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1

Solid oxide fuel cell combined cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The integration of the solid oxide fuel cell and combustion turbine technologies can result in combined-cycle power plants, fueled with natural gas, that have high efficiencies and clean gaseous emissions. Results of a study are presented in which conceptual designs were developed for 3 power plants based upon such an integration, and ranging in rating from 3 to 10 MW net ac. The plant cycles are described and characteristics of key components summarized. Also, plant design-point efficiency estimates are presented as well as values of other plant performance parameters.

Bevc, F.P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Lundberg, W.L.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Westinghouse fuel cell combined cycle systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficiency (voltage) of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) should increase with operating pressure, and a pressurized SOFC could function as the heat addition process in a Brayton cycle gas turbine (GT) engine. An overall cycle efficiency of 70% should be possible. In cogeneration, half of the waste heat from a PSOFC/GT should be able to be captured in process steam and hot water, leading to a fuel effectiveness of about 85%. In order to make the PSOFC/GT a commercial reality, satisfactory operation of the SOFC at elevated pressure must be verified, a pressurized SOFC generator module must be designed, built, and tested, and the combined cycle and parameters must be optimized. A prototype must also be demonstrated. This paper describes progress toward making the PSOFC/GT a reality.

Veyo, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Configuration and performance of fuel cell-combined cycle options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel-cell-bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural-gas/solid-oxide fuel-cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) are introduced as novel power-plant systems for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20-200 mega-watt (MW) size range. The novel NG-IFCFC power-plant system configures the ambient pressure molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger: The topping solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) combined cycle is not new. The purpose of combining a gas turbine with a fuel cell was to inject pressurized air into a high-pressure fuel cell and to reduce the size, and thereby, to reduce the cost of the fuel cell. Today, the SOFC remains pressurized, but excess chemical energy is combusted and the thermal energy is utilized by the Carnot cycle heat engine to complete the system. ASPEN performance results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC or NG-SOFCCC are better than conventional fuel cell or gas turbine steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. Fuel cell and gas turbine systems should not be viewed as competitors, but as an opportunity to expand to markets where neither gas turbines nor fuel cells alone would be commercially viable. Non-attainment areas are the most likely markets.

Rath, L.K.; Le, P.H.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Combined cycle phosphoric acid fuel cell electric power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By arranging two or more electric power generation cycles in series, combined cycle systems are able to produce electric power more efficiently than conventional single cycle plants. The high fuel to electricity conversion efficiency results in lower plant operating costs, better environmental performance, and in some cases even lower capital costs. Despite these advantages, combined cycle systems for the 1 - 10 megawatt (MW) industrial market are rare. This paper presents a low noise, low (oxides of nitrogen) NOx, combined cycle alternative for the small industrial user. By combining a commercially available phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with a low-temperature Rankine cycle (similar to those used in geothermal applications), electric conversion efficiencies between 45 and 47 percent are predicted. While the simple cycle PAFC is competitive on a cost of energy basis with gas turbines and diesel generators in the 1 to 2 MW market, the combined cycle PAFC is competitive, on a cost of energy basis, with simple cycle diesel generators in the 4 to 25 MW market. In addition, the efficiency and low-temperature operation of the combined cycle PAFC results in a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions with NO{sub x} concentration on the order of 1 parts per million (per weight) (ppmw).

Mollot, D.J.; Micheli, P.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

SciTech Connect

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D. (Knoxville, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water treatment/instrument air, and power conditioning/controls were built and shipped to the site. The two fuel cell modules, each rated at 1 MW on natural gas, were fabricated by FuelCell Energy in its Torrington, CT manufacturing facility. The fuel cell modules were conditioned and tested at FuelCell Energy in Danbury and shipped to the site. Installation of the power plant and connection to all required utilities and syngas was completed. Pre-operation checkout of the entire power plant was conducted and the plant was ready to operate in July 2004. However, fuel gas (natural gas or syngas) was not available at the WREL site due to technical difficulties with the gasifier and other issues. The fuel cell power plant was therefore not operated, and subsequently removed by October of 2005. The WREL fuel cell site was restored to the satisfaction of WREL. FuelCell Energy continues to market carbonate fuel cells for natural gas and digester gas applications. A fuel cell/turbine hybrid is being developed and tested that provides higher efficiency with potential to reach the DOE goal of 60% HHV on coal gas. A system study was conducted for a 40 MW direct fuel cell/turbine hybrid (DFC/T) with potential for future coal gas applications. In addition, FCE is developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants with Versa Power Systems (VPS) as part of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program and has an on-going program for co-production of hydrogen. Future development in these technologies can lead to future coal gas fuel cell applications.

FuelCell Energy

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

Generation Maintenance Application Center: Fuel Gas System for Combustion Turbine Combined Cycle Plant Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guide provides information to assist personnel involved with the maintenance of the fuel gas system at a gas turbine combined cycle facility, including good maintenance practices, preventive maintenance techniques and troubleshooting guidance. BackgroundCombustion turbine combined cycle (CTCC) facilities utilize various components that can be unique to this particular type of power plant. As such, owners and operators of CTCC facilities may find ...

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Conversion to Dual Fuel Capability in Combustion Turbine Plants: Addition of Distillate Oil Firing for Combined Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During development of combined cycle projects, key assumptions and estimates regarding markets and technology on which the project is based may change. With fuel costs of combined cycle plants representing over 90 percent of annual operating cost, sudden changes in fuel pricing demand attention and re-evaluation. Conversion from natural gas fuel only to dual fuel capability with the addition of distillate oil firing systems is a technical response to market conditions that may have long-term as well as s...

2001-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation  

SciTech Connect

The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gray, K.M. [Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA (United States); LaHaye, P.G. [Hague International, South Portland, ME (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Combined Ageing and Thermal Cycling of Compressive Mica Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hybrid Phlogopite mica seals were evaluated in a combined ageing and thermal cycling test. Two interlayers were investigated: a glass and a metallic foil. Samples were first aged at 800 degrees C for {approx}500 or {approx}1000 hrs in a simulated SOFC environment, followed by short-term thermal cycling. The results of hybrid mica with glass interlayer showed extensive reaction and poor thermal cycle stability after ageing for 1036 hrs and 21 thermal cycles. Use of the brazing alloy as the interlayer showed no interaction with mica over 504 hrs, and reasonable leak rates were maintained through eight cycles. The leakage development was found to be consistent with fracture surface and microstructure analyses.

Chou, Y S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Galowitz, Stephen

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Divisions Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division Jeffrey Binder, Division Director Jeffrey Binder, Division Director The Fuel Cycle and Isotopes Division (FCID) of the Nuclear Science...

15

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Abdellatif M. Yacout Argonne National Laboratory Nuclear Engineering Division The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex system with multiple components and activities that are combined to provide nuclear energy to a variety of end users. The end uses of nuclear energy are diverse and include electricity, process heat, water desalination, district heating, and possibly future hydrogen production for transportation and energy storage uses. Components of the nuclear fuel cycle include front end components such as uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, and the reactor component. Back end of the fuel cycle include used fuel coming out the reactor, used fuel temporary and permanent storage, and fuel reprocessing. Combined with those components there

16

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

USCEA fuel cycle '93  

SciTech Connect

The US Council for Energy Awareness sponsored the Fuel Cycle '93 conference in Dallas, Texas, on March 21-24, 1993. Over 250 participants attended, numerous papers were presented, and several panel discussions were held. The focus of most industry participants remains the formation of USEC and the pending US-Russian HEU agreement. Following are brief summaries of two key papers and the Fuel Market Issues panel discussion.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Natural Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System.combined with separate accounting for the use of energy in fuel production, is referred to as full- fuel- cycle (

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Efficiency combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

1990-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

Fuel Cycle Subcommittee  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report to NEAC Report to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of April 23, 2013 Washington D.C. June 13, 2013 Burton Richter (Chair), Margaret Chu, Darleane Hoffman, Raymond Juzaitis, Sekazi K Mtingwa, Ronald P Omberg, Joy L Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC met in Washington on April 23, 2013. The meeting focused on issues relating to the NE advanced reactor program (sections II, III, and IV), and on storage and transportation issues (section V) related to a possible interim storage program that is the first step in moving toward a new permanent repository as recommended by the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) and discussed in the recent response by DOE to Congress on the BRC report 1 . The agenda is given in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fuel-cycle costs for alternative fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares the fuel cycle cost and fresh fuel requirements for a range of nuclear reactor systems including the present day LWR without fuel recycle, an LWR modified to obtain a higher fuel burnup, an LWR using recycle uranium and plutonium fuel, an LWR using a proliferation resistant /sup 233/U-Th cycle, a heavy water reactor, a couple of HTGRs, a GCFR, and several LMFBRs. These reactor systems were selected from a set of 26 developed for the NASAP study and represent a wide range of fuel cycle requirements.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Hybrid Cycles with Hydrogen as Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gas turbine and steam turbine combined cycle fueled with hydrogen have an overall high efficiency. The virtues of the supercritical steam turbine, the high temperature gas turbine and the low pressure steam turbine are fully expressed in this system. ... Keywords: gas turbine, new energy, combined cycle, hydrogen energy, thermal efficiency, energy conversion

Jing Rulin; Xu Hong; Hu Sangao; Gao Dan; Guo Xiaodan; Ni Weidou

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

Judith A. Kieffer

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Combined Cycle Performance Monitoring and Recovery Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The benefits of improved combined cycle power plant performance continue to grow as the cost of fuel rises and international concerns over global warming increase.This guideline provides a framework for performance monitoring, assessment, recovery and optimization of combined cycle power plants. The guideline distills existing experience and documents on heat rate recovery and capacity improvement into a comprehensive manual for plant implementation and training applications. The purpose ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

The closed fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe [AREVA NC (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A cost-effective and fuel-conserving nonelectric air conditioner that combines engine-driven compression and absorption cycles  

SciTech Connect

A natural-gas-fueled electricity-producing condensing furnace with the potential of being mass produced at a cost of less than $1000 and providing a cost-effective and highly fuel-conserving alternative to virtually every residential gas furnace in the world has been developed. While this is a new system, it completely consists of existing mass-produced components including single-cylinder air-cooled engines, induction motors/generators, and control devices. Thus, timely commercialization can be expected and an important new energy technology and industry can result. However, all the benefits of this electricity-producing furnace occur during the winter. This has stimulated the search for a new system that can provide comparable benefits in terms of fuel conservation, the environment, and electric utility peak reduction during the summer, along with the prospects of a new and efficient new use for the natural gas surpluses that occur during the summer. The resulting system, which can use existing component equipment, is a commercial-size nonelectric air conditioner that consists of an automobile-type engine converted to natural gas, or possibly a diesel or combustion turbine, driving a Freon compression cycle, with virtually all of the engine reject heat from the exhaust and from the engine cooling system driving a conventional absorption air conditioning cycle.

Wicks, F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to an integrated fuel cell power plant, and more specifically to a combination of cycles wherein a first fuel cell cycle tops an indirect-fired gas turbine cycle and a second fuel cell cycle bottoms the gas turbine cycle so that the cycles are thermally integrated in a tandem operating arrangement. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to the employer-employee relationship between the United States Department of Energy and the inventors.

Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Sudhoff, F.A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

33

Coal combined cycle system study. Volume I. Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential advantages for proceeding with demonstration of coal-fueled combined cycle power plants through retrofit of a few existing utility steam plants have been evaluated. Two combined cycle concepts were considered: Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) combined cycle and gasification combined cycle. These concepts were compared with AFB steam plants, conventional steam plants with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), and refueling such as with coal-oil mixtures. The ultimate targets are both new plants and conversion of existing plants. Combined cycle plants were found to be most competitive with conventional coal plants and offered lower air emissions and less adverse environmental impact. A demonstration is a necessary step toward commercialization.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

SOFC combined cycle systems for distributed generation  

SciTech Connect

The final phase of the tubular SOFC development program will focus on the development and demonstration of pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC)/gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power systems for distributed power applications. The commercial PSOFC/GT product line will cover the power range 200 kWe to 50 MWe, and the electrical efficiency for these systems will range from 60 to 75% (net AC/LHV CH4), the highest of any known fossil fueled power generation technology. The first demonstration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine combined cycle will be a proof-of-concept 250 kWe PSOFC/MTG power system consisting of a single 200 kWe PSOFC module and a 50 kWe microturbine generator (MTG). The second demonstration of this combined cycle will be 1.3 MWe fully packaged, commercial prototype PSOFC/GT power system consisting of two 500 kWe PSOFC modules and a 300 kWe gas turbine.

Brown, R.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

H gas turbine combined cycle  

SciTech Connect

A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System--``H`` Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1,430 C (2,600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The ``H`` Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

Corman, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

Leigh, I.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Combined-cycle power tower  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper evaluates a new power tower concept that offers significant benefits for commercialization of power tower technology. The concept uses a molten nitrate salt centralreceiver plant to supply heat, in the form of combustion air preheat, to a conventional combined-cycle power plant. The evaluation focused on first commercial plants, examined three plant capacities (31, 100, and 300 MWe), and compared these plants with a solar-only 100-MWe plant and with gas-only combined-cycle plants in the same three capacities. Results of the analysis point to several benefits relative to the solar-only plant including low energy cost for first plants, low capital cost for first plants, reduced risk with respect to business uncertainties, and the potential for new markets. In addition, the concept appears to have minimal technology development requirements. Significantly, the results show that it is possible to build a first plant with this concept that can compete with existing gas-only combined-cycle plants.

Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.; Price, H.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle  

SciTech Connect

Solar has a vested interest in integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuels (particularly solid oxide fuel cells[SOFC]); this would be a backup for achieving efficiencies on the order of 60% with low exhaust emissions. Preferred cycle is with the fuel cell as a topping system to the gas turbine; bottoming arrangements (fuel cells using the gas turbine exhaust as air supply) would likely be both larger and less efficient unless complex steam bottoming systems are added. The combined SOFC and gas turbine will have an advantage because it will have lower NOx emissions than any heat engine system. Market niche for initial product entry will be the dispersed or distributed power market in nonattainment areas. First entry will be of 1-2 MW units between the years 2000 and 2004. Development requirements are outlined for both the fuel cell and the gas turbine.

White, D.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Fuel cycles for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.(DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Strategy for the practical utilization of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

There has been increasing interest in the utilization of thorium fuel cycles in nuclear power reactors for the past few years. This is due to a number of factors, the chief being the recent emphasis given to increasing the proliferation resistance of reactor fuel cycles and the thorium cycle characteristic that bred /sup 233/U can be denatured with /sup 238/U (further, a high radioactivity is associated with recycle /sup 233/U, which increases fuel diversion resistance). Another important factor influencing interest in thorium fuel cycles is the increasing cost of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ ores leading to more emphasis being placed on obtaining higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactor systems, and the fact that thorium fuel cycles have higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactors than do uranium fuel cycles. Finally, there is increasing information which indicates that fast breeder reactors have significantly higher capital costs than do thermal reactors, such that there is an economic advantage in the long term to have combinations of fast breeder reactors and high-conversion thermal reactors operating together. Overall, it appears that the practical, early utilization of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors requires commercialization of HTGRs operating first on stowaway fuel cycles, followed by thorium fuel recycle. In the longer term, thorium utilization involves use of thorium blankets in fast breeder reactors, in combination with recycling the bred /sup 233/U to HTGRs (preferably), or to other thermal reactors.

Kasten, P.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Application of the thorium fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

An economic analysis of the application of the thorium fuel cycle to thermal reactors is presented. (JWR)

Kasten, P.R.; Tobias, M.L.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

Brent Dixon

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Kinetics of pyroprocesses in ATW fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) combines the technologies of accelerators and reactors to treat the nuclear waste problem. An ATW system uses a high-current accelerator to generate spallation neutrons to initiate the transmutation of actinides and select fission products in a subcritical nuclear assembly surrounding the target volume. For high burnup and efficient operation, an ATW system requires simple, reliable, and efficient fuel preparation and cleanup procedures to periodically remove {open_quotes}neutron poisons.{close_quotes} We have identified several fuel cycles based on pyroprocessing.

Li, Ning; Hu, Y.C.; Park, B.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Combined Cycle Performance Tracking Guideline: Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Combined Cycle Performance Monitoring and Recovery Guideline (EPRI report 1023971) was developed in 2012 to provide plant owners and operators with a comprehensive guideline for identifying and quantifying combined-cycle performance losses and appropriate recovery activities for a generic F-Class combined-cycle power plant (CCPP). This report, Combined-Cycle Performance Tracking Guideline, has been developed as an adjunct ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

51

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CrossCut Group CrossCut Group 1 NERAC Briefing: Assessment of Dose of Closed vs Open Gen-IV Fuel Cycles David Wade NERAC Meeting September 30, 2002 Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 2 Public Dose and Worker Dose Comparison of Open vs Closed Fuel Cycles * Gen-IV fuel cycle options are meant to address all stated Gen-IV Goals - Dose to workers and to the public is one of the numerous elements to be evaluated by Gen-IV R&D - The Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group was assigned to take an early look at dose implication tradeoffs of open and closed fuel cycles * FCCG Interpretation of Assignment: - Collect already-existing evaluations and prepare a briefing on what is currently known Fuel Cycle CrossCut Group 3 Approach * Look at Actual Historical Doses Based on Operational Experience - Data compiled by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic

53

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development Program Presentation to Office of Environmental Management Tank Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline Fuel Cycle R&D Mission Changes from the Former Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative The Science-Based Approach Key Collaborators Budget History Program Elements Summary July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 3 Fuel Cycle R&D Mission The mission of Fuel Cycle Research and Development is to develop options to current fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while reducing proliferation risks by conducting

54

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of /sup 235/U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

AVESTAR® - Training - Combined Cycle Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exercise Startup Circulating Water System Startup Fuel Systems Draw vacuum in Condenser Start Gas Turbine (GT) and bring to rated speed on natural gas ITS operations to...

58

Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cycle Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle This is an illustration of a nuclear fuel cycle that shows the required steps to process natural uranium from ore for preparation for fuel to be loaded in nuclear reactors. This is an illustration of a nuclear fuel cycle that shows the required steps to process natural uranium from ore for preparation for fuel to be loaded in nuclear reactors. The mission of NE-54 is primarily focused on activities related to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle which includes mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment. Uranium Mining Both "conventional" open pit, underground mining, and in situ techniques are used to recover uranium ore. In general, open pit mining is used where deposits are close to the surface and underground mining is used

60

World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Jones, R.; Carter, J.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

62

FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

Carter, J.

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

63

Duke Energy's Edwardsport Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Duke Energy's Edwardsport Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Station presently under construction in Knox County, Indiana. (Photos courtesy of Duke Energy.) Gasification...

64

WEB RESOURCES: The Nuclear Fuel Cycle - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2007 ... A compilation of links to websites describing the nuclear fuel cycle. A link to a short overview of the entire cycle is included as well as a ...

65

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Separations and Waste Form. Campaign Objectives. ?Develop the next generation of fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that enable a.

66

2012 Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

meeting is to review findings and help advance research and development in the Fuel Cycle Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies area. It will include a campaign...

67

Combined cycle total energy system  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for the co-generation of steam and electricity comprising: a source of gaseous fuel, a source of air, means for mixing the fuel and air to form a relatively lean fuel/air mixture, a gas turbine, a first fuel/air mixture compressor directly driven by the turbine, a second fuel/air mixture compressor driven by the turbine for further compressing the fuel/air mixture, a catalytic burner between the second compressor and gas turbine, a motor/generator, a steam turbine, means coupling the gas turbine, motor/generator, first and second compressors and steam turbine to one another, a source of water, a steam boiler connected to the source of water and to the exhaust system of the gas turbine, a steam economizer connected to the boiler, a steam superheater in heat exchange relationship with the exhaust system of the gas turbine disposed between the economizer and the steam turbine, and controllable means for bypassing superheated steam from the superheater around the steam turbine to maximize steam or electric power output of the system selectively.

Joy, J.R.

1986-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

Practical introduction of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The pracitcal introduction of throrium fuel cycles implies that thorium fuel cycles compete economically with uranium fuel cycles in economic nuclear power plants. In this study the reactor types under consideration are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), and fast breeder reactors (FBRs). On the basis that once-through fuel cycles will be used almost exclusively for the next 20 or 25 years, introduction of economic thorium fuel cycles appears best accomplished by commercial introduction of HTGRs. As the price of natural uranium increases, along with commercialization of fuel recycle, there will be increasing incentive to utilize thorium fuel cycles in heavy water reactors and light water reactors as well as in HTGRs. After FBRs and fuel recycle are commercialized, use of thorium fuel cycles in the blanket of FBRs appears advantageous when fast breeder reactors and thermal reactors operate in a symbiosis mode (i.e., where /sup 233/U bred in the blanket of a fast breeder reactor is utilized as fissile fuel in thermal converter reactors).

Kasten, P.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with early breeder demonstration reactors. Although subject to continuing debate, progress continued on the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) with startup anticipated near the end of this decade, while plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic R and D programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990s. An important objective of the reprocessing program is to develop advanced technology for the recovery of fissile materials in systems that minimize environmental emissions and doses to plant workers, and that also provide effective fissile material safeguards. Major improvements include technology for remote operation and maintenance, low-flow ventilation systems coupled with more effective off-gas treatment, and advanced process monitoring for control and safeguards.

Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D.

Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The next major step in Argonne`s Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

Fuel cycle problems in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle problems of fusion reactors evolve around the breeding, recovery, containment, and recycling of tritium. These processes are described, and their implications and alternatives are discussed. Technically, fuel cycle problems are solvable; economically, their feasibility is not yet known. (auth)

Hickman, R.G.

1976-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

74

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that work together in unison. In order to support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; Gretchen Matthern; Steven Piet; David Shropshire; Tyler Schweitzer

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Economics of Phased Gasification-Combined-Cycle Plants: Utility Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phased gasification-combined-cycle power plants can help utilities match load growth and respond to changes in demand and fuel prices. After evaluating the economic merits of phased additions, seven utilities considered the technology a viable option for electricity generation in the 1990s.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Fuel Cycle Nuclear Fuel Cycle GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding research and development of nuclear fuel and waste management technologies that meet the nation's energy supply, environmental, and energy security needs. GC-52 also advises DOE on issues involving support for international fuel cycle initiatives aimed at advancing a common vision of the necessity of the expansion of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes worldwide in a safe and secure manner. In addition, GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the management and disposition of excess uranium in DOE's uranium stockpile. GC-52 attorneys participate in meetings of DOE's Uranium Inventory Management Coordinating Committee and provide advice on compliance with statutory requirements for the sale or transfer of uranium.

78

Back end of an enduring fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Nuclear fuel cycles for mid-century development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles was carried out. Fuel cycles reviewed include: once-through fuel cycles in LWRs, PHWRs, HTGRs, and fast gas cooled breed and burn reactors; single-pass recycle schemes: plutonium ...

Parent, Etienne, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Axisymmetric Inlet Design for Combined Cycle Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Performance considerations for a turbine-based combined-cycle engine inlet are presented using the inlet of the Lockheed SR-71 as a baseline. A numerical model is developed… (more)

Colville, Jesse

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Production and Handling Slide 1: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Handling The Uranium Fuel Cycle Skip Presentation Navigation Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image...

83

Department of Energy Awards $15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development Department of Energy Awards 15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development August 1,...

84

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the...

85

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Name NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005...

86

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2012a. “Analysis & Projections - Models & Documentation. ”Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions MetricsGovernment purposes. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alkali-containing silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass contains about 17 mole% alkalis (K+Na) and has low glass transition and softening temperatures. It remains vitreous and compliant around 750-800oC after sealing without substantial crystallization, as contrary to conventional glass-ceramic sealants, which experience rapid crystallization after the sealing process. The glassy nature and low characteristic temperatures can reduce residual stresses and result in the potential for crack healing. In a previous study, the glass was found to have good thermal cycle stability and was chemically compatible with YSZ coating during short term testing. In the current study, the compliant glass was further evaluated in a more realistic way in that the sealed glass couples were first isothermally aged for 1000h followed by thermal cycling. High temperature leakage was measured. The chemical compatibility was also investigated with powder mixtures at 700 and 800oC to enhance potential interfacial reaction. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with regard to the leakage and chemical compatibility results.

Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Corporate Board James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline...

89

Transportation implications of a closed fuel cycle.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation for each step of a closed fuel cycle is analyzed in consideration of the availability of appropriate transportation infrastructure. The United States has both experience and certified casks for transportation that may be required by this cycle, except for the transport of fresh and used MOX fuel and fresh and used Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel. Packaging that had been used for other fuel with somewhat similar characteristics may be appropriate for these fuels, but would be inefficient. Therefore, the required neutron and gamma shielding, heat dissipation, and criticality were calculated for MOX and ABR fresh and spent fuel. Criticality would not be an issue, but the packaging design would need to balance neutron shielding and regulatory heat dissipation requirements.

Bullard, Tim (University of Nevada - Reno); Bays, Samuel (Idaho National Laboratory); Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Dixon, Brent (Idaho National Laboratory); Greiner, Miles (University of Nevada - Reno)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Fuel ..to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle (Wu et al. Renewableby the heat content of nuclear fuel. In this analysis we use

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Physics of fusion-fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of nuclear fusion fuels for a magnetic fusion economy must take into account the various technological impacts of the various fusion fuel cycles as well as the relative reactivity and the required ..beta..'s and temperatures necessary for economic steady-state burns. This paper will review some of the physics of the various fusion fuel cycles (D-T, catalyzed D-D, D-/sup 3/He, D-/sup 6/Li, and the exotic fuels: /sup 3/He/sup 3/He and the proton-based fuels such as P-/sup 6/Li, P-/sup 9/Be, and P-/sup 11/B) including such items as: (1) tritium inventory, burnup, and recycle, (2) neutrons, (3) condensable fuels and ashes, (4) direct electrical recovery prospects, (5) fissile breeding, etc. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of the different fusion fuel cycles will be discussed. The optimum fuel cycle from an overall standpoint of viability and potential technological considerations appears to be catalyzed D-D, which could also support smaller relatively clean, lean-D, rich-/sup 3/He satellite reactors as well as fission reactors.

McNally, J.R. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. [Public health hazards of fossil-fuel, combined cycle, combustion turbine, and geothermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Public health and safety hazards have been identified for five types of power plants: coal-fired, oil-fired steam turbine, combined cycle, combustion (gas) turbine, and geothermal. The results of the analysis show that air pollutants are the major hazard that affects the health and safety of the general public. A total of ninety plant hazards were identified for the five plant types. Each of these hazards were rated in six categories as to their affect on the general public. The criteria used in the analysis were: area/population exposed; duration; mitigation; quantity to toxicity ratio; nature of health effects; and public attitude. Even though ninety hazards were identified for the five plants analyzed, the large majority of hazards were similar for each plant. Highest ratings were given to the products of the combustion cycle or to hydrogen sulfide emissions from geothermal plants. Water pollution, cooling tower effects and noise received relatively low ratings. The highest rated of the infrequent or hypothetical hazards were those associated with potential fires, explosions, and chlorine releases at the plant. Hazards associated with major cooling water releases, water pollution and missiles received the lowest ratings. Since the results of the study clearly show that air pollutants are currently considered the most severe hazard, additional effort must be made to further understand the complex interactions of pollutants with man and his environment. Of particular importance is the determination of dose-response relationships for long term, low level exposure to air pollutants. (EDB)

Roman, W.S.; Israel, W.J.; Sacramo, R.F.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability  

SciTech Connect

The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Fuel Cycle Technology Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Technology Documents Fuel Cycle Technology Documents January 11, 2013 Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Issued on January 11, 2013, the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste is a framework for moving toward a sustainable program to deploy an integrated system capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power generation, defense, national security and other activities. October 30, 2012 2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security

95

NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to develop and evaluate novel sorbents for the Siemens Westinghouse Power Company's (SWPC's) ''Ultra-Clean Gas Cleaning Process'' for reducing to near-zero levels the sulfur- and chlorine-containing gas emissions and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) caused by fuel bound constituents found in carbonaceous materials, which are processed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technologies.

Javad Abbasian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Changes related to "A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Twitter icon Changes related to "A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation" A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation...

97

Willamina Project Report : Indirect-Fired, Biomass-Fueled, Combined-Cycle, Gas Turbine Power Plant Using a Ceramic Heat Exchanger. Volume 1. Conceptual Plant Design and Analysis. Final report. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

A new technology for a wood-fueled electrical generation plant was evaluated. The proposed plant utilizes an indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT) using a ceramic heat exchanger for high efficiency, due to its high temperature capability. The proposed plant utilizes a wood-fueled furnace with a ceramic heat exchanger to heat compressed air for a gas turbine. The configuration proposed is a combined cycle power plant that can produce 6 to 12 MW, depending upon the amount of wood used to supplementally fire a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which in turn powers a steam turbine. Drawings, specifications, and cost estimates based on a combined cycle analysis and wood-fired HRSG were developed. The total plant capital cost was estimated to be $13.1 million ($1640/kW). The heat rate for a 8-MW plant was calculated to be 10,965 Btu/kW when using wood residues with a 42% moisture content. Levelized electric energy costs were estimated to be 6.9 cents/kWh.

F.W. Braun Engineers.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells developed in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9%. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted to identify an economically competitive system and an efficiency over 65%. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency over 70%; it is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95% of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72% of the power. The portion of fuel cell anode exhaust not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to compressed air from a gas turbine, heating it to 1800 F. The stream is then heated to 2000 F in gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13% of the power. Half the gas turbine exhaust flows to anode exhaust burner and the rest flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Studies of the TTC for 200 and 20 MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6%; estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr. A 20-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 65.2% and a cost of electricity of 50 mills/kWhr.

Steinfeld, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes

102

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes

103

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Revision 2, March 2012 DOE/NETL-2012/1551 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

104

Control system for single shaft combined cycle gas and steam turbine unit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for starting and controlling a combined cycle turbine of the type having a gas turbine with a fuel flow control valve and a steam turbine with at least one steam control valve both disposed on a single shaft and having a heat recovery steam generator heated by the gas turbine and connected to supply steam to the steam control valve, the combined cycle turbine having a unified control system and driving a load, and also having an auxiliary steam source connected to the steam control valve. It comprises controlling of steam from the auxiliary steam source with the steam control valve to crank the combined cycle turbine for starting, initiating and controlling fuel flow to the gas turbine with the fuel flow control valve and initiating combustion, controlling initial acceleration of the combined cycle turbine with the steam control valve on auxiliary steam, coordinating control of the combined cycle turbine by the steam control valve and the fuel control valve with the unified control system, transferring acceleration control during a smooth acceleration phase of the combined cycle turbine by the steam control valve and the fuel control valve with the unified control system, transferring acceleration control during a smooth acceleration phase of the combined cycle turbine to the fuel flow control valve and gradually reducing the opening of the steam control valve to a minimum value when the turbine reaches rated speed.

Moore, J.H.; Kure-Jensen, J.; Rowen, W.I.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

105

Combined Cycle Cogeneration at NALCO Chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Nalco Chemical Company, while expanding their corporate headquarters, elected to investigate the potential for cogeneration. The headquarters complex has a central physical plant for heating and chilling. The authors describe the analysis approach for determining the most economical system design. Generation capacity ranging from 2.7 MW up to 7.0 MW in both simple cycle cogeneration and combined cycle cogeneration was analyzed. Both single pressure and dual pressure waste heat boilers were included in the evaluation. In addition, absorption chilling and electrical centrifugal chilling capacity expansion were integrated into the model. The gas turbine selection procedure is outlined. Bid evaluation procedure involved a life cycle cost comparison wherein the bid specification responses for each model turbine were incorporated into the life cycle facility program. The recommendation for the facility is a 4.0MW combined cycle cogeneration system. This system is scheduled for startup in October of 1985. Most major equipment has been purchased and the building to house the system is nearing completion. A discussion of the purchase and scheduling integration will be included.

Thunem, C. B.; Jacobs, K. W.; Hanzel, W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

Investigation of gasification chemical looping combustion combined cycle performance  

SciTech Connect

A novel combined cycle based on coal gasification and chemical looping combustion (CLC) offers a possibility of both high net power efficiency and separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier, which transfers oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel, and the avoidance of direct contact between fuel and combustion air. The fuel gas is oxidized by an oxygen carrier, an oxygen-containing compound, in the fuel reactor. The oxygen carrier in this study is NiO. The reduced oxygen carrier, Ni, in the fuel reactor is regenerated by the air in the air reactor. In this way, fuel and air are never mixed, and the fuel oxidation products CO{sub 2} and water vapor leave the system undiluted by air. All that is needed to get an almost pure CO{sub 2} product is to condense the water vapor and to remove the liquid water. When the technique is combined with gas turbine and heat recovery steam generation technology, a new type of combined cycle is formed which gives a possibility of obtaining high net power efficiency and CO{sub 2} separation. The performance of the combined cycle is simulated using the ASPEN software tool in this paper. The influence of the water/coal ratio on the gasification and the influence of the CLC process parameters such as the air reactor temperature, the turbine inlet supplementary firing, and the pressure ratio of the compressor on the system performance are discussed. Results show that, assuming an air reactor temperature of 1200{sup o}C, a gasification temperature of 1100 {sup o}C, and a turbine inlet temperature after supplementary firing of 1350{sup o}C, the system has the potential to achieve a thermal efficiency of 44.4% (low heating value), and the CO{sub 2} emission is 70.1 g/(kW h), 90.1% of the CO{sub 2} captured. 22 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Wenguo Xiang; Sha Wang; Tengteng Di [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of the Ministry of Education

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Optimum cycle parameters of coal fired closed cycle gas turbine in regenerative and combined cycle configurations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the methodology developed for the estimation of thermodynamic performance and reports the optimum cycle parameters of coal fired CCGT in regenerative and combined cycle configurations using air, helium and carbon dioxide as working gases. A rigorous approach has been followed for the determination of the cycle efficiency by assuming the specific heat of working gases as a continuous function of temperature for accurate estimation of cycle parameters. 14 refs.

Rao, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m/sup 3//GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m/sup 3//GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste.

Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Integrated gasification combined cycle -- A review of IGCC technology  

SciTech Connect

Over the past three decades, significant efforts have been made toward the development of cleaner and more efficient technology for power generation. Coal gasification technology received a big thrust with the concept of combined cycle power generation. The integration of coal gasification with combined cycle for power generation (IGCC) had the inherent characteristic of gas cleanup and waste minimization, which made this system environmentally preferable. Commercial-scale demonstration of a cool water plant and other studies have shown that the greenhouse gas and particulates emission from an IGCC plant is drastically lower than the recommended federal New Source Performance Standard levels. IGCC also offers a phased construction and repowering option, which allows multiple-fuel flexibility and the necessary economic viability. IGCC technology advances continue to improve efficiency and further reduce the emissions, making it the technology of the 21st century.

Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 * November 2010 3 * November 2010 Electricity Natural Gas Power Heat Natural Gas or Biogas Tri-Generation Fuel Cell Hydrogen Natural Gas Converted to hydrogen on site via steam-methane reforming electrolyzer peak burner heat sink FC SYSTEM + H 2 Renewables H 2 -FC H 2 -storage 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) * Grid electricity (hourly) * Fuel prices * Water price 0 2 4

112

World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

Not Available

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

113

Production and Handling Slide 3: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle See caption below for image description The second step in the uranium fuel cycle...

114

Production and Handling Slide 23: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The fourth major step in the uranium fuel cycle is uranium enrichment. Slide 23...

115

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6  

SciTech Connect

The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

117

Maximum Fuel Energy Saving of a Brayton Cogeneration Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An endoreversible Joule-Brayton cogeneration cycle has been optimized with fuel energy saving as an assessment criterion. The effects of power-to-heat ratio, cycle temperature ratio, and user temperature ratio on maximum fuel energy saving and efficiency ... Keywords: cogeneration cycle, fuel energy saving, thermodynamic optimization

Xiaoli Hao; Guoqiang Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Combined Cycles and Cogeneration - An Alternative for the Process Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cogeneration may be described as an efficient method for the production of electric power sequentially with process steam or heat which optimizes the energy supplied as fuel to maximize the energy produced for consumption. The state-of-the-art combined cycle system consisting of combustion turbines, heat recovery steam generators, and steam turbine-generator units, offers a high efficiency method for the production of electrical and heat energy at relatively low installed and operating costs. This paper describes the various aspects of cogeneration in a manner which will illustrate the energy saving potential available utilizing proven technology.

Harkins, H. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity.

Leuze, R.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

Trond Bjornard; Humberto Garcia; William Desmond; Scott Demuth

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Fuel Cycle Research & Development | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Research & Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit proliferation risk. The FCRD program will develop a suite of options to enable future policymakers to make informed decisions about how best to manage used fuel from nuclear reactors. The overall goal is to demonstrate the technologies necessary to allow commercial deployment of solutions for the sustainable management of used

124

An Economic Analysis of Select Fuel Cycles Using the Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycles Schemes (SMAFS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is currently considering alternatives to the current U.S. once-through fuel cycle. This report evaluates the relative economics of three alternative fuel cycles to determine those cost components important to overall fuel cycle costs and total generation costs. The analysis determined that the unit cost of nuclear reactors is the most important nuclear generation cost parameter in future fuel cycles. The report also evaluates ...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

125

Effect of reduced enrichment on the fuel cycle for research reactors  

SciTech Connect

The new fuels developed by the RERTR Program and by other international programs for application in research reactors with reduced uranium enrichment (<20% EU) are discussed. It is shown that these fuels, combined with proper fuel-element design and fuel-management strategies, can provide at least the same core residence time as high-enrichment fuels in current use, and can frequently significantly extend it. The effect of enrichment reduction on other components of the research reactor fuel cycle, such as uranium and enrichment requirements, fuel fabrication, fuel shipment, and reprocessing are also briefly discussed with their economic implications. From a systematic comparison of HEU and LEU cores for the same reference research reactor, it is concluded that the new fuels have a potential for reducing the research reactor fuel cycle costs while reducing, at the same time, the uranium enrichment of the fuel.

Travelli, A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Development » Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents November 8, 2011 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation's current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. July 11, 2011 Nuclear Separations Technologies Workshop Report

127

Future nuclear fuel cycles: prospects and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solvent extraction has played, from the early steps, a major role in the development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies, both in the front end and back end. Today's stakes in the field of energy enhance further than before the need for a sustainable management of nuclear materials. Recycling actinides appears as a main guideline, as much for saving resources as for minimizing the final waste impact, and many options can be considered. Strengthened by the important and outstanding performance of recent PUREX processing plants, solvent-extraction processes seem a privileged route to meet the new and challenging requirements of sustainable future nuclear systems. (author)

Boullis, Bernard [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Centre de Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe Dominique Warin Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Report 6/15/2011 2 I. Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue

129

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project Summary Full Title: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project ID: 143 Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Brief Description: Examines the social, environmental and economic impacts of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles. Purpose This project aims to investigate fuel cell vehicles through environmental impact, life cycle assessment, sustainability, and thermodynamic analyses. The project will assist in the development of highly qualified personnel in such areas as system analysis, modeling, methodology development, and applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Organization: University of Ontario Institute of Technology

130

Fuel Cycle Science & Technology | Nuclear Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Radiochemical Separation & Processing Recycle & Waste Management Uranium Enrichment Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Fusion Nuclear Science Isotope Development and Production Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation Nuclear Systems Technology Reactor Technology Nuclear Science Home | Science & Discovery | Nuclear Science | Research Areas | Fuel Cycle Science & Technology SHARE Fuel Cycle Science and Technology The ORNL expertise and experience across the entire nuclear fuel cycle is underpinned by extensive facilities and a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability ORNL supports the understanding, development, evaluation and deployment of

131

The FIT 2.0 Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010b] are steps by the Fuel Cycle Technology program toward an analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each fuel cycle component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. This report describes FIT 2, an update of the original FIT model.[Piet2010c] FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles; in particular, to determine how changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say, fuel burnup, cooling, or separation efficiencies) chemically affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT provides the following: Rough estimate of physics and mass balance feasibility of combinations of technologies. If feasibility is an issue, it provides an estimate of how performance would have to change to achieve feasibility. Estimate of impurities in fuel and impurities in waste as function of separation performance, fuel fabrication, reactor, uranium source, etc.

Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Gregory M Teske

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Framework   for   Nuclear   Fuel   Cycle   Concepts,”  Of   Used   Nuclear   Fuel”,   Nuclear  Engineering  and  Radiotoxicity  of  Spent  Nuclear   Fuel,”   Integrated  

Djokic, Denia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The performance of a flashing binary combined cycle for geothermal power generation is analysed. It is proposed to utilize hot residual brine from the separator in flashing-type plants to run a binary cycle, thereby producing incremental power. Parametric variations were carried out to determine the optimum performance of the combined cycle. Comparative evaluation with the simple flashing plant was made to assess its thermodynamic potential and economic viability. Results of the analyses indicate that the combined cycle can generate 13-28% more power than the

134

Analysis of Nuclear Proliferation Resistance of DUPIC Fuel Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with other fuel cycle cases. The other fuel cycles considered in this study are PWR of once-through mode (PWR-OT), PWR of reprocessing mode (PWR-MOX), in which spent PWR fuel is reprocessed and recovered plutonium is used for making MOX (Mixed Oxide), CANDU with once-through mode (CANDU-OT), PWR fuel and CANDU fuel in a oncethrough mode with reactor grid equivalent to DUPIC fuel cycle (PWR-CANDU-OT). This study is focused on intrinsic barriers, especially, radiation field of the diverted material, which could be a significant accessibility barrier, amount of special nuclear material based on 1 GWe-yr that has to be diverted and the quality of the separated fissile material. It is indicated from plutonium analysis of each fuel cycle that the MOX spent fuel is containing the largest plutonium per MTHM but PWR-MOX option based on 1 GWe-yr has the best benefit in total plutonium consumption aspects. The DUPIC option is containing a little higher total plutonium based on 1 GWe-yr than the PWR-MOX case, but the DUPIC option has the lowest fissile plutonium content which could be another measure for proliferation resistance. On the whole, the CANDU-OT option has the largest fissile plutonium as well as total plutonium per GWe-yr, which means negative points in nuclear proliferation resistance aspects. It is indicated from the radiation field analysis that fresh DUPIC fuel could play an important radiation barrier role, more than even CANDU spent fuels. In conclusion, due to those inherent features, the DUPIC fuel cycle could include technical characteristics that comply naturally with the Spent Fuel Standard, at all steps along the DUPIC linkage between PWR and CANDU. KEYWORDS: DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU), (DUPIC) fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle analysis, nuclear proliferaion resistance, proliferation resistance barrier, safeguards, plutonium analysis, candu type reactors, spent fuels, fuel cycles I.

