National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuels combined cycle

  1. Combined cycle phosphoric acid fuel cell electric power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollot, D.J.; Micheli, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    By arranging two or more electric power generation cycles in series, combined cycle systems are able to produce electric power more efficiently than conventional single cycle plants. The high fuel to electricity conversion efficiency results in lower plant operating costs, better environmental performance, and in some cases even lower capital costs. Despite these advantages, combined cycle systems for the 1 - 10 megawatt (MW) industrial market are rare. This paper presents a low noise, low (oxides of nitrogen) NOx, combined cycle alternative for the small industrial user. By combining a commercially available phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with a low-temperature Rankine cycle (similar to those used in geothermal applications), electric conversion efficiencies between 45 and 47 percent are predicted. While the simple cycle PAFC is competitive on a cost of energy basis with gas turbines and diesel generators in the 1 to 2 MW market, the combined cycle PAFC is competitive, on a cost of energy basis, with simple cycle diesel generators in the 4 to 25 MW market. In addition, the efficiency and low-temperature operation of the combined cycle PAFC results in a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions with NO{sub x} concentration on the order of 1 parts per million (per weight) (ppmw).

  2. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  3. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  4. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water

  5. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    Over the last 10 years, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has made great strides in advancing tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology towards commercialization by the year 2001. In 1993, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop pressurized solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine (PSOFC/GT) combined cycle power systems because of the ultra-high electrical efficiencies, 60-75% (net AC/LHV CH4), inherent with these systems. This paper will discuss SOFC technology advancements in recent years, and the final phase development program which will focus on the development and demonstration of PSOFC/GT power systems for distributed power applications.

  6. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of May 1, 2014 Washington, DC May 28, 2014 Al ... for the May 1, 2014 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting and list of presenters is given below. ...

  7. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of October 30, 2014 Washington, DC December 1, 2014 Al Sattelberger (Chair), Carol Burns, Margaret Chu, Raymond Juzaitis, Chris Kouts, Sekazi Mtingwa, Ronald Omberg, Joy Rempe, Dominique Warin I. Introduction 1 The agenda for the October 30, 2014 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting is given below. The meeting provided members an overview of various research efforts funded by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies

  8. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of October 22, 2015 Washington, DC December 7, 2015 Al Sattelberger (Chair), Carol Burns, Margaret Chu, Raymond Juzaitis, Chris Kouts, Sekazi Mtingwa, Ronald Omberg, Joy Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I. Introduction The agenda for the October 22, 2015 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting is given below. The meeting provided members an overview of several research efforts funded by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program and

  9. "Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Turbine",,"X" " - Heat Recovery Steam Generator",,,"X" " - Gasifier",,"X" " - Balance of Plant",,,"X" "Conventional Natural Gas Combined Cycle" " - Conventional Combustion Turbine"...

  10. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Cost Estimates for Advanced Fuel Cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Cost Estimates for Advanced Fuel Cycle Studies Authors: Harrison, Thomas J 1 + Show Author Affiliations ORNL ORNL Publication Date: 2013-01-01 ...

  11. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  12. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  13. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog ...

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  15. Fuel Cycle Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Initiatives Fuel Cycle Technologies Fuel Cycle Technologies Fuel Cycle Technologies Preparing for Tomorrow's Energy Demands Powerful imperatives drive the continued need for...

  16. Tsiklauri-Durst combined cycle (T-D Cycle{trademark}) application for nuclear and fossil-fueled power generating plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, B.; Korolev, V.N.; Durst, B.M.; Shen, P.K.

    1998-07-01

    The Tsiklauri-Durst combined cycle is a combination of the best attributes of both nuclear power and combined cycle gas power plants. A technology patented in 1994 by Battelle Memorial Institute offers a synergistic approach to power generation. A typical combined cycle is defined as the combination of gas turbine Brayton Cycle, topping steam turbine Rankine Cycle. Exhaust from the gas turbine is used in heat recovery steam generators to produce steam for a steam turbine. In a standard combined cycle gas turbine-steam turbine application, the gas turbine generates about 65 to 70 percent of system power. The thermal efficiency for such an installation is typically about 45 to 50 percent. A T-D combined cycle takes a new, creative approach to combined cycle design by directly mixing high enthalpy steam from the heat recovery steam generator, involving the steam generator at more than one pressure. Direct mixing of superheated and saturated steam eliminates the requirement for a large heat exchanger, making plant modification simple and economical.

  17. Efficiency combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

  18. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  19. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  20. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

  1. NEAC Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee Report Presentation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Joint Fuel Cycle Study Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Update ... EChem and Aqueous performance 4 Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Update Comments ...

  2. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  3. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.

  4. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC.

  5. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  6. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  8. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  9. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  10. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  11. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  12. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  13. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Research and Development Materials Recovery and Waste Form Development Campaign Overview Jim Bresee, DOE NE NEET Webinar September 17, 2014 Campaign Objectives  Develop advanced fuel cycle material recovery and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion to provide options for future fuel cycle policy decisions  Campaign strategy is based

  14. Fuel cycles for the 80's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.(DMC)

  15. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Advanced Fuels Campaign

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    near-term accident tolerant LWR fuel technology n Perform research and development of long-term transmutation options 2 ATF AFC Fuel Development Life Cycle Irradