National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuels independent power

  1. Clean Fuels/Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  2. Independent Oversight Review, Bonneville Power Administration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security, conduct an independent review of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) safety management program. ...

  3. Independent Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems is an independent energy consultancy specialising in reducing client energy and environmental costs. References: Independent Power Systems1 This article is a stub. You...

  4. Independent Oversight Review, Bonneville Power Administration Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Program - March 2014 | Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration Safety Management Program - March 2014 Independent Oversight Review, Bonneville Power Administration Safety Management Program - March 2014 March 2014 Oversight Review of the Bonneville Power Administration Safety Management Program Bonneville Power Administration management requested that the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of

  5. GRID INDEPENDENT FUEL CELL OPERATED SMART HOME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2003-12-07

    A fuel cell power plant, which utilizes a smart energy management and control (SEMaC) system, supplying the power need of laboratory based ''home'' has been purchased and installed. The ''home'' consists of two rooms, each approximately 250 sq. ft. Every appliance and power outlet is under the control of a host computer, running the SEMaC software package. It is possible to override the computer, in the event that an appliance or power outage is required. Detailed analysis and simulation of the fuel cell operated smart home has been performed. Two journal papers has been accepted for publication and another journal paper is under review. Three theses have been completed and three additional theses are in progress.

  6. Independence Power Marketing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Marketing Jump to: navigation, search Name: Independence Power Marketing Place: New York References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data...

  7. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Upstate New York Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate New York to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate New York on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate New York on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate New York on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in

  9. Trends in independent power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    A 33-person panel recently convened by Future Technology Surveys, Inc., identified a series of the most important IPP trends to have occurred int the past five years, and forecast what will happen in this volatile market over the next five years. The survey was designed to present viewpoints of experts in the United States and was intentionally not international in scope. The most important trends from 1989--1994 are ranked in order of importance as: global market; retail wheeling/open access; exempt wholesale generators (EWGs); Energy Policy Act 1992; increased competition; transmission (better access and policy changes); consolidation of industry; bulk power marketing and sales; open competitive bidding; and almost exclusive shift to large gas projects. There is shift in emphasis, and the introduction of new trends, in IPP executive prediction for the future (1995--1999). Their views, in order of importance, are: retail wheeling; increased globalization; consolidation of industry; competition and direct competition with utilities; open access transmission; restructuring of entire power utility industry; deregulation; electricity as a commodity; and unbundling of integrated monopolies.

  10. Fuel Cell Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Cell Power Place: United Kingdom Product: Information provider of fuel cells and their supporting infrastructure. References: Fuel Cell Power1 This article is a stub. You...

  11. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the

  12. Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clean Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA DOE-NREL Workshop Golden, CO June 11-13, 2012 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Integrated Fuel Cell Company 2 Manufacture Sell (direct & via partners) Install Services 1.4 MW plant at a municipal building 2.4 MW plant owned by an Independent power producer 600 kW plant at a food processor 11.2 MW plant - largest fuel cell park

  13. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  14. ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Jump to: navigation, search Name: ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Place: Germany Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A...

  15. hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered generator - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered generator Home...

  16. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Power Plants Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean FuelCell Energy, Inc. * ...

  17. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  18. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  19. Fuel alcohol: the road to independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the production of ethanol using an on-farm fuel alcohol still. Directions are given in lay-language, easily understandable to novices in the field of fermentation. Preparation of the mash, fermentation, and distillation are discussed along with some basic background information on these processes. The design and construction of the still is presented. Off-the-shelf equipment was used in the construction. Vats, pumps, and testing equipment used in the processing are described. Diagrams and a glossary are included. The alcohol produced is used for space heating of a house and greenhouse. (DMC)

  20. Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell

  1. Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet describes the advantages of using fuel cell technology for application in emergency backup power.

  2. Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microtur

  3. Less Fuel, More Natural Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Less Fuel, More Natural Power PEVs get a charge out of new solar-powered charging stations. Congratulations to the Tactical Response Force-200 class. Hundreds toured the NNSS to celebrate its 65th year. See page 3. See page 6. NNSS Remedies Fire Suppression Lines at the DAF In January 2012, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) initiated a priority project: replace the corroded lead-in lines at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF). This included replacing 27 lead-in lines of underground water

  4. Customizable Fuel Processor Technology Benefits Fuel Cell Power Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-IN-00-030) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Customizable Fuel Processor Technology Benefits Fuel Cell Power Industry (ANL-IN-00-030) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Figure 1. Schematic of a functional fuel processor</p> Figure 1. Schematic of a functional fuel processor

  5. Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Critical Communications Backup Power Greg Moreland SENTECH, Inc. Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy August 6, 2008 APCO Annual Conference and Expo 2 2 Fuel cells use hydrogen to create electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts Fuel Cell Overview * An individual fuel cell produces about 1 volt * Hundreds of individual cells can comprise a fuel cell stack * Fuel cells can be used to power a variety of applications -Bibliographic Database * Laptop computers (50-100 W) *

  6. Bell Independent Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Biofuels, Biomass, Services Product: BIP provides engineering, financial and feasibility services for biofuels, biomass and STEG projects. References: Bell Independent...

  7. Design criteria for an independent spent fuel storage installation (water pool type)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This standard is intended to be used by those involved in the ownership and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) in specifying the design requirements and by the designer in meeting the minimum design requirements of such installations. This standard continues the set of American National Standards on spent fuel storage design. Similar standards are: Design Objectives for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Facilities at Nuclear Power Stations, N210-1976 (ANS-57.2); Design Objectives for Highly Radioactive Solid Material Handling and Storage Facilities in a Reprocessing Plant, ANSI N305-1975; and Guidelines for Evaluating Site-Related Parameters for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, ANSI/ANS-2.19-1981.

  8. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, James F.; Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation.

  9. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  10. Independence Power and Light- New Homes Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independence Power and Light offers rebates to builders for constructing new, energy efficient homes which meet ENERGY STAR standards. Builders who meet ENERGY STAR standards and install specified...

  11. Independence Power and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independence Power and Light (IPL) offers rebates to residential customers for purchasing new, energy efficient appliances. Rebates are available on central air conditioning systems, heat pumps,...

  12. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  13. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a countrys safeguards agreement with the

  14. Fuel Cell Backup Power Technology Validation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.

    2012-10-01

    Presentation about fuel cell backup power technology validation activities at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  15. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  16. Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.

    2008-11-15

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines.

  17. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering Corporate Sustainabili...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Powering Corporate Sustainability The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering ... The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering Corporate Sustainability (5.76 MB) More ...

  18. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  19. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  20. Fuel cell electric power production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hwang, Herng-Shinn; Heck, Ronald M.; Yarrington, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  1. Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    tool for analyzing high-temperature, fuel cell-based tri- generation systems. 1 Key ... Performs hourly energy analysis and detailed grid time of use cost evaluations, which ...

  2. Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Success story about fuel cell power plants using wastewater treatment gas in Tulare, California. Presented by Frank Wolak, Fuel Cell Energy, at the NRELDOE Biogas and Fuel Cells ...

  3. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  4. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model This presentation by ...

  5. Using Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power As part of its Sustainable Energy Program, Sandia National Laboratories works to find new ways to use fuel cell membranes to improve energy generation and storage. Work in this area explores elements of fuel cell membrane composition and behavior including synthesis of block copolymers for improved separation, cross-linked membranes for greater stability and resonance- stabilized ionic groups that are used in a number of other applications. While Sandia

  6. Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel Annular fuel with internal flow is proposed to allow higher power density in pressurized water reactors. The ...

  7. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board ...

  8. Power Ecalene Fuels Inc PEF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Ecalene Fuels Inc PEF Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Ecalene Fuels Inc (PEF) Place: Denver, Colorado Product: PEF owns patented technologis to convert syngas from...

  9. AlumiFuel Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: AlumiFuel Power Inc. Place: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Philadelphia-based hydrogen gas generator. References: AlumiFuel Power...

  10. Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers Download ...

  11. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers This ...

  12. Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision ...

  13. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004...

  14. Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Self-certification of power plants in acordance with Title II of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.).

  15. SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer

    2003-12-01

    industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

  16. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sacramento Powers up with Electric Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Sacramento Powers up with Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sacramento Powers up with Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sacramento Powers up with Electric Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sacramento Powers up with Electric Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sacramento Powers up with Electric Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sacramento Powers

  19. Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act Self Certifications Title II of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), as amended ...

  20. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  1. American National Standard: design criteria for an independent spent-fuel-storage installation (water pool type)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This standard provides design criteria for systems and equipment of a facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from light water reactors. It contains requirements for the design of major buildings and structures including the shipping cask unloading and spent fuel storage pools, cask decontamination, unloading and loading areas, and the surrounding buildings which contain radwaste treatment, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and other auxiliary systems. It contains requirements and recommendations for spent fuel storage racks, special equipment and area layout configurations, the pool structure and its integrity, pool water cleanup, ventilation, residual heat removal, radiation monitoring, fuel handling equipment, cask handling equipment, prevention of criticality, radwaste control and monitoring systems, quality assurance requirements, materials accountability, and physical security. Such an installation may be independent of both a nuclear power station and a reprocessing facility or located adjacent to any of these facilities in order to share selected support systems. Support systems shall not include a direct means of transferring fuel assemblies from the nuclear facility to the installation.

  2. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the

  3. Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

    2001-11-06

    FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will

  4. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications ... a simple, scalable, and cost-effective "one-pan" ...

  5. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decision Makers Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers Download presentation slides from the May 8, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program ...

  6. The Drive for Energy Independence and Fuels of the Future | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Independence and Fuels of the Future The Drive for Energy Independence and Fuels of the Future Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_warnecke.pdf (2.06 MB) More Documents & Publications The Drive for Energy Independence and Fuels of the Future Automotive Fuels - The

  7. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-23

    In this reporting period, a milestone was achieved by commencement of testing and operation of the sub-scale hybrid direct fuel cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant. The operation was initiated subsequent to the completion of the construction of the balance-of-plant (BOP) and implementation of process and control tests of the BOP for the subscale DFC/T hybrid system. The construction efforts consisted of finishing the power plant insulation and completion of the plant instrumentation including the wiring and tubing required for process measurement and control. The preparation work also included the development of procedures for facility shake down, conditioning and load testing of the fuel cell, integration of the microturbine, and fuel cell/gas turbine load tests. At conclusion of the construction, the process and control (PAC) tests of BOP, including the microturbine, were initiated.

  8. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Companies Power up Through Workplace

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Charging Challenge Companies Power up Through Workplace Charging Challenge to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Companies Power up Through Workplace Charging Challenge on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Companies Power up Through Workplace Charging Challenge on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Companies Power up Through Workplace Charging Challenge on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Companies Power up Through Workplace

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Connecticut Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Liquefied Natural Gas Powers Trucks in Connecticut on Delicious

  11. Fuel Cells Providing Power Despite Winter’s Chill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cell technologies can help fight the cold and make sure you are toasty warm whether you are driving your fuel cell electric vehicle or using a fuel cell powered generator.

  12. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 9_lanl_zelenay.pdf (2.69 MB) More Documents & Publications Introduction to DMFCs - Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and

  13. Powering Business in Ohio with Cellex Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powering Business in Ohio with Cellex Fuel Cells Cellex powered twelve class 3 electric pallet trucks with its fuel cell power units at two Ohio based Wal-Mart distribution centers for four months to demonstrate the commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cells. This project was funded by the Ohio Department of Development's Third Frontier Fuel Cell Program, which provides grants to support the growth of Ohio's fuel cell industry through collaborations between research organizations, businesses

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNL S t D l t t PNNL System Development at PNNL System Development at PNNL Larry Chick Energy Materials ...

  15. Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheets Series: Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cells Fuel cells use an electrochemical process to convert the chemical energy in a fuel to electricity. In contrast to recipro- cating engines and gas turbines, fuel cells generate electric- ity without combusting the fuel. The first practical applica- tion for fuel cells emerged in the 1950s when fuel cells were used to provide onboard power for spacecraft. Fuel cells continue to be used in space exploration, but over the past few decades the technology has migrated to other applica- tions,

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Vehicles Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From Landfill Powers Refuse Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas From

  17. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portable Power and Auxiliary Power Applications DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems ... specific energy and energy density. d Cost includes material and labor costs ...

  18. NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 05 NUCLEAR FUELS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title list of documents made publicly available, January 1-31, 1998 NONE 21 NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; BIBLIOGRAPHIES; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS;...

  19. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and networks. The backup power supply that best meets these objectives is fuel cell technology.

  20. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and networks. The backup power supply that best meets these objectives is fuel cell technology.

  1. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  2. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  3. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  4. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  5. Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Experience Naval Applications Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. apu2011_8_wolak.pdf (1.51 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels Co-production of Hydrogen and Electricity (A Developer's Perspective)

  6. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Frank Wolak, Fuel Cell Energy, at the Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held Jan. 13, 2011 wastewolak.pdf (1.99 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell ...

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Rick; Wall, Mark; Sullivan, Neal

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  8. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  9. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanocrystals Lab researchers have developed a new materials recipe for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell that shields the ...

  10. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Tuesday, 14 June 2016 00:00 Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell

  11. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Board Commercial Airplanes | Department of Energy Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes This report, prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, is an initial investigation of the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells on-board commercial aircraft. The report examines whether on-board airplane fuel cell systems are

  12. DOE-DOD Emergency Backup Power Fuel Cell Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    2012-06-01

    Ths fact sheet describes a collaboration between the departments of Energy and Defense to install and operate 18 fuel cell backup power systems across the United States.

  13. ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate ...

  14. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA renewablehydrogenworksho...

  15. DOE-DOD Emergency Backup Power Fuel Cell Installations

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Ths fact sheet describes a collaboration between the departments of Energy and Defense to install and operate 18 fuel cell backup power systems across the United States.

  16. Direct Carbon Fuel Cells: Assessment of their Potential as Solid Carbon Fuel Based Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolk, R

    2004-04-23

    Small-scale experimental work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has confirmed that a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) containing a molten carbonate electrolyte completely reacts solid elemental carbon with atmospheric oxygen contained in ambient air at a temperature of 650-800 C. The efficiency of conversion of the chemical energy in the fuel to DC electricity is 75-80% and is a result of zero entropy change for this reaction and the fixed chemical potentials of C and CO{sub 2}. This is about twice as efficient as other forms power production processes that utilize solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal. These range from 30-40% for coal fired conventional subcritical or supercritical boilers to 38-42% for IGCC plants. A wide range of carbon-rich solids including activated carbons derived from natural gas, petroleum coke, raw coal, and deeply de-ashed coal have been evaluated with similar conversion results. The rate of electricity production has been shown to correlate with disorder in the carbon structure. This report provides a preliminary independent assessment of the economic potential of DCFC for competitive power generation. This assessment was conducted as part of a Director's Research Committee Review of DCFC held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on April 9, 2004. The key question that this assessment addresses is whether this technology, which appears to be very promising from a scientific standpoint, has the potential to be successfully scaled up to a system that can compete with currently available power generation systems that serve existing electricity markets. These markets span a wide spectrum in terms of the amount of power to be delivered and the competitive cost in that market. For example, DCFC technology can be used for the personal power market where the current competition for delivery of kilowatts of electricity is storage batteries, for the distributed generation market where the competition for on-site power

  17. Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines.