Won Il Ko; Ho Dong Kim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

None

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

136

Preparations for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) have been in progress since mid-1988 to ready the facility for demonstration of the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) pyroprocess fuel cycle. This paper updates the last report on this subject to the American Nuclear Society and describes the progress made in the modifications to the facility and in fabrication of the new process equipment. The IFR is a breeder reactor, which is central to the capability of any reactor concept to contribute to mitigation of environmental impacts of fossil fuel combustion. As a fast breeder, fuel of course must be recycled in order to have any chance of an economical fuel cycle. The pyroprocess fuel cycle, relying on a metal alloy reactor fuel rather than oxide, has the potential to be economical even at small-scale deployment. Establishing this quantitatively is one important goal of the IFR fuel cycle demonstration.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Joe T. Carter, SRNL Alan J. Luptak, INL Jason Gastelum, PNNL Christine...

138

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Fully Closed Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results from a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for a closed fuel cycle with multi-recycling of plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides in fast reactors (FRs) compared to an open, once-through fuel cycle using pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The study examines the impact on fuel cycle costs from changes in the unit costs of uranium, advanced plutonium and uranium recovery by extraction (PUREX) reprocessing of discharged fast-reactor mixed-oxide (FR-MOX) fuel, and fabric...

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

139

Production and Handling Slide 37: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description The enrichment process generates two streams of uranium hexafluoride, one enriched in...

140

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Updated Uranium Fuel Cycle Environmental Impacts for Advanced Reactor Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to update the environmental impacts from the uranium fuel cycle for select advanced (GEN III+) reactor designs.

Nitschke, R.

2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

142

Production and Handling Slide 5: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refer to caption below for image description The third step in the uranium fuel cycle involves the conversion of "yellowcake" to uranium hexafluoride (UF6), the chemical form...

143

Production and Handling Slide 43: The Uranium Fuel Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentation Table of Contents The Uranium Fuel Cycle Refer to caption below for image description Enriched uranium hexafluoride, generally containing 3 to 5% uranium-235, is sent...

144

Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe...

145

Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Sciences October 12-14, 2011, Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Understanding and Reducing...

146

Current Projects for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis > Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis > Current Projects Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics...

147

Parametric Study of Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of front-end fuel cost components for nuclear plants, specifically uranium concentrates, uranium conversion services, uranium enrichment services, and nuclear fuel fabrication services. A parametric analysis of light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle costs is also included in order to quantify the impacts that result from changes in the cost of one or more front-end components on overall fuel cycle costs.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Description of alternative steady-state fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

This study provides a first cut analysis for the FRAD program of a range of reference, steady-state, fresh and spent fuel compositions for the development of alternative fuels refabrication technology. Included are the resource requirements and separative work requirements and the material flows for each fuel cycle evaluated. However, since steady-state represents only a portion of the complete fuel cycle, a more in depth evaluation of each alternative fuel cycle will follow this analysis. Each of the fuel types investigated is composed of either plutonium-uranium (Pu-U), denatured uranium-thorium (DU-Th), plutonium-thorium (Pu-Th), highly enriched uranium-thorium (HEU-Th) or low enriched uranium (LEU). Seven ''closed cycles'' were formed by coupling two or more of the above fuel types. The closed cycle concept assumes that all fissile material recovered from spent fuel is either recycled into fresh fuel, or retired to waste when its net reactivity worth is equal to or less than tails equivalence. Additional fissile material required as makeup is introduced to the system from the enrichment cascade only. Each closed system presented in this study simulates the production of 1000 MWe in steady-state operation. The findings of this preliminary study indicated that, at equilibrium, those closed cycles which employ DU-Th or HEU-Th as the primary fuel are more efficient with respect to resource consumption than those cycles where LEU is used as the primary fuel.

Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, E.T.; Newman, D.F.; Nolan, A.M.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Avestar® - Syngas-Fired Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Syngas-Fired Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulator Syngas-Fired Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulator The AVESTAR® center offers courses using the Combined Cycle Simulator, focusing on the power generation process after gasification. This simulator is well-suited for concentrated training on operation and control of the gas and steam turbines; condensate, feed water, and circulating water systems; heat recovery steam generator; and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. Combined cycle simulator startup operations include bringing up the gas turbine to rated speed on natural gas and then switching over to the firing of synthesis gas. Key capabilities of the Combined Cycle Simulator include: Combined Cycle Simulator Operator training station HMI display for overview of Gas Turbine - Train A Normal base load operation

150

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MW gas turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MW of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R.K.; Staiger, P.J.; Donovan, R.M.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

2012 Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Site Hydrogen Research Center 301 Gateway Drive Aiken, SC 29803 Accommodations Country Inn & Suites Aiken 3270 Whiskey Road Aiken, SC 29803 (803) 649-4024 RESERVATIONS: The cut-off date for guest room block reservations is Wednesday, February 22, 2012. We have a block of rooms reserved at this hotel at the government per diem rate of $86.00 per night. Please reference DOE -NE Fuel Cycle MPACT Working Group Meeting when making your reservations to the get the government rate. Reservations will be by individual call-in, per your institutional protocol. Here is a listing of other hotels that offer government room rates. Please note that we do not have rooms reserved at the list locations, only Country Inn & Suites in Aiken. Maps Maps to SRNL from Columbia, Aiken, and Augusta

152

Advanced Control Demonstration on a Combined Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Company, Electricit de France (EDF), and EPRI have undertaken a project to demonstrate the applicability of advanced control techniques on a combined-cycle heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This report describes progress on the project during 2005 including model identification, the advanced controller design, controller program development, and controller testing in a simulation environment. A combined-cycle plant was selected as the host plant because many combined-cycle plants have chang...

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Off-design Simulations of Offshore Combined Cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis presents an off-design simulation of offshore combined cycles. Offshore installations have a substantial power demand to facilitate the oil and gas production.… (more)

Flatebø, Øystein

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee (FCSC) of NEAC met in Washington, August 17- 19, 2010. DOE's new science-based approach to all matters related to nuclear energy is being implemented. The general approach was outlined to NEAC in the briefing on the NE Roadmap. There are many new directions being considered, and this meeting of the FCSC was to brief the Subcommittee on new directions in nuclear energy that might go beyond our present 4.5% enriched LWRs. The goal is to develop new concepts that have advantages over present systems in some combination of cost, passive safety, proliferation resistance, sustainability, and used fuel disposition.

155

Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee (FCSC) of NEAC met in Washington, August 17- 19, 2010. DOE's new science-based approach to all matters related to nuclear energy is being implemented. The general approach was outlined to NEAC in the briefing on the NE Roadmap. There are many new directions being considered, and this meeting of the FCSC was to brief the Subcommittee on new directions in nuclear energy that might go beyond our present 4.5% enriched LWRs. The goal is to develop new concepts that have advantages over present systems in some combination of cost, passive safety, proliferation resistance, sustainability, and used fuel disposition.

156

NFCSim: A Dynamic Fuel Burnup and Fuel Cycle Simulation Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Core Physics and Fuel Management Methods, Analytical Tools, and Benchmarks

Erich A. Schneider; Charles G. Bathke; Michael R. James

157

Avestar® - Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Dynamic Simulator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Dynamic Simulator Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Dynamic Simulator The AVESTAR® center offers courses using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Dynamic Simulator. The IGCC simulator builds on and reaches beyond existing combined-cycle and conventional-coal power plant simulators to combine--for the first time--a Gasification with CO2 Capture process simulator with a Combined-Cycle power simulator together in a single dynamic simulation framework. The AVESTAR® center IGCC courses provide unique, comprehensive training on all aspects of an IGCC plant, illustrating the high-efficiency aspects of the gasifier, gas turbine, and steam turbine integration. IGCC Operator training station HMI display for overview of IGCC Plant - Train A Reference:

158

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

San Martin, Robert L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

San Martin, Robert L.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of Highly Enriched/Highly Burnt UO2 Fuels on Fuel Cycle Costs, Radiotoxicity, and Nuclear Design Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Increased Enrichment/High Burnup and Light Water Reactor Fuel Cycle Optimization

Robert Gregg; Andrew Worrall

162

Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Davis-Besse Cycle 16 Fuel Deposit Analysis and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel deposit samples were collected from Davis-Besse Unit 1 during the EOC16 outage. The impetus behind collecting crud samples came from the observation of unusual deposits on fuel during EOC15, as well as measured crud-induced power shape (CIPS) during Cycle 16. The purpose of EOC16 sample campaign therefore was to determine the nature of the fuel deposits. Samples were collected from two fuel assemblies, one after one cycle of exposure and the other after two cycles of exposure. Samples were collected...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles  

SciTech Connect

Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

IAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium fuel cycle --Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1985 - 1989 Lingen, Germany BWR Irradiation-testing 60 MW(e) Test Fuel (Th,Pu)O2 pellets Terminated achieved a maximum burnup of 60 000 MWd/t without any fuel failure. In India, there has always beenIAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium fuel cycle -- Potential benefits and challenges May 2005 #12;IAEA

Laughlin, Robert B.

167

Benefits and concerns of a closed nuclear fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear power can play an important role in our energy future, contributing to increasing electricity demand while at the same time decreasing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States today is unsustainable. As stated in the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of spent nuclear fuel generated by commercial nuclear power plants operating in a “once-through” fuel cycle in the deep geologic repository located at Yucca Mountain. However, unyielding political opposition to the site has hindered the commissioning process to the extant that the current administration has recently declared the unsuitability of the Yucca Mountain site. In light of this the DOE is exploring other options, including closing the fuel cycle through recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of closing the fuel cycle is receiving special attention because of its ability to minimize the final high level waste (HLW) package as well as recover additional energy value from the original fuel. The technology is, however, still very controversial because of the increased cost and proliferation risk it can present. To lend perspective on the closed fuel cycle alternative, this presents the arguments for and against closing the fuel cycle with respect to sustainability, proliferation risk, commercial viability, waste management, and energy security.

Widder, Sarah H.

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

168

Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Descriptions of Past Research in Program 79: Combustion Turbine and Combined-Cycle Operations and Maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The asset value of natural-gas-fired combustion turbines, especially in combined cycle plants, is on the rise, driven by their inherent efficiency, emissions, operational characteristics, broader market fit with a forecast affordable fuel supply, and complementary role covering load swings such as those from intermittent renewables. Cycling and high-temperature operations adversely affect combustion turbine life, as well as plant reliability and availability. The risks associated with hot section durabil...

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

170

Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

None

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Filling Knowledge Gaps with Five Fuel Cycle Studies  

SciTech Connect

During FY 2010, five studies were conducted of technology families’ applicability to various fuel cycle strategies to fill in knowledge gaps in option space and to better understand trends and patterns. Here, a “technology family” is considered to be defined by a type of reactor and by selection of which actinides provide fuel. This report summarizes the higher-level findings; the detailed analyses and results are documented in five individual reports, as follows: • Advanced once through with uranium fuel in fast reactors (SFR), • Advanced once through (uranium fuel) or single recycle (TRU fuel) in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in light water reactors (LWRs), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in molten salt reactors (MSR), and • Several fuel cycle missions with Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH). Each study examined how the designated technology family could serve one or more designated fuel cycle missions, filling in gaps in overall option space. Each study contains one or more illustrative cases that show how the technology family could be used to meet a fuel cycle mission, as well as broader information on the technology family such as other potential fuel cycle missions for which insufficient information was available to include with an illustrative case. None of the illustrative cases can be considered as a reference, baseline, or nominal set of parameters for judging performance; the assessments were designed to assess areas of option space and were not meant to be optimized. There is no implication that any of the cases or technology families are necessarily the best way to meet a given fuel cycle mission. The studies provide five examples of 1-year fuel cycle assessments of technology families. There is reasonable coverage in the five studies of the performance areas of waste management and uranium utilization. The coverage of economics, safety, and proliferation resistance and physical protection in the five studies was spotty. Some studies did not have existing or past work to draw on in one or more of these areas. Resource constraints limited the amount of new analyses that could be performed. Little or no assessment was done of how soon any of the technologies could be deployed and therefore how quickly they could impact domestic or international fuel cycle performance. There were six common R&D needs, such as the value of advanced fuels, cladding, coating, and structure that would survive high neutron fluence. When a technology family is considered for use in a new fuel cycle mission, fuel cycle performance characteristics are dependent on both the design choices and the fuel cycle approach. For example, the use of the sodium-cooled fast reactor to provide recycle in either breeder or burner mode has been studied for decades, but the SFR could be considered for once-through fuel cycle with the physical reactor design and fuel management parameters changed. In addition, the sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in LWR could be achieved with a heterogeneous assembly and derated power density. Therefore, it may or may not be adjustable for other fuel cycle missions although a reactor intended for one fuel cycle mission is built. Simple parameter adjustment in applying a technology family to a new fuel cycle mission should be avoided and, if observed, the results viewed with caution.

Steven J. Piet; Jess Gehin; William Halsey; Temitope Taiwo

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse, enablement of material accountability, and decreasing material attractiveness.

S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Back-end costs of alternative nuclear fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its charter, the Alternate Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) was directed to evaluate the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The principal conclusion from this study is that the costs for recycling a broad range of reactor fuels will not have a large impact on total fuel cycle costs. For the once-through fuel cycle, the costs of fresh fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, and associated transportation is about 1.2 to 1.3 mills/kWh. For the recycle of uranium and plutonium into thermal reactors, the back-cycle costs (i.e., the costs of irradiated fuel storage, transportation, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste disposal) will be from 3 to 3.5 mills/kWh. The costs for the recycle of uranium and plutonium into fast breeder reactors will be from 4.5 to 5 mills/kWh. Using a radioactive spikant or a denatured /sup 233/U-Th cycle will increase power costs for both recycle cases by about 1 mill/kWh. None of these costs substantially influence the total cost of nuclear power, which is in the range of 4 cents/kWh. The fuel cycle costs used in this study do not include costs incurred prior to fuel fabrication; that is, the cost of the uranium or thorium, the costs for enrichment, or credit for fissile materials in the discharged fuel, which is not recycled with the system.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Impact of Cycling on the Operation and Maintenance Cost of Conventional and Combined-Cycle Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ongoing privatization of electricity generation across the world, competition and shareholder demand for higher profits, stricter regulations on environmental impacts, changes in fuel prices, and the increasing penetration of nondispatchable energy have resulted in an increasing need for larger energy generators to operate as non-baseload units. As a result, both conventional power plants and combined-cycle power plants are increasingly being subjected to load-following and cyclic operation. ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Economics of nuclear fuel cycles : option valuation and neutronics simulation of mixed oxide fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In most studies aiming at the economic assessment of nuclear fuel cycles, a primary concern is to keep scenarios economically comparable. For Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels, a traditional way to achieve ...

De Roo, Guillaume

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The damage function approach for estimating fuel cycle externalities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the methodology used in a study of fuel cycle externalities sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. The methodology is the damage function approach. This paper describes that approach and discusses its application and limitations. The fuel cycles addressed are those in which coal, biomass, oil, hydro, natural gas and uranium are used to generate electric power. The methodology is used to estimate the physical impacts of these fuel cycles on environmental resources and human health, and the external costs and benefits of these impacts.

Lee, R.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Irradiation studies - Fuel-clad interactions - Elastic property measurement - Thermal properties - Failure model analysis - Quench testing Technology development -...

178

Design and fuel management of PWR cores to optimize the once-through fuel cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The once-through fuel cycle has been analyzed to see if there are substantial prospects for improved uranium ore utilization in current

Fujita, Edward Kei

179

Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs.

Pond, R.B.; Freese, K.E.; Matos, J.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethanol; NGCC = natural gas combined-cycle; BIGCC =gasification combined-cycle. P ART III U NCERTAINTY Aaverage, (ii) natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC), (iii) coal

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Combined Cycle/Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cycle chemistry in combined cycle plants influences about 70 of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) tube failure mechanisms. These guidelines have been assembled to assist operators and chemists in developing an effective overall cycle chemistry program which will prevent HRSG tube failures (HTF).

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

182

Closed DTU fuel cycle with Np recycle and waste transmutation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear energy scenario for the 21st century that included a denatured thorium-uranium-oxide (DTU) fuel cycle and new light water reactors (LWRs) supported by accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) systems was previously described. This coupled system with the closed DTU fuel cycle provides several improvements beyond conventional LWR (CLWR) (once-through, UO{sub 2} fuel) nuclear technology: increased proliferation resistance, reduced waste, and efficient use of natural resources. However, like CLWR fuel cycles, the spent fuel in the first one-third core discharged after startup contains higher-quality Pu than the equilibrium fuel cycle. To eliminate this high-grade Pu, Np is separated and recycled with Th and U--rather than with higher actinides [(HA) including Pu]. The presence of Np in the LWR feed greatly increases the production of {sup 238}Pu so that a few kilograms of Pu generated enough alpha-decay heat that the separated Pu is highly resistant to proliferation. This alternate process also simplifies the pyrochemical separation of fuel elements (Th and U) from HAs. To examine the advantages of this concept, the authors modeled a US deployment scenario for nuclear energy that includes DTU-LWRs plus ATW`s to burn the actinides produced by these LWRs and to close the back-end of the DTU fuel cycle.

Beller, D.E.; Sailor, W.C.; Venneri, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Herring, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., ID (United States)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Additive combinations and fuels containing them  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An additive combination for improving the cold flow properties of distillate fuels comprises a combination of: (A) a distillate flow improver which is an ethylene containing polymer, preferably a copolymer of ethylene with unsaturated esters, e.g., vinyl acetate; (B) a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 3/0 olefin of number average molecular weight of 103 to 106 or derivatized version thereof, for example copolymers of ethylene and propylene, or polyisobutylene, which are used as lubricating oil V.I. improvers; and (C) a polar oil soluble compound which includes amides, salts, carboxylates, sulfonates, sulfates, phosphates, phenates and borates, having hydrocarbon solubilizing groups, for example salts and amides of polycarboxylic acid such as phthalic anhydride reacted with hydrogenated secondary tallow amine.

Lewtas, K.; Oswald, A.A.; Rehrer, D.H.; Rossi, A.; Tack, R.D.

1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

184

Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Williams, Thomas A. (Arvada, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Compressive Seal Development: Combined Ageing and Thermal Cycling Compressive  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to evaluate the combined aging and cycling effect on hybrid Phlogopite mica seals with respect to materials and interfacial degradations in a simulated SOFC environment.

Chou, M.Y-S.; Stevenson, J.W.; Singh, P.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

Combined cycle meets Thailand's growing power demands  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how an ample supply of natural gas led the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) to choose gas-fired combustion turbines. Thailand's rapid industrialization, which began in the late 1980's, placed a great strain on the country's electricity supply system. The demand for electricity grew at an astonishing 14% annually. To deal with diminishing reserve capacity margins, the EGAT announced, in 1988, a power development program emphasizing gas-fired combined cycle power plants. Plans included six 320-MW combined cycle blocks at three sites, and an additional 600-MW gas- and oil-fired thermal plant at Bang Pakong. As electricity demand continued to increase, EGAT expanded its plans to include two additional 320-MW combined cycle blocks, a 600-MW combined cycle block, and a 650-MW gas- and oil-fired thermal plant. All are currently in various stages of design and construction.

Sheets, B.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Takabut, K. (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options A Screening Method for Guiding R&D Decisions: Pilot Application to Screen Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) invests in research and development (R&D) to ensure that the United States will maintain its domestic nuclear energy capability and scientific and technical leadership in the international community of nuclear power nations in the years ahead. The 2010 Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap presents a high-level vision and framework for R&D activities that are needed to keep the nuclear energy option viable in the near term and to expand its use in the decades ahead. The roadmap identifies the development

189

Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies Overview Modeling and analysis Unit Process Modeling Mass Tracking System Software Waste Form Performance Modeling Safety Analysis, Hazard and Risk Evaluations Development, Design, Operation Overview Systems and Components Development Expertise System Engineering Design Other Major Programs Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE Division on Flickr Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Technologies Overview Bookmark and Share Much of the NE Division's research is directed toward developing software and performing analyses, system engineering design, and experiments to support the demonstration and optimization of the electrometallurgical

190

Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fuel Cycle Options for Optimized Recycling of Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reduction of transuranic inventories of spent nuclear fuel depends upon the deployment of advanced fuels that can be loaded with recycled transuranics (TRU), and the availability of facilities to separate and reprocess ...

Aquien, A.

192

2009 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Engineering Economic Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2009 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Design Considerations for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture (1015690) contains engineering and economic evaluations of state-of-the-art integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant designs available for near-term deployment. The study assessed the expected performance and costs of coal-fed IGCC power plants before and after retrofit for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. The study evaluated paired ca...

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR){sup 1} and Integral Fast Reactor (IF){sup 2} technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle.

Michaels, G.E.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System. NREL. http://extensively for electric power generation, and for dieselextensively for electric power generation, and for diesel

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microtur

196

International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide: (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs; and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 4  

SciTech Connect

This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids - international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Financing Strategies For A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

To help meet the nation’s energy needs, recycling of partially used nuclear fuel is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle, but implementing this step will require considerable investment. This report evaluates financing scenarios for integrating recycling facilities into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options from fully government owned to fully private owned were evaluated using DPL (Decision Programming Language 6.0), which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest lifecycle cost, lowest unit cost). This evaluation concludes that the lowest unit costs and lifetime costs are found for a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. However, this does not mean that the facilities should necessarily be constructed and operated by the government. The costs for hybrid combinations of public and private (commercial) financed options can compete under some circumstances with the costs of the government option. This analysis shows that commercial operations have potential to be economical, but there is presently no incentive for private industry involvement. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) currently establishes government ownership of partially used commercial nuclear fuel. In addition, the recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) suggests fuels from several countries will be recycled in the United States as part of an international governmental agreement; this also assumes government ownership. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual facility capacity led to the greatest variations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; and the annual operating costs, forgiveness of debt, and overnight costs dominate the costs computed for the government case. The uncertainty in operations, leading to lower than optimal processing rates (or annual plant throughput), is the most detrimental issue to achieving low unit costs. Conversely, lowering debt interest rates and the required return on investments can reduce costs for private industry.

David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Vibration Combined High Temperature Cycle Tests for Capacitive MEMS Accelerometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper vibration combined high temperature cycle tests for packaged capacitive SOI-MEMS accelerometers are presented. The aim of these tests is to provide useful Design for Reliability information for MEMS designers. A high temperature test chamber and a chopper-stabilized read-out circuitry were designed and realized at BME - DED. Twenty thermal cycles of combined Temperature Cycle Test and Fatigue Vibration Test has been carried out on 5 samples. Statistical evaluation of the test results showed that degradation has started in 3 out of the 5 samples.

Szucs, Z; Hodossy, S; Rencz, M; Poppe, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Vibration Combined High Temperature Cycle Tests for Capacitive MEMS Accelerometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper vibration combined high temperature cycle tests for packaged capacitive SOI-MEMS accelerometers are presented. The aim of these tests is to provide useful Design for Reliability information for MEMS designers. A high temperature test chamber and a chopper-stabilized read-out circuitry were designed and realized at BME - DED. Twenty thermal cycles of combined Temperature Cycle Test and Fatigue Vibration Test has been carried out on 5 samples. Statistical evaluation of the test results showed that degradation has started in 3 out of the 5 samples.

Z. Szucs; G. Nagy; S. Hodossy; M. Rencz; A. Poppe

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Safety aspects of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the important safety considerations related to the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle technology, the pyroprocess. Argonne has been developing the IFR since 1984. It is a liquid metal cooled reactor, with a unique metal alloy fuel, and it utilizes a radically new fuel cycle. An existing facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) is being modified and equipped to provide a complete demonstration of the fuel cycle. This paper will concentrate on safety aspects of the future HFEF/S operation, slated to begin late next year. HFEF/S is part of Argonne's complex of reactor test facilities located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. HFEF/S was originally put into operation in 1964 as the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) (Stevenson, 1987). From 1964--69 FCF operated to demonstrate an earlier and incomplete form of today's pyroprocess, recycling some 400 fuel assemblies back to EBR-II. The FCF mission was then changed to one of an irradiated fuels and materials examination facility, hence the name change to HFEF/S. The modifications consist of activities to bring the facility into conformance with today's much more stringent safety standards, and, of course, providing the new process equipment. The pyroprocess and the modifications themselves are described more fully elsewhere (Lineberry, 1987; Chang, 1987). 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Forrester, R.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Charak, I.; Tessier, J.H.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gabor, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SiC Research for SiC Research for Accident Tolerant Fuels Shannon Bragg-Sitton Idaho National Laboratory Advanced LWR Fuels Technical Lead Advanced Fuels Campaign Advanced LWR Fuels Pathway Lead Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program August 2013 Outline  Overview of DOE SiC research  Severe accident modeling: MELCOR analysis w/SiC  Recent characterization test results - Oxidation kinetics - Irradiation studies - Fuel-clad interactions - Elastic property measurement - Thermal properties - Failure model analysis - Quench testing  Technology development - ASTM standards development - SiC/SiC joining technology 2 SiC Gap Analysis and Feasibility Study  SiC Gap Analysis / Feasibility - Milestone report issued July 30, 2013 - Incorporates results of work funded

204

Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Assessment of Browns Ferry 2 Cycle 12 Fuel Corrosion Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods from 63 bundles of the Reload 10 GE13 (9x9) design developed leaks during Cycle 12 at Browns Ferry 2 (BF-2). Corrosion failures also occurred in Browns Ferry 3 (BF-3) and Vermont Yankee (VY) in a similar time frame. These fuel failures were investigated in the spent fuel pool and in two separate hot cell examination campaigns. This report compiles and assesses the significant findings of the root cause investigation.

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-7 by M. Wu, M. Wang ................................................................................ 6 2 Simplified Process Flow Diagram of Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover to Ethanol with Steam

Argonne National Laboratory

207

Thermal Design of an Ultrahigh Temperature Vapor Core Reactor Combined Cycle Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

Current work modeling high temperature compact heat exchangers may demonstrate the design feasibility of a Vapor Core Reactor (VCR) driven combined cycle power plant. For solid nuclear fuel designs, the cycle efficiency is typically limited by a metallurgical temperature limit which is dictated by fuel and structural melting points. In a vapor core, the gas/vapor phase nuclear fuel is uniformly mixed with the topping cycle working fluid. Heat is generated homogeneously throughout the working fluid thus extending the metallurgical temperature limit. Because of the high temperature, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation is employed for topping cycle power extraction. MHD rejected heat is transported via compact heat exchanger to a conventional Brayton gas turbine bottoming cycle. High bottoming cycle mass flow rates are required to remove the waste heat because of low heat capacities for the bottoming cycle gas. High mass flow is also necessary to balance the high Uranium Tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) mass flow rate in the topping cycle. Heat exchanger design is critical due to the high temperatures and corrosive influence of fluoride compounds and fission products existing in VCR/MHD exhaust. Working fluid compositions for the topping cycle include variations of Uranium Tetrafluoride, Helium and various electrical conductivity seeds for the MHD. Bottoming cycle working fluid compositions include variations of Helium and Xenon. Some thought has been given to include liquid metal vapor in the bottoming cycle for a Cheng or evaporative cooled design enhancement. The NASA Glenn Lewis Research Center code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) is utilized for evaluating chemical species existing in the gas stream. Work being conducted demonstrates the compact heat exchanger design, utilization of the CEA code, and assessment of different topping and bottoming working fluid compositions. (authors)

Bays, Samuel E.; Anghaie, Samim; Smith, Blair; Knight, Travis [Innovative Space Power and Propulsion Institute, University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents  

SciTech Connect

Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993  

SciTech Connect

This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

Not Available

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

Introduction to Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Advanced Nuclear Fuels: Jon ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2012 ... Increased use of fossil fuel will result in. • Resource shortfalls and regional conflicts,. • Serious environmental impact. • Worldwide expansion of ...

212

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7) 7) Distribution Category UC-950 Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 September 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Contacts Energy Information Administration/ Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997 ii The Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report is prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. Questions and comments concerning the contents of the report may be directed to:

214

2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report 2012 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transaction Report The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. In order to continue or expand the role for nuclear power in our long- term energy platform, the United States must: Continually improve the safety and security of nuclear energy and its associated technologies worldwide. Develop solutions for the transportation, storage, and long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel and associated wastes.

215

Fuel Cycle Technologies | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the fossil fuel supply. As the only large-scale source of nearly greenhouse gas-free energy, nuclear power is an essential part of our energy mix, generating about 20...

216

Cost-effective fuel cycle closure  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. government is moving toward meeting its obligation to accept spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in 1998 by providing an interim storage facility. Site work and analysis of the deep, geologic repository at Yucca Mountain will continue at a reduced level of effort. This provides the time required to reevaluate the use of spent-fuel recycling instead of direct disposal. A preliminary assessment of this option is presented in this paper.

Ehrman, C.S. [Burns & Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (United States); Boardman, C.E. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

218

SAFEGUARDS EXPERIENCE ON THE DUPIC FUEL CYCLE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards have been applied to the R and D process for directly fabricating CANDU fuel with PWR spent fuel material. Safeguards issues to be resolved were identified in the areas such as international cooperation on handling foreign origin nuclear material, technology development of operator's measurement system of the bulk handling process of spent fuel material, and a built-in C/S system for independent verification of material flow. The fuel cycle concept (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU, DUPIC) was developed in consideration of reutilization of over-flowing spent fuel resources at PWR sites and a reduction of generated high level wastes. All those safeguards issues have been finally resolved, and the first batch of PWR spent fuel material was successfully introduced in the DUPIC lab facility and has been in use for routine process development.

J. HONG; H. KIM; ET AL

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fuel Cycle Scenario Definition, Evaluation, and Trade-offs  

SciTech Connect

This report aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, potential need for transmutation of technetium and iodine, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. It documents most of the work produced by INL, ANL, and SNL personnel under their Simulation, Evaluation, and Trade Study (SETS) work packages during FY2005 and the first half of FY2006. This report represents the first attempt to calculate a full range of metrics, covering all four AFCI program objectives - waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety - using a combination of "static" calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This is a technical report, not aimed at a policy-level audience. A wide range of options are studied to provide the technical basis for identifying the most attractive options and potential improvements. Option improvement could be vital to accomplish before the AFCI program publishes definitive cost estimates. Information from this report will be extracted and summarized in future policy-level reports. Many dynamic simulations of deploying those options are included. There are few "control knobs" for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future, even though it is dark (uncertain) and controls are sluggish with slow time response: what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants. Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would increase our ability to pilot the fuel cycle system: (1) have a recycle strategy that could be implemented before the 2030-2050 approximate period when current reactors retire so that replacement reactors fit into the strategy, (2) establish an option such as multi-pass blended-core IMF as a downward plutonium control knob and accumulate waste management benefits early, (3) establish fast reactors with flexible conversion ratio as a future control knob that slowly becomes available if/when fast reactors are added to the fleet, and (4) expand exploration of blended assemblies and cores, which appear to have advantages and agility. Initial results suggest multi-pass full-core MOX appears to be a less effective way than multi-pass blended core IMF to manage the fuel cycle system because it requires higher TRU throughput while more slowly accruing waste management benefits. Single-pass recycle approaches for LWRs (we did not study the VHTR) do not meet AFCI program objectives and could be considered a "dead end". Fast reactors appear to be effective options but a significant number of fast reactors must be deployed before the benefit of such strategies can be observed.

Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Christopher T. Laws; Lee C. Cadwallader; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Robert N. Hill; J. D. Smith; Andrew S. Goldmann; George Bailey

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The FIT Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010] are an initial step by the FCR&D program toward a global analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. The question originally posed to the “system losses study” was the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, waste management, etc. versus the separation efficiency. In other words, are the costs associated with marginal reductions in separations losses (or improvements in product recovery) justified by the gains in the performance of other systems? We have learned that that is the wrong question. The right question is: how does one adjust the compositions and quantities of all mass streams, given uncertain product criteria, to balance competing objectives including cost? FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles using common bases to determine how chemical performance changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say used fuel cooling times or separation efficiencies) affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT estimates impurities in fuel and waste via a rough estimate of physics and mass balance for a set of technologies. If feasibility is an issue for a set, as it is for “minimum fuel treatment” approaches such as melt refining and AIROX, it can help to make an estimate of how performances would have to change to achieve feasibility.

Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Meliisa C Teague; Gregory M Teske; Kurt G Vedros

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE: PROSPECTS FOR REDUCING ITS COST  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh would make nuclear power competitive with conventional power in lowcost coal areas if capital and operating costs can be brought to within about 10 percent of those of coal-fired plants. Substantial decreases in fuel fabrication cost are anticipated by 1970: other costs in the fuel cycle are expccted to remain about the same as at present. Unit costs and irradiation levels that would be needed to give a fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh are believed to be attainable by 1970. (auth)

Albrecht, W.L.

1959-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

222

Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.  

SciTech Connect

This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Comprehensive Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Combined Cycle/Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purity of water and steam is central to ensuring combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plant component availability and reliability. These guidelines for combined cycle/HRSG plants provide information on the application of all-volatile treatment (AVT), oxygenated treatment (OT), phosphate treatment (PT), caustic treatment (CT), and amine treatment. The guidelines will help operators reduce corrosion and deposition and thereby achieve significant operation and maintenance cost ...

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fuel cycle optimization of thorium and uranium fueled PWR systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The burnup neutronics of uniform PWR lattices are examined with respect to reduction of uranium ore requirements with an emphasis on variation of the fuel-to-moderator ratio

Garel, Keith Courtnay

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Fuel cycle options for optimized recycling of nuclear fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accumulation of transuranic inventories in spent nuclear fuel depends on both deployment of advanced reactors that can be loaded with recycled transuranics (TRU), and on availability of the facilities that separate and ...

Aquien, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

AVESTAR® - Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Dynamic Simulator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Dynamic Simulator Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Dynamic Simulator A simulator that can provide future engineers with realistic, hands-on experience for operating advanced natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants will soon be available at an innovative U.S. Department of Energy training center. Under a new cooperative research and development agreement signed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Invensys Operations Management, the partners will develop, test, and deploy a dynamic simulator and operator training system (OTS) for a generic NGCC power plant equipped for use with post-combustion carbon capture. NETL will operate the new dynamic simulator/OTS at the AVESTAR (Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research) Center in Morgantown, W.Va.

227

350 MW(t) design fuel cycle selection. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document discusses the results of this evaluation and a recommendation to retain the graded fuel cycle in which one-half of the fuel elements are exchanged at each refueling. This recommendation is based on the better performance of the graded cycle relative to the evaluation criteria of both economics and control margin. A choice to retain the graded cycle and a power density of 5.9 MW/m{sup 3} for the upcoming conceptual design phase was deemed prudent for the following reasons: the graded cycle has significantly better economics, and essentially the same expected availability factor as the batch design, when both are evaluated against the same requirements, including water ingress; and the reduction in maximum fuel pin power peaking in the batch design compared to the graded cycle is only a few percent and gas hot streaks are not improved by changing to a batch cycle. The preliminary 2-D power distribution studies for both designs showed that maximum fuel pin power peaking, particularly near the inner reflector, was high for both designs and nearly the same in magnitude. 10 figs., 9 tabs.

Lane, R.K.; Lefler, W.; Shirley, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

TRITIUM SYSTEMS KEYWORDS: tritium fuel cycle, re-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by long execution times. The large divergence in values be- tween characteristic time constants in fuel integrated simulation run is duplicated on a larger scale for the time period of interest such as doubling for the time- scale in the studies conducted here. When tritium decay is included in the net accumulation

Abdou, Mohamed

229

The Combined Otto and Stirling Cycle Prime-Mover-Based Power Plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? An exploratory study of the combined Otto and Stirling cycle prime mover is presented. The Stirling cycle acts as the bottoming cycle on the… (more)

Cullen, Barry, (Thesis)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

"Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Status of technologies and components modeled by EIA" Status of technologies and components modeled by EIA" ,"Revolutionary","Evolutionary","Mature" "Pulverized Coal",,,"X" "Pulverized Coal with CCS" " - Non-CCS portion of Pulverized Coal Plant",,,"X" " - CCS","X" "Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle" " - Advanced Combustion Turbine",,"X" " - Heat Recovery Steam Generator",,,"X" " - Gasifier",,"X" " - Balance of Plant",,,"X" "Conventional Natural Gas Combined Cycle" " - Conventional Combustion Turbine",,,"X" " - Heat Recovery Steam Generator",,,"X" " - Balance of Plant",,,"X"

231

Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis - Nuclear Engineering Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Analysis Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Overview Current Projects Software Nuclear Plant Dynamics and Safety Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Bookmark and Share Reactor physics and fuel cycle analysis is a core competency of the Nuclear Engineering (NE) Division. The Division has played a major role in the design and analysis of advanced reactors, particularly liquid-metal-cooled reactors. NE researchers have concentrated on developing computer codes for

232

2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting 1 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation's current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. To support nuclear energy's continued and expanded role in our energy platform, therefore, the United States must continually improve its knowledge, technology, and policy in order to:

233

Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction  

SciTech Connect

The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Richmond, C.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

International nuclear fuel cycle fact book: Revision 9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. The Fact Book contains: national summaries in which a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; and international agencies in which a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement, and a listing of nuclear societies. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States.

Leigh, I.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Design Considerations for CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this research were to assess the performance and costs of coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with Greenfield and retrofitted carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. The study is part of the CoalFleet Program, a collaborative research and development program that promotes deployment of advanced coal technologies, including IGCC, ultrasupercritical pulverized, oxy-fuel combustion, and supercritical circulating fluidized bed technologies. Two types of coalPittsburg...

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Utility-scale combined-cycle power systems with Kalina bottoming cycles  

SciTech Connect

A new power-generation technology, often referred to as the Kalina cycle, is being developed as a direct replacement for the Rankine steam cycle. It can be applied to any thermal heat source, low or high temperature. Among several Kalina cycle variations, there is one that is particularly well suited as a bottoming cycle for utility combined-cycle applications. It is the subject of this paper. Using an ammonia/water mixture as the working fluid and a condensing system based on absorption-refrigeration principles, the Kalina bottoming cycle outperforms a triple-pressure steam cycle by 16%. Additionally, this version of the Kalina cycle is characterized by an intercooling feature between turbine stages, diametrically opposite to normal reheating practice in steam plants. Energy and mass balances are presented for a 200-MW(electric) Kalina bottoming cycle. Kalina cycle performance is compared to a triple-pressure steam plant. Energy and mass balances are presented as well for a 200-MW(electric) Kalina direct-fired cycle designed for utility purposes.

Kalina, A.I.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Pages that link to "A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Twitter icon Pages that link to "A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation" A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation...

238

Cost and carbon emissions of coal and combined cycle power plants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and carbon emissions of coal and combined cycle power plants in India: international implications Title Cost and carbon emissions of coal and combined cycle power plants in...

239

Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities  

SciTech Connect

With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

Amanda Rynes

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6) 6) Distribution Category UC-950 Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1996 October 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1996 ii Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Coal, Nuclear, report should be addressed to the following staff Electric and Alternate Fuels by the Analysis and Systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Decision Framework for Evaluating Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is working to develop tools to support long-term strategic planning for research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies for electricity generation. The development of a decision framework to help guide the eventual deployment of advanced nuclear technologies represents a key component of this effort. This interim report describes the structure of a prototypical EPRI decision framework and illustrates how that framework can be applied to assess nuclear fuel...

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

242

Combustion Turbine/Combined-Cycle Operations and Maintenance Cost Analyzer, Version 8.61  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CTCC O&M Cost Analyzer is a spreadsheet software product that estimates operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for combustion turbine and combined-cycle plants for specific gas turbine models over the operating life of the asset The CTCC O&M Cost Analyzer software contains powerful capabilities to assist users in evaluating non-fuel O&M costs and in supporting a life-cycle cost evaluation perspective.  The software uses a "bottoms-up" approach for ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

243

Combined-cycle plants can challenge feedwater control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable feedwater control is critical to the reliable operation of any power plant steam generator system. This is particularly true for combustion turbine/heat recovery steam generator/steam turbine combined-cycle power plants where steam production may have to be sustained under varying modes of operation. Feedwater control system implementation in this type of installation often requires specialized designs to accommodate equipment limitations and the system's process dynamics. In particular, combined-cycle power plants that include integral deaerator and multiple pressure heat recovery steam generators may pose special control challenges in several areas. These include integral deaerator pressure, boiler feed pump recirculation control, boiler feed pump protective interlocks, and drum level control. This article describes a number of basic feedwater control logic features, derived from conventional fired boiler designs adapted for specific cycle configuration, applied in recent medium and large combustion turbine-heat recovery steam generator projects.

Bossio, R.A.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

California Energy Commission Assessment of Natural Gas Combined Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Energy Commission 1 Assessment of Natural Gas Combined Cycle Plants for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in a Gas-Dominated Electricity Market California Energy Commission Request for Proposals RFP # 500-10-502 Pre-Bid Conference Date: Wednesday, November 3, 2010 #12;California Energy

245

Integrated gasification combined cycle - a view to the future  

SciTech Connect

DOE is involved in research, development, and demonstration of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle because of a strong belief that it will result in widespread commercialization that will be of great benefit to this nation. METC`s long-range vision comprises (1) product goals that require improvements to known technical advantages, and (2) market goals that are based on expectations of market pull.

Schmidt, D.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Design Considerations for High Availability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report analyses public domain availability data from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and other significant coal gasification facilities, backed up with additional data gained from interviews and discussions with plant operators. Predictions for the availability of future IGCCs are made based on the experience of the existing fleet and anticipated improvements from the implementation of lessons learned.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

247

Secondary steam models of a combined cycle power plant simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the general description of a full scope simulator for a combined cycle power plant is presented; the antecedents of this work are explained; the basis of the models of the auxiliary and turbine gland steam systems are exposed and some ...

