR recycle capability of reasonable scale is available. The initial Pu charge generated from weapons excess Pu can then be used as a permanent denatured catalyst, enabling the IFR to efficiently and economically generate power with only a natural or depleted uranium feed. The Pu is thereafter permanently safeguarded until consumed, with essentially none going to a waste repository.

Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fuel cycle design and analysis of SABR: subrcritical advanced burner reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Various fuel cycles for a sodium-cooled, subcritical, fast reactor with a fusion neutron source for the transmutation of light water reactor spent fuel have been… (more)

Sommer, Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water treatment/instrument air, and power conditioning/controls were built and shipped to the site. The two fuel cell modules, each rated at 1 MW on natural gas, were fabricated by FuelCell Energy in its Torrington, CT manufacturing facility. The fuel cell modules were conditioned and tested at FuelCell Energy in Danbury and shipped to the site. Installation of the power plant and connection to all required utilities and syngas was completed. Pre-operation checkout of the entire power plant was conducted and the plant was ready to operate in July 2004. However, fuel gas (natural gas or syngas) was not available at the WREL site due to technical difficulties with the gasifier and other issues. The fuel cell power plant was therefore not operated, and subsequently removed by October of 2005. The WREL fuel cell site was restored to the satisfaction of WREL. FuelCell Energy continues to market carbonate fuel cells for natural gas and digester gas applications. A fuel cell/turbine hybrid is being developed and tested that provides higher efficiency with potential to reach the DOE goal of 60% HHV on coal gas. A system study was conducted for a 40 MW direct fuel cell/turbine hybrid (DFC/T) with potential for future coal gas applications. In addition, FCE is developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants with Versa Power Systems (VPS) as part of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program and has an on-going program for co-production of hydrogen. Future development in these technologies can lead to future coal gas fuel cell applications.

FuelCell Energy

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies  

SciTech Connect

The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

THORIUM BREEDER REACTOR EVALUATION. PART 1. FUEL YIELD AND FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN FIVE THERMAL BREEDERS  

SciTech Connect

The performances of aqueous-homogeneous (AHBR), molten-salt (MSBR), liquid-bismuth (LBBR), gas-cooled graphite-moderated (GGBR), and deuterium- moderated gas-cooled (DGBR) breeder reactors were evaluated in respect to fuel yield, fuel cycle costs, and development status. A net electrical plant capability of 1000 Mwe was selected, and the fuel and fertile streams were processed continuously on-site. The maximum annual fuel yields were 1.5 mills/ kwhr. The minimum estimated fuel cycle costs were 0.9, 0.6, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 mills/kwhr at fuel yields of were 0.9, 0.9, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3 mills/kwhr. Only the AHBR and the MSBR are capable of achieving fuel yields substantially in excess of 4%/yr, and therefore, in view of the uncertainties in nuclear data and efficiencies of processing methods, only these two can be listed with confidence as being able to satisfy the main criterion of the AEC longrange thorium breeder program, viz. a doubling time of 25 years or less. The development effort required to bring the various concepts to the stage where a prototype station could be designed was estimated to be least for the AHBR, somewhat more for the MSBR, and several times as much for the other systems. The AHBR was judged to rank first in regard to nuclear capability, fuel cycle potential, and status of development. (auth)

Alexander, L.G.; Carter, W.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Kinyon, R.W.; Miller, J.W.; Van Winkle, R.

1961-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

Selection of Isotopes and Elements for Fuel Cycle Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cycle system analysis simulations examine how the selection among fuel cycle options for reactors, fuel, separation, and waste management impact uranium ore utilization, waste masses and volumes, radiotoxicity, heat to geologic repositories, isotope-dependent proliferation resistance measures, and so forth. Previously, such simulations have tended to track only a few actinide and fission product isotopes, those that have been identified as important to a few criteria from the standpoint of recycled material or waste, taken as a whole. After accounting for such isotopes, the residual mass is often characterized as “fission product other” or “actinide other”. However, detailed assessment of separation and waste management options now require identification of key isotopes and residual mass for Group 1A/2A elements (Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba), inert gases (Kr, Xe), halogens (Br, I), lanthanides, transition metals, transuranic (TRU), uranium, actinide decay products. The paper explains the rationale for a list of 81 isotopes and chemical elements to better support separation and waste management assessment in dynamic system analysis models such as Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION)

Steven J. Piet

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Determination of the proper operating range for the CAFCA IIB fuel cycle model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fuel cycle simulation tool, CAFCA II was previously modified to produce the most recent version, CAFCA IIB. The code tracks the mass distribution of transuranics in the fuel cycle in one model and also projects costs ...