  18. High power density fuel cell stack development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pow, R.; Reindl, M.; Tilmetz, W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the joint development by Daimler-Benz and Ballard Power Systems of a high power-density fuel cell stack and its demonstration in a 6-passenger Minivan.

  19. Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines.

  20. Fuel Cell Backup Power Geographical Visualization Map (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes a time-lapse geographical visualization map of early market use of fuel cells for telecommunications backup power. The map synthesizes data being analyzed by NREL's Technology Validation team for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with DOE's publicly available annual summaries of electric disturbance events.

  1. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Michael Wang of Argonne National Laboratory provides information about an analysis of hydrogen-powered fuel-cell systems.

  2. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  3. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering Corporate Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering Corporate Sustainability i Authors and Acknowledgements This report was written and compiled by Sandra Curtin and Jennifer Gangi of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association in Washington, D.C. Support was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office. About This Report The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S.

  4. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Kick-off Meeting, Washington, DC September 28, 2010 Fuel Cell Projects Kick-off Meeting Washington, DC - September 28, 2010 Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells for Portable Power Fuel Cells Piotr Zelenay Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information - t t Overview Timeline * Start date: September 2010 * End date:

  5. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2013_summer_fuels.pptx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    S F l O tl k 2013 Summer Fuels Outlook April 9, 2013 www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis Key factors driving the short-term outlook * World liquid fuels consumption growth driven by emerging economies, with continuing consumption declines in OECD economies, with continuing consumption declines in OECD countries. * Non-OPEC supply growth, particularly in North America, pp y g , p y , expected to keep pace with world liquid fuels consumption

  7. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  8. Fuel-cell based power generating system having power conditioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Pradhan, Sanjaya K.

    2010-10-05

    A power conditioner includes power converters for supplying power to a load, a set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the fuel-cell stack to the power converters, and another set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the battery to the power converters. The power conveners output combined power that substantially optimally meets a present demand of the load.

  9. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  10. Webinar: Fuel Cells for Portable Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Portable Power Webinar: Fuel Cells for Portable Power Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Fuel Cells for Portable Power," originally held on July 17, 2012. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arkema, and the University of North Florida. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  11. Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Critical Communications Backup Power Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power This presentation provides information about using fuel cells for emergency backup power for critical communications. It was given by Greg Moreland at the Association of Public Communications Officials Annual Conference in August 2008. Posted on this Web site with permission from the author. mt_moreland_apco_presentation.pdf (3.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of the DOE Hydrogen Program

  12. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  13. Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Namazian, S. Sethuraman and G. Venkataraman

    2004-12-31

    Auxiliary Power Units (APUs), driven by truck engines, consume over 800 million gallon of diesel fuel while idling. Use of separate SOFC based APUs are an excellent choice to reduce the cost and pollution associated with producing auxiliary power. However, diesel fuel is a challenging fuel to use in fuel cell systems because it has heavy hydrocarbons that can transform into carbon deposits and gums that can block passages and deactivate fuel reformer and fuel cell reactor elements. The work reported herein addresses the challenges associated with the diesel fuel sulfur and carbon producing contaminants in a Fuel Preprocessor (FPP). FPP processes the diesel fuel onboard and ahead of the reformer to reduce its carbon deposition tendency and its sulfur content, thus producing a fuel suitable for SOFC APU systems. The goal of this DOE supported Invention and Innovation program was to design, develop and test a prototype Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) that efficiently and safely converts the diesel fuel into a clean fuel suitable for a SOFC APU system. The goals were achieved. A 5 kWe FPP was designed, developed and tested. It was demonstrated that FPP removes over 80% of the fuel sulfur and over 90% of its carbon residues and it was demonstrated that FPP performance exceeds the original project goals.

  14. Power Ecalene Fuels Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arvada, Colorado Zip: 80007 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Mixed alcohol transportation fuel Website: www.powerecalene.com Coordinates: 39.862942,...

  15. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  16. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  17. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  18. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell with improved performance in key areas. Hydrogen Cars The US market share for all electric-drive

  19. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell with improved performance in key areas. Hydrogen Cars The US market share for all electric-drive

  20. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology in Connecticut | Department of Energy with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Overview of strengths, weaknesses, and barriers, deployment phases, military sites, environmental value, and potential partnerships tspi_rinebold.pdf (2.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

  1. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell with improved performance in key areas. Hydrogen Cars The US market share for all

  2. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell with improved performance in key areas. Hydrogen Cars The US market share for all

  3. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell with improved performance in key areas. Hydrogen Cars The US market share for all

  4. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanoparticles Print Interest in hydrogen fuel for automotive applications has been growing steadily in the scientific and automotive community over the last decade. Recently, researchers working at the ALS and the Molecular Foundry developed a promising new materials recipe based on magnesium nanocrystals and graphene for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell with improved performance in key areas. Hydrogen Cars The US market share for all

  5. Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd FCFCP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd FCFCP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd (FCFCP) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip:...

  6. Fuel Cells for Portable Power: 1. Introduction to DMFCs; 2. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenay, Piotr

    2012-07-16

    Thanks to generally less stringent cost constraints, portable power fuel cells, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) in particular, promise earlier market penetration than higher power polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for the automotive and stationary applications. However, a large-scale commercialization of DMFC-based power systems beyond niche applications already targeted by developers will depend on improvements to fuel cell performance and performance durability as well as on the reduction in cost, especially of the portable systems on the higher end of the power spectrum (100-250 W). In this part of the webinar, we will focus on the development of advanced materials (catalysts, membranes, electrode structures, and membrane electrode assemblies) and fuel cell operating concepts capable of fulfilling two key targets for portable power systems: the system cost of $5/W and overall fuel conversion efficiency of 2.0-2.5 kWh/L. Presented research will concentrate on the development of new methanol oxidation catalysts, hydrocarbon membranes with reduced methanol crossover, and improvements to component durability. Time permitted, we will also present a few highlights from the development of electrocatalysts for the oxidation of two alternative fuels for the direct-feed fuel cells: ethanol and dimethyl ether.

  7. Hydrogen fuel cells could power ships at port

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joe

    2013-06-27

    Sandia National Laboratories researcher Joe Pratt conducted a study on the use of hydrogen fuel cells to power docked ships at major ports. He found the potential environmental and cost benefits to be substantial. Here, he discusses the study and explains how hydrogen fuel cells can provide efficient, pollution-free energy to ships at port.

  8. Hydrogen fuel cells could power ships at port

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joe

    2013-11-22

    Sandia National Laboratories researcher Joe Pratt conducted a study on the use of hydrogen fuel cells to power docked ships at major ports. He found the potential environmental and cost benefits to be substantial. Here, he discusses the study and explains how hydrogen fuel cells can provide efficient, pollution-free energy to ships at port.

  9. Sandia Energy - Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lights Tested, Proven...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and in other applications. (Photo by Dino Vournas) Mobile lighting systems powered by hydrogen (H2) fuel cells are cleaner, quieter, and now have a proven track record in...

  10. DOE-DOD Emergency Backup Power Fuel Cell Installations | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ths fact sheet describes a collaboration between the departments of Energy and Defense to install and operate 18 fuel cell backup power systems across the United States. DOE-DOD ...

  11. Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of 8, 52, 72, or 176 hours. In this analysis the fuel cell system with incentives ... with the diesel generator, in the 8-hour, ... FCBP systems 1.99 MW Total installed ...

  12. Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit for Refrigerated Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing fuel-cell powered Transport Refrigeration Units for Reefer Trucks. It describes the progress that has been made by Nuvera and Plug Power as they develop and ultimately demonstrate this technology in real world application.

  13. PEM fuel cells for transportation and stationary power generation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleghorn, S.J.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-05-01

    We describe recent activities at LANL devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells in the contexts of stationary power generation and transportation applications. A low cost/high performance hydrogen or reformate/air stack technology is being developed based on ultralow Pt loadings and on non-machined, inexpensive elements for flow-fields and bipolar plates. On board methanol reforming is compared to the option of direct methanol fuel cells because of recent significant power density increases demonstrated in the latter.

  14. Power-reactor fuel-pin thermomechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutnov, A.A.; Ul'yanov, A.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe a method for determining the creep and elongation and other aspects of mechanical behavior of fuel pins and cans under the effects of irradiation and temperature encountered in reactors under loading and burnup conditions. An exhaustive method for testing for fuel-cladding interactions is described. The methodology is shown to be applicable to the design, fabrication, and loading of pins for WWER, SGHWR, and RBMK type reactors, from which much of the experimental data were derived.

  15. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  16. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  17. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  18. DOE-DOD Emergency Backup Power Fuel Cell Installations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE-DOD Emergency Backup Power Fuel Cell Installations On July 19, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced that, as part of an interagency partnership with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to strengthen American energy security and develop new clean energy technologies, DOE and DOD will collaborate on a project to install and operate 18 fuel cell backup power systems at eight defense installations across the country. The Departments will test how the fuel cells perform in real

  19. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  20. Fuel Cells: Making Power from Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Calendar Fuel Cells Calendar Events for the Fuel Cell Technologies Office are listed below. September 2016 < prev next > Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1

    CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our

  1. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  2. Five Kilowatt Fuel Cell Demonstration for Remote Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Tom Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31

    While most areas of the US are serviced by inexpensive, dependable grid connected electrical power, many areas of Alaska are not. In these areas, electrical power is provided with Diesel Electric Generators (DEGs), at much higher cost than in grid connected areas. The reasons for the high cost of power are many, including the high relative cost of diesel fuel delivered to the villages, the high operational effort required to maintain DEGs, and the reverse benefits of scale for small utilities. Recent progress in fuel cell technologies have lead to the hope that the DEGs could be replaced with a more efficient, reliable, environmentally friendly source of power in the form of fuel cells. To this end, the University of Alaska Fairbanks has been engaged in testing early fuel cell systems since 1998. Early tests were conducted on PEM fuel cells, but since 2001, the focus has been on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. In this work, a 5 kW fuel cell was delivered to UAF from Fuel Cell Technologies of Kingston, Ontario. The cell stack is of a tubular design, and was built by Siemens Westinghouse Fuel Cell division. This stack achieved a run of more than 1 year while delivering grid quality electricity from natural gas with virtually no degradation and at an electrical efficiency of nearly 40%. The project was ended after two control system failures resulted in system damage. While this demonstration was successful, considerable additional product development is required before this technology is able to provide electrical energy in remote Alaska. The major issue is cost, and the largest component of system cost currently is the fuel cell stack cost, although the cost of the balance of plant is not insignificant. While several manufactures are working on schemes for significant cost reduction, these systems do not as yet provide the same level of performance and reliability as the larger scale Siemens systems, or levels that would justify commercial deployment.

  3. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  4. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  5. 1…10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

  6. Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Electrical Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Pd Nanoparticles," Nanotechnology, 23, 29404. 34 Presentations * Adhikari, S., C. Brodbeck, S. Taylor. 2012. Biomass gasification for heat and power applications. ...

  7. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHP and CHHP Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.

    2010-03-30

    This presentation describes the fuel cell power model for CHP and CHHP economics and performance analysis.

  8. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  9. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  10. Power generation with synthetic liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebowitz, H.E.; Rovesti, W.C.; Schreiber, H.

    1984-06-01

    Tests performed burning H-Coal and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquids in a utility combustion turbine, and a test burning EDS in a utility boiler are described. The H-Coal was produced by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. The EDS was produced in a pilot plant by Exxon Corporation in Baytown, Texas. The test objectives, site preparation, and performance results are discussed for both tests. 8 references, 6 tables.

  11. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. The low temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has recently been identified as an attractive option for stationary power generation, based on the relatively simple and benign materials employed, the zero-emission character of the device, and the expected high power density, high reliability and low cost. However, a PEMFC stack fueled by hydrogen with the combined properties of low cost, high performance and high reliability has not yet been demonstrated. Demonstration of such a stack will remove a significant barrier to implementation of this advanced technology for electric power generation from hydrogen. Work done in the past at LANL on the development of components and materials, particularly on advanced membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs), has contributed significantly to the capability to demonstrate in the foreseeable future a PEMFC stack with the combined characteristics described above. A joint effort between LANL and an industrial stack manufacturer will result in the demonstration of such a fuel cell stack for stationary power generation. The stack could operate on hydrogen fuel derived from either natural gas or from renewable sources. The technical plan includes collaboration with a stack manufacturer (CRADA). It stresses the special requirements from a PEMFC in stationary power generation, particularly maximization of the energy conversion efficiency, extension of useful life to the 10 hours time scale and tolerance to impurities from the reforming of natural gas.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  13. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Power and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Auxiliary Power Applications | Department of Energy Portable Power and Auxiliary Power Applications DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Power and Auxiliary Power Applications These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for fuel cell systems for portable power and auxiliary power applications. More information about targets can be found in the Fuel Cells section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and

  14. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  15. Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing evaluating the performance of 5 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems that have been deployed in Oregon and California. It also describes the business case that was developed to identify markets and address cost.

  16. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power

  17. A portable power system using PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, E.

    1997-12-31

    Ball has developed a proof-of-concept, small, lightweight, portable power system. The power system uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, stored hydrogen, and atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant to generate electrical power. Electronics monitor the system performance to control cooling air and oxidant flow, and automatically do corrective measures to maintain performance. With the controller monitoring the system health, the system can operate in an ambient environment from 0 C to +50 C. The paper describes system testing, including load testing, thermal and humidity testing, vibration and shock testing, field testing, destructive testing of high-pressure gas tanks, and test results on the fuel cell power system, metal hydride hydrogen storage, high-pressure hydrogen gas storage, and chemical hydride hydrogen storage.

  18. Inertial fusion energy power reactor fuel recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, C. A.; Kozub, T.; Langish, S. W.; Ciebiera, L. P.; Nobile, A.; Wermer, J.; Sessions, K.

    2008-07-15

    A conceptual design is proposed to support the recovery of un-expended fuel, ash, and associated post-detonation products resident in plasma exhaust from a {approx}2 GWIFE direct drive power reactor. The design includes systems for the safe and efficient collection, processing, and purification of plasma exhaust fuel components. The system has been conceptually designed and sized such that tritium bred within blankets, lining the reactor target chamber, can also be collected, processed, and introduced into the fuel cycle. The system will nominally be sized to process {approx}2 kg of tritium per day and is designed to link directly to the target chamber vacuum pumping system. An effort to model the fuel recovery system (FRS) using the Aspen Plus engineering code has commenced. The system design supports processing effluent gases from the reactor directly from the exhaust of the vacuum pumping system or in batch mode, via a buffer vessel in the Receiving and Analysis System. Emphasis is on nuclear safety, reliability, and redundancy as to maximize availability. The primary goal of the fuel recovery system design is to economically recycle components of direct drive IFE fuel. The FRS design is presented as a facility sub-system in the context of supporting the larger goal of producing safe and economical IFE power. (authors)

  19. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the May 8, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  1. Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decision Makers | Department of Energy Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers Download presentation slides from the May 8, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers." Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Webinar

  2. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Backup Power Systems DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems This table lists the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for fuel cell backup power systems. More information about targets can be found in the Fuel Cells section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems (1-10kWe) Operating on Direct Hydrogen Characteristic Units 2015 Statusa 2020 Targets

  3. Local biofuels power plants with fuel cell generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstroem, O.

    1996-12-31

    The fuel cell should be a most important option for Asian countries now building up their electricity networks. The fuel cell is ideal for the schemes for distributed generation which are more reliable and efficient than the centralized schemes so far favoured by the industrialized countries in the West. Not yet developed small combined cycle power plants with advanced radial gas turbines and compact steam turbines will be the competition. Hot combustion is favoured today but cold combustion may win in the long run thanks to its environmental advantages. Emission standards are in general determined by what is feasible with available technology. The simple conclusion is that the fuel cell has to prove that it is competitive to the turbines in cost engineering terms. A second most important requirement is that the fuel cell option has to be superior with respect to electrical efficiency.