Edgardo J. Roldan-Villasana; Ma. de Jesus Cardoso-Goroztieta; Adriana Verduzco-Bravo; Jorge J. Zorrilla-Arena

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Assessment of Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plants with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plants with CO2 Capture and Storage Mike Gravely.5 Million Annual Budget FY 10/11 · $62.5 million electric · $24 million natural gas · Program Research Areas:45 Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc's Role and Reference Documents Rich Myhre ­ Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc 3:05 Pacific Gas

249

22.351 Systems Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-depth technical and policy analysis of various options for the nuclear fuel cycle. Topics include uranium supply, enrichment fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, thorium and other fuel types, ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

250

GUIDE TO NUCLEAR POWER COST EVALUATION. VOLUME 4. FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

Information on fuel cycle cost is presented. Topics covered include: nuclear fuel, fuel management, fuel cost, fissionable material cost, use charge, conversion and fabrication costs, processing cost, and shipping cost. (M.C.G.)

1962-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Novel Power Cycle for Combined-Cycle Systems and Utility Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The description of a new power cycle, based on the use of a multicomponent working fluid, was published earlier. A thermodynamic analysis of this cycle has demonstrated its superiority over the currently used Rankine Cycle, and a distribution of losses in the subsystems of this cycle has been established. A new, improved variant of the cycle, which provides 10% efficiency improvement over the initial variant, has been developed. The new variant employs a cooling of the working fluid between turbine stages and a recuperation of the released heat for supplementation of the boiler heat supply. Analysis shows that with this new, improved cycle efficiencies of up to 52% for a combined-cycle system employing standard turbines, and of up to 55% when modern high-temperature gas turbines are employed, can be achieved. The same cycle can be utilized to retrofit existing direct-fired power plants, providing an efficiency of up to 42%. The possible implications off such a cycle implementation are briefly discussed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is now conducting a study of this cycle.

Kalina, A. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Assessment of Hatch 1, Cycle 21 Fuel Failures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 19 October 2003, Hatch Unit One located near Baxley, Georgia, experienced six duty-related fuel failures following a control blade notching adjustment. The Hatch 1 reactor was shut down for the End of Cycle 21 refueling outage on 14 February 2004. The duty associated with the Hatch 1 notching event was analyzed in detail and found to be relatively high. Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF), in collaboration with EPRI Fuel Reliability Program and Southern Nuclear Company, sponsored a hot cell examination to estab...

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

254

Poolside Fuel Inspection and Fuel Desposit Evaluation at LaSalle-1 (Cycle 10)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LaSalle Unit 1 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant running a noble metals chemical addition (NMCA) chemistry program starting with Cycle 10. Fuel inspection and deposit samples were obtained from two fuel assemblies after Cycle 10. These two assemblies contained rods failed by mechanisms unrelated to corrosion or crud. Results of a poolside examination, bulk sample analysis of 15 crud samples, and detailed flake analysis are reported in this document.

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, as well as for coal and natural gas grid-generation technologies, are provided as baseline cases Cycle Power Plants 14.9 33.1 Natural Gas Turbine, Combined Cycle Power Plants 18.3 46.0 Coal comparable to the total energy use associated with the natural gas and coal grid-generation technologies

Argonne National Laboratory

256

Characterization of Fuel Cell Vehicle Duty Cycle Elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers research done as part of US Department of Energy contract DE-PS26-99FT14299 with the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute on the fuel cell RATLER{trademark} vehicle, Lurch, as well as work done on the fuel cells designed for the vehicle. All work contained within this report was conducted at the Robotic Vehicle Range at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque New Mexico. The research conducted includes characterization of the duty cycle of the robotic vehicle. This covers characterization of its various abilities such as hill climbing and descending, spin-turns, and driving on level ground. This was accomplished with the use of current sensors placed in the vehicle in conjunction with a Data Acquisition System (DAS), which was also created at Sandia Labs. Characterization of the two fuel cells was accomplished using various measuring instruments and techniques that will be discussed later in the report. A Statement of Work for this effort is included in Appendix A. This effort was able to complete characterization of vehicle duty cycle elements using battery power, but problems with the fuel cell control systems prevented completion of the characterization of the fuel cell operation on the benchtop and in the vehicle. Some data was obtained characterizing the fuel cell current-voltage performance and thermal rise rate by bypassing elements of the control system.

MAISH, ALEXANDER B.; NILAN, ERIC J.; BACA, PAUL M.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET  

SciTech Connect

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated with temperature constraints that limit changes to the encapsulating materials, and they generally have less capacity to dissipate heat from the waste package and its immediate surroundings than open modes such as that proposed for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Open emplacement modes can be ventilated for many years prior to permanent closure of the repository, limiting peak temperatures both before and after closure, and combining storage and disposal functions in the same facility. Open emplacement modes may be practically limited to unsaturated host formations, unless emplacement tunnels are effectively sealed everywhere prior to repository closure. Thermal analysis of disposal concepts and waste inventory cases has identified important relationships between waste package size and capacity, and the duration of surface decay storage needed to meet temperature constraints. For example, the choice of salt as the host medium expedites the schedule for geologic disposal by approximately 50 yr (other factors held constant) thereby reducing future reliance on surface decay storage. Rock salt has greater thermal conductivity and stability at higher temperatures than other media considered. Alternatively, the choice of salt permits the use of significantly larger waste packages for SNF. The following sections describe the selection of reference waste inventories, geologic settings, and concepts of operation, and summarize the results from the thermal analysis.

Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Blink, James [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Carter, Joe [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Massimiliano, Fratoni [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Greenberg, Harris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Howard, Rob L [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

(front end fuel cycle) 2.1 (CANDU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 (front end fuel cycle) 2.1 (CANDU: CANada Deuterium Uranium; . ( 2.2) . 70-80% , (uranium concentrate) . () 2.1 . 2.2 2.3 #12; 2; . Mine Car Load Skip Geiger Counter 8"~3/2"" . (2

Hong, Deog Ki

263

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles -- Main Challenges and Strategic Choices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a critical review of the technological challenges to the growth of nuclear energy, emerging advanced technologies that would have to be deployed, and fuel cycle strategies that could conceivably involve interim storage, plutonium recycling in thermal and fast reactors, reprocessed uranium recycling, and transmutation of minor actinide elements and fission products before eventual disposal of residual wastes.

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

264

High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty  

SciTech Connect

High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

Charles Park

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount of the resulting MOX. The study considered two sub-cases within each of the two fuel cycles in which the uranium and plutonium from the first generation of MOX spent fuel (i) would not be recycled to produce a second generation of MOX for use in LWRs or (ii) would be recycled to produce a second generation of MOX fuel for use in LWRs. The study also investigated the effects of recycling MOX spent fuel multiple times in LWRs. The study assumed that both fuel cycles would store and then reprocess spent MOX fuel that is not recycled to produce a next generation of LWR MOX fuel and would use the recovered products to produce FR fuel. The study further assumed that FRs would begin to be brought on-line in 2043, eleven years after recycle begins in LWRs, when products from 5-year cooled spent MOX fuel would be available. Fuel for the FRs would be made using the uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides recovered from MOX. For the cases where LWR fuel was assumed to be recycled one time, the 1st generation of MOX spent fuel was used to provide nuclear materials for production of FR fuel. For the cases where the LWR fuel was assumed to be recycled two times, the 2nd generation of MOX spent fuel was used to provide nuclear materials for production of FR fuel. The number of FRs in operation was assumed to increase in successive years until the rate that actinides were recovered from permanently discharged spent MOX fuel equaled the rate the actinides were consumed by the operating fleet of FRs. To compare the two fuel cycles, the study analyzed recycle of nuclear fuel in LWRs and FRs and determined the radiological characteristics of irradiated nuclear fuel, nuclear waste products, and recycle nuclear fuels. It also developed a model to simulate the flows of nuclear materials that could occur in the two advanced nuclear fuel cycles over 81 years beginning in 2020 and ending in 2100. Simulations projected the flows of uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides as these nuclear fuel materials were produced and consumed in a fleet of 100 1,000 MWe LWRs and in FRs. The model als

E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN A GRAPHITE MODERATED SLIGHTLY ENRICHED FUSED SALT REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle economic study has been made for a 315Mwe graphite- moderated slightly enriched fused-salt reactor. Fuel cycle costs of less than 1.5 mills may be possible for such reactors operating on a ten-year cycle even when the fuel is discarded at the end of the cycle. Recovery of the uranium and plutonium at the end of the cycle reduces the fuel cycle costs to approximates 1 mill/kwh. Changes in the waste storage cost, reprocessing cost or salt inventory have a relatively minor effect on fuel cycle costs. (auth)

Guthrie, C.E.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4  

SciTech Connect

This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

ASSESSING THE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE OF INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments to support the development and implementation of U.S. nonproliferation policy. This paper summarizes the key results of that effort. Proliferation resistance is the degree of difficulty that a nuclear material, facility, process, or activity poses to the acquisition of one or more nuclear weapons. A top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed here from a hierarchy of metrics. At the lowest level, intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation are defined. These barriers are recommended as a means to characterize the proliferation characteristics of a fuel cycle. Because of the complexity of nonproliferation assessments, the problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The spectrum of potential threats of nuclear proliferation is complex and ranges from small terrorist cells to industrialized countries with advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Two general categories of methods have historically been used for nonproliferation assessments: attribute analysis and scenario analysis. In the former, attributes of the systems being evaluated (often fuel cycle systems) are identified that affect their proliferation potential. For a particular system under consideration, the attributes are weighted subjectively. In scenario analysis, hypothesized scenarios of pathways to proliferation are examined. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and estimates the likelihood of success in achieving a proliferation objective. An attribute analysis approach should be used at the conceptual design level in the selection of fuel cycles that will receive significant investment for development. In the development of a detailed facility design, a scenario approach should be undertaken to reduce the potential for design vulnerabilities. While, there are distinctive elements in each approach, an analysis could be performed that utilizes aspects of each approach.

BARI,R.; ROGLANS,J.; DENNING,R.; MLADINEO,S.

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

269

Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

270

Incorporation of excess weapons material into the IFR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) provides both a diversion resistant closed fuel cycle for commercial power generation and a means of addressing safeguards concerns related to excess nuclear weapons material. Little head-end processing and handling of dismantled warhead materials is required to convert excess weapons plutonium (Pu) to IFR fuel and a modest degree of proliferation protection is available immediately by alloying weapons Pu to an IFR fuel composition. Denaturing similar to that of spent fuel is obtained by short cycle (e.g. 45 day) use in an IFR reactor, by mixing which IFR recycle fuel, or by alloying with other spent fuel constituents. Any of these permanent denaturings could be implemented as soon as an operating IFR and/or an IFR recycle capability of reasonable scale is available. The initial Pu charge generated from weapons excess Pu can then be used as a permanent denatured catalyst, enabling the IFR to efficiently and economically generate power with only a natural or depleted uranium feed. The Pu is thereafter permanently safeguarded until consumed, with essentially none going to a waste repository.

Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fuel cycle design and analysis of SABR: subrcritical advanced burner reactor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Various fuel cycles for a sodium-cooled, subcritical, fast reactor with a fusion neutron source for the transmutation of light water reactor spent fuel have been… (more)

Sommer, Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Economic Analyiss of "Symbiotic" Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle costs are included in the analysis, with the fast reactors having a higher $/kw(e) capital cost than the LWRs, the overall busbar generation cost ($/MWh) for the closed cycles is approximately 12% higher than for the all-LWR once-through fuel cycle case, again based on the expected values from an uncertainty analysis. It should be noted that such a percentage increase in the cost of nuclear power is much smaller than that expected for fossil fuel electricity generation if CO2 is costed via a carbon tax, cap and trade regimes, or carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).

Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Shropshire, David E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Tubular SOFC and SOFC/gas turbine combined cycle status and prospects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presently under fabrication at Westinghouse for a consortium of Dutch and Danish utilities is the world`s first 100 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power generation system. This natural gas fueled experimental field unit will be installed near Arnhem, Netherlands, at an auxiliary district heating plant. Electrical generation efficiency of this simple cycle atmospheric pressure system will approach 50% [net ac/LHV]. For larger capacity systems, the horizon for the efficiency (atmospheric pressure) is about 55%. Pressurization would increase the efficiency. Objectives of the analyses reported were: (1) to document the improved performance potential of the two shaft turbine cycle given access to a better recuperator and lower lead losses, (2) to assess the performance of PSOFC/GT combined cycles in the 3 MW plant application that are based on use of a simple single shaft gas turbine having a design-point turbine inlet temperature that closely matches the temperature of the SOFC exhaust gas (about 850 C), (3) to estimate the performance potential of smaller combined cycle power plants employing a single SOFC submodule, and (4) to evaluate the cogeneration potential of such systems.

Veyo, S.E.; Lundberg, W.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Westinghouse to launch coal gasifier with combined cycle unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westinghouse has designed a prototype coal gasifier which can be intergrated with a combined cycle unit and enable power plants to use coal in an efficient and environmentally acceptable way. Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (CGCC) technology burns gas made from coal in a gas turbine to generate power and then collects the hot exhaust gases to produce steam for further power generation. The commercialization of this process would meet the public's need for an economical and clean way to use coal, the utitities' need to meet electric power demands, and the nation's need to reduce dependence on imported oil. The Westinghouse process is described along with the company's plans for a demonstration plant and the option of a phased introduction to allow utilities to continue the use of existing equipment and generate revenue while adding to capacity. (DCK)

Stavsky, R.M.; Margaritis, P.J.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected six integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

Ness, H.M.; Reuther, R.B.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Coal Fleet Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC Permitting) Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidance to owners of planned Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in order to assist them in permitting these advanced coal power generation facilities. The CoalFleet IGCC Permitting Guidelines summarize U.S. federal requirements for obtaining air, water, and solid waste permits for a generic IGCC facility, as described in the CoalFleet User Design Basis Specification (UDBS). The report presents characteristics of IGCC emissions that must be considered in the p...

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

2012 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Research and Development Roadmap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BackgroundThe second generation of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants is now being built or planned following nearly two decades of commercial demonstration at multiple units. State-of-the-art IGCC plants have efficiencies equivalent to that of pulverized coal power plants while exhibiting equal or superior environmental performance and lower water usage. Precombustion CO2 capture technology is commercially available and has been ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

278

Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Economic comparison of cogeneration/combined-cycle alternatives for industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines various cogeneration alternatives available today and provides an economic comparison for a range of conditions that will enable the most significant factors to be considered in the selection of cogeneration alternatives, and to determine which alternatives are most suitable for the particular application. The cogeneration methods considered are: a combustion turbine electric generating unit followed by an unfired heat recovery steam generator, a combustion turbine electric generating unit followed by a supplementary fired heat recovery steam generator, a combustion turbine electric generating unit followed by a fully fired boiler, a combined-cycle combustion turbine electric generating unit followed by a supplementary fired high-pressure heat recovery boiler delivering steam to a noncondensing steam turbine-generator, a combined-cycle combustion turbine electric generating unit followed by a fully fired boiler delivering steam to a noncondensing steam turbine-generator, and a conventional coal-fired boiler and a noncondensing steam turbine-generator. It is concluded that over a wide range of financial and operating conditions, almost all of the cogeneration/combined-cycle alternatives are more economical than continued operation of an existing conventional boiler generating steam only.

Cahill, G.J.; Germinaro, B.D.; Martin, D.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

THORIUM BREEDER REACTOR EVALUATION. PART 1. FUEL YIELD AND FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN FIVE THERMAL BREEDERS  

SciTech Connect

The performances of aqueous-homogeneous (AHBR), molten-salt (MSBR), liquid-bismuth (LBBR), gas-cooled graphite-moderated (GGBR), and deuterium- moderated gas-cooled (DGBR) breeder reactors were evaluated in respect to fuel yield, fuel cycle costs, and development status. A net electrical plant capability of 1000 Mwe was selected, and the fuel and fertile streams were processed continuously on-site. The maximum annual fuel yields were 1.5 mills/ kwhr. The minimum estimated fuel cycle costs were 0.9, 0.6, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 mills/kwhr at fuel yields of were 0.9, 0.9, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3 mills/kwhr. Only the AHBR and the MSBR are capable of achieving fuel yields substantially in excess of 4%/yr, and therefore, in view of the uncertainties in nuclear data and efficiencies of processing methods, only these two can be listed with confidence as being able to satisfy the main criterion of the AEC longrange thorium breeder program, viz. a doubling time of 25 years or less. The development effort required to bring the various concepts to the stage where a prototype station could be designed was estimated to be least for the AHBR, somewhat more for the MSBR, and several times as much for the other systems. The AHBR was judged to rank first in regard to nuclear capability, fuel cycle potential, and status of development. (auth)

Alexander, L.G.; Carter, W.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Kinyon, R.W.; Miller, J.W.; Van Winkle, R.

1961-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Selection of Isotopes and Elements for Fuel Cycle Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cycle system analysis simulations examine how the selection among fuel cycle options for reactors, fuel, separation, and waste management impact uranium ore utilization, waste masses and volumes, radiotoxicity, heat to geologic repositories, isotope-dependent proliferation resistance measures, and so forth. Previously, such simulations have tended to track only a few actinide and fission product isotopes, those that have been identified as important to a few criteria from the standpoint of recycled material or waste, taken as a whole. After accounting for such isotopes, the residual mass is often characterized as “fission product other” or “actinide other”. However, detailed assessment of separation and waste management options now require identification of key isotopes and residual mass for Group 1A/2A elements (Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba), inert gases (Kr, Xe), halogens (Br, I), lanthanides, transition metals, transuranic (TRU), uranium, actinide decay products. The paper explains the rationale for a list of 81 isotopes and chemical elements to better support separation and waste management assessment in dynamic system analysis models such as Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION)

Steven J. Piet

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combined-cycle systems have been performed. Dersch et al, 2004 [2] studied how parabolic troughs could the other part. That approach is relevant for trough systems, but not appropriate in the case of point been used with solar ponds in Israel [5] and low-temperature parabolic

283

Determination of the proper operating range for the CAFCA IIB fuel cycle model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fuel cycle simulation tool, CAFCA II was previously modified to produce the most recent version, CAFCA IIB. The code tracks the mass distribution of transuranics in the fuel cycle in one model and also projects costs ...

Warburton, Jamie (Jamie L.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sensitivity of economic performance of the nuclear fuel cycle to simulation modeling assumptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparing different nuclear fuel cycles and assessing their implications require a fuel cycle simulation model as complete and realistic as possible. In this thesis, methodological implications of modeling choices are ...

Bonnet, Nicéphore

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THORIUM FUEL CYCLE SYMPOSIUM, GATLINBURG, TENNESSEE, DECEMBER 5-7, 1962  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-three papers presented at the Thorium Fuel Cycle symposium are given. Topics covered include fuel-cycle technology, raw materials, reactor physics, and reactor concepts. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the papers. (M.C.G.)

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives were to establish the engine model for simulation and then apply the model to study the biodiesel fueled engine and compare it to a petroleum-fueled engine. The engine model was developed corresponding to a 4.5 liter, John Deere 4045 four-cylinder diesel engine. Submodels for flow in intake/exhaust system, fuel injection, fuel vaporization and combustion, cylinder heat transfer, and energy transfer in a turbocharging system were combined with a thermodynamic analysis of the engine to yield instantaneous in-cylinder parameters and overall engine performance and emission characteristics. At selected engine operating conditions, sensitivities of engine performance and emission on engine load/speed, injection timing, injection pressure, EGR level, and compression ratio were investigated. Variations in cylinder pressure, ignition delay, bsfc, and indicated specific nitrogen dioxide were determined for both a biodiesel fueled engine and a conventional diesel fueled engine. Cylinder pressure and indicated specific nitrogen dioxide for a diesel fueled engine were consistently higher than those for a biodiesel fueled engine, while ignition delay and bsfc had opposite trends. In addition, numerical study focusing on NOx emission were also investigated by using 5 different NO kinetics. Differences in NOx prediction between kinetics ranged from 10% to 65%.

Zheng, Junnian

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of the repository design. (4) A simple, but arguably conservative, estimate for the dose from a repository containing 63,000 MT of spent LIFE fuel would have similar performance to the currently planned Yucca Mountain Repository. This indicates that a properly designed 'LIFE Repository' would almost certainly meet the proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission standards for dose to individuals, even though the waste in such a repository would have produced 20-30 times more generated electricity than the reference case for Yucca Mountain. The societal risk/benefit ratio for a LIFE repository would therefore be significantly better than for currently planned repositories for LWR fuel.

Shaw, H; Blink, J A

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

288

Strengthening the nuclear-reactor fuel cycle against proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducts several research programs that serve to reduce the risks of fissile-material diversion from the nuclear-reactor fuel cycle. The objectives are to provide economical and efficient neutron or power generation with the minimum of inherent risks, and to further minimize risks by utilizing sophisticated techniques to detect attempts at material diversion. This paper will discuss the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, the Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), and Proliferation-Resistant Closed-Cycle Reactors. The first two are sponsored by the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation.