Warburton, Jamie (Jamie L.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Sensitivity of economic performance of the nuclear fuel cycle to simulation modeling assumptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparing different nuclear fuel cycles and assessing their implications require a fuel cycle simulation model as complete and realistic as possible. In this thesis, methodological implications of modeling choices are ...

Bonnet, Nicéphore

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THORIUM FUEL CYCLE SYMPOSIUM, GATLINBURG, TENNESSEE, DECEMBER 5-7, 1962  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-three papers presented at the Thorium Fuel Cycle symposium are given. Topics covered include fuel-cycle technology, raw materials, reactor physics, and reactor concepts. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers. (M.C.G.)

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Strengthening the nuclear-reactor fuel cycle against proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducts several research programs that serve to reduce the risks of fissile-material diversion from the nuclear-reactor fuel cycle. The objectives are to provide economical and efficient neutron or power generation with the minimum of inherent risks, and to further minimize risks by utilizing sophisticated techniques to detect attempts at material diversion. This paper will discuss the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, the Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), and Proliferation-Resistant Closed-Cycle Reactors. The first two are sponsored by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation.

Travelli, A.; Snelgrove, J.; Persiani, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Arms Control and Nonproliferation Program

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a   Geologic   Repository”,   Nuclear  Technology,   154,  in  decommissioned  U.S.  nuclear   facilities,  German  Framework   for   Nuclear   Fuel   Cycle   Concepts,”  

Djokic, Denia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

Software: Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis > Analysis > Software Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Overview Current Projects Software Nuclear Plant Dynamics and Safety Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Software Bookmark and Share An extensive powerful suite of computer codes developed and validated by the NE Division and its predecessor divisions at Argonne supports the development of fast reactors; many of these codes are also applicable to other reactor types. A brief description of these codes follows. Contact

389

Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3  

SciTech Connect

The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems ANL/ESD/08-3 Energy Systems Division Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401 fax (865) 576-5728 reports@adonis.osti.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor UChicago Argonne, LLC, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any warranty, express

391

Fuel cycles and envisioned roles of fast neutron reactors and hybrids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will require insuring sustainability in terms of safe operation, optimal use of resources, radioactive waste minimization and reduced risk of proliferation. The present paper introduces some basic notions and fundamental fuel cycle strategies. The simulation approach needed to evaluate the impact of the different fuel cycle alternatives will also be shortly discussed.

Salvatores, Massimo [CEA-Cadarache, DEN-Dir, Bat. 101, St-Paul-Lez-Durance 13108 (France)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

Environmental Aspects of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles: Parametric Modeling and Preliminary Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear power has the potential to help reduce rising carbon emissions, but to be considered sustainable, it must also demonstrate the availability of an indefinite fuel supply as well as not produce any significant negative environmental effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sustainability of nuclear power and to explore the nuclear fuel cycles that best meet this goal. First, the study quantified current and promising nuclear fuel cycles to be further evaluated and developed a set of objective metrics to describe the environmental effects of each cycle. The metrics included such factors as the amount of waste generated and the isotopic composition of the waste. Next, the evaluation used the International Atomic Energy Agency's Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System to compute nuclide compositions at various stages of the fuel cycles. Finally, the study looked at the radioactivity of the waste generated and used this and other characteristics to determine which fuel cycle meets the objectives of sustainability. Results confirm that incorporating recycling into the fuel cycle would help reduce the volume of waste needing to be stored long-term. Also, calculations made with data from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System predicted that the waste from fuel cycles using recycling would be slightly more radiotoxic than the open fuel cycle?s waste. However, the small increase in radiotoxicity is a manageable issue and would not detract from the benefits of recycling. Therefore, recycling and reprocessing spent fuel must be incorporated into the nuclear fuel cycle to achieve sustainability.