  4. Stationary power applications for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.; Landgrebe, A.R.

    1996-02-01

    The benefits provided by Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC) for power generation (e.g. low operating temperatures, and non-corrosive and stable electrolyte), as well as advances in recent years in lowering their cost and improving anode poisoning tolerance, are stimulating interest in the system for stationary power applications. A significant market potentially exists for PEFCs in certain stationary applications where PEFC technology is a more attractive alternative to other fuel cell technologies. A difficulty with the PEFC is its operation on reformed fuels containing CO, which poisons the anode catalyst. This difficulty can be alleviated in several ways. One possible approach is described whereby the product reformate is purified using a relatively low cost, high-throughput hydrogen permselective separator. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the utility of the concept.

  5. Independent Analysis of Real-Time, Measured Performance Data From Microcogenerative Fuel Cell Systems Installed in Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Colella, Whitney G.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is working with industry to independently monitor up to 15 distinct 5 kW-electric (kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) high temperature (HT) proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems (FCSs) installed in light commercial buildings. This research paper discusses an evaluation of the first six months of measured performance data acquired at a 1 s sampling rate from real-time monitoring equipment attached to the FCSs at building sites. Engineering performance parameters are independently evaluated. Based on an analysis of the first few months of measured operating data, FCS performance is consistent with manufacturer-stated performance. Initial data indicate that the FCSs have relatively stable performance and a long-term average production of about 4.57 kWe of power. This value is consistent with, but slightly below, the manufacturer's stated rated electric power output of 5 kWe. The measured system net electric efficiency has averaged 33.7%, based on the higher heating value (HHV) of natural gas fuel. This value, also, is consistent with, but slightly below, the manufacturer's stated rated electric efficiency of 36%. The FCSs provide low-grade hot water to the building at a measured average temperature of about 48.4 degrees C, lower than the manufacturer's stated maximum hot water delivery temperature of 65 degrees C. The uptime of the systems is also evaluated. System availability can be defined as the quotient of total operating time compared to time since commissioning. The average values for system availability vary between 96.1 and 97.3%, depending on the FCS evaluated in the field. Performance at rated value for electrical efficiency (PRVeff) can be defined as the quotient of the system time operating at or above the rated electric efficiency and the time since commissioning. The PRVeff varies between 5.6% and 31.6%, depending on the FCS field unit evaluated. Performance at rated value for electrical power

  6. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record, Record # 13008: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Date: 10/04/2013 Title: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks Originators: Pete Devlin, Jim Alkire, Sara Dillich, Kristen Nawoj, Stephanie Byham Approved by: Sunita Satyapal and Rick Farmer Date: 10/15/2013 Item: Table 1: Number of fuel cell deployments (installed and on-order) for applications in material handling equipment (MHE). The successful deployment of nearly 700 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fuel cell material handling units has led to almost 5,400 industry installation

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2012_summer_fuels.pptx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Summer Transportation Fuels O tl k Outlook April 10, 2012 www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis Key factors driving the short-term outlook * Recovery in Libyan production but lower crude oil exports from South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen and uncertainty over from South Sudan, Syria, and Yemen and uncertainty over the level and security of supply from Iran and other countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. * Decline in consumption in

  8. LOW POWER UPCONVERSION FOR SOLAR FUELS PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castellano, Felix N.

    2013-08-05

    Earth abundant copper(I) diimine complexes represent a renewable and economically feasible alternative to commonly used heavy metal containing chromophores. In the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, copper(I) diimine complexes typically undergo a significant structural rearrangement, leading to molecules with large Stokes shifts and very short excited state lifetimes, thereby limiting their usefulness as sensitizers in bimolecular electron and triplet energy transfer reactions. Strategically placed bulky substituents on the coordinating phenanthroline ligands have proven useful in restricting the transiently produced excited state Jahn-Teller distortion, leading to longer-lived excited states. By combining bulky sec-butyl groups in the 2- and 9- positions with methyl groups in the 3-,4-, 7-, and 8- positions, a remarkably long-lived (2.8 ?s in DCM) copper(I) bis-phenanthroline complex, [Cu(dsbtmp)2]+, has been synthesized and characterized. Unlike other copper(I) diimine complexes, [Cu(dsbtmp)2]+ also retains a ?s lifetime in coordinating solvents such as acetonitrile and water as a result of the cooperative sterics inherent in the molecular design. Preliminary results on the use of this complex in hydrogen-forming homogeneous photocatalysis is presented. Photon upconversion based on sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) represents a photochemical means to generate high-energy photons (or high-energy chemical products) from low-energy excitation, having potential applications in solar energy conversion and solar fuels producing devices. For the first time, synthetically facile and earth abundant Cu(I) MLCT sensitizers have been successfully incorporated into two distinct photochemical upconversion schemes, affording both red-to-green and orange-to-blue wavelength conversions. Preliminary results on aqueous-based photochemical upconversion as well as intramolecular Sn(IV) porphyrins containing axially coordinated aromatic hydrocarbon

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glacier-Waterton Park Powers Buses With Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Indiana Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Powers Milk Delivery Trucks in Indiana on Delicious Rank

  11. Petroleum coke: A viable fuel for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dymond, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    As the power generation industry struggles to meet the seemingly divergent goals of reduced emissions and increased electricity demand during the 1990s, petroleum coke`s use as a low cost BTU source should be seriously considered. Since this material is produced at petroleum refineries-thus affected by variables unfamiliar to most power generators-industry participants often do not understand what forces drive coke markets. This article will address these forces and provide some insight about petroleum coke`s future as a viable fuel for power generation.

  12. Petroleum coke: A viable fuel for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dymond, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    As the power generation industry struggles to meet the seemingly divergent goals of reduced emissions and increased electricity demand during the 1990s, petroleum coke`s use as a low cost BTU source should be seriously considered. since this material is produced at petroleum refineries - thus affected by variables unfamiliar to most power generators - industry participants often do not understand what forces drive coke markets. This article will address these forces and provide some insight about petroleum coke`s future as a viable fuel for power generation.

  13. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J.; Ma, Z.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  14. Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

  15. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  16. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  17. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  18. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  19. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.S.; Moeller-Holst, S.; Webb, D.M.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1998-08-01

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate a 4 kW, hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack, based on non-machined stainless steel hardware and on membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) of low catalyst loadings. The stack is designed to operate at ambient pressure on the air-side and can accommodate operation at higher fuel pressures, if so required. This is to be accomplished by working jointly with a fuel cell stack manufacturer, based on a CRADA. The performance goals are 57% energy conversion efficiency hydrogen-to-electricity (DC) at a power density of 0.9 kW/liter for a stack operating at ambient inlet pressures. The cost goal is $600/kW, based on present materials costs.

  20. Diesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power units for heavy-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, T.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    2000-05-15

    This paper explores the potential of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) as 3--10 kW auxiliary power units for trucks and military vehicles operating on diesel fuel. It discusses the requirements and specifications for such units, and the advantages, challenges, and development issues for SOFCS used in this application. Based on system design and analysis, such systems should achieve efficiencies approaching 40% (lower heating value), with a relatively simple system configuration. The major components of such a system are the fuel cell stack, a catalytic autothermal reformer, and a spent gas burner/air preheater. Building an SOFC-based auxiliary power unit is not straightforward, however, and the tasks needed to develop a 3--10 kW brassboard demonstration unit are outlined.

  1. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012. America's Partner in Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtin, Sandra; Gangi, Jennifer; Skukowski, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    This report, compiled by Fuel Cells 2000 with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program, profiles a select group of nationally recognizable companies and corporations that are deploying or demonstrating fuel cells. These businesses are taking advantage of a fuel cell's unique benefits, especially for powering lift trucks and providing combined heat and power to their stores and administrative offices.

  2. Businesses Seek Fuel Cells to Meet Sustainability Goals, Provide Reliable Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Businesses of all sizes are increasingly adopting cost-effective fuel cell technology to improve electrical power reliability, increase efficiencies, and reduce carbon emissions of operations, according to The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering Corporate Sustainability, a new report from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, compiled by the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association.

  3. 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A. 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS; GAS TURBINE...

  4. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for ...

  5. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power Steve Lupton presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil ...

  6. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  7. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Handling Equipment | Department of Energy An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment This report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of

  8. Fuel cell power plants in a distributed generator application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    ONSI`s (a subsidiary of International Fuel Cells Corporation) world wide fleet of 200-kW PC25{trademark} phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants which began operation early in 1992 has shown excellent performance and reliability in over 1 million hours of operation. This experience has verified the clean, quiet, reliable operation of the PC25 and confirmed its application as a distributed generator. Continuing product development efforts have resulted in a one third reduction of weight and volume as well as improved installation and operating characteristics for the PC25 C model. Delivery of this unit began in 1995. International Fuel Cells (IFC) continues its efforts to improve product design and manufacturing processes. This progress has been sustained at a compounded rate of 10 percent per year since the late 1980`s. These improvements will permit further reductions in the initial cost of the power plant and place increased emphasis on market development as the pacing item in achieving business benefits from the PC25 fuel cell. Derivative product opportunities are evolving with maturation of the technologies in a commercial environment. The recent announcement of Praxair, Inc., and IFC introducing a non-cryogenic hydrogen supply system utilizing IFC`s steam reformer is an example. 11 figs.

  9. Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon capture, utilisation, and storage Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION; POWER GENERATION; CARBON DIOXIDE; CAPTURE; STORAGE; USA; ENHANCED...

  10. N.R. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; HEAT...

  11. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model used to analyze the economics and performance of combined heat, hydrogen, and power (CHHP) systems.

  12. Application for approval for construction of the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    The following ''Application for Approval of Construction'' is being submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.07, for three new sources of airborne radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were canceled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building and stack and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex. 2 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  14. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  15. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  16. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Stationary Fuel Cells Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dioxide Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Stationary Fuel Cells Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction to

  17. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a

  18. Powering Business in Ohio with Cellex Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powering Business in Ohio with Cellex Fuel Cells Powering Business in Ohio with Cellex Fuel Cells This document provides information about fuel cell products in large fleets of lift trucks. cellex_report_odod.pdf (209.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells Go Live Specialty Vehicles and Material Handling Equipment Early-Stage Market Change and Effects of the Recovery Act Fuel Cell Program

  19. Fuel Use Act: implications for new power generation. [Conference paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, H.S.; Jandegian, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    The electric utility industry has, in general, supported the national goal of an energy shift away from imported oil to coal and other fuels but has felt that the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act is redundant and largely irrelevant. The industy believes power plant conversions to coal and new base-load plants shifting to coal has been occurring for the past several years as a result of: (1) the rapidly escalating costs associated with foreign oil imports; (2) the Federal Energy Office request for voluntary conversion to coal during the 1973-1974 oil embargo; and (3) the Energy supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 prohibition and construction orders. DOE's position that, without the Fuel Use Act, utilities can continue business as usual, cannot be supported in light of the extraordinary volatile market and reliability aspects of continued use of oil. What the Act has failed to acknowledge is the need for a more-flexible and balanced approach that recognizes the experience, needs, and concerns in distinct regions of the country. What must be examined are the problem areas faced by the industry in forcing coal use in certain regions where there are increasingly stringent environmental and economic concerns to be considered or where there has been historically heavy dependence on oil as a primary energy source. The next five years will be a period of learning for both (ERA) and the electric utility industry, a period that will mold our energy future through the year 2000. 7 references.

  20. Fuel cell power plants using hydrogen from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Onischak, M.; Lau, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper discusses a power generation system that offers high energy efficiency, ultra-clean environmental performance, and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass from agricultural and forestry wastes or dedicated energy farms can be used efficiently for power generation in integrated biomass gasification-fuel cell (IBGFC) systems. The energy efficiency of these systems has been projected to approach 55% or even higher if cogeneration opportunities can be utilized. Such systems, in addition to being ultra-efficient, can boast very low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates, and are essentially CO{sub 2}-neutral. With the mounting concern about greenhouse gas emissions, this approach to renewable energy is very attractive for small distributed generation markets in the US and worldwide. Biomass wastes alone, by current estimates, have the potential to provide as much as 338 GW of electrical power worldwide if utilized in this fashion, and offer the best near- to mid-term market entry opportunities for this technology. Power demand in the US will be driven by the opening of niche markets as a result of deregulation and environmental concerns, and markets in other regions will be driven by economic growth as well. In this paper, the integration of a pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier with a molten carbonate fuel cell and expansion turbine bottoming cycle will be presented. Two cycles are suggested: one using conventional technology for biomass drying, feeding, and gasification, and a second, more advanced cycle using wet feeding direct to the gasifier and in-bed steam reforming to boost cycle efficiency and reduce capital costs. Both cycles use state-of-the-art molten carbonate fuel cells with an expansion turbine bottoming cycle. These options are presented along with recommended technical development activities and targets.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Central Texas Fuel Independence Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by City of Austin at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Central Texas Fuel...

  2. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  3. Nation's first fuel cell power plant powered by processed landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, J.D.; Engels, W.W.

    1986-04-01

    Southern California Edison Company (Edison) and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) installed, and are operating, a 40 kw phosphoric acid fuel cell utilizing processed landfill gas at a hotel and convention complex in the City of Industry, California. This field test aims to establish important electric utility operating criteria of two separate, promising technologies linked together for the first time. Among the key objectives to be established during this project are: (1) operating a fuel cell to establish electric generation equipment criteria, such as fuel efficiency, reliability, siteability, and emission and electric output characteristics; (2) determining whether under-utilized landfill gas can be used in a fuel cell designed to operate on natural gas; and (3) identifying methods to improve the economic viability of such a system.

  4. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Michael Wang Argonne National Laboratory June 10, 2008 Project ID # AN2 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Overview * Project start date: Oct. 2002 * Project end date: Continuous * Percent complete: N/A * Inconsistent data, assumptions, and guidelines * Suite of models and tools * Unplanned studies and analyses * Total project funding from DOE: $2.04 million

  5. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  6. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingler, James J

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil

  8. Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne, see www.anl.gov. Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is

  9. Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H.

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

  10. Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, A.K.; Smith, W.C.