Travelli, A.; Snelgrove, J.; Persiani, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Arms Control and Nonproliferation Program

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Characteristics-Based Approach to Radioactive Waste Classification in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a   Geologic   Repository”,   Nuclear  Technology,   154,  in  decommissioned  U.S.  nuclear   facilities,  German  Framework   for   Nuclear   Fuel   Cycle   Concepts,”  

Djokic, Denia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

292

Software: Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis - Nuclear Engineering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis > Analysis > Software Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Overview Current Projects Software Nuclear Plant Dynamics and Safety Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Software Bookmark and Share An extensive powerful suite of computer codes developed and validated by the NE Division and its predecessor divisions at Argonne supports the development of fast reactors; many of these codes are also applicable to other reactor types. A brief description of these codes follows. Contact

293

Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3  

SciTech Connect

The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems ANL/ESD/08-3 Energy Systems Division Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401 fax (865) 576-5728 reports@adonis.osti.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor UChicago Argonne, LLC, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any warranty, express

295

Fuel cycles and envisioned roles of fast neutron reactors and hybrids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will require insuring sustainability in terms of safe operation, optimal use of resources, radioactive waste minimization and reduced risk of proliferation. The present paper introduces some basic notions and fundamental fuel cycle strategies. The simulation approach needed to evaluate the impact of the different fuel cycle alternatives will also be shortly discussed.

Salvatores, Massimo [CEA-Cadarache, DEN-Dir, Bat. 101, St-Paul-Lez-Durance 13108 (France)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

296

Environmental Aspects of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles: Parametric Modeling and Preliminary Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear power has the potential to help reduce rising carbon emissions, but to be considered sustainable, it must also demonstrate the availability of an indefinite fuel supply as well as not produce any significant negative environmental effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sustainability of nuclear power and to explore the nuclear fuel cycles that best meet this goal. First, the study quantified current and promising nuclear fuel cycles to be further evaluated and developed a set of objective metrics to describe the environmental effects of each cycle. The metrics included such factors as the amount of waste generated and the isotopic composition of the waste. Next, the evaluation used the International Atomic Energy Agency's Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System to compute nuclide compositions at various stages of the fuel cycles. Finally, the study looked at the radioactivity of the waste generated and used this and other characteristics to determine which fuel cycle meets the objectives of sustainability. Results confirm that incorporating recycling into the fuel cycle would help reduce the volume of waste needing to be stored long-term. Also, calculations made with data from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System predicted that the waste from fuel cycles using recycling would be slightly more radiotoxic than the open fuel cycle?s waste. However, the small increase in radiotoxicity is a manageable issue and would not detract from the benefits of recycling. Therefore, recycling and reprocessing spent fuel must be incorporated into the nuclear fuel cycle to achieve sustainability.

Yancey, Kristina D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The worldwide energy consumption in 2003 was 421 quadrillion Btu (Quads), and included 162 quads for oil, 99 quads for natural gas, 100 quads for coal, 27 quads for nuclear energy, and 33 quads for renewable sources. The projected worldwide energy consumption for 2030 is 722 quads, corresponding to an increase of 71% over the consumption in 2003. The projected consumption for 2030 includes 239 quads for oil, 190 quads for natural gas, 196 quads for coal, 35 quads for nuclear energy, and 62 quads for renewable sources [International Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0484, Table D1 (2006) p. 133]. The current fleet of light water reactors (LRWs) provides about 20% of current U.S. electricity, and about 16% of current world electricity. The demand for electricity is expected to grow steeply in this century, as the developing world increases its standard of living. With the increasing price for oil and gasoline within the United States, as well as fear that our CO2 production may be driving intolerable global warming, there is growing pressure to move away from oil, natural gas, and coal towards nuclear energy. Although there is a clear need for nuclear energy, issues facing waste disposal have not been adequately dealt with, either domestically or internationally. Better technological approaches, with better public acceptance, are needed. Nuclear power has been criticized on both safety and waste disposal bases. The safety issues are based on the potential for plant damage and environmental effects due to either nuclear criticality excursions or loss of cooling. Redundant safety systems are used to reduce the probability and consequences of these risks for LWRs. LIFE engines are inherently subcritical, reducing the need for systems to control the fission reactivity. LIFE engines also have a fuel type that tolerates much higher temperatures than LWR fuel, and has two safety systems to remove decay heat in the event of loss of coolant or loss of coolant flow. These features of LIFE are expected to result in a more straightforward licensing process and are also expected to improve the public perception of risk from nuclear power generation, transportation of nuclear materials, and nuclear waste disposal. Waste disposal is an ongoing issue for LWRs. The conventional (once-through) LWR fuel cycle treats unburned fuel as waste, and results in the current fleet of LWRs producing about twice as much waste in their 60 years of operation as is legally permitted to be disposed of in Yucca Mountain. Advanced LWR fuel cycles would recycle the unused fuel, such that each GWe-yr of electricity generation would produce only a small waste volume compared to the conventional fuel cycle. However, the advanced LWR fuel cycle requires chemical reprocessing plants for the fuel, multiple handling of radioactive materials, and an extensive transportation network for the fuel and waste. In contrast, the LIFE engine requires only one fueling for the plant lifetime, has no chemical reprocessing, and has a single shipment of a small amount of waste per GWe-yr of electricity generation. Public perception of the nuclear option will be improved by the reduction, for LIFE engines, of the number of shipments of radioactive material per GWe-yr and the need to build multiple repositories. In addition, LIFE fuel requires neither enrichment nor reprocessing, eliminating the two most significant pathways to proliferation from commercial nuclear fuel to weapons programs.

Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fuel cycle and waste management demonstration in the IFR Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argonne's National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is the main element in the US advanced reactor development program. A unique fuel cycle and waste process technology is being developed for the IFR. Demonstration of this technology at engineering scale will begin within the next year at the EBR-II test facility complex in Idaho. This paper describes the facility being readied for this demonstration, the process to be employed, the equipment being built, and the waste management approach.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Benedict, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Laidler, J.J.; Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fuel cycle and waste management demonstration in the IFR Program  

SciTech Connect

Argonne`s National Laboratory`s Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is the main element in the US advanced reactor development program. A unique fuel cycle and waste process technology is being developed for the IFR. Demonstration of this technology at engineering scale will begin within the next year at the EBR-II test facility complex in Idaho. This paper describes the facility being readied for this demonstration, the process to be employed, the equipment being built, and the waste management approach.

Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Benedict, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Laidler, J.J.; Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY13 Report  

SciTech Connect

In Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12) PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In Fiscal Year 2013 (FY13) the SNAP demonstration was enhanced with respect to query and navigation usability issues.

Hohimer, Ryan E.; Strasburg, Jana D.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

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301

22.251 / 22.351 Systems Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course provides an in-depth technical and policy analysis of various options for the nuclear fuel cycle. Topics include uranium supply, enrichment fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

302

Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Shutdown, Layup, and Startup of Combined Cycle Units with Heat Recovery Steam Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complete optimization of cycle chemistry in a combined-cycle unit requires more than proper selection and optimization of operating chemistry. Protection of the steam-water cycle also is essential during shutdown, layup, and startup phases. These guidelines consider protection of steam- and water-touched components at these times, consistent with the operating cycle chemistries in use.

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

303

System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)  

SciTech Connect

This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a forcing function, helping the team in this endeavor. Models don’t like “TBD” as an input, forcing us to make assumptions and see if they matter. A major addition in FY 2010 was exploratory analysis of “modified open fuel” cycles, employing “minimum fuel treatment” as opposed to full aqueous or electrochemical separation treatment. This increased complexity in our analysis and analytical tool development because equilibrium conditions do not appear sustainable in minimum fuel treatment cases, as was assumed in FY 2009 work with conventional aqueous and electrochemical separation. It is no longer reasonable to assume an equilibrium situation exists in all cases.

Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group The Charter of the Generation IV Roadmap Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group (FCCG) is to (1) examine the fuel cycle implications for alternative nuclear power scenarios in terms of Generation IV goals and (2) identify key fuel cycle issues associated with Generation IV goals. This included examination of "fuel resource inputs and waste outputs for the range of potential Generation IV fuel cycles, consistent with projected energy demand scenarios." This report summarizes the results of the studies. The membership of the FCCG comprised 8 US members and 7 members from Generation IV International Forum (GIF) countries including members from

305

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

306

WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

Allan Jones

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Comparison of intergrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants with current and advanced gas turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two recent conceptual design studies examined ''grass roots'' integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) plants for the Albany Station site of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. One of these studies was based on the Texaco Gasifier and the other was developed around the British Gas Co.-Lurgi slagging gasifier. Both gasifiers were operated in the ''oxygen-blown'' mode, producing medium Btu fuel gas. The studies also evaluated plant performance with both current and advanced gas turbines. Coalto-busbar efficiencies of approximately 35 percent were calculated for Texaco IGCC plants using current technology gas turbines. Efficiencies of approximately 39 percent were obtained for the same plant when using advanced technology gas turbines.

Banda, B.M.; Evans, T.F.; McCone, A.I.; Westisik, J.H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Exxon Chemical's Coal-Fired Combined Cycle Power Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exxon Chemical's Central Engineering Division has recently developed and patented CAT-PAC for Industrial Cogeneration and Utility Power Plants. It involves the marriage of a conventional direct pulverized coal-fired boiler radiant section with a convection section adapted from our furnace experience. In particular, it is an open-cycle, hot air turbine arrangement with indirect heating of the air in the boiler convection section. The turbine exhaust is then used as pre-heated combustion air for the boiler. The air coil heats the 150 psig air from the standard gas turbine axial compressor to approximately, 1750°F. Today, CAT-PAC would require about 10% less fuel (or 1000 Btu/kwh) than the best coal-fired Utility Plant for the same net power output, at a comparable investment. With improved air heater metallurgy, and/or trim firing of a premium fuel (up to 2000° F permissible gas turbine temperature), CAT-PAC savings would double to 20%. Today, in an industrial coal-fired cogeneration plant, CAT-PAC can produce up to 75% more power for a given steam load, while maintaining the highest cogeneration efficiencies. With improved metallurgy, and/or trim firing, the additional power would approach 100%.

Guide, J. J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL`s Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was the vehicle used to secure authorization to operate the facility and carry out the program, which is now under way. This work also provided some insights into safety-related issues of a commercial IFR fuel processing facility. These are also discussed.

Charak, I; Pedersen, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Forrester, R.J.; Phipps, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants  

SciTech Connect

The combustion/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean coal technologies using gas turbines results from the CFTCC system having been designed as an adaptation to coal of a natural gas-fired combined cycle plant. Gas turbines are built for compactness and simplicity. The RQL combustor is designed using gas turbine combustion technology rather than process plant reactor technology used in other pressurized coal systems. The result is simpler and more compact combustion equipment than for alternate technologies. The natural effect is lower cost and improved reliability. In addition to new power generation plants, CFTCC technology will provide relatively compact and gas turbine compatible coal combustion/emissions control islands that can adapt existing natural gas-fired combined cycle plants to coal when gas prices rise to the point where conversion is economically attractive. Because of the simplicity, compactness, and compatibility of the RQL combustion/emission control island compared to other coal technologies, it could be a primary candidate for such conversions.

Rothrock, J.; Wenglarz, R.; Hart, P.; Mongia, H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Choose best option for enhancing combined-cycle output  

SciTech Connect

This article describes several methods available for boosting the output of gas-turbine-based combined-cycle plants during warm-weather operation. The technology comparisons help choose the option that is most appropriate. Amidst the many advantages of gas-turbine (GT) combined cycles (CC), one drawback is that their achievable output decreases significantly as ambient temperature increases. Reason: The lower density of warm air reduces mass flow through the GT. Unfortunately, hot weather typically corresponds to peak power loads in many areas. Thus, the need to meet peak-load and power-sales contract requirements causes many plant developers to compensate for ambient-temperature-related output loss. The three most common methods of increasing output include: (1) injecting water or steam into the GT, (2) precooling GT inlet air, and/or (3) supplementary firing of the heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG). All of these options require significant capital outlays and affect other performance parameters. In addition, they may uniquely impact the operation and/or selection of other components, including boiler feedwater and condensate pumps, valves, steam turbine/generators, condensers, cooling towers, and emissions control systems. Although plant-specific issues will have a significant effect on selecting an option, comparing the performance of different systems based on a theoretical reference plant can be helpful. The comparisons here illustrate the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the major power augmentation technologies now in use.

Boswell, M.; Tawney, R.; Narula, R.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) which has been created to address the issues involved in long term disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and any of

314

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities for R&D on advanced fuel cycles, and the University Programs. In addition to these, we were briefed on the budget, but have no comments other than a hope for a good outcome and restrict ourselves to general advice until more is known. A current complication in the design of the Fuel Cycle R&D FCRD program is the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) which has been created to address the issues involved in long term disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and any of

315

Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 The United States currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal envisioned in a deep mined geologic repository. This report provides an estimate of potential waste inventory and waste form characteristics for the DOE used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and a variety of commercial fuel cycle alternatives in order to support subsequent system-level evaluations of disposal system performance. Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition R5a.docx More Documents & Publications Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management Analysis

316

A dynamic fuel cycle analysis for a heterogeneous thorium-DUPIC recycle in CANDU reactors  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous thorium fuel recycle scenario in a Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor has been analyzed by the dynamic analysis method. The thorium recycling is performed through a dry process which has a strong proliferation resistance. In the fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products of a multiple thorium recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. The analysis results have shown that the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. It is also shown that the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle can reduce the spent fuel inventory and save on the natural uranium resources when compared with the once-through cycle. (authors)

Jeong, C. J.; Park, C. J.; Choi, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., P.O. Box 150, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.  

SciTech Connect

Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. Examples of systems in this class include the small modular reactors being considered internationally; e.g. 4S [Tsuboi 2009], Hyperion Power Module [Deal 2010], ARC-100 [Wade 2010], and SSTAR [Smith 2008]. (2) Systems for Resource Utilization - In recent years, interest has developed in the use of advanced nuclear designs for the effective utilization of fuel resources. Systems under this class have generally utilized the breed and burn concept in which fissile material is bred and used in situ in the reactor core. Due to the favorable breeding that is possible with fast neutrons, these systems have tended to be fast spectrum systems. In the once-through concepts (as opposed to the traditional multirecycle approach typically considered for fast reactors), an ignition (or starter) zone contains driver fuel which is fissile material. This zone is designed to last a long time period to allow the breeding of sufficient fissile material in the adjoining blanket zone. The blanket zone is initially made of fertile depleted uranium fuel. This zone could also be made of fertile thorium fuel or recovered uranium from fuel reprocessing or natural uranium. However, given the bulk of depleted uranium and the potentially large inventory of recovered uranium, it is unlikely that the use of thorium is required in the near term in the U.S. Following the breeding of plutonium or fissile U-233 in the blanket, this zone or assembly then carries a larger fraction of the power generation in the reactor. These systems tend to also have a long cycle length (or core life) and they could be with or without fuel shuffling. When fuel is shuffled, the incoming fuel is generally depleted uranium (or thorium) fuel. In any case, fuel is burned once and then discharged. Examples of systems in this class include the CANDLE concept [Sekimoto 2001], the traveling wave reactor (TWR) concept of TerraPower [Ellis 2010], the ultra-long life fast reactor (ULFR) by ANL [Kim 2010], and the BNL fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR) concept [Fisher 1979]. (3) Thermal systems for resource extensio

Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

319

BWR fuel design options for self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigate a number of fuel assembly design options for a BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. The designs rely on axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure in order to improve fertile to fissile conversion ratio. One of the main assumptions of the current study was to restrict the fuel assembly geometry to a single axial fissile zone 'sandwiched' between two fertile blanket zones. The main objective was to study the effect of the most important design parameters, such as dimensions of fissile and fertile zones and average void fraction, on the net breeding of {sup 233}U. The main design challenge in this respect is that the fuel breeding potential is at odds with axial power peaking and therefore limits the maximum achievable core power rating. The calculations were performed with BGCore system, which consists of MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. A single 3-dimensional fuel assembly with reflective radial boundaries was modeled applying simplified restrictions on maximum central line fuel temperature and Critical Power Ratio. It was found that axially heterogeneous fuel assembly design with single fissile zone can potentially achieve net breeding. In this case however, the achievable core power density is roughly one third of the reference BWR core. (authors)

Shaposhnik, Y.; Shwageraus, E. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, P. O. B. 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Elias, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Inst. of Technology, Technion city, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Impact of alternative nuclear fuel cycle options on infrastructure and fuel requirements, actinide and waste inventories, and economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel once-through cycle (OTC) scheme currently practiced in the U.S. leads to accumulation of uranium, transuranic (TRU) and fission product inventories in the spent nuclear fuel. Various separation and recycling ...

Guérin, Laurent, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

A Parametric Study of the DUPIC Fuel Cycle to Reflect Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Management Strategy  

SciTech Connect

For both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) tandem analysis, the Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor (DUPIC) fuel cycle in a CANDU 6 reactor is studied using the DRAGON/DONJON chain of codes with the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI libraries. The reference feed material is a 17 x 17 French standard 900-MW(electric) PWR fuel. The PWR spent-fuel composition is obtained from two-dimensional DRAGON assembly transport and depletion calculations. After a number of years of cooling, this defines the initial fuel nuclide field in the CANDU unit cell calculations in DRAGON, where it is further depleted with the same neutron group structure. The resulting macroscopic cross sections are condensed and tabulated to be used in a full-core model of a CANDU 6 reactor to find an optimized channel fueling rate distribution on a time-average basis. Assuming equilibrium refueling conditions and a particular refueling sequence, instantaneous full-core diffusion calculations are finally performed with the DONJON code, from which both the channel power peaking factors and local parameter effects are estimated. A generic study of the DUPIC fuel cycle is carried out using the linear reactivity model for initial enrichments ranging from 3.2 to 4.5 wt% in a PWR. Because of the uneven power histories of the spent PWR assemblies, the spent PWR fuel composition is expected to differ from one assembly to the next. Uneven mixing of the powder during DUPIC fuel fabrication may lead to uncertainties in the composition of the fuel bundle and larger peaking factors in CANDU. A mixing method for reducing composition uncertainties is discussed.

Rozon, Daniel; Shen Wei [Institut de Genie Nucleaire (Canada)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Combined cycle electric power plant with coordinated steam load distribution control  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle electric power plant includes gas and steam turbines and a steam generator for recovering the heat in the exhaust gases exited from the gas turbine and for using the recovered heat to produce and supply steam to the steam turbine. The steam generator includes a superheater tube through which a fluid, e.g., water, is directed to be additionally heated into superheated steam by the exhaust gas turbine gases. An afterburner further heats the exhaust gas turbine gases passed to the superheater tube. The temperature of the gas turbine exhaust gases is sensed for varying the fuel flow to the afterburner by a fuel valve, whereby the temperatures of the gas turbine exhaust gases and therefore of the superheated steam, are controlled. Loading and unloading of the steam turbine is accomplished automatically in coordinated plant control as a function of steam throttle pressure.

Uram, R.

1979-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

323

Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_Rowe-Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Final_Updated.pptx  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Future Challenges Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nathan Rowe Chris Pickett Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Users Annual Training Meeting May 20-23, 2013 St. Louis, Missouri 2 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Introduction * Changing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities * Nuclear Security Challenges * How to Respond? - Additional Protocol - State-Level Concept - Continuity of Knowledge * Conclusion 3 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nuclear Fuel Cycle Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) web site IAEA Safeguards Begins Here 4 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nuclear Weapons Cycle Conversion

325

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Procurement Guideline for Simple- and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) procurement guideline for simple- and combined-cycle combustion turbines.

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

326

Objectives, Strategies, and Challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will summarize the objectives, strategies, and key chemical separation challenges for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The major objectives are as follows: Waste management - defer the need for a second geologic repository for a century or more, Proliferation resistance - be more resistant than the existing PUREX separation technology or uranium enrichment, Energy sustainability - turn waste management liabilities into energy source assets to ensure that uranium ore resources do not become a constraint on nuclear power, and Systematic, safe, and economic management of the entire fuel cycle. There are four major strategies for the disposal of civilian spent fuel: Once-through - direct disposal of all discharged nuclear fuel, Limited recycle - recycle transuranic elements once and then direct disposal, Continuous recycle - recycle transuranic elements repeatedly, and Sustained recycle - same as continuous except previously discarded depleted uranium is also recycled. The key chemical separation challenges stem from the fact that the components of spent nuclear fuel vary greatly in their influence on achieving program objectives. Most options separate uranium to reduce the weight and volume of waste and the number and cost of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can also be used as reactor fuel. Most options provide means to recycle transuranic (TRU) elements - plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), curium (Cm). Plutonium must be recycled to obtain repository, proliferation, and energy recovery benefits. U.S. non-proliferation policy forbids separation of plutonium by itself; therefore, one or more of the other transuranic elements must be kept with the plutonium; neptunium is considered the easiest option. Recycling neptunium also provides repository benefits. Americium recycling is also required to obtain repository benefits. At the present time, curium recycle provides relatively little benefit; indeed, recycling curium in thermal reactors would significantly increase the hazard (hence cost) of the resulting fuel. Most options separate short-lived fission products cesium and strontium to allow them to decay in separate storage facilities tailored to that need, rather than complicate long-term geologic disposal. This can also reduce the number and cost of waste packages requiring geologic disposal. These savings are balanced by costs for separation and recycle systems. Several long-lived fission products, such as technetium-99 and iodine-129 go to geologic disposal in improved waste forms, recognizing that transmutation of these isotopes would be a slow process; however, the program has not precluded their transmutation as a future alternative.