Yancey, Kristina D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fuel cycle and waste management demonstration in the IFR Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argonne's National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is the main element in the US advanced reactor development program. A unique fuel cycle and waste process technology is being developed for the IFR. Demonstration of this technology at engineering scale will begin within the next year at the EBR-II test facility complex in Idaho. This paper describes the facility being readied for this demonstration, the process to be employed, the equipment being built, and the waste management approach.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Benedict, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Laidler, J.J.; Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fuel cycle and waste management demonstration in the IFR Program  

SciTech Connect

Argonne`s National Laboratory`s Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is the main element in the US advanced reactor development program. A unique fuel cycle and waste process technology is being developed for the IFR. Demonstration of this technology at engineering scale will begin within the next year at the EBR-II test facility complex in Idaho. This paper describes the facility being readied for this demonstration, the process to be employed, the equipment being built, and the waste management approach.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Benedict, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Laidler, J.J.; Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY13 Report  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12) PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In Fiscal Year 2013 (FY13) the SNAP demonstration was enhanced with respect to query and navigation usability issues.

Hohimer, Ryan E.; Strasburg, Jana D.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

22.251 / 22.351 Systems Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course provides an in-depth technical and policy analysis of various options for the nuclear fuel cycle. Topics include uranium supply, enrichment fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

398

System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)  

SciTech Connect

This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a forcing function, helping the team in this endeavor. Models don’t like “TBD” as an input, forcing us to make assumptions and see if they matter. A major addition in FY 2010 was exploratory analysis of “modified open fuel” cycles, employing “minimum fuel treatment” as opposed to full aqueous or electrochemical separation treatment. This increased complexity in our analysis and analytical tool development because equilibrium conditions do not appear sustainable in minimum fuel treatment cases, as was assumed in FY 2009 work with conventional aqueous and electrochemical separation. It is no longer reasonable to assume an equilibrium situation exists in all cases.

Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group The Charter of the Generation IV Roadmap Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group (FCCG) is to (1) examine the fuel cycle implications for alternative nuclear power scenarios in terms of Generation IV goals and (2) identify key fuel cycle issues associated with Generation IV goals. This included examination of "fuel resource inputs and waste outputs for the range of potential Generation IV fuel cycles, consistent with projected energy demand scenarios." This report summarizes the results of the studies. The membership of the FCCG comprised 8 US members and 7 members from Generation IV International Forum (GIF) countries including members from

400

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CO2 Footprint Life-Cycle Analyses: EPRI CoalFleet Study Cases and State of Knowledge Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life-cycle analyses of the global warming potential of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, sometimes known as a carbon footprint and expressed in CO2-equivalent emissions, have been used to compare the environmental impacts of technologies with different energy conversion characteristics and upstream and downstream uses of energy and materials. Historically, such analyses have been conducted to assess the benefits of electricity production and delivery from renewable energy sources and alternative fuel trans...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Test Profile Development for the Evaluation of Battery Cycle Life for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI and DaimlerChrysler have developed a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) concept for the DaimlerChrysler Sprinter Van in an effort to reduce the emissions, fuel consumption, and operating costs of the vehicle while maintaining equivalent or superior functionality and performance. This report describes the development of a test profile to evaluate the life cycle of the batteries for the PHEV vehicle.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

403

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricit...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts Media Contacts Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity Generation Technologies Speaker(s): Garvin Heath Date: April 11, 2011 -...

404

The estimation and management of cost over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The purpose of this study is to determine whether all costs over the life cycle of metallurgical research projects are included in the initial… (more)

Odendaal, Maria Magdalena

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Life Cycle Assessment of a Pilot Scale Farm-Based Biodiesel Plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study used environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate waste vegetable oil (WVO) biodiesel production at the University of Guelph, Ridgetown Campus, Centre for… (more)

Wasserman, Eli Shawn Jordan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners Title Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners Publication Type...

408

Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Life?Cycle  Inventories Using Hybrid Approaches.  EEA 2006] Emission Inventory Guidebook; Activities 080501?I: National Lighting Inventory and  Energy Consumption 

Chester, Mikhail V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Comparison of Li-Ion Battery Recycling Processes by Life-Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center for Transportation Research Argonne National Laboratory Comparison of Li-Ion Battery Recycling Processes by Life-Cycle Analysis Electric Vehicles and the Environment...

410

Life Cycle Analysis Study of the Hennings Building at the University of British Columbia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Life Cycle Analysis Study of the Hennings Building at the University of British Columbia #12 .................................................................................................................9 Building Model............................................................................................................................19 Rockwool Insulation

411

Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL`s Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was the vehicle used to secure authorization to operate the facility and carry out the program, which is now under way. This work also provided some insights into safety-related issues of a commercial IFR fuel processing facility. These are also discussed.

Charak, I; Pedersen, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Forrester, R.J.; Phipps, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) which has been created to address the issues involved in long term disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and any of

415

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) which has been created to address the issues involved in long term disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and any of

416

Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 The United States currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal envisioned in a deep mined geologic repository. This report provides an estimate of potential waste inventory and waste form characteristics for the DOE used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and a variety of commercial fuel cycle alternatives in order to support subsequent system-level evaluations of disposal system performance. Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition R5a.docx More Documents & Publications Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis

417

A dynamic fuel cycle analysis for a heterogeneous thorium-DUPIC recycle in CANDU reactors  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous thorium fuel recycle scenario in a Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor has been analyzed by the dynamic analysis method. The thorium recycling is performed through a dry process which has a strong proliferation resistance. In the fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products of a multiple thorium recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. The analysis results have shown that the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. It is also shown that the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle can reduce the spent fuel inventory and save on the natural uranium resources when compared with the once-through cycle. (authors)

Jeong, C. J.; Park, C. J.; Choi, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., P.O. Box 150, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

BWR fuel design options for self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigate a number of fuel assembly design options for a BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. The designs rely on axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure in order to improve fertile to fissile conversion ratio. One of the main assumptions of the current study was to restrict the fuel assembly geometry to a single axial fissile zone 'sandwiched' between two fertile blanket zones. The main objective was to study the effect of the most important design parameters, such as dimensions of fissile and fertile zones and average void fraction, on the net breeding of {sup 233}U. The main design challenge in this respect is that the fuel breeding potential is at odds with axial power peaking and therefore limits the maximum achievable core power rating. The calculations were performed with BGCore system, which consists of MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. A single 3-dimensional fuel assembly with reflective radial boundaries was modeled applying simplified restrictions on maximum central line fuel temperature and Critical Power Ratio. It was found that axially heterogeneous fuel assembly design with single fissile zone can potentially achieve net breeding. In this case however, the achievable core power density is roughly one third of the reference BWR core. (authors)

Shaposhnik, Y.; Shwageraus, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, P. O. B. 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Elias, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Inst. of Technology, Technion city, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Impact of alternative nuclear fuel cycle options on infrastructure and fuel requirements, actinide and waste inventories, and economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel once-through cycle (OTC) scheme currently practiced in the U.S. leads to accumulation of uranium, transuranic (TRU) and fission product inventories in the spent nuclear fuel. Various separation and recycling ...

Guérin, Laurent, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A Parametric Study of the DUPIC Fuel Cycle to Reflect Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Management Strategy  

SciTech Connect

For both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) tandem analysis, the Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor (DUPIC) fuel cycle in a CANDU 6 reactor is studied using the DRAGON/DONJON chain of codes with the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI libraries. The reference feed material is a 17 x 17 French standard 900-MW(electric) PWR fuel. The PWR spent-fuel composition is obtained from two-dimensional DRAGON assembly transport and depletion calculations. After a number of years of cooling, this defines the initial fuel nuclide field in the CANDU unit cell calculations in DRAGON, where it is further depleted with the same neutron group structure. The resulting macroscopic cross sections are condensed and tabulated to be used in a full-core model of a CANDU 6 reactor to find an optimized channel fueling rate distribution on a time-average basis. Assuming equilibrium refueling conditions and a particular refueling sequence, instantaneous full-core diffusion calculations are finally performed with the DONJON code, from which both the channel power peaking factors and local parameter effects are estimated. A generic study of the DUPIC fuel cycle is carried out using the linear reactivity model for initial enrichments ranging from 3.2 to 4.5 wt% in a PWR. Because of the uneven power histories of the spent PWR assemblies, the spent PWR fuel composition is expected to differ from one assembly to the next. Uneven mixing of the powder during DUPIC fuel fabrication may lead to uncertainties in the composition of the fuel bundle and larger peaking factors in CANDU. A mixing method for reducing composition uncertainties is discussed.