    1993-11-01

    Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Schools First in State to Power up

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    With Propane Florida Schools First in State to Power up With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Schools First in State to Power up With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Schools First in State to Power up With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Schools First in State to Power up With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Schools First in State to Power up

  12. Combined cycle phosphoric acid fuel cell electric power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollot, D.J.; Micheli, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    By arranging two or more electric power generation cycles in series, combined cycle systems are able to produce electric power more efficiently than conventional single cycle plants. The high fuel to electricity conversion efficiency results in lower plant operating costs, better environmental performance, and in some cases even lower capital costs. Despite these advantages, combined cycle systems for the 1 - 10 megawatt (MW) industrial market are rare. This paper presents a low noise, low (oxides of nitrogen) NOx, combined cycle alternative for the small industrial user. By combining a commercially available phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with a low-temperature Rankine cycle (similar to those used in geothermal applications), electric conversion efficiencies between 45 and 47 percent are predicted. While the simple cycle PAFC is competitive on a cost of energy basis with gas turbines and diesel generators in the 1 to 2 MW market, the combined cycle PAFC is competitive, on a cost of energy basis, with simple cycle diesel generators in the 4 to 25 MW market. In addition, the efficiency and low-temperature operation of the combined cycle PAFC results in a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions with NO{sub x} concentration on the order of 1 parts per million (per weight) (ppmw).

  13. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  14. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  15. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today applauded the commissioning of a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system at Portland Community College in Oregon. The CHP fuel cell system will help...

  16. BioPower Atlas and BioFuels Atlas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atlas and BioFuels Atlas Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: BioPower Atlas and BioFuels Atlas AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable Energy...

  17. Middle East fuel supply & gas exports for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.K.; Newendorp, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Middle East countries that border on, or are near, the Persian Gulf hold over 65% of the world`s estimated proven crude oil reserves and 32% of the world`s estimated proven natural gas reserves. In fact, approximately 5% of the world`s total proven gas reserves are located in Qatar`s offshore North Field. This large natural gas/condensate field is currently under development to supply three LNG export projects, as well as a sub-sea pipeline proposal to export gas to Pakistan. The Middle East will continue to be a major source of crude oil and oil products to world petroleum markets, including fuel for existing and future base load, intermediate cycling and peaking electric generation plants. In addition, as the Persian Gulf countries turn their attention to exploiting their natural gas resources, the fast-growing need for electricity in the Asia-Pacific and east Africa areas offers a potential market for both pipeline and LNG export opportunities to fuel high efficiency, gas-fired combustion turbine power plants. Mr. Mitchell`s portion of this paper will discuss the background, status and timing of several Middle Eastern gas export projects that have been proposed. These large gas export projects are difficult and costly to develop and finance. Consequently, any IPP developers that are considering gas-fired projects which require Mid-East LNG as a fuel source, should understand the numerous sources and timing to securing project debt, loan terms and conditions, and, restrictions/credit rating issues associated with securing financing for these gas export projects. Mr. Newendorp`s section of the paper will cover the financing aspects of these projects, providing IPP developers with additional considerations in selecting the primary fuel supply for an Asian-Pacific or east African electric generation project.

  18. Air-breathing fuel cell stacks for portable power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.S.; DeCaro, D.; Neutzler, J.K.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-10-01

    Increasing attention is being directed towards polymer electrolyte fuel cells as battery replacements because of their potentially superior energy densities and the possibility of `mechanical` refueling. On the low end of the power requirement scale (ca. 10 W), fuel cells can compete with primary and secondary batteries only if the fuel cell systems are simple, inexpensive, and reliable. Considerations of cost and simplicity (and minimal parasitic power) discourage the use of conventional performance enhancing subsystems (e.g., humidification, cooling, or forced-reactant flow). We are developing a stack design that is inherently self-regulating to allow effective operation without the benefit of such auxiliary components. The air cathode does not use forced flow to replenish the depleted oxygen. Instead, the oxygen in the air must diffuse into the stack from the periphery of the unit cells. For this reason the stack is described as `air-breathing.` This configuration limits the ability of water to escape which prevents the polymer electrolyte membranes from drying out, even at relatively high continuous operation temperatures (+60 degrees C). This results in stacks with reliable and stable performance. This air-breathing configuration assumes a unique stack geometry that utilizes circular flow-field plates with an annular hydrogen feed manifold and the single tie-bolt extending up through the central axis of the stack. With this geometry, the hydrogen supply to the unit cells is radially outward, and the air supply is from the periphery inward. This configuration has several advantages. The entire periphery is free to air access and allows greater heat conduction to enhance cooling. Furthermore, all of the components in the stack (e.g., the flow-fields, seals and membrane/electrode assemblies), are radially symmetrical, so part fabrication is simple and the entire system is potentially low-cost. Lastly, this configuration is compact and lightweight.

  19. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2002-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2001 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  20. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2000 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  1. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island - Unit 2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory G. Hall

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2002 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  2. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2000 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  3. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. G. Hall

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 1999 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  4. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Federal Facilities Guide to Fuel Cells May 8, 2012 - Outline * Distributed Generation and Fuel Cell Power Overview (Pete Devlin 1 ) * How Does a Fuel Cell Work (Jacob Spendelow 2 ) * Guide Summary - How FC CHP can help Federal Facilities (Pete Devlin 1 ) - Third Party Financing (Greg Moreland 3 ) - Project Screening (Joe McGervey 3 ) - Detailed Planning (Joe McGervey 3 ) - Model (Michael Penev 4 ) - Project

  5. Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts | Department of Energy Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2004_deer_heywood.pdf (261.78 KB) More Documents & Publications An Energy Evolution:Alternative Fueled Vehicle Comparisons Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared WORKSHOP REPORT:Light-Duty

  6. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012: America's Partner in Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012 America's Partner in Power The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012 Fuel Cells 2000 | Page i Authors and Acknowledgements This report was written and compiled by Sandra Curtin, Jennifer Gangi, and Ryan Skukowski of Fuel Cells 2000, an activity of Breakthrough Technologies Institute in Washington, D.C. Support was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program. About This Report This report profiles a select group of nationally

  7. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 1/22 High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H 2 from Biogas Jack Brouwer, Ph.D. June 19, 2012 DOE/ NREL Biogas Workshop - Golden, CO © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 2/22 Outline * Introduction and Background * Tri-Generation/Poly-Generation Analyses * OCSD Project Introduction © National Fuel Cell Research Center, 2012 3/22 Introduction and Background * Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle performance is outstanding * Energy

  8. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  9. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004 report was to determine the best opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DER/CHP) applications, examine the DER/CHP technologies that can use them, and assess the potential market impacts of opportunity fueled DER/CHP applications. chp_opportunityfuels.pdf (2.56 MB) More

  10. Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facility Decision Makers | Department of Energy Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers," originally presented on May 8, 2012. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access the

  11. Small scale biomass fueled gas turbine power plant. Report for February 1992--October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, C.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses a new-generation, small-scale (<20 MWe) biomass-fueled power plant that is being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. Such power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth material (e.g., straw, grass, rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, and nut shells) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. The paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fair Oaks Farm Harnesses the Power of

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas from Cow Manure Fair Oaks Farm Harnesses the Power of Natural Gas from Cow Manure to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fair Oaks Farm Harnesses the Power of Natural Gas from Cow Manure on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fair Oaks Farm Harnesses the Power of Natural Gas from Cow Manure on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fair Oaks Farm Harnesses the Power of Natural Gas from Cow Manure on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  13. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the Bottom Line...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    These include wastewater treatment plants, government buildings, universities, military bases, hospitals, and other sites. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the ...

  14. Rajendran, N. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLY ASH; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; BACKFILLING; THERMAL...

  15. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  16. Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Report details the six-month evaluation...

  17. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  18. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) E. Burton, L. ... charge or direct power to the motor o Charging efficiencies at high speed o Metrics ...

  19. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study ...

  20. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Saur, Genevieve; Sprik, Sam

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  2. Ukraine Loads U.S. Nuclear Fuel into Power Plant as Part of DOE-Ukraine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Fuel Qualification Program | Department of Energy Ukraine Loads U.S. Nuclear Fuel into Power Plant as Part of DOE-Ukraine Nuclear Fuel Qualification Program Ukraine Loads U.S. Nuclear Fuel into Power Plant as Part of DOE-Ukraine Nuclear Fuel Qualification Program April 9, 2010 - 12:11pm Addthis KYIV, UKRAINE - Officials from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy today (April 8, 2010) participated in a ceremony in Ukraine to mark the insertion of

  3. Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency | Department of Energy Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Buses: ThunderPower Bus Evaluation at SunLine Transit Agency Report details the six-month evaluation of the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency. sunline_report.pdf (1.27 MB) More Documents & Publications SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects Fact

  4. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  5. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  6. Introduction to DMFCs - Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Webinar July 17, 2012 1 Introduction to DMFCs Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Piotr Zelenay Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, U.S.A. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Webinar - July 17, 2012 - The Fuel Choice P. Piela and P. Zelenay, Fuel Cell Review, 1, 17, 2004 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Webinar - July 17, 2012 2 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode: Pt-Ru Cathode: Pt Membrane: e.g. Nafion ® 115 e - CH 3 OH H + H 2 O CH 3 OH

  7. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Presenters: Jeff Casady and John Palmour of Cree Inc. DOE Hosts: Eric Miller and Anant Agarwal 2 Question and Answer * Please type your question into the question box hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov 3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office eere.energy.gov DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office covers Research, Development, Demonstration &

  8. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Office | Department of Energy Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study about Verizons Communications, who installed a 14-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system at its Central Office in Garden City, New York, in 2005 and is now reaping environmental benefits and demonstrating the viaility of fuel cells in a commerical, critical telecommunications

  9. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  10. Fuel Cell Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CACP System CACP System Integrated Fuel Cell Integrated Fuel Cell Setup for Heat and Mass ... 300,000 FY16 DOE Funding: 300,000 Cost Share: 100,000 Project Term: February ...

  11. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, John C.; Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  12. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  13. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2015: Powering Corporate Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report, written and compiled by the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, provides an overview of private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses, as well as highlights of international deployments up through October 1, 2015.

  14. Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

  15. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and ...

  16. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  17. Independent review of design and analysis for Holtec spent fuel storage racks of CPP 666 Pool 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.K.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes the analyses and review performed to develop and validate the design of the new fuel storage racks for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Fuel Storage Area (FSA). Holtec International is responsible for the design and fabrication of the storage racks. This report describes the issues raised in the review effort and the resolutions to these issues. The conclusion is reached that the review issues for the racks of Pool 1 have been satisfactorily resolved in the final design and analysis for these racks. Section 1 of this report gives a brief description of the project. Section 2 describes the approach that Holtec used in analyzing the racks and results from these analyses. Section 3 describes the independent review process. Section 4 discusses the identification of and resolution to comments on the design analysis. Section 5 describes additional analysis performed to address major concerns with the Holtec design analysis. Section 6 presents a summary of AEC`s independent review, which is based on AEC`s final review report. Finally, Section 7 gives the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) position on the acceptability of Holtec`s design.

  18. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin; Ya-Tang Cheng

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  19. H2 Refuel H-Prize Aims to Make Fueling Hydrogen Powered Vehicles Easier

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than Ever | Department of Energy H2 Refuel H-Prize Aims to Make Fueling Hydrogen Powered Vehicles Easier than Ever H2 Refuel H-Prize Aims to Make Fueling Hydrogen Powered Vehicles Easier than Ever December 29, 2014 - 10:15am Addthis A fuel cell electric vehicle is refueled with hydrogen at the National Wind Technology Center in Colorado. The H2 Refuel H-Prize is challenging America’s innovators to develop systems that make it easier and more convenient to fuel hydrogen vehicles. | Photo

  20. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  1. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power Company Smart Grid Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System Targeted Benefits Reduced Meter Reading Costs Improved Electric Service Reliability Reduced Ancillary Service Cost Reduced Truck Fleet Fuel Usage Reduced Greenhouse...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Airport Shuttles...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota Sept. 14, 2013 Photo ... Fuels Dec. 25, 2010 Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys Dec. 11, ...

  3. Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines. ...

  4. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This step-by-step manual guides readers through the process of implementing a fuel cell stationary power project. The guide outlines the basics of fuel cell technology and describes how fuel cell projects can meet on-site energy service needs as well as support strategic agency objectives and sustainability requirements. This guide will help agencies decide whether a fuel cell project may be feasible and economically viable at their site. The guide then presents a four-part process for implementing a fuel cell project.

  5. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    County, WY | Department of Energy 2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for Download November 27, 2009 EIS-0432: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Federal Loan Guarantee to Support the Construction and Startup of the Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, Wyoming December 16, 2009

  12. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  13. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Power Natural Gas Power Heat Natural Gas National Renewable Energy Laboratory ... National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 8 2 g Integration ...

  14. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the Bottom Line for Businesses and Communities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the Bottom Line for Businesses and Communities ii Authors and Acknowledgements This report was written and compiled by Sandra Curtin and Jennifer Gangi of the Breakthrough Technologies Institute (BTI) in Washington, D.C. Support was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office. About This Report This report provides an overview of fuel cell installations at

  15. GCTool: Design, Analyze and Compare Fuel Cell Systems and Power Plants |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory GCTool: Design, Analyze and Compare Fuel Cell Systems and Power Plants GCTool allows you to design, analyze, and compare different fuel cell configurations, including automotive, space-based, and stationary systems. GCTool allows you to design, analyze, and compare different fuel cell configurations, including automotive, space-based, and stationary systems. Argonne's GCTool (General Computational toolkit) is a versatile simulation software package that allows the

  16. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skok, A.J.; Abueg, R.Z.; Schwartz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  17. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  18. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joesph W.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Akhil, Abbas A.; Curgus, Dita B.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  19. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to

  20. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (CLFP) offers incentives to commercial and industrial gas customers who install energy efficient equipment in existing buildings. Incentives are available for boilers...

  1. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to electric customers who wish to install energy efficient equipment in participating homes. Incentives are available for CFL and LED light bulbs,...

  2. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to commercial and industrial electric customers who wish to install energy efficient equipment and measures in eligible facilities. Incentives are...

  3. Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to gas customers who construct new energy efficient homes or install energy efficient equipment in existing homes. Incentives are available for:

  5. Webinar: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications" on Tuesday, October 21, at 12:00 p...

  6. Allen, C.A. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchanger flow distribution models Cole, L.T.; Allen, C.A. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; FLUIDIZED BED HEAT EXCHANGERS; DESIGN;...

  7. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Powers Fleets Across the...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... station Sacramento Adds Regional Heavy-Duty LNG Fueling Station March 21, 2015 Photo of a street sweeper New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas March 7, 2015 Photo of a bus. ...

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. apu20119chick.pdf (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener ...

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Presented by Dr. William Strauss President, FutureMetrics Director, Maine Energy

  11. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells for Supermarkets, April 4, 2011.

  12. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  13. Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEUs ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved. During

  14. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable U.S. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  15. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  16. LOS ANGELES DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND POWER FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-03-26

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) is currently one of the most active electric utility companies in deploying fuel cell technology. Fuel cells offer many benefits and are now used as an alternative to traditional internal combustion engines in power generation. In continuing it's role as the leader in fuel cell deploying, LADWP installed a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) in February 2002 at its Main Street service center. The goal of this project is to evaluate the PAFC's performance and cost benefits. This will provide LADWP an insight for future deployment of fuel cell technology. The fuel cell ran smoothly through the first year of operation with very high efficiency and availability, and only with some minor setbacks. The Main street fuel cell project is funded by LADWP with partial grant funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. The technical evaluation and the benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street fuel cell are both examined in this report.

  17. Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Sector Fred Joseck U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop (TSPI) Transportation

  18. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  19. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, Gail E.

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  20. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  1. Challenges of Electric Power Industry Restructuring for Fuel Suppliers

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry.

  2. Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A significant feature of the program is the reduction and partial elimination of trips required (usually by diesel-powered trucks) to refuel andor repair remotely located pumping ...

  3. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  4. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Sunflower power: grow your fuel to produce your food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruwer, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    The use of sunflower seed oil as a substitute for or extender of tractor diesel fuel is being considered by South Africa. South Afric already grows 500,000 hectares of sunflowers and even on marginal soil unsuitable for cereal grains such as maize and wheat, the crop yields well. Preliminary tests showed that most diesel engines started and operated almost normally on 100% sunflower seed oil.

  6. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  7. Influence of FRAPCON-1 evaluation models on fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, R.; Laats, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary set of nine evaluation models (EMs) was added to the FRAPCON-1 computer code, which is used to calculate fuel rod behavior in a nuclear reactor during steady-state operation. The intent was to provide an audit code to be used in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing activities when calculations of conservative fuel rod temperatures are required. The EMs place conservatisms on the calculation of rod temperature by modifying the calculation of rod power history, fuel and cladding behavior models, and materials properties correlations. Three of the nine EMs provide either input or model specifications, or set the reference temperature for stored energy calculations. The remaining six EMs were intended to add thermal conservatism through model changes. To determine the relative influence of these six EMs upon fuel behavior calculations for commercial power reactors, a sensitivity study was conducted. That study is the subject of this paper.

  8. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_steward.pdf (818.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Project Reports for Tulalip Tribes - 2003 Project

  9. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers OCTOBER 2011 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 October 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance in the Key Early Markets of Material Handling Equipment and Backup Power (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of NREL's analysis of hydrogen fuel cell performance in the key early markets of material handling equipment (MHE) and backup power.

  11. Independent Statistics & Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monthly data for smaller electric power plants that are excluded from the monthly filing ... independent power producers, and electric utility combined heat and power plants. ...

  12. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation

  13. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Com- bined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office With more than 67 million customers nationwide, Verizon Communications is one of the largest telecommunica- tions providers in the U.S. Power inter- ruptions can severely impact network operations and could result in losses in excess of $1 million/minute. 1 In 2005, Verizon Communications installed a 1.4 MW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system, consisting of seven 200 kW units, at its Central

  14. Spallator and APEX nuclear fuel cycle: a new option for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high-energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy-metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural-uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 to U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high-beam-current continuous-wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a self-sufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age shortage of fission-product waste.

  15. The Spallator and APEX nuclear fuel cycle: a new option for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1983-02-01

    A new nuclear fuel cycle is described which provides a long term supply of nuclear fuel for the thermal LWR nuclear power reactors and eliminates the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Fissile fuel is produced by the Spallator which depends on the production of spallation neutrons by the interaction of high energy (1 to 2 GeV) protons on a heavy metal target. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding natural uranium or thorium blanket in which fissile Pu-239 or U-233 is produced. Advances in linear accelerator technology makes it possible to design and construct a high beam current continuous wave proton linac for production purposes. The target is similar to a sub-critical reactor and produces heat which is converted to electricity for supplying the linac. The Spallator is a selfsufficient fuel producer, which can compete with the fast breeder. The APEX fuel cycle depends on recycling the transuranics and long-lived fission products while extracting the stable and short-lived fission products when reprocessing the fuel. Transmutation and decay within the fuel cycle and decay of the short-lived fission products external to the fuel cycle eliminates the need for long-term geological age storage of fission product waste.

  16. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  18. Combined Heat and Power Technology Fact Sheets Series: Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Turbines Gas turbines are available in sizes ranging from approxi- mately one to more than 300 megawatts (MW) and are used to meet diverse power needs, including propulsion (e.g., aircraft, ships, and trains), direct drive (e.g., pumps and com- pressors) and stationary electricity generation. For electric- ity generation, gas turbines are available in a wide range of capacities and configurations, ranging from relatively small microturbines (described in a separate fact sheet 1 ) to very large

  19. Conceptual Design of 500 watt portable thermophotovoltaic power supply using JP-8 fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBellis, C.L.; Scotto, M.V.; Fraas, L.

    1997-03-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and JX Crystals (JXC) have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500 watt net electric (We), 24-VDC thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using JP-8 fuel. As currently envisioned, the TPV generator will be approximately 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter and 50 cm (20 inches) high, not including a fuel tank and controls. The total system may weigh as little as 7.5 kg (16.5 lb) without fuel. This system will achieve high efficiency and high power density relative to its size through the use of low bandgap gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV cells and a matched emitter. A thermally integrated fuel vaporizer and recuperator will boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. At rated conditions and 500 We output, the system is expected to have an overall efficiency of 8{percent} to 10{percent}. This paper examines the trade-offs between system efficiency, power density, and weight required in the selection and configuration of the major system components. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C.; Sanderson, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

  1. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable batteries presently provide limited energy density and cyclical lifetime for portable power applications, with only incremental improvements forecasted in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, recharging requires access to electrical outlets via a tethered charger. The

  2. Systems simulation of cotton gin waste as a supplemental fuel in a coal powered generating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, C.B.; Grubaugh, E.K.; Johnston, M.T.; Ladd, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    A systems simulation model of gin trash use at a Lamb County, Texas, power plant was developed. The model is being used to study gin trash supply, both quantity and transportation, fixed and variable cost, and economic benefit/costs of gin trash utilization. Preliminary results indicate the positive feasibility of using gin trash as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired power plant. (MHR)

  3. A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaganas, G.; Rest, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Florida International Univ.

    2007-10-18

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO{sub 2} power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the {alpha}-, intermediate- and {gamma}-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified.

  4. Fuel Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of fuel cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.

  5. Low-temperature fuel cell systems for commercial airplane auxiliary power.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation briefly describes the ongoing study of fuel cell systems on-board a commercial airplane. Sandia's current project is focused on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells applied to specific on-board electrical power needs. They are trying to understand how having a fuel cell on an airplane would affect overall performance. The fuel required to accomplish a mission is used to quantify the performance. Our analysis shows the differences between the base airplane and the airplane with the fuel cell. There are many ways of designing a system, depending on what you do with the waste heat. A system that requires ram air cooling has a large mass penalty due to increased drag. The bottom-line impact can be expressed as additional fuel required to complete the mission. Early results suggest PEM fuel cells can be used on airplanes with manageable performance impact if heat is rejected properly. For PEMs on aircraft, we are continuing to perform: (1) thermodynamic analysis (investigate configurations); (2) integrated electrical design (with dynamic modeling of the micro grid); (3) hardware assessment (performance, weight, and volume); and (4) galley and peaker application.

  6. Use of plasma fuel systems at thermal power plants in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpenko, E.I.; Karpenko, Y.E.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2009-05-15

    The technology of plasma ignition of solid fuels is described, as well as its creation and development steps, the technoeconomic characteristics of plasma igniter systems, schemes of their installation in pulverized-coal boilers, and results of their application at pulverized coal-fired power plants.

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Successfully Powers Truck Cab and Sleeper in DOE-Sponsored Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, a Delphi auxiliary power unit employing a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) successfully operated the electrical system and air conditioning of a Peterbilt Model 386 truck under conditions simulating idling conditions for 10 hours.

  8. Method for reducing fuel cell output voltage to permit low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A.; Landau, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is degraded by recycling a portion of the cathode exhaust through the cells and, if necessary, also reducing the total air flow to the cells for the purpose of permitting operation below a power level which would otherwise result in excessive voltage.

  9. Webinar October 21: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications" on Tuesday, October 21, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Representatives of Cree Inc., leading innovators in the WBG electronics industry, will be presenting.

  10. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  11. Power Surge: Uranium alloy fuel for TerraPower | Y-12 National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    offers benefits missing from today's light water reactors, TerraPower asserts. ... Founded in 2008, TerraPower has completed a conceptual design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor ...

  12. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

  13. A brief overview of Chinese Design Code on Fossil-Fueled Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhongqing; He Yehong

    1996-10-01

    The Chinese Design Code on Fossil Fueled Power Plants (DL 5000-94) was issued in April 1994 by the Ministry of Electric Power Industry, P.R. China, and the English version has been drafted and will be formally published in the near future. Based on the 1984 version and the nation`s current policies, the 1994 version was formed to meet the challenges of the nation`s speedy development of electric power construction. In general, the code is primarily a directive document guiding the planning and engineering of China`s large- and medium-sized fossil-fueled power plants. The preparation of the 1984 version and the revision of it to the 1994 version were all carried out by the East China Electric Power Design Institute under the direction of Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. For small-sized power plants with unit rating of 25 MW and below, there is another national design code titled Code for Design of Small Sized Power Plants (GB 50049-94) issued in November 1994 jointly by the China`s National Technology Supervision Administration and the Ministry of Construction.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  15. American National Standard: design requirements for light water reactor spent fuel storage facilities at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-07

    This standard presents necessary design requirements for facilities at nuclear power plants for the storage and preparation for shipment of spent fuel from light-water moderated and cooled nuclear power stations. It contains requirements for the design of fuel storage pool; fuel storage racks; pool makeup, instrumentation and cleanup systems; pool structure and integrity; radiation shielding; residual heat removal; ventilation, filtration and radiation monitoring systems; shipping cask handling and decontamination; building structure and integrity; and fire protection and communication.

  16. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-10

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of

  18. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul; Fuchs, Benjamin S.; Booten, Chuck W.

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  19. Impact of fuel properties on advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Jones, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Willson, W.G.

    1995-12-01

    Advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power systems currently in development and demonstration have the goal of increasing generating efficiency to a level approaching 50% while reducing the cost of electricity from new plants by 20% and meeting stringent standards on emissions of SO{sub x} NO{sub x} fine particulates, and air toxic metals. Achieving these benefits requires that clean hot gas be delivered to a gas turbine at a temperature approaching 1350{degrees}C, while minimizing energy losses in the gasification, combustion, heat transfer, and/or gas cleaning equipment used to generate the hot gas. Minimizing capital cost also requires that the different stages of the system be integrated as simply and compactly as possible. Second-generation technologies including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), externally fired combined cycle (EFCC), and other advanced combustion systems rely on different high-temperature combinations of heat exchange, gas filtration, and sulfur capture to meet these requirements. This paper describes the various properties of lignite and brown coals.

  20. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  1. Increasing the power density when using inert matrix fuels to reduce production of transuranics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Deinert, M.R.

    2013-07-01

    Reducing the production of transuranics is a goal of most advanced nuclear fuel cycles. One way to do this is to recycle the transuranics into the same reactors that are currently producing them using an inert matrix fuel. In previous work we have modeled such a reactor where 72%, of the core is comprised of standard enriched uranium fuel pins, with the remaining 28% fuel made from Yttria stabilized zirconium, in which transuranics are loaded. A key feature of this core is that all of the transuranics produced by the uranium fuel assemblies are later burned in inert matrix fuel assemblies. It has been shown that this system can achieve reductions in transuranic waste of more than 86%. The disadvantage of such a system is that the core power rating must be significantly lower than a standard pressurized water reactor. One reason for the lower power is that high burnup of the uranium fuel precludes a critical level of reactivity at the end of the campaign. Increasing the uranium enrichment and changing the pin pitch are two ways to increase burnup while maintaining criticality. In this paper we use MCNPX and a linear reactivity model to quantify the effect of these two parameters on the end of campaign reactivity. Importantly, we show that in the region of our proposed reactor, enrichment increases core reactivity by 0.02 per percent uranium 235 and pin pitch increases reactivity by 0.02 per mm. Reactivity is lost at a rate of 0.005 per MWd/kgIHM uranium burnup. (authors)

  2. Develop and test fuel cell powered on-site integrated total energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, A.; Werth, J.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication and testing of a 25kW phosphoric acid fuel cell system aimed at stationary applications, and the technology development underlying that system. The 25kW fuel cell ran at rated power in both the open and closed loop mode in the summer of 1988. Problems encountered and solved include acid replenishment leakage, gas cross-leakage and edge-leakage in bipolar plates, corrosion of metallic cooling plates and current collectors, cooling groove depth variations, coolant connection leaks, etc. 84 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. EIS-0357- Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

  4. Center to Research New Ways to Convert Sunshine to Power and Fuels - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Center to Research New Ways to Convert Sunshine to Power and Fuels April 21, 2008 The newest research center of the Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory aims to find ways to directly convert the sun's energy to low-cost electricity and fuels. The Center for Revolutionary Solar Photoconversion (CRSP), announced today by Colorado Gov. Bill Ritter, U.S. Sen. Ken Salazar and the Collaboratory at the state Capitol in Denver, will be dedicated to basic and applied research at

  5. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E.; Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M.

    2001-11-06

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can

  6. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool

  7. Application of U10Mo Fuel for Space Fission Power Applications - White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    A novel reactor design has been proposed for space applications to provide hundreds of watts to one or two kilowatts of electrical power. The reactor concept proposed uses the alloy U10Mo (uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum) as the fuel. This fuel was selected for its high uranium density, high thermal conductivity, and excellent neutronic characteristics for this application. The core is surrounded by a BeO reflector. Heat is carried from the reactor by liquid metal heat pipes. A shadow shield of LiH tungsten is also utilized to reduce the neutron and gamma radiation dose to the rest of the spacecraft. This design represents a best effort at minimizing the complexity of the fission system and reducing the mass of the system. The compact nature of the block UMo core and BeO radial reflector allows the reactor diameter to be as small as practical while still meeting the neutronic and thermal power demands. This directly results in a reduced shield mass since the reactor diameter dictates the footprint of the radiation shield. The use of heat pipes offers a straightforward primary heat transport approach using proven liquid-metal heat pipe technology. Further, the elimination of a liquid core coolant system heat transport components, both at the reactor side and radiator side, contributes to reducing the total part-count and lowering system mass. The proposed reactor is using a fuel that is being developed by DOE, but there are significant differences in the fuels enrichment, operating conditions and the physical shape of the fuel itself. This paper attempts to highlight some of the basic consideration and needs that would be expected to be met in developing this fuel and qualifying it for use.

  8. Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

  9. A 48-month extended fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erighin, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small, rail-shippable pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and an electric power output of 150 MW, which is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height, but otherwise standard, PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array on a 21.5 cm inter-assembly pitch. The B and W mPower core design and cycle management plan, which were performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, follow the pattern of a typical nuclear reactor fuel cycle design and analysis performed by most nuclear fuel management organizations, such as fuel vendors and utilities. However, B and W is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for four years of continuous power operations without refueling and without the hurdles of chemical shim. (authors)

  10. Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars Wednesday, October 7, 2015 - 1:10pm NNSA Blog Sandia National Laboratories post-doctoral fellow Stan Chou demonstrates the reaction of more efficiently catalyzing hydrogen. In this simulation, the color is from dye excited by light and generating electrons for the catalyst molybdenum disulfide to evolve hydrogen. ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. -Sandia National Laboratories researchers seeking to make

  11. Light-Powered Microbial Fuel Cell Offering Clean, Renewable Hydrogen-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Energy Source - Energy Innovation Portal Light-Powered Microbial Fuel Cell Offering Clean, Renewable Hydrogen-Based Alternative Energy Source Inventors: Daniel Noguera, Timothy Donohue, Marc Anderson, Katherine McMahon, M. Isabel Tejedor-Anderson, Yun Cho, Rodolfo Perez Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary One of the greatest challenges of our time is the need for new, renewable sources of energy to offset modern

  12. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11-3119 Unlimited Release Printed May 2011 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Joseph W. Pratt, Leonard E. Klebanoff, Karina Munoz-Ramos, Abbas A. Akhil, Dita B. Curgus, and Benjamin L. Schenkman Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  13. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell- Powered Material Handling Equipment Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-56408 April 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No.

  14. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. CCAT Energy Initiatives: Joel M. Rinebold 2 Strengths, Weaknesses, Barriers * Strengths - Value for Energy - Value for Environment - Value for Economy * Weaknesses - Lack of Planning and Analysis - Lack of Value Internalization * Barriers - Market Acceptance for D.G. - High Cost Due to Low Production - Predictable Investment 3 Hydrogen Roadmap

  15. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J.; Steinfeld, G.

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  16. The Modeling of a Standalone Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-10-27

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module; two heat exchanger modules; and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will benefit design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the heat-up stage of an SOFC APU and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in the paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  17. Surveillance of PLUS7{sup TM} fuel for PWR nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Y. K.; Kim, J. I.; Shin, J. C.; Chung, J. G.; Chung, S. K.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, T. H.; Yoon, Y. B.; Kim, T. W.

    2012-07-01

    The surveillance program on the advanced nuclear fuel of PLUS{sup TM} developed for Optimized Power Reactors of 1000 MWe (OPR1000s) and Advanced Power Reactors of 1400 MWe (APR1400s) in Korea was completed in the early of 2011. This fuel had been jointly developed through the extensive out-of-pile tests with Westinghouse for three years since 1999. The irradiation tests for the in-reactor verification using four lead test assemblies (LTAs) had been started in Ulchin unit 3 in 2002. During the overhaul period after each irradiation test, the eight (8) burnup-dependent parameters were measured without disassembling using the precise measurement systems in pool-side. After three cycle irradiations, one test assembly was disassembled and the rod-wise inspection on twenty rods was performed. During this stage, five (5) parameters were measured and evaluated. Among these twenty rods, ten rods including skeleton were sent to hot-cell test facility for further detailed examination and are currently being examined. After in-reactor verifications during two cycles, this fuel was commercially supplied to eight (8) OPR1000s sequentially. Currently all eight (8) OPR1000s were replaced with this fuel. In addition, this fuel is going to be supplied to four (4) APR1400s being constructed in Braka, UAE as well as four(4) OPR1000s and four(4) APR1400s being constructed in Korea. In the meanwhile, the surveillance program for the commercially supplied fuel has been launched to confirm growth, creep, corrosion and deformation, etc. obtained during LTA irradiation. Four (4) limiting fuel assemblies, that is, two (2) assemblies to be discharged after 2 cycle irradiations and the other two (2) after 3 cycle irradiations were selected for this surveillance program. Irradiation data of commercially supplied fuels are compared and confirmed to LTA irradiation performance behaviors on this paper. Among the eight (8) burnup-dependent parameters, the interesting ones were irradiation

  18. Electrojet-independent ionospheric extremely low frequency/very low frequency wave generation by powerful high frequency waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Chang, Chia-Lie

    2010-08-15

    Results of extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) wave generation by intensity-modulated high frequency (HF) heaters of 3.2 MHz in Gakona, Alaska, near local solar noon during a geomagnetic quiet time, are presented to support an electrojet-independent ELF/VLF wave generation mechanism. The modulation was set by splitting the HF transmitter array into two subarrays; one was run at cw full power and the other run alternatively at 50% and 100% power modulation by rectangular waves of 2.02, 5, 8, and 13 kHz. The most effective generation was from the X-mode heater with 100% modulation. While the 8 kHz radiation has the largest wave amplitude, the spectral intensity of the radiation increases with the modulation frequency, i.e., 13 kHz line is the strongest. Ionograms recorded significant virtual height spread of the O-mode sounding echoes. The patterns of the spreads and the changes of the second and third hop virtual height traces caused by the O/X-mode heaters are distinctively different, evidencing that it is due to differently polarized density irregularities generated by the filamentation instability of the O/X-mode HF heaters.

  19. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  20. Economic Impact of Fuel Cell Deployment in Forklifts and for Backup Power under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report presents estimates of economic impacts associated with expenditures under the ARRA, also known as the Recovery Act, by the USDOE for the deployment of fuel cells in forklift and backup power applications.

  1. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  2. Direction on characterization of fuel debris for defueling process in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yano, Kimihiko; Kitagaki, Toru; Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Wakui, Ryohei; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kaji, Naoya; Koizumi, Kenji; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), defueling of the fuel debris in the reactor core of Units 1-3 is planned to start within 10 years. Preferential items in the characterization of the fuel debris were identified for this work, in which the procedure and handling tools were assumed on the basis of information on 1F and experience after the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The candidates for defueling tools for 1F were selected from among the TMI- 2 defueling tools. It was found that they could be categorized into six groups according to their operating principles. The important properties of the fuel debris for defueling were selected considering the effect of the target materials on the tool performance. The selected properties are shape, size, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, melting point, hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. Of these properties, the mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness) were identified as preferential items, because too few data on these characteristics of fuel debris are available in past severe accident studies. (authors)

  3. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. The technical effort was conducted by EPRI, consultant David Thimsen, Kaltec of Minnesota, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) and Interpoll Laboratories. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) made available two test skids originally used to test an ERC 30 kW carbonate fuel cell at the Destec Coal Gasification Plan in Plaquemine, LA. EPRI`s carbonate fuel cell pilot plant was installed at the Anoka County Regional Landfill in Ramsey, Minnesota. Additional gas cleaning equipment was installed to evaluate a potentially inexpensive, multi-stage gas cleaning process to remove sulfur and chlorine in the gas to levels acceptable for long-term, economical carbonate fuel cell operation. The pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf (27,500 Nm{sup 3}) of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations. Less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorined hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide. These were the detection limits of the analytical procedures employed. It is probable that the actual concentrations are below these analytical limits.

  4. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2008-09-09

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  5. A novel configuration for coproducing transportation fuels and power from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy and Mitretek Systems have evolved and evaluated a concept that combines the use of gas and coal for the highly efficient production of electric power and high quality transportation fuels. In its simplest form, this coproduction cofeed (CoCo) concept consists of diverting coal-derived synthesis gas from the combined cycle power block of an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) unit to a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactor. The unreacted synthesis gas from the F-T reactor, and imported natural gas are then combusted in the downstream combined cycle power generation unit. Combining processes in this manner accomplishes the equivalent of natural gas to liquid synthesis while eliminating the conversion losses associated with the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. The paper discusses the benefits of coproduction.

  6. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  7. A solid oxide fuel cell power system: 1992--1993 field operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veyo, S.E.; Kusunoki, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Kaneko, S.; Yokoyama, H.

    1994-05-01

    Westinghouse has deployed fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems in order to obtain useful customer feedback. Recently, Westinghouse has deployed 20 kW class natural gas fueled SOFC generator modules integrated into two 25 kW SOFC systems, the first with The UTILITIES, a Japanese consortium. The UTILITIES 25 kW SOFC system is the focus of this paper. The unit was shipped to the Rokko Island Test Center for Advanced Energy Systems (near Kobe, Japan) operated by Kansai Electric Power Co.; testing was initiated February 1992. Module A operated for 2601 hours at an ave output 16.6 kW dc; final shutdown was induced by current stability problems with dissipator (restart not possible because of damaged cells). Module B operated for 1579 hours at ave output 17.8 kWdc. The unit was damaged by operation at excessively high fuel utilization > 91%. It was rebuilt and returned to Rokko Island. This module B2 operated for 1843 hours on PNG; shutdown was cuased by air supply failure. After a new blower and motor were installed July 1993, the system was restarted August 5, 1993 and operated continuously until November 10, 1993, when an automatic shutdown was induced as part of a MITI licensing inspection. After restart, the unit passed 6000 hours of operation on desulfurized PNG on January 25, 1994. Westinghouse`s future plans are outlined.

  8. Fossil fuel power plants: Computer systems for power plant control, maintenance, and operation. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fossil fuel power plant computer systems. Minicomputer and microcomputer systems used for monitoring, process control, performance calculations, alarming, and administrative applications are discussed. Topics emphasize power plant control, maintenance and operation. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. biomass resource can be used several ways that provide domestic, renewable energy to users. Understanding the capacity of the biomass resource, its potential in energy markets, and the most economic utilization of biomass is important in policy development and project selection. This study analyzed the potential for biomass within markets and the competition between them. The study found that biomass has the potential to compete well in the jet fuel and gasoline markets, penetration of biomass in markets is likely to be limited by the size of the resource, and that biomass is most cost effectively used for fuels instead of power in mature markets unless carbon capture and sequestration is available and the cost of carbon is around $80/metric ton CO2e.

  10. Capacity utilization and fuel consumption in the electric power industry, 1970-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report updates the 1980 Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication entitled Trends in the Capacity Utilization and Fuel Consumption of Electric Utility Powerplants, 1970-1978, DOE/EIA-184/32. The analysis covers the period from 1970 through 1981, and examines trends during the period prior to the 1973 Arab oil embargo (1970-1973), after the embargo (1974-1977), and during the immediate past (1978-1981). The report also addresses other factors affecting the electric utility industry since the oil embargo: the reduction in foreign oil supplies as a result of the 1979 Iranian crisis, the 1977 drought in the western United States, the 1978 coal strike by the United Mine Workers Union, and the shutdown of nuclear plants in response to the accident at Three Mile Island. Annual data on electric utility generating capacity, net generation, and fuel consumption are provided to identify changes in patterns of power plant capacity utilization and dispatching.

  11. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected

  12. Impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants. Case study: PWR during routine operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Haggard, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present data in support of evaluating the impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposure. To determine quantitatively whether fuel cladding failure contributes significantly to occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure measurements were taken at comparable locations in two mirror-image pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and their common auxiliary building. One reactor, Unit B, was experiencing degraded fuel characterized as 0.125% fuel pin-hole leakers and was operating at approximately 55% of the reactor's licensed maximum core power, while the other reactor, Unit A, was operating under normal conditions with less than 0.01% fuel pin-hole leakers at 100% of the reactor's licensed maximum core power. Measurements consisted of gamma spectral analyses, radiation exposure rates and airborne radionuclide concentrations. In addition, data from primary coolant sample results for the previous 20 months on both reactor coolant systems were analyzed. The results of the measurements and coolant sample analyses suggest that a 3560-megawatt-thermal (1100 MWe) PWR operating at full power with 0.125% failed fuel can experience an increase of 540% in radiation exposure rates as compared to a PWR operating with normal fuel. In specific plant areas, the degraded fuel may elevate radiation exposure rates even more.

  13. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  14. Evaluation of innovative fossil fuel power plants with CO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-15

    This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO{sub 2} removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion CO{sub 2} removal.

  15. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  16. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  20. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanders, P.J.

    1999-02-15

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field H{sub c}, near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an H{sub c} of {approximately}35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D{sup {minus}1}. As D increases there is a drop in H{sub c}, associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion.

  1. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklof, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  2. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mago, Pedro; Newell, LeLe

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  4. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM 200 kW - PC25C FUEL CELL POWER PLANT FOR THE ST.-AGNES-HOSPITAL, BOCHOLT, GERMANY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dipl.-Ing. Knut Stahl

    2002-01-31

    Since the beginning of the Year 2001, the Saint-Agnes-Hospital in Bocholt, Germany, operates a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) to provide the base load of electrical power as well as heat in Winter and air conditioning in Summer. The project was made possible by federal funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a strategic alliance with the local utility company, the Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW), and with the gas supplier of BEW, the Thyssengas GmbH. The fuel cell power plant is combined with an absorption chiller. It is highly efficient and has an excellent power to heat ratio. The operation during the first Year went smoothly and nearly free of trouble.

  6. Energy System and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Heat and Power High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Light Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2015-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE)’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is spearheading a program with industry to deploy and independently monitor five kilowatt-electric (kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) in light commercial buildings. This publication discusses results from PNNL’s research efforts to independently evaluate manufacturer-stated engineering, economic, and environmental performance of these CHP FCSs at installation sites. The analysis was done by developing parameters for economic comparison of CHP installations. Key thermodynamic terms are first defined, followed by an economic analysis using both a standard accounting approach and a management accounting approach. Key economic and environmental performance parameters are evaluated, including (1) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of power, (2) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of energy, (3) the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution emissions with a switch from conventional power plants and furnaces to CHP FCSs; (4) the change in GHG mitigation costs from the switch; and (5) the change in human health costs related to air pollution. From the power perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical power is estimated to span a range from $15–19,000/ kilowatt-electric (kWe) (depending on site-specific changes in installation, fuel, and other costs), while the average per unit cost of electrical and heat recovery power varies between $7,000 and $9,000/kW. From the energy perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical energy ranges from $0.38 to $0.46/kilowatt-hour-electric (kWhe), while the average per unit cost per unit of electrical and heat recovery energy varies from $0.18 to $0.23/kWh. These values are calculated from engineering and economic performance data provided by the manufacturer (not independently measured data). The GHG emissions were estimated to decrease by

  7. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  8. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  9. An extended conventional fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarangella, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and a thermal output of about 500 MW; it is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array. The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for a four-year cycle based on its presumed attractiveness to potential customers. This option is a once-through fuel cycle in which the entire core is discharged and replaced after four years. In addition, a conventional fuel utilization strategy, employing a periodic partial reload and shuffle, was developed as an alternative to the four-year once-through fuel cycle. This study, which was performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, is a typical multi-cycle projection analysis of the type performed by most fuel management organizations such as fuel vendors and utilities. In the industry, the results of such projections are used by the financial arms of these organizations to assist in making long-term decisions. In the case of the B and W mPower reactor, this analysis demonstrates flexibility for customers who consider the once-through fuel cycle unacceptable from a fuel utilization standpoint. As expected, when compared to the once-through concept, reloads of the B and W mPower reactor will achieve higher batch average discharge exposure, will have adequate shut-down margin, and will have a relatively flat hot excess reactivity trend at the expense of slightly increased peaking. (authors)

  10. Evaulation of power-reactor fuel-rod-analysis capabilities. Phase 1 topical report. Volume 2. Code evaluation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, D.R.

    1983-09-01

    FRAPCON-2 (V1M4) was applied to generate fuel performance predictions for 60 rods of a recently evaluated power reactor data sample. Rod design, operational, and performance data was obtained from the RPRI Fuel Performance Data Base. The data was systematically processed to generate code input parameters. FRAPCON was initially applied for scoping studies to identify the best estimate mechanical response and fission gas release modeling options. Based on final scoping results, the balance of rods were analyzed with FRACAS-2 mechanics and FASTGRASS gas release models. Comparisons between measured and calculated fuel and cladding deformation, fission gas release, internal pressure, and gas composition are presented and interpreted relative to code error magnitudes, distributions, and trends versus rod design and operating parameters. The results indicate the FRAPCON-2 has best estimate capability for analysis of moderate duty fuel rod performance, provided that rod fabrication parameters are well characterized, and the fuel is dimensionally stable.

  11. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012: America's Partner in Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report, compiled by Fuel Cells 2000 with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, profiles a select group of nationally recognizable companies and corporations that are deploying or demonstrating fuel cells.

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  13. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  14. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, S. James

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  15. Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells ...

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  17. Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN; Wilson, Kirk A [Knoxville, TN

    2002-04-23

    A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

  18. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of

  19. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the

  20. A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat Introduction In order for metal products to have desired properties, most metal is thermally processed at a high temperature one or more times under a controlled atmosphere. Many different thermal operations are used including oxide reduction, annealing, brazing, sintering, and carburizing. A mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen gas often provides a reducing

  1. Integrating engineering design improvements with exoelectrogen enrichmentprocess to increase power output from microbial fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Keller, Martin; Davison, Brian H

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) hold promise as a green technology for bioenergy production. The challenge is to improve the engineering design while exploiting the ability of microbes to generate and transfer electrons directly to electrodes. A strategy using a combination of improved anode design and an enrichment processwas formulated to improve power densities. The designwas based on a flow-through anode with minimal dead volume and a high electrode surface area per unit volume. The strategy focused on promoting biofilm formation via a combination of forced flow through the anode, carbon limitation, and step-wise reduction of external resistance. The enrichment process resulted in development of exoelectrogenic biofilm communities dominated by Anaeromusa spp. This is the first report identifying organisms fromthe Veillonellaceae family in MFCs. The power density of the resulting MFC using a ferricyanide cathode reached 300Wm?3 net anode volume (3220mWm?2), which is about a third of what is estimated to be necessary for commercial consideration. The operational stability of the MFC using high specific surface area electrodes was demonstrated by operating the MFC for a period of over four months.

  2. ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

    2003-06-10

    Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

  3. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga; Blanchet, Scott; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Borup, Rod; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-03-19

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (≤0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (≥1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss

  4. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  5. H[sub 2]/Cl[sub 2] fuel cells for power and HCl production - chemical cogeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelb, A.H.

    1991-08-20

    A fuel cell for the electrolytic production of hydrogen chloride and the generation of electric energy from hydrogen and chlorine gas is disclosed. In typical application, the fuel cell operates from the hydrogen and chlorine gas generated by a chlorine electrolysis generator. The hydrogen chloride output is used to maintain acidity in the anode compartment of the electrolysis cells, and the electric energy provided from the fuel cell is used to power a portion of the electrolysis cells in the chlorine generator or for other chlorine generator electric demands. The fuel cell itself is typically formed by a passage for the flow of hydrogen chloride or hydrogen chloride and sodium chloride electrolyte between anode and cathode gas diffusion electrodes. 3 figures.

  6. H.sub.2 /C.sub.12 fuel cells for power and HCl production - chemical cogeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelb, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell for the electrolytic production of hydrogen chloride and the generation of electric energy from hydrogen and chlorine gas is disclosed. In typical application, the fuel cell operates from the hydrogen and chlorine gas generated by a chlorine electrolysis generator. The hydrogen chloride output is used to maintain acidity in the anode compartment of the electrolysis cells, and the electric energy provided from the fuel cell is used to power a portion of the electrolysis cells in the chlorine generator or for other chlorine generator electric demands. The fuel cell itself is typically formed by a passage for the flow of hydrogen chloride or hydrogen chloride and sodium chloride electrolyte between anode and cathode gas diffusion electrodes, the HCl increa This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-86ER80366 with the Department of Energy and the United States Government has certain rights thereto.

  7. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  8. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  9. Fuel Cells in Telecommunications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells Simply Powerful Fuel Cells in Telecommunications J. Blanchard December 2011 - ReliOn Overview Markets Backup, grid supplement, and off grid power systems for critical ...

  10. An Internet-based interactive module for air emissions from fossil fuel based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, D.; O`Leary, K.; O`Reilly, S.

    1997-12-31

    The proliferation of the Internet, Web pages and associated software tools available for developing multimedia material provides significant opportunities in training, education and information transfer. This paper will describe the development, testing and evaluation of an interactive teaching module aimed at college and university students that have previous education in thermodynamics and basic chemistry. The module is currently in development at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University with support from Environment Canada. Preliminary testing of this module is expected to begin late January. The module contains options to look at CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions associated with electric power generation in thermal stations that use coal, natural gas, crude and distillate oil. Factors governing the thermal efficiency of typical boiler systems and the thermodynamic limitations for converting heat into work are discussed. Supporting background information such as emission trends and emission factors used in calculations are also included as part of this module. A simple Rankine cycle without reheat or regeneration is considered to compare the emissions per unit energy delivered from each of the fuels considered. For natural gas and distillate oil, combined cycle operation is considered with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator combination replacing the boiler in the simple Rankine cycle. For all fuels, the cogeneration option is investigated by expanding the steam to an intermediate pressure in the turbine and utilizing the remaining heat by condensing the steam in a heat recovery application. Emission factors and basic information on CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies are utilized to calculate and report the emissions per unit energy delivered under the various scenarios investigated.

  11. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient nonlinear models of

  12. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  13. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012: America's Partner in Power

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report, compiled by Fuel Cells 2000 with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program, profiles a select group of nationally recognizable companies and corporations that are deploying or demon

  14. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the Bottom Line for Businesses and Communities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report, written and compiled by Breakthrough Technologies Institute (BTI) with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, provides an overview of fuel cell installations at businesses and municipal buildings or facilities run by non-profit organizations or institutions.

  15. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J.

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  16. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    The topic Nuclear Safety encompasses a broad spectrum of focal areas within the nuclear industry; one specific aspect centers on the performance and integrity of nuclear fuel during a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). This specific accident has proven to be fundamentally difficult to theoretically characterize due to the numerous empirically driven characteristics that quantify the fuel and reactor performance. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility was designed and operated to better understand fuel behavior under extreme (i.e. accident) conditions; it was shutdown in 1994. Recently, efforts have been underway to commission the TREAT facility to continue testing of advanced accident tolerant fuels (i.e. recently developed fuel concepts). To aid in the restart effort, new simulation tools are being used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuels during facility’s transient events. This study focuses specifically on the characterizing modeled effects of fuel particles within the fuel matrix of the TREAT. The objective of this study was to (1) identify the impact of modeled heterogeneity within the fuel matrix during a transient event, and (2) demonstrate acceptable modeling processes for the purpose of TREAT safety analyses, specific to fuel matrix and particle size. Hypothetically, a fuel that is dominantly heterogeneous will demonstrate a clearly different temporal heating response to that of a modeled homogeneous fuel. This time difference is a result of the uniqueness of the thermal diffusivity within the fuel particle and fuel matrix. Using MOOSE/BISON to simulate the temperature time-lag effect of fuel particle diameter during a transient event, a comparison of the average graphite moderator temperature surrounding a spherical particle of fuel was made for both types of fuel simulations. This comparison showed that at a given time and with a specific fuel particle diameter, the fuel particle (heterogeneous) simulation and the homogeneous simulation

  17. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1997-12-31

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission`s primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters.

  18. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  19. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report, Appendix B-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    Directed Technologies, Inc. has previously submitted a detailed technical assessment and concept design for a mid-size, five-passenger fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), under contract to the Argonne National Laboratory. As a supplement to that contract, DTI has reviewed the literature and conducted a preliminary evaluation of two energy carriers for the FCEV: hydrogen and methanol. This report compares the estimated fuel efficiency, cost of producing and delivering the fuel, and the resultant life cycle costs of the FCEV when fueled directly by hydrogen and when fueled by methanol with on-board reforming to produce the required hydrogen-rich gas for the fuel cell. This work will be supplemented and expanded under the Ford contract with the Department of Energy to develop the FCEV and its fuel infrastructure.

  20. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Gillett, James E.; Basel, Richard A.; Antenucci, Annette B.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  1. Confirmatory Survey of the Fuel Oil Tank Area - Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Eureka, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS, WADE C

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  2. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies operating large

  3. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  4. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  5. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-07-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development.

  6. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  7. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  8. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crăciunescu, Aurelian; Pătularu, Laurenţiu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena

    2015-03-10

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.

  9. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. ...

  10. Surveillance of PLUS7{sup TM} fuel for PWR nuclear power plant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1999. The irradiation tests for the in-reactor verification using four lead test ... After in-reactor verifications during two cycles, this fuel was commercially supplied to ...

  11. Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Technology PDF icon 2004deerheywood.pdf More Documents & Publications An Energy Evolution:Alternative Fueled Vehicle Comparisons WORKSHOP REPORT:Light-Duty Vehicles Technical ...

  12. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. ... a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. ...

  13. On feasibility of a closed nuclear power fuel cycle with minimum radioactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Davidenko, V. D.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    Practical implementation of a closed nuclear fuel cycle implies solution of two main tasks. The first task is creation of environmentally acceptable operating conditions of the nuclear fuel cycle considering, first of all, high radioactivity of the involved materials. The second task is creation of effective and economically appropriate conditions of involving fertile isotopes in the fuel cycle. Creation of technologies for management of the high-level radioactivity of spent fuel reliable in terms of radiological protection seems to be the hardest problem.

  14. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heating Oil Substitution Fuel in New England May 9 - 10, 2012, Manchester, New Hampshire Envergent Technologies 2009 Envergent Technologies LLC - UOP Ensyn Joint ...

  15. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  16. Revised FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004) 2018-SR-02-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erika Bailey

    2011-10-27

    The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963. The reactor was tested at low power during the first couple years of operation. Power ascension testing above 1 MW commenced in December 1965 immediately following the receipt of a high-power operating license. In October 1966 during power ascension, zirconium plates at the bottom of the reactor vessel became loose and blocked sodium coolant flow to some fuel subassemblies. Two subassemblies started to melt and the reactor was manually shut down. No abnormal releases to the environment occurred. Forty-two months later after the cause had been determined, cleanup completed, and the fuel replaced, Fermi 1 was restarted. However, in November 1972, PRDC made the decision to decommission Fermi 1 as the core was approaching its burn-up limit. The fuel and blanket subassemblies were shipped off-site in 1973. Following that, the secondary sodium system was drained and sent off-site. The radioactive primary sodium was stored on-site in storage tanks and 55 gallon (gal) drums until it was shipped off-site in 1984. The initial decommissioning of Fermi 1 was completed in 1975. Effective January 23, 1976, DPR-9 was transferred to the Detroit Edison Company (DTE) as a 'possession only' license (DTE 2010a). This report details the confirmatory activities performed during the second Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE

  17. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications Michael Ulsh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology Peter Protopappas Sentech Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-52125 August 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  18. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  19. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential: Independent Review | Department of Energy -10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  20. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The paper consists of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. A comparison is made of opportunity fuels, defined as fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels. Types of fuels for which some limited technical data is provided include petroleum coke, garbage, wood waste, and tires. Power plant economics and pollution concerns are listed for each fuel, and compared to coal and natural gas power plant costs. A detailed cost breakdown for different plant types is provided for use in base fuel pricing.

  1. Advanced nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrani, Kurt

    2014-07-14

    Kurt Terrani uses his expertise in materials science to develop safer fuel for nuclear power plants.

  2. Advanced nuclear fuel

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Terrani, Kurt

    2014-07-15

    Kurt Terrani uses his expertise in materials science to develop safer fuel for nuclear power plants.

  3. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  4. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... the environment PT Loma WWTP, Biogas to Fuel Cell Power BioFuels Energy Biogas to BioMethane to 4.5 MW Fuel Cell Power 3 FCE Fuel Cells 2 via directed Biomethane ...

  5. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Provides Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Nuclear Power Reactor Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released its Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Nuclear Power...

  7. Chemicals, fuels and electricity from coal. A proposed tri-generation concept for utilization of CO{sub 2} from power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    A tri-generation concept is proposed for the 21st century for making liquid fuels and chemicals along with electricity using CO{sub 2} from flue gases of coal-based electric power plants. The CO{sub 2} from flue gas in the power plant can be converted with CH{sub 4} (natural gas) to form synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2} mixture) using the waste heat in the power plant. The H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} in the flue gas will be used as co-reactants and need not be separated from the flue gas. The hot synthesis gas can be used as feedstock for fuel cells for electricity generation (such as MCFC and SOFC). The hot synthesis gas can also be used for gas turbines to generate electricity. The synthesis gas at moderate temperature can be converted into chemicals and fuels, e.g., methanol and mixed alcohols for chemical and fuel uses, dimethylether (DME) and mixed ethers for diesel fuel, dimethyl carbonate and acetic acid for chemicals. The fuels thus produced may be used either for conventional IC engines or in fuel cell-driven vehicles. This concept could also be applied, in principle, for natural gas-based power plants and IGCC power plants.

  8. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures

  9. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in ...

  10. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  11. H2 Refuel H-Prize Aims to Make Fueling Hydrogen Powered Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A fuel cell electric vehicle is refueled with hydrogen at the National Wind Technology Center in Colorado. The H2 Refuel H-Prize is challenging Americas innovators to develop ...

  12. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - NEAC Rpt of Fuel Cycle comm slides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R t f th F l C l Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development p Subcommittee of NEAC B Ri h (Ch i ) Burton Richter (Chairman) Margaret Chu Darleane Hoffman Ray Juzaitis Ray ...

  14. Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acidsa fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acidsoverriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASUs approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

  15. P.L. 95-620, "Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act" (1978)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-13

    This act prohibits: (1) the use of natural gas or petroleum as a energy source in any new electric powerplant; and (2) construction of any new electric powerplant without the capability to use coal or any alternate fuel as a primary energy source. Prohibits the use of natural gas or petroleum as the primary energy source in a new major fuel-burning installation (MFBI) consisting of a boiler.

  16. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Nuclear Fuel Cycles Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Fuel Cycles Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction and Background The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is defined as the total set of operations required to produce fission energy and manage the associated nuclear materials. It can have different attributes, including the extension of natural resources, or the minimization of waste disposal requirements. The NFC, as depicted in Figure 4.O.1, is comprised of a set of operations that include the extraction of uranium (U) resources from the

  17. Dual-Fuel Combustion Turbine Provides Reliable Power to U.S. Navy Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, Mark A.)

    2002-01-01

    In keeping with a long-standing tradition of running Base utilities as a business, the U.S. Navy Submarine Base New London installed a dual-fuel combustion turbine with a heat recovery boiler. The 5-megawatt (MW) gas- and oil-fired combustion turbine sits within the Lower Base area, just off the shores of the Thames River. The U.S. Navy owns, operates, and maintains the combined heat and power (CHP) plant, which provides power to the Navy?s nuclear submarines when they are in port and to the Navy?s training facilities at the Submarine Base. Heat recovered from the turbine is used to produce steam for use in Base housing, medical facilities, and laundries. In FY00, the Navy estimates that it will save over $500,000 per year as a result of the combined heat and power unit.

  18. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  19. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  20. Self-cooling mono-container fuel cell generators and power plants using an array of such generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Zafred, Paolo R.

    1998-01-01

    A mono-container fuel cell generator (10) contains a layer of interior insulation (14), a layer of exterior insulation (16) and a single housing (20) between the insulation layers, where fuel cells, containing electrodes and electrolyte, are surrounded by the interior insulation (14) in the interior (12) of the generator, and the generator is capable of operating at temperatures over about 650.degree. C., where the combination of interior and exterior insulation layers have the ability to control the temperature in the housing (20) below the degradation temperature of the housing material. The housing can also contain integral cooling ducts, and a plurality of these generators can be positioned next to each other to provide a power block array with interior cooling.

  1. Self-cooling mono-container fuel cell generators and power plants using an array of such generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.

    1998-05-12

    A mono-container fuel cell generator contains a layer of interior insulation, a layer of exterior insulation and a single housing between the insulation layers, where fuel cells, containing electrodes and electrolyte, are surrounded by the interior insulation in the interior of the generator, and the generator is capable of operating at temperatures over about 650 C, where the combination of interior and exterior insulation layers have the ability to control the temperature in the housing below the degradation temperature of the housing material. The housing can also contain integral cooling ducts, and a plurality of these generators can be positioned next to each other to provide a power block array with interior cooling. 7 figs.

  2. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: "An Automaker's Views on the Transition to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles"

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seminar 2008 Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop "An Automaker's Views on the Transition to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles" Phoenix, AZ 27 October 2008 Britta Gross General Motors - Hydrogen and Electrical Infrastructure Gas-Friendly to Gas-Free Gas-Friendly to Gas-Free Project Driveway: 100 Fuel Cell Vehicles in LA, NYC, WDC Project Driveway: 100 Fuel Cell Vehicles in LA, NYC, WDC 15 High Volume Is Key! High Volume Is Key! Fuel Cell Commercialization Overview

  3. Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Unit to Provide Renewable Power to Honolulu Port

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unit to Provide Renewable Power to Honolulu Port - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste

  4. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Power Supply For All-Day True Wireless Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Wells

    2008-11-30

    PolyFuel has developed state-of-the-art portable fuel cell technology for the portable computing market. A novel approach to passive water recycling within the MEA has led to significant system simplification and size reduction. Miniature stack technology with very high area utilization and minimalist seals has been developed. A highly integrated balance of plant with very low parasitic losses has been constructed around the new stack design. Demonstration prototype systems integrated with laptop computers have been shown in recent months to leading OEM computer manufacturers. PolyFuel intends to provide this technology to its customers as a reference design as a means of accelerating the commercialization of portable fuel cell technology. The primary goal of the project was to match the energy density of a commercial lithium ion battery for laptop computers. PolyFuel made large strides against this goal and has now demonstrated 270 Wh/liter compared with lithium ion energy densities of 300 Wh/liter. Further, more incremental, improvements in energy density are envisioned with an additional 20-30% gains possible in each of the next two years given further research and development.

  5. The U.S.-Russian joint studies on using power reactors to disposition surplus weapon plutonium as spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chebeskov, A.; Kalashnikov, A.; Bevard, B.; Moses, D.; Pavlovichev, A.

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, the US and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study of the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons plutonium in both countries. The options included long term storage, immobilization of the plutonium in glass or ceramic for geologic disposal, and the conversion of weapons plutonium to spent fuel in power reactors. For the latter option, the US is only considering the use of existing light water reactors (LWRs) with no new reactor construction for plutonium disposition, or the use of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water reactors. While Russia advocates building new reactors, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia and possibly Ukraine, the existing BN-60O fast neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant in Russia, or the use of the Canadian CANDU reactors. Six of the seven existing VVER-1000 reactors in Russia and the eleven VVER-1000 reactors in Ukraine are all of recent vintage and can be converted to use partial MOX cores. These existing VVER-1000 reactors are capable of converting almost 300 kg of surplus weapons plutonium to spent fuel each year with minimum nuclear power plant modifications. Higher core loads may be achievable in future years.

  6. Utilization of a fuel cell power plant for the capture and conversion of gob well gas. Final report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybylic, A.R.; Haynes, C.D.; Haskew, T.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    A preliminary study has been made to determine if a 200 kW fuel cell power plant operating on variable quality coalbed methane can be placed and successfully operated at the Jim Walter Resources No. 4 mine located in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. The purpose of the demonstration is to investigate the effects of variable quality (50 to 98% methane) gob gas on the output and efficiency of the power plant. To date, very little detail has been provided concerning the operation of fuel cells in this environment. The fuel cell power plant will be located adjacent to the No. 4 mine thermal drying facility rated at 152 M British thermal units per hour. The dryer burns fuel at a rate of 75,000 cubic feet per day of methane and 132 tons per day of powdered coal. The fuel cell power plant will provide 700,000 British thermal units per hour of waste heat that can be utilized directly in the dryer, offsetting coal utilization by approximately 0.66 tons per day and providing an avoided cost of approximately $20 per day. The 200 kilowatt electrical power output of the unit will provide a utility cost reduction of approximately $3,296 each month. The demonstration will be completely instrumented and monitored in terms of gas input and quality, electrical power output, and British thermal unit output. Additionally, real-time power pricing schedules will be applied to optimize cost savings. 28 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaupp, A.

    1996-12-31

    Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

  8. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  9. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 85 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 84 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 119 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 6/29/12. Memo regarding Cost Study Manual (60.85 KB) Cost Study Manual (334.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources Management QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 7 QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 6

    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants August 2012 - December 2013 S. Venkataraman, G. Jordan, and M. O'Connor GE Energy Schenectady, New York N. Kumar and S. Lefton Intertek AIM

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nuclear & Uranium Glossary FAQS Overview Data Status of U.S. nuclear outages (interactive) Nuclear power plants Uranium & nuclear fuel Spent nuclear fuel All nuclear data ...

  16. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Alternative Fuels - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade,

  17. Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Gasoline and distillate demand impact of the Energy Independance and Security Act of 2007 deer08_shore.pdf (228.14 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power - Committee on Energy and Commerce Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power

  18. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  19. Microsoft Word - Fuel Substitution Elasticities final.docx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution June 2012 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Independence and Security Act of 2007 Enacted December 19, 2007 The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) aims to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum. EISA includes provisions to increase the supply of renewable alternative fuel sources by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels annually by 2022. In

  1. Fossil-fuel power plants: Computer systems for power plant control, maintenance, and operation. October 1976-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning fossil-fuel power plant computer systems. Minicomputer and microcomputer systems used for monitoring, process control, performance calculations, alarming, and administrative applications are discussed. Topics emphasize power plant control, maintenance and operation. (Contains 240 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Chemical Kinetics Studies of Alternative Fuels_Sung_092310

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies of Alt ti F l Alternative Fuels Chih-Jen (Jackie) Sung Chih Jen (Jackie) Sung Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut y Prepared for 2010 MACCCR and CEFRC Conferences 2010 MACCCR and CEFRC Conferences Princeton, NJ September 23, 2010 Accomplishments - Year 1 * * Autoignition Autoignition of of n n- -Butanol Butanol at Low to Intermediate at Low to Intermediate Temperatures and Elevated Pressures* Temperatures and Elevated Pressures* Temperatures and Elevated

  3. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  4. Submersion criticality safety of tungsten-rhenium urania cermet fuel for space propulsion and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.E. Craft; R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. C. King

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear thermal rockets are the preferred propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars, and tungsten–uranium oxide cermet fuels could provide significant performance and cost advantages for nuclear thermal rockets. A nuclear reactor intended for use in space must remain subcritical before and during launch, and must remain subcritical in launch abort scenarios where the reactor falls back to Earth and becomes submerged in terrestrial materials (including seawater, wet sand, or dry sand). Submersion increases reflection of neutrons and also thermalizes the neutron spectrum, which typically increases the reactivity of the core. This effect is typically very significant for compact, fast-spectrum reactors. This paper provides a submersion criticality safety analysis for a representative tungsten/uranium oxide fueled reactor with a range of fuel compositions. Each submersion case considers both the rhenium content in the matrix alloy and the uranium oxide volume fraction in the cermet. The inclusion of rhenium significantly improves the submersion criticality safety of the reactor. While increased uranium oxide content increases the reactivity of the core, it does not significantly affect the submersion behavior of the reactor. There is no significant difference in submersion behavior between reactors with rhenium distributed within the cermet matrix and reactors with a rhenium clad in the coolant channels. The combination of the flooding of the coolant channels in submersion scenarios and the presence of a significant amount of spectral shift absorbers (i.e. high rhenium concentration) further decreases reactivity for short reactor cores compared to longer cores.

  5. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2015 University of California, Irvine, in collaboration with Siemens Corporate Research, developed and demonstrated novel algorithms and dynamic control technology for optimal economic use of CHP systems under 5 MW. The control

  6. Study of trajectories and combustion of fuel-oil droplets in the combustion chamber of a power-plant boiler with the use of a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enyakin, Yu.P.; Usman, Yu.M.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model was developed to permit study of the behavior of fuel-oil droplets in a combustion chamber, and results are presented from a computer calculation performed for the 300-MW model TGMP-314P boiler of a power plant. The program written to perform the calculations was organized so that the first stage would entail calculation of the combustion (vaporization) of a droplet of liquid fuel. The program then provided for a sudden decrease in the mass of the fuel particle, simulating rupture of the coke shell and ejection of some of the liquid. The program then considered the combustion of a hollow coke particle. Physicochemical parameters characteristic of fuel oil M-100 were introduced in the program in the first stage of computations, while parameters characteristic of the coke particle associated with an unburned fuel-oil droplet were included in the second stage.

  7. AECL/U.S. INERI - Development of Inert Matrix Fuels for Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Power Reactors Fuel Requirements and Down-Select Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Carmack; Randy Fielding; Pavel Medvedev; Mitch Meyer

    2005-08-01

    This report documents the first milestone of the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) U.S./Euratom Joint Proposal 1.8 entitled “Development of Inert Matrix Fuels for Plutonium and Minor Actinide Management in Light-Water Reactors.” The milestone represents the assessment and preliminary study of a variety of fuels that hold promise as transmutation and minor actinide burning fuel compositions for light-water reactors. The most promising fuels of interest to the participants on this INERI program have been selected for further study. These fuel compositions are discussed in this report.

  8. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  9. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  10. Fusion power production from TFTR plasmas fueled with deuterium and tritium*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J. D.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Synakowski, E.

    1994-03-01

    Peak fusion power production of 6.2 ± 0.4 MW has been achieved in TFTR plasmas heated by deuterium and tritium neutral beams at a total power of 29.5 MW. These plasmas have an inferred central fusion alpha particle density of 1.2 x 1017 m₋3 without the appearance of either disruptive MHD events or detectable changes in Alfvén wave activity. The measured loss rate of energetic alpha particles agreed with the approximately 5% losses expected from alpha particles which are born on unconfined orbits.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS - BASICS Q: What is a fuel cell? A: A fuel cell is a power generation ... Program research is focused on developing low-cost and highly efficient SOFC power ...

  12. Fuel Cells at NASCAR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Generator (fueled by propane) for powering multi-camera sites and in-field auxiliaries Develop a 250 Watt Man-Portable Generator (fueled by propane) for powering single ...

  13. Breakthrough Vehicle Development - Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing research and development program for fuel cell power systems for transportation applications.

  14. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  15. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Densified biomass as an alternative Army heating and power plant fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathaway, S.A.; Magrino, T.; Lin, J.S.; Duster, K.; Mahon, D.

    1980-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the technical and economic potential of using densified biomass (principally wood pellets) as a coal substitute in Army heating and power plants. The report reviews Department of Defense (DOD) experience with and tests of wood pellets; production of wood pellets (excluding silvicultural aspects); handling, storing, and feeding; combustion; major environental considerations; and economics of use.

  17. Anisotropic Azimuthal Power and Temperature distribution on FuelRod. Impact on Hydride Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, Arthur; Ivanov, Kostadin; Arramova, Maria; Hales, Jason

    2015-04-29

    The degradation of the zirconium cladding may limit nuclear fuel performance. In the high temperature environment of a reactor, the zirconium in the cladding corrodes, releasing hydrogen in the process. Some of this hydrogen is absorbed by the cladding in a highly inhomogeneous manner. The distribution of the absorbed hydrogen is extremely sensitive to temperature and stress concentration gradients. The absorbed hydrogen tends to concentrate near lower temperatures. This hydrogen absorption and hydride formation can cause cladding failure. This project set out to improve the hydrogen distribution prediction capabilities of the BISON fuel performance code. The project was split into two primary sections, first was the use of a high fidelity multi-physics coupling to accurately predict temperature gradients as a function of r, θ , and z, and the second was to use experimental data to create an analytical hydrogen precipitation model. The Penn State version of thermal hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF) was successfully coupled to the DeCART neutronics code. This coupled system was verified by testing and validated by comparison to FRAPCON data. The hydrogen diffusion and precipitation experiments successfully calculated the heat of transport and precipitation rate constant values to be used within the hydrogen model in BISON. These values can only be determined experimentally. These values were successfully implemented in precipitation, diffusion and dissolution kernels that were implemented in the BISON code. The coupled output was fed into BISON models and the hydrogen and hydride distributions behaved as expected. Simulations were conducted in the radial, axial and azimuthal directions to showcase the full capabilities of the hydrogen model.

  18. Solid Fuels Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  19. Control of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants: Research and practice of TPRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming-Chuan Zhang

    1993-12-31

    The generation of electric power in China has been dominated by coal for many years. By the end of 1990, total installed generating capacity reached 135 GW, of which fossil fuel-fired plants accounted for 74 percent. The total electricity generated reached 615 TWh, with fossil fuels accounting for 80.5 percent. About 276 million tons of raw coal are consumed in these fossil fuel-burning units per year, accounting for about 25 percent of the total output of the country. According to the government, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity of Chinese power systems should be at least 240 GW, of which fossil fuels will account for about 77 percent. The coal required for power generation will increase to about 530 million tons per year, accounting for about 38 percent of the total coal output. So, it is obvious that coal consumed in coal-fired power plants occupies a very important place in the national fuel balance. The current environmental protection standards, which are based on ground-level concentrations of pollutants, do not effectively lead to the control of pollution emission concentrations or total SO{sub 2} emissions. Due to the practical limitations of the Chinese economy, there is a limited capability to introduce advanced sulfur emission control technologies. Thus, except for the two 360 MW units imported from Japan for the Luohuang Power Plant in Shichuan province, all the other fossil fuel-fired units have not yet adopted any kind of SO{sub 2} removal measures. The Luohuang units are equipped with Mitsubishi limestone flue gas desulfurization systems. Because of the lack of effective pollution control technologies, large areas of the country have been seriously polluted by SO{sub 2}, and some of them even by acid rain.

  20. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F9: Residual Fuel Oil Consumption Estimates, 2014 State Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Thousand ...