Steven Piet; Brent Dixon; David Shropshire; Robert Hill; Roald Wigeland; Erich Schneider; J. D. Smith

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

SciTech Connect

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since greenhouse gases are a global concern, rather than a local concern as are some kinds of effluents, one must compare the entire lifecycle of nuclear power to alternative technologies for generating electricity. A recent critical analysis by Sovacool (2008) gives a clearer picture. "It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning." "[N]uclear energy is in no way 'carbon free' or 'emissions free,' even though it is much better (from purely a carbon-equivalent emissions standpoint) than coal, oil, and natural gas electricity generators, but worse than renewable and small scale distributed generators" (Sovacool 2008). According to Sovacool, at an estimated 66 g CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), nuclear power emits 15 times less CO2 per unit electricity generated than unscrubbed coal generation (at 1050 gCO2e/kWh), but 7 times more than the best renewable, wind (at 9 gCO2e/kWh). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2009) has long recognized CO2 emissions in its regulations concerning the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. In Table S-3 of 10 CFR 51.51(b), NRC lists a 1000-MW(electric) nuclear plant as releasing as much CO2 as a 45-MW(e) coal plant. A large share of the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle is due to the energy consumption to enrich uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. A switch to either gas centrifugation or laser isotope separation would dramatically reduce the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Strom, Daniel J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

KRW oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestration of unused CO{sub 2}. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an equivalent CO{sub 2} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal followed by Claus/SCOT treatment to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.801 kg/k Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H{sub 2}S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO{sub 2} recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H{sub 2}S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline took the CO{sub 2} to geological sequestering. In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO{sub 2}-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, and the cost of oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

PROTEUS - Simulation Toolset for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation Toolset for Simulation Toolset for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis PROTEUS Faster and more accurate neutronics calculations enable optimum reactor design... Argonne National Laboratory's powerful reactor physics toolset, PROTEUS, empowers users to create optimal reactor designs quickly, reliably and accurately. ...Reducing costs for designers of fast spectrum reactors. PROTEUS' long history of validation provides confidence in predictive simulations Argonne's simulation tools have more than 30 years of validation history against numerous experiments and measurements. The tools within PROTEUS work together, using the same interface files for easier integration of calculations. Multi-group Fast Reactor Cross Section Processing: MC 2 -3 No other fast spectrum multigroup generation tool

334

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY12 Report  

SciTech Connect

Building on previous internal investments and leveraging ongoing advancements in semantic technologies, PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In developing this proof of concept prototype, the utility and relevancy of semantic technologies to the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D) has been better understood.

Hohimer, Ryan E.; Pomiak, Yekaterina G.; Neorr, Peter A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Strasburg, Jana D.

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

335

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from weaning the U.S. from energy imports (e.g., measures of energy self-sufficiency), and minimization of future high level waste (HLW) repositories world-wide.

David E. Shropshire

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

NOVEL GAS CLEANING/ CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE VOLUME I - CONCEPTUAL COMMERCIAL EVALUATION OPTIONAL PROGRAM FINAL REPORT September 1, 2001 - December 31, 2005 By Dennis A. Horazak (Siemens), Program Manager Richard A. Newby (Siemens) Eugene E. Smeltzer (Siemens) Rachid B. Slimane (GTI) P. Vann Bush (GTI) James L. Aderhold, Jr. (GTI) Bruce G. Bryan (GTI) December 2005 DOE Award Number: DE-AC26-99FT40674 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Prepared by Siemens Power Generation, Inc. 4400 Alafaya Trail Orlando, FL 32826 & Gas Technology Institute 1700 S. Mt. Prospect Rd. Des Plaines, Illinois 60018 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

337

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation. This process can reduce C0[sub 2] production because of its higher efficiency, and it is amenable to C0[sub 2] capture, because C0[sub 2] can be removed before combustion and the associated dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. This paper presents a process-design baseline that encompasses the IGCC system, C0[sub 2] transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering of C0[sub 2] in geological reservoirs.The intent of this study is to provide the C0[sub 2] budget, or an equivalent C0[sub 2]'' budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. Design capital and operating costs for the process are included in the full study but are not reported in the present paper. The value used for the equivalent C0[sub 2]'' budget will be 1 kg C0[sub 2]/kWh[sub e].

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Johnson, R.A. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation. This process can reduce C0[sub 2] production because of its higher efficiency, and it is amenable to C0[sub 2] capture, because C0[sub 2] can be removed before combustion and the associated dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. This paper presents a process-design baseline that encompasses the IGCC system, C0[sub 2] transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering of C0[sub 2] in geological reservoirs.The intent of this study is to provide the C0[sub 2] budget, or an equivalent C0[sub 2]'' budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. Design capital and operating costs for the process are included in the full study but are not reported in the present paper. The value used for the equivalent C0[sub 2]'' budget will be 1 kg C0[sub 2]/kWh[sub e].

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Johnson, R.A. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part I  

SciTech Connect

The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant operating in a daily cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. According to the PSCO tariff for cogenerators, the Independent Power Production Facility Policy, the highest payment schedule is reserved for those facilities capable of automatic generation control (AGC), the so-called `Category 4A Facilities.` AGC entails the ability to receive microwave signals from PSCO`s Load Control Center at Lookout Mountain, Colorado, and automatically adjust output at a rate of 2% of contract maximum load per minute, over at least the top 40% of contract load range. Perhaps the most critical equipment modification enabling AGC was the re-enabling of automatic variable inlet guide vane (IGV) control. During control system modifications for automatic IGVs, the operators realized that the Woodward NetCon control system`s capabilities of control, monitoring and information display were better than anticipated. The relative ease with which IGV changes were made encouraged the operating team to continue to maximize efficiency and optimize plant operations. In fact, the ease of use and modification led to the purchase of an additional NetCon system for plant-wide performance monitoring. The retrofit of the gas turbine control system with the NetCon system was a success. 1 tab.

Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P. [Brush Cogeneration Facility, Brush, CO (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Performance and operational economics estimates for a coal gasification combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant  

SciTech Connect

A performance and operational economics analysis is presented for an integrated-gasifier, combined-cycle (IGCC) system to meet the steam and baseload electrical requirements. The effect of time variations in steam and electrial requirements is included. The amount and timing of electricity purchases from sales to the electric utility are determined. The resulting expenses for purchased electricity and revenues from electricity sales are estimated by using an assumed utility rate structure model. Cogeneration results for a range of potential IGCC cogeneration system sizes are compared with the fuel consumption and costs of natural gas and electricity to meet requirements without cogeneration. The results indicate that an IGCC cogeneration system could save about 10 percent of the total fuel energy presently required to supply steam and electrical requirements without cogeneration. Also for the assumed future fuel and electricity prices, an annual operating cost savings of 21 percent to 26 percent could be achieved with such a cogeneration system. An analysis of the effects of electricity price, fuel price, and system availability indicates that the IGCC cogeneration system has a good potential for economical operation over a wide range in these assumptions.

Nainiger, J.J.; Burns, R.K.; Easley, A.J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method and apparatus for operating a combined cycle power plant having a defective deaerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: a deaerator having primary and secondary functions, the primary function to degasify feedwater for use in the combined cycle power plant; means for normally coupling the deaerator to the combined cycle power plant as a normally functioning part thereof; means for isolating the deaerator from the combined cycle power plant during operations thereof; and alternate means for performing the primary and secondary functions when the deaerator is isolated from the combined cycle power plant, during operations thereof, by the isolating means.

Pavel, J.; Richardson, B.L.; Myers, G.A.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Changing Perspectives on Nonproliferation and Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of international control over technologies and materials in the proliferation sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, specifically those related to enrichment and reprocessing, have been the subject of many studies and initiatives over the years. For examples: the International Fissionable Material Storage proposal in President Eisenhower's Speech on Atoms for Peace, and in the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) when the organization was formed in 1957; the regional nuclear fuel cycle center centers proposed by INFCE in the 80's; and most recently and notably, proposals by Dr. ElBaradei, the Director General of IAEA to limit production and processing of nuclear weapons usable materials to facilities under multinational control; and by U.S. President George W. Bush, to limit enrichment and reprocessing to States that have already full scale, functioning plants. There are other recent proposals on this subject as well. In this paper, the similarities and differences, as well as the effectiveness and challenges in proliferation prevention of these proposals and concepts will be discussed. The intent is to articulate a ''new nuclear regime'' and to develop concrete steps to implement such regime for future nuclear energy and deployment.

Choi, J; Isaacs, T H

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

343

NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M. [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Integrated gasification combined cycle overview of FETC--S program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changing market conditions, brought about by utility deregulation and increased environmental regulations, have encouraged the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) to restructure its Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) program. The program emphasis, which had focused on baseload electricity production from coal, is now expanded to more broadly address the production of a suite of energy and chemical products. The near-term market barrier for baseload power applications for conventional IGCC systems combines with increasing opportunities to process a range of low- and negative-value opportunity feedstocks. The new program is developing a broader range of technology options that will increase the versatility and the technology base for commercialization of gasification-based technologies. This new strategy supports gasification in niche markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in industrial coproduction applications today, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation and coproduction as these markets begin to open.

Stiegel, G.J.; Maxwell, R.C.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Proceedings: Ninth International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants with Heat Recovery Steam Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proper selection, application, and optimization of cycle chemistry have long been recognized as integral to ensuring the highest possible levels of component availability and reliability in fossil-fired generating plant units. These proceedings of the Ninth EPRI International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil Plants address state-of-the-art practices in conventional and combined-cycle plants. The content provides a worldwide perspective on cycle chemistry practices and insight on industry issues an...

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

346

System study on partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery - article no. 051801  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

S partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery is proposed in this paper. Partial gasification adopts cascade conversion of the composition of coal. Active composition of coal is simply gasified, while inactive composition, that is char, is burnt in a boiler. Oxy-fuel combustion of syngas produces only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, so the CO{sub 2} can be separated through cooling the working fluid. This decreases the amount of energy consumption to separate CO{sub 2} compared with conventional methods. The novel system integrates the above two key technologies by injecting steam from a steam turbine into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine to combine the Rankine cycle with the Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiency of this system will be higher based on the cascade utilization of energy level. Compared with the conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), the compressor of the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gasifier are substituted for a pump, reheater, and partial gasifier, so the system is simplified. Furthermore, the novel system is investigated by means of energy-utilization diagram methodology and provides a simple analysis of their economic and environmental performance. As a result, the thermal efficiency of this system may be expected to be 45%, with CO{sub 2} recovery of 41.2%, which is 1.5-3.5% higher than that of an IGCC system. At the same time, the total investment cost of the new system is about 16% lower than that of an IGCC. The comparison between the partial gasification technology and the IGCC technology is based on the two representative cases to identify the specific feature of the proposed system.

Xu, Y.J.; Jin, H.G.; Lin, R.M.; Han, W. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Department of Energy Awards $15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle 15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development Department of Energy Awards $15 Million for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development August 1, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it will award up to $15 million to 34 research organizations as part of the Department's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). AFCI is the Department's nuclear energy research and development program supporting the long-term goals and objectives of the United States' nuclear energy policy. These projects will provide necessary data and analyses to further U.S. nuclear fuel cycle technology development, meet the need for advanced nuclear energy production and help to close the nuclear fuel cycle

348

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Agency/Company /Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/results.asp?ptype=Models/Too References: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model [1] NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model This model calculates the 2005 national average life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for petroleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United

349

Concept for a small, colocated fuel cycle facility for oxide breeder fuels  

SciTech Connect

As part of a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to examine innovative liquid-metal reactor (LMR) system designs over the past three years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) collaborated on studies of mixed oxide fuel cycle options. A principal effort was an advanced concept for a small integrated fuel cycle colocated with a 1300-MW(e) reactor station. The study provided a scoping design and a basis on which to proceed with implementation of such a facility if future plans so dictate. The facility integrated reprocessing, waste management, and refabrication functions in a single facility of nominal 35-t/year capacity utilizing the latest technology developed in fabrication programs at WHC and in reprocessing at ORNL. The concept was based on many years of work at both sites and extensive design studies of prior years.

Burch, W.D.; Stradley, J.G.; Lerch, R.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Program on Technology Innovation: Summary of 2012 EPRI Nuclear Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Government, industry, and academic stakeholders met at an EPRI-sponsored Nuclear Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop, held July 23–24, 2012, to exchange perspectives, plans, and insights concerning how fuel cycle technology options should be evaluated for the purposes of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) as well as eventual deployment. The workshop reviewed efforts in the screening and assessment of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options for future energy systems and focused on the ...

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle with recycling : options and outcomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A system dynamics simulation technique is applied to generate a new version of the CAFCA code to study the mass flow in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the impact of different options for advanced reactors and fuel recycling ...

Silva, Rodney Busquim e

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Generation Maintenance Applications Center: Combustion Turbine Combined-Cycle Duct Burner Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides component-level information regarding the maintenance of major components associated with the compressor section of a combustion turbine typically installed at a combined-cycle facility. It combines recommendations offered by major equipment manufacturers with lessons learned from owner/operators of combined-cycle facilities.  BackgroundCombustion turbine combined-cycle (CTCC) facilities utilize various components that are unique to ...

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

The fuel cycle economics of improved uranium utilization in light water reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple fuel cycle cost model has been formulated, tested satisfactorily (within better than 3% for a wide range of cases)

Abbaspour, Ali Tehrani

354

Microsoft PowerPoint - Nuclear Fuel Cycle_rev3 (1).pptx [Read...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nuclear fuel cycle options are possible * Argonne is involved in research and technology development related to understanding the science and technology of current and potential...

355

They`re he-e-re (almost): The 60% efficient combined cycle  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the technology that promises 60% efficiency from combined-cycle power plants. The topics of the article include advancing design, off-peak thermal energy storage, improving heat recovery steam generator performance, Kalina thermal cycle, performance of Kalina combined-cycle plants, and heat recovery in vapor generators.

DeMoss, T.B.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Criticality safety strategy for the Fuel Cycle Facility electrorefiner at Argonne National Laboratory, West  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Integral Fast Reactor being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal-cooled reactors and a closed fuel cycle. Presently, the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho is being modified to recycle spent metallic fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II as part of a demonstration project sponsored by the Department of Energy. A key component of the FCF is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the electrorefining process, the metal fuel is anodically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt and refined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. In this report, the criticality safety strategy for the FCF ER is summarized. FCF ER operations and processes formed the basis for evaluating criticality safety and control during actinide metal fuel refining. In order to show criticality safety for the FCF ER, the reference operating conditions for the ER had to be defined. Normal operating envelopes (NOES) were then defined to bracket the important operating conditions. To keep the operating conditions within their NOES, process controls were identified that can be used to regulate the actinide forms and content within the ER. A series of operational checks were developed for each operation that wig verify the extent or success of an operation. The criticality analysis considered the ER operating conditions at their NOE values as the point of departure for credible and incredible failure modes. As a result of the analysis, FCF ER operations were found to be safe with respect to criticality.

Mariani, R.D.; Benedict, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lell, R.M.; Turski, R.B.; Fujita, E.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Deaerator heat exchanger for combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a combined cycle power plant. It comprises a steam turbine including an inlet portion for receiving motive steam and an exhaust portion for exhausting the motive steam that is spent by the steam turbine; a condenser connected to the exhaust portion of the steam turbine for receiving the spent motive steam and for condensing the spent motive steam to a supply of condensate; a gas turbine including an exhaust portion for exhausting waste heat that is produced by the gas turbine in the form of exhaust gases; a heat recovery steam generator connected between the exhaust portion of the gas turbine and the steam turbine, for receiving the waste heat exhausted by the gas turbine, for generating the motive steam from a supply of feedwater heated by the waste heat, and for supplying the motive steam to the steam turbine; a deaerator connected to the condenser for receiving the supply of condensate and for deaerating the condensate to provide the supply of feedwater to the heat recovery steam generator; and a heat exchanger.

Pavel, J.; Richardson, B.L.

1990-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants Background Gasification provides the means to turn coal and other carbonaceous solid, liquid and gaseous feedstocks as diverse as refinery residues, biomass, and black liquor into synthesis gas and valuable byproducts that can be used to produce low-emissions power, clean-burning fuels and a wide range of commercial products to support

360

Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne, see www.anl.gov. Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Dr. Hussein Khalil at Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blue Blue ribbon presentation by Dr. Hussein Khalil Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share Blue ribbon presentation by Hussein Khalil Hussein Khalil Dr. Hussein Khalil during the panel discussion Oct. 21, 2010 On October 12 Hussein Khalil, director of Argonne's Nuclear Engineering Division, participated in a Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies

362

National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management  

SciTech Connect

The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Preliminary study: isotopic safeguards techniques (IST). LMFBR fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This memorandum presents the preliminary results of the effort to investigate the applicability of isotope correlation techniques (ICT), formulated for the LWR system, to the LMFBR fuel cycle. The detailed isotopic compositional changes with burnup developed for the CRBR was utilized as the reference case. This differs from the usual LMFBR design studies in that the core uranium is natural uranium rather than depleted. Nevertheless, the general isotopic behavior should not differ significantly and does allow an initial insight into the expected behavior of isotopic correlations for the LMFBR power systems such as: the U.K. PFR and reprocessing plant; the French Phenix and Superphenix; and the US reference conceptual design studies (CDS) of homogeneous and heterogeneous LMFBR systems as they are developed.

Persiani, P.J.; Kroc, T.K.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The possibility of fuel cycle design for ABC/ATW complex with molten fuel on LiF-BeF2 basis  

SciTech Connect

The experience gained in the field of the development of molten salt reactors (MSR) can be made a basis of chemical processing of the ABC/ATW liquid fuel. The following combination of two processing principles are proposed for the ABC/ATW fuel (LiF-BeF2-PuF3,(4)-MAFn): -continious removal of radioactive gases, volatile impurities and 'noble fission products'; -portion-by-portion electrochemical processing with removal of rare earth elements and some other fission products at an autonomous plant. After processing the fuel salt is brought back to the blanket of the ABC/ATW complex. The analysis of information previously published in different countries allows for a safe assumption that the ABC/ATW fuel cycle with liquid fuel salt is feasible and can be demonstrated experimentally.

Naumov, V. S.; Bychkov, A. V. [Federal Scientific Center of Russia Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) Russia, Dimitrovgrad 433510 (Russian Federation)

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.

Gmeindl, Frank D. (Morgantown, WV); Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Combined coal gasifier and fuel cell system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes a process whereby a molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture. 1 fig.

Gmeindl, F.D.; Geisbrecht, R.A.

1989-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

DOE Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development DOE Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development April 17, 2008 - 10:49am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) inviting universities, national laboratories, and industry to compete for up to $15 million to advance nuclear technologies closing the nuclear fuel cycle. These projects will provide necessary data and analyses to further U.S. nuclear fuel cycle technology development, as part of the Department's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the domestic technology R&D component of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Studies resulting from this FOA will

369

DOE Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel DOE Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development DOE Seeks to Invest up to $15 Million in Funding for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development April 17, 2008 - 10:49am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) inviting universities, national laboratories, and industry to compete for up to $15 million to advance nuclear technologies closing the nuclear fuel cycle. These projects will provide necessary data and analyses to further U.S. nuclear fuel cycle technology development, as part of the Department's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the domestic technology R&D component of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Studies resulting from this FOA will

370

Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A hybrid SOFC-microturbine combined-cycle system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As centralized electricity generation and transmission issues continue to complicate electricity demand, interest in distributed generation solutions is increasing. Solid oxide fuel cells are high… (more)

Wilson, Jonathan David.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

LEU fuel cycle analyses for the Belgian BR2 Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium fuel cycle characteristics were calculated for reference HEU and two proposed LEU fuel cycles using an 11-group diffusion-theory neutron flux solution in hexagonal-Z geometry. The diffusion theory model was benchmarked with a detailed Monte Carlo core model. The two proposed LEU fuel designs increased the {sup 235}U loading 20% and the fuel meat volume 51%. The first LEU design used {sup 10}B as a burnable absorber. Either proposed LEU fuel element would provide equilibrium fuel cycle characteristics similar to those of the HEU fuel cycle. Irradiation rates of Co control followers and Ir disks in the center of the core were reduced 6 {plus minus} 1% in the LEU equilibrium core compared to reference HEU core. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Analyzing the proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear fuel cycles : in search of an assessment methodology for use in fuel cycle simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology to assess proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear energy systems is investigated. The framework, based on Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), is envisioned for use within early-stage fuel cycle ...