Rozon, Daniel; Shen Wei [Institut de Genie Nucleaire (Canada)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes

423

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes

424

Optimal savings and health spending over the life cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

has gradually contributed to the increase in human life span. In 1840, life expectancy ... show that higher longevity promotes human capital .... the standard error.

425

Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_Rowe-Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Final_Updated.pptx  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Future Challenges Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nathan Rowe Chris Pickett Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Users Annual Training Meeting May 20-23, 2013 St. Louis, Missouri 2 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Introduction * Changing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities * Nuclear Security Challenges * How to Respond? - Additional Protocol - State-Level Concept - Continuity of Knowledge * Conclusion 3 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nuclear Fuel Cycle Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) web site IAEA Safeguards Begins Here 4 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nuclear Weapons Cycle Conversion

426

Objectives, Strategies, and Challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will summarize the objectives, strategies, and key chemical separation challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The major objectives are as follows: Waste management - defer the need for a second geologic repository for a century or more, Proliferation resistance - be more resistant than the existing PUREX separation technology or uranium enrichment, Energy sustainability - turn waste management liabilities into energy source assets to ensure that uranium ore resources do not become a constraint on nuclear power, and Systematic, safe, and economic management of the entire fuel cycle. There are four major strategies for the disposal of civilian spent fuel: Once-through - direct disposal of all discharged nuclear fuel, Limited recycle - recycle transuranic elements once and then direct disposal, Continuous recycle - recycle transuranic elements repeatedly, and Sustained recycle - same as continuous except previously discarded depleted uranium is also recycled. The key chemical separation challenges stem from the fact that the components of spent nuclear fuel vary greatly in their influence on achieving program objectives. Most options separate uranium to reduce the weight and volume of waste and the number and cost of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can also be used as reactor fuel. Most options provide means to recycle transuranic (TRU) elements - plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (Cm). Plutonium must be recycled to obtain repository, proliferation, and energy recovery benefits. U.S. non-proliferation policy forbids separation of plutonium by itself; therefore, one or more of the other transuranic elements must be kept with the plutonium; neptunium is considered the easiest option. Recycling neptunium also provides repository benefits. Americium recycling is also required to obtain repository benefits. At the present time, curium recycle provides relatively little benefit; indeed, recycling curium in thermal reactors would significantly increase the hazard (hence cost) of the resulting fuel. Most options separate short-lived fission products cesium and strontium to allow them to decay in separate storage facilities tailored to that need, rather than complicate long-term geologic disposal. This can also reduce the number and cost of waste packages requiring geologic disposal. These savings are balanced by costs for separation and recycle systems. Several long-lived fission products, such as technetium-99 and iodine-129 go to geologic disposal in improved waste forms, recognizing that transmutation of these isotopes would be a slow process; however, the program has not precluded their transmutation as a future alternative.

Steven Piet; Brent Dixon; David Shropshire; Robert Hill; Roald Wigeland; Erich Schneider; J. D. Smith

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since greenhouse gases are a global concern, rather than a local concern as are some kinds of effluents, one must compare the entire lifecycle of nuclear power to alternative technologies for generating electricity. A recent critical analysis by Sovacool (2008) gives a clearer picture. "It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning." "[N]uclear energy is in no way 'carbon free' or 'emissions free,' even though it is much better (from purely a carbon-equivalent emissions standpoint) than coal, oil, and natural gas electricity generators, but worse than renewable and small scale distributed generators" (Sovacool 2008). According to Sovacool, at an estimated 66 g CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), nuclear power emits 15 times less CO2 per unit electricity generated than unscrubbed coal generation (at 1050 gCO2e/kWh), but 7 times more than the best renewable, wind (at 9 gCO2e/kWh). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2009) has long recognized CO2 emissions in its regulations concerning the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. In Table S-3 of 10 CFR 51.51(b), NRC lists a 1000-MW(electric) nuclear plant as releasing as much CO2 as a 45-MW(e) coal plant. A large share of the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle is due to the energy consumption to enrich uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. A switch to either gas centrifugation or laser isotope separation would dramatically reduce the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Strom, Daniel J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