Pierpoint, Lara Marie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

1997-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

376

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1991--Combined Consumption and Fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

< < Welcome to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's Manufacturing Web Site. If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Return to Energy Information Administration Home Page. Home > Energy Users > Manufacturing > Consumption and Fuel Switching Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1991 (Combined Consumption and Fuel Switching) Overview Full Report Tables & Spreadsheets This report presents national-level estimates about energy use and consumption in the manufacturing sector as well as manufacturers' fuel-switching capability. Contact: Stephanie.battle@eia.doe.gov Stephanie Battle Director, Energy Consumption Division Phone: (202) 586-7237 Fax: (202) 586-0018 URL: http://www.eia.gov/emeu/mecs/mecs91/consumption/mecs1a.html File Last Modified: May 25, 1996

377

Tampa Electric Company Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect

The proposed project will utilize commercially available gasification technology as provided by Texaco in their licensed oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasifier. In this arrangement, coal is ground to specification and slurried in water to the desired concentration (60--70% solids) in rod mills. This coal slurry and an oxidant (95 % pure oxygen) are then mixed in the gasifier burner where the coal partially combusts, in an oxygen deficient environment, to produce syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/SCF (LHV) at a temperature in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The oxygen will be produced from an Air Separation Unit (ASU). The gasifier is expected to achieve greater than 95% carbon conversion in a single pass. It is currently planned for the gasifier to be a single vessel feeding into one radiant syngas cooler where the temperature will be reduced from about 2500{degrees}F to about 1300{degrees}F. After the radiant cooler, the gas will then be split into two (2) parallel convective coolers, where the temperature will be cooled further to about 900{degrees}F. One stream will go to the 50% HGCU system and the other stream to the traditional CGCU system with 100% capacity. This flow arrangement was selected to provide assurance to Tampa Electric that the IGCC capability would not be restricted due to the demonstration of the HGCU system. A traditional amine scrubber type system with conventional sulfur recovery will be used. Sulfur from the HGCU and CGCU systems will be recovered in the form of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and elemental sulfur respectively.The key components of the combined cycle are the advanced combustion.turbine (CT), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and steam turbine (ST), and generators. The advanced CT will be a GE 7F operating with a firing temperature of about 2300{degrees}F.

Pless, D.E.; Black, C.R.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Tampa Electric Company Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect

The proposed project will utilize commercially available gasification technology as provided by Texaco in their licensed oxygen-blown entrained-flow gasifier. In this arrangement, coal is ground to specification and slurried in water to the desired concentration (60--70% solids) in rod mills. This coal slurry and an oxidant (95 % pure oxygen) are then mixed in the gasifier burner where the coal partially combusts, in an oxygen deficient environment, to produce syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/SCF (LHV) at a temperature in excess of 2500[degrees]F. The oxygen will be produced from an Air Separation Unit (ASU). The gasifier is expected to achieve greater than 95% carbon conversion in a single pass. It is currently planned for the gasifier to be a single vessel feeding into one radiant syngas cooler where the temperature will be reduced from about 2500[degrees]F to about 1300[degrees]F. After the radiant cooler, the gas will then be split into two (2) parallel convective coolers, where the temperature will be cooled further to about 900[degrees]F. One stream will go to the 50% HGCU system and the other stream to the traditional CGCU system with 100% capacity. This flow arrangement was selected to provide assurance to Tampa Electric that the IGCC capability would not be restricted due to the demonstration of the HGCU system. A traditional amine scrubber type system with conventional sulfur recovery will be used. Sulfur from the HGCU and CGCU systems will be recovered in the form of H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and elemental sulfur respectively.The key components of the combined cycle are the advanced combustion.turbine (CT), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and steam turbine (ST), and generators. The advanced CT will be a GE 7F operating with a firing temperature of about 2300[degrees]F.

Pless, D.E.; Black, C.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies. In addition to consideration of this 'naive' use of TRISO fuel in LWRs, several refined options are briefly examined and others are identified for further consideration including the use of advanced, high density fuel forms and larger kernel diameters and TRISO packing fractions. The combination of 800 {micro}m diameter kernels of 20% enriched UN and 50% TRISO packing fraction yielded reactivity sufficient to achieve comparable burnup to present-day PWR fuel.

R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Combining thorium with burnable poison for reactivity control of a very long cycle BWR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of utilizing thorium together with gadolinium, erbium, or boron burnable absorber in BWR fuel assemblies for very long cycle is investigated. Nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and power distributions ...

Inoue, Yuichiro, 1969-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).

C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

1999-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

382

Transmutation Dynamics: Impacts of Multi-Recycling on Fuel Cycle Performances  

SciTech Connect

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain continuous multi-recycle in either thermal or fast reactors. In Fiscal Year 2009, transmutaton work at INL provided important new insight, caveats, and tools on multi-recycle. Multi-recycle of MOX, even with all the transuranics, is possible provided continuous enrichment of the uranium phase to ~6.5% and also limitting the transuranic enrichment to slightly less than 8%. Multi-recycle of heterogeneous-IMF assemblies is possible with continuous enrichment of the UOX pins to ~4.95% and having =60 of the 264 fuel pins being inter-matrix. A new tool enables quick assessment of the impact of different cooling times on isotopic evolution. The effect of cooling time was found to be almost as controlling on higher mass actinide concentrations in fuel as the selection of thermal versus fast neutron spectra. A new dataset was built which provides on-the-fly estimates of gamma and neutron dose in MOX fuels as a function of the isotopic evolution. All studies this year focused on the impact of dynamic feedback due to choices made in option space. Both the equilibrium fuel cycle concentrations and the transient time to reach equilibrium for each isotope were evaluated over a range of reactor, reprocessing and cooling time combinations. New bounding cases and analysis methods for evaluating both reactor safety and radiation worker safety were established. This holistic collection of physics analyses and methods gives improved resolution of fuel cycle options, and impacts thereof, over that of previous ad-hoc and single-point analyses.

S. Bays; S. Piet; M. Pope; G. Youinou; A. Dumontier; D. Hawn

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

D. E. Shropshire

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions. 10 refs.

Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Modeling the Performance, Emissions, and Costs of Texaco Gasifier-Based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are an advanced power generation concept with the flexibility to use coal, heavy oils, petroleum coke, biomass, and waste… (more)

Akunuri, Naveen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Kentucky Pioneer Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Demonstration Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Kentucky Pioneer IGCC Demonstration Project DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed DOE action to provide cost-shared financial support for construction and operation of an electrical power station demonstrating use of a Clean Coal Technology in Clark County, Kentucky. Under the Proposed Action, DOE would provide financial assistance, through a Cooperative Agreement with Kentucky Pioneer Energy, LLC, for design, construction, and operation of a 540 megawatt demonstration power station comprised of two synthesis gas-fired combined cycle units in Clark County, Kentucky. The station would also be comprised of a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasifier to produce synthesis gas from a co-feed of coal and refuse-derived fuel pellets and a high temperature molten carbonate fuel cell. The facility would be powered by the synthesis gas feed. The proposed project would consist of the following major components: (1) refuse-derived fuel pellets and coal receipt and storage facilities; (2) a gasification plant; (3) sulfur removal and recovery facilities; (4) an air separation plant; (5) a high-temperature molten carbonate fuel cell; and (6) two combined cycle generation units. The IGCC facility would be built to provide needed power capacity to central and eastern Kentucky. At a minimum, 50 percent of the high sulfur coal used would be from the Kentucky region. Two No Action Alternatives are analyzed in the DEIS. Under the No Action Alternative 1, DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of the proposed facility and no new facility would be built. Under the No Action Alternative 2, DOE would not provide any funding and, instead of the proposed demonstration project, Kentucky Pioneer Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of Global Energy, Inc., would construct and operate, a 540 megawatt natural gas-fired power station. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socioeconomics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, and environmental justice were included in the assessment.

N /A

2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

Cycling Operation of Fossil-Fueled Plants: Volume 6: Evaluation and Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, the sixth volume in a series (GS-7219), describes tools to help utilities define and evaluate strategies for cycling fossil-fueled power plants. To assist companies in their cycling decisions, the report describes far-reaching guidelines on cycling units, including economics, the effects on equipment life, and operations and maintenance. In developing a stepwise plant to cycling operation, EPRI investigators reviewed an extensive database of worldwide and U.S. experience with cycling. The re...

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes CO2-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems, CO2 transportation, and options for the long-term sequestration Of CO2. The intent is to quantify the CO2 budget, or an ``equivalent CO2`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal, followed by Claus/SCOT treatment, to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO2 release rate of 0.801 kg/kV-Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H2S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO2 recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H2S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle, with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline takes the CO2 to geological sequestering. For the optimal CO2 recovery case, the net electric power production was reduced by 37.6 MW from the base case, with a CO2 release rate of 0.277 kg/kWhe (when makeup power was considered). In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO2-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, while the cost for oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh. For the optimal cases employing glycol CO2 recovery, there was no clear advantage; the cost for air-blown IGCC was 95.48 mills/kWh, and the cost for the oxygen-blown IGCC was slightly lower, at 94.55 mills/kWh.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Evaluation of DD and DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission energy systems  

SciTech Connect

A study has been carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce a new source of fissile fuel for existing fission reactors. The denatured fuel cycles were used because it gives additional proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles. DT and DD fusion drivers were examined in this study with a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion driver. Various fuel cycles were studied for light-water and heavy-water reactors. The cost of electricity for each energy system was calculated.

Gohar, Y.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Interim assessment of the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle: feasibility and nonproliferation characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle that employs /sup 233/U denatured with /sup 238/U and mixed with thorium fertile material is examined with respect to its proliferation-resistance characteristics and its technical and economic feasibility. The rationale for considering the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle is presented, and the impact of the denatured fuel on the performance of Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Controlled Reactors, Gas-Cooled Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors, and Fast Breeder Reactors is discussed. The scope of the R, D and D programs to commercialize these reactors and their associated fuel cycles is also summarized and the resource requirements and economics of denatured /sup 233/U cycles are compared to those of the conventional Pu/U cycle. In addition, several nuclear power systems that employ denatured /sup 233/U fuel and are based on the energy center concept are evaluated.

Abbott, L.S.; Bartine, D.E.; Burns, T.J. (eds.)

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program  

SciTech Connect

The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

New Tool for Proliferation Resistance Evaluation Applied to Uranium and Thorium Fueled Fast Reactor Fuel Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The comparison of nuclear facilities based on their barriers to nuclear material proliferation has remained a difficult endeavor, often requiring expert elicitation for each system under consideration. However, objectively comparing systems using a set of computable metrics to derive a single number representing a system is not, in essence, a nuclear nonproliferation specific problem and significant research has been performed for business models. For instance, Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis (MAUA) methods have been used previously to provide an objective insight of the barriers to proliferation. In this paper, the Proliferation Resistance Analysis and Evaluation Tool for Observed Risk (PRAETOR), a multi-tiered analysis tool based on the multiplicative MAUA method, is presented. It folds sixty three mostly independent metrics over three levels of detail to give an ultimate metric for nonproliferation performance comparison. In order to reduce analysts' bias, the weighting between the various metrics was obtained by surveying a total of thirty three nonproliferation specialists and nonspecialists from fields such as particle physics, international policy, and industrial engineering. The PRAETOR was used to evaluate the Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Cycle (FBRFC). The results obtained using these weights are compared against a uniform weight approach. Results are presented for five nuclear material diversion scenarios: four examples include a diversion attempt on various components of a PUREX fast reactor cycle and one scenario involves theft from a PUREX facility in a LWR cycle. The FBRFC was evaluated with uranium-plutonium fuel and a second time using thorium-uranium fuel. These diversion scenarios were tested with both uniform and expert weights, with and without safeguards in place. The numerical results corroborate nonproliferation truths and provide insight regarding fast reactor facilities' proliferation resistance in relation to known standards.

Metcalf, Richard R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Design and fuel management of PWR cores to optimize the once-through fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The once-through fuel cycle has been analyzed to see if there are substantial prospects for improved uranium ore utilization in current light water reactors, with a specific focus on pressurized water reactors. The types of changes which have been examined are: (1) re-optimization of fuel pin diameter and lattice pitch, (2) axial power shaping by enrichment gradation in fresh fuel, (3) use of 6-batch cores with semi-annual refueling, (4) use of 6-batch cores with annual refueling, hence greater extended (approximately doubled) burnup, (5) use of radial reflector assemblies, (6) use of internally heterogeneous cores (simple seed/blanket configurations), (7) use of power/temperature coastdown at the end of life to extend burnup, (8) use of metal or diluted oxide fuel, (9) use of thorium, and (10) use of isotopically separated low sigma/sub a/ cladding material. State-of-the-art LWR computational methods, LEOPARD/PDQ-7/FLARE-G, were used to investigate these modifications.

Fujita, E.K.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Michael Wang Argonne National Laboratory June 10, 2008 Project ID # AN2 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Overview * Project start date: Oct. 2002 * Project end date: Continuous * Percent complete: N/A * Inconsistent data, assumptions, and guidelines * Suite of models and tools * Unplanned studies and analyses * Total project funding from DOE: $2.04 million through FY08 * Funding received in FY07: $450k * Funding for FY08: $840k Budget * H2A team * PSAT team * NREL * Industry stakeholders Partners Timeline Barriers to Address 3 Objectives * Expand and update the GREET model for hydrogen production pathways and for applications of FCVs and other FC systems

395

Summary of non-US national and international fuel cycle and radioactive waste management programs 1982  

SciTech Connect

Brief program overviews of fuel cycle, spent fuel, and waste management activities in the following countries are provided: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, German Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, USSR, and the United Kingdom. International nonproliferation activities, multilateral agreements and projects, and the international agencies specifically involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are also described.

Harmon, K.M.; Kelman, J.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Parametric Study of Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs Using Reprocessed Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates front-end nuclear fuel cycle costs assuming that uranium recovered during the reprocessing of commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel is available to be recycled and used in the place of natural uranium. This report explores the relationship between the costs associated with using a natural uranium fuel cycle, in which reprocessed uranium (RepU) is not recycled, with those associated with using RepU.

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fuel Surveillance at Dresden-2 After One Cycle of Noble Metal Chemical Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dresden-2 implemented noble metal chemical application (NMCA) with a normalized average metal loading of 32 micrograms per square centimeter at the end of cycle-16 (EOC-16) in 1999. A poolside inspection characterized corrosion performance of the fuel supplied by Framatone ANP, Inc. in a post-NMCA environment after one 24-month cycle in 2001. All one-, two-, and three-cycle fuel rods exhibited satisfactory performance, with no evidence of surface spallation. Moreover, the axial liftoff profiles of rods o...

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - DRIVE: Drive-Cycle Rapid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

representative drive cycles from raw data, the tool is capable of comparing vehicle operation to industry standard test cycles and can even select a representative...

399

New Fuel Cycle and Fuel Management Options in Heavy Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Fuel Management of Reactors Other Than Light Water Reactors

Ehud Greenspan; Pavel Hejzlar; Hiroshi Sekimoto; Georgy Toshinsky; David Wade

400

HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions  

SciTech Connect

This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Preliminary LEU fuel cycle analyses for the Belgian BR2 reactor  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle calculations have been performed with reference HEU fuel and LEU fuel using Cd wires or boron as burnable absorbers. The /sup 235/U content in the LEU element has increased 20% to 480g compared to the reference HEU element. The number of fuel plates has remained unchanged while the fuel meat thickness has increased to 0.76 mm from 0.51 mm. The LEU meat density is 5.1 Mg U/m/sup 3/. The reference fuel cycle was a 31 element core operating at 56 MW with a 19.8 day cycle length and eight fresh elements loaded per cycle. Comparable fuel cycle characteristics can be achieved using the proposed LEU fuel element with either Cd wires or boron burnable absorbers. The neutron flux for E/sub n/ > 1 eV changes very little (<5%) in LEU relative to HEU cores. Thermal flux reductions are 5 to 10% in non-fueled positions, and 20 to 30% in fuel elements.

Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Generation Maintenance Application Center: Combustion Turbine Combined-Cycle Heat Recovery Steam Generator Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guide provides information to assist personnel involved with the maintenance of the heat recovery steam generator at a combustion gas turbine combined cycle facility, including good maintenance practices, preventive maintenance techniques and troubleshooting guidance. BackgroundCombustion turbine combined cycle (CTCC) facilities utilize various components that can be unique to this particular type of power plant. As such, owners and ...

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Modeling Nuclear Fuels with a Combined Potts-Phase Field Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials Science Challenges for Nuclear Applications. Presentation Title, Modeling Nuclear Fuels with a Combined Potts-Phase Field Model.

404

Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.[Piet2008] The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: • Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. • For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. • Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. • Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. • Eliminate the need for either “fission product other” or “actinide other” while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use “fission product other” or “actinide other” as their chemical behavior is undefined. • Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. • Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: • Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. • Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd-other, four other specific TM isotopes, and TM-other. Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd are separated because their content constrains the loading of waste in glass, so we have to know the mass of those elements independent of others. • Rules for collapsing long lists of isotopes (~1000) to the 81 items in the library. For each tracked isotope, we define which short-lived isotopes’ mass (at t=0) is included with the mass of the tracked isotope at t=0, which short-lived radioactive progeny must be accounted for when the tracked isotope decays, and to which of the other 80 items the mass of the tracked isotope goes when it decays. • Explanation of where raw data files can be found on the fuel cycle data portal. • Explanation of generic cross section sets • Explanation of isotope-specific parameters such as heat and dose conversion factors • Explanation of the LWR UOX burnup and FR TRU CR correlations.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Edward A. Hoffman

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Assessment of Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plants with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Did Assembled design, capacity factor, and emissions data from public sources: EPA, eGRID, EIA-923 list in spreadsheet form. EPA eGRID and DOE EIA databases provide unit-by-unit data on rated capacity, fuel consumption, CO2 production, etc. http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/ener gy-resources/egrid

406

Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants  

SciTech Connect

There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems  

SciTech Connect

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee The Fuel Cycle (FC) Subcommittee of NEAC met February 7-8, 2012 in Washington (Drs. Hoffmann and Juzaitis were unable to attend). While the meeting was originally scheduled to occur after the submission of the President's FY 2013 budget, the submission was delayed a week; thus, we could have no discussion on balance in the NE program. The Agenda is attached as Appendix A. The main focus of the meeting was on accident tolerant fuels, an important post Fukushima issue, and on issues related to the report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) as related to the

410

Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model  

SciTech Connect

This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Plutonium Multi-Recycling in Fast Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results from a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for a closed fuel cycle with multi-recycling of plutonium in fast reactors (FRs) compared to an open, once-through fuel cycle using PWRs. The study examines the impact on fuel cycle costs from changes in the unit costs of uranium, advanced PUREX reprocessing of discharged uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel and fast-reactor mixed-oxide (FR-MOX) fuel, and FR-MOX fuel fabrication. In addition, the impact associated with changes in ...

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Evaluation of alternative fuel cycle strategies for nuclear power generation in the 21st century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deployment of fuel recycling through either CONFU (COmbined Non-Fertile and UO2 fuel) thermal watercooled reactors (LWRs) or fast ABR (Actinide Burner Reactor) reactors is compared to the Once-Through LWR reactor system ...

Boscher, Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Effect of changes in DOE pricing policies for enrichment and reprocessing on research reactor fuel cycle costs  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs with HEU and LEU fuels for the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor are updated to reflect the change in DOE pricing policy for enrichment services as of October 1985 and the published charges for LEU reprocessing services as of February 1986. The net effects are essentially no change in HEU fuel cycle costs and a reduction of about 8 to 10% in the fuel cycle costs for LEU silicide fuel.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1986-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

Wang, M.Q.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Status of the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration and waste management practices  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been preparing for the demonstration of the fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor concept that takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety and operations, fuel-cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The IFR fuel cycle, which will be demonstrated at Argonne-West in Idaho, employs a pyrometallurgical process using molten salts and liquid metals to recover actinides from spent fuel. The required facility modifications and process equipment for the demonstration are nearing completion. Their status and the results from initial fuel fabrication work, including the waste management aspects, are presented. Additionally, estimated compositions of the various process waste streams have been made, and characterization and treatment methods are being developed. The status of advanced waste processing equipment being designed and fabricated is described.

Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.; McFarlane, H.F.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations.

Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Lessons Learned in Startup and Commissioning of Simple-Cycle and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbine Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last ten years, hundreds of combustion turbines (CT) have been installed to meet the needs of the power generation market. A variety of CT models have been installed throughout this period, in both simple-cycle and combined-cycle configurations. Some of the initial plants had issues related to meeting performance requirements and acceptable operation, and each new plant design could be improved based on the experience gained on the earlier installations and startups. This report provides a summa...

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT TANK TO WHEELS EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

important. Propane and CNG are NOT "cleaner burning". RSD is a very good tool for emissions inventory. #12 pollutant per kg of fuel from RSD -quantifiable uncertainty Fuel sales from tax department -quite precise

419

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adam R. 2008. “Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fuel cycle stewardship in a nuclear renaissance 5 Recommendation 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fuel, thereby decreasing the attractiveness of plutonium in spent fuel for use in nuclear weapons plan for its reuse. This plan should seek to: · Minimise the amount of separated plutonium produced and the time for which it needs to be stored. · Convert separated plutonium into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel as soon

Rambaut, Andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuels combined cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Economic incentives and recommended development for commercial use of high burnup fuels in the once-through LWR fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study calculates the reduced uranium requirements and the economic incentives for increasing the burnup of current design LWR fuels from the current range of 25 to 35 MWD/Kg to a range of 45 to 55 MWD/Kg. The changes in fuel management strategies which may be required to accommodate these high burnup fuels and longer fuel cycles are discussed. The material behavior problems which may present obstacles to achieving high burnup or to license fuel are identified and discussed. These problems are presented in terms of integral fuel response and the informational needs for commercial and licensing acceptance. Research and d