PROTEUS - Simulation Toolset for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation Toolset for Simulation Toolset for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis PROTEUS Faster and more accurate neutronics calculations enable optimum reactor design... Argonne National Laboratory's powerful reactor physics toolset, PROTEUS, empowers users to create optimal reactor designs quickly, reliably and accurately. ...Reducing costs for designers of fast spectrum reactors. PROTEUS' long history of validation provides confidence in predictive simulations Argonne's simulation tools have more than 30 years of validation history against numerous experiments and measurements. The tools within PROTEUS work together, using the same interface files for easier integration of calculations. Multi-group Fast Reactor Cross Section Processing: MC 2 -3 No other fast spectrum multigroup generation tool

435

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY12 Report  

SciTech Connect

Building on previous internal investments and leveraging ongoing advancements in semantic technologies, PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In developing this proof of concept prototype, the utility and relevancy of semantic technologies to the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D) has been better understood.

Hohimer, Ryan E.; Pomiak, Yekaterina G.; Neorr, Peter A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Strasburg, Jana D.

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

436

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from weaning the U.S. from energy imports (e.g., measures of energy self-sufficiency), and minimization of future high level waste (HLW) repositories world-wide.

David E. Shropshire

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Life Cycle and Flowering Time Control Pierre Albert Pin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(alcohol and kerosene), solid fuels (biomass), and gaseous fuels (liquefied petro- leum gas and biogas). c the long term; c. Emphasis on micro-hydro, biomass (via new technologies), producer gas, biogas, wind

438

A semantic approach to life cycle assessment applied on energy environmental impact data management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental impact assessment of goods and services is nowadays a major challenge for both economic and ethical reasons. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a well-accepted methodology for modelling environmental impacts of human activities. One stage ... Keywords: energy impact data management, life cycle assessment, ontology

Benjamin Bertin; Vasile-Marian Scuturici; Emmanuel Risler; Jean-Marie Pinon

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Key Role of Lower-Level Meridional Shear in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of idealized nonlinear life cycle experiments is performed to compare changes in life cycle behavior caused by upper-level and near-surface meridional shear of the initial zonal wind. It is shown that both the eddy kinetic energy and the ...

Dennis L. Hartmann

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Life Cycle of Numerically Simulated Shallow Cumulus Clouds. Part I: Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is the first in a two-part series in which the life cycles of numerically simulated shallow cumulus clouds are systematically examined. The life cycle data for six clouds with a range of cloud-top heights are isolated from an ...

Ming Zhao; Philip H. Austin

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels life cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Life Cycle Management Sourcebooks — Volume 9: Main Turbine Electro-Hydraulic Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is producing a series of Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, each compiling industry experience and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific type of system, structure, or component (SSC). This sourcebook provides information and guidance for implementing cost-effective life cycle management (LCM) planning for main turbine electro-hydraulic control (EHC) and overspeed protection systems.

2003-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

442

Measuring testing as a distributed component of the software life cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study software testing as a distributed component of the software life cycle, developing a technique for estimating testing validity. The goal of this paper is to build measures for testing result estimation, to find how tested properties influence ... Keywords: Software quality, diagnostics, estimation, software life cycle, testing, validation

M. Burgin; N. Debnath; H. K. Lee

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Experiences with early life-cycle performance modeling for architecture assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we describe our preliminary experiences of a performance modeling "Blending" approach for early life-cycle architecture assessment and risk mitigation in a large enterprise integration project. The goal was to use performance modeling to ... Keywords: blended performance modeling, early life-cycle risk mitigation

Paul C. Brebner

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Integrating fuzzy multicriteria analysis and uncertainty evaluation in life cycle assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interpretation phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies is often hampered by the number and the heterogeneity of impact assessment results as well as by the uncertainties arising from data, models and practitioner's choices. While decision-aiding ... Keywords: Electricity, Fuzzy sets, LCA, Life cycle assessment, Multicriteria analysis, NAIADE, Noise

Enrico Benetto; Christiane Dujet; Patrick Rousseaux

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Short communication: Application of symmetric fuzzy linear programming in life cycle assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is known to entail multiple objective decision-making in the analysis of tradeoffs between different environmental impacts. The work of Azapagic and Clift in the late 1990s illustrates the use of multiple objective linear ... Keywords: Fuzzy linear programming, Life cycle assessment

Raymond R. Tan

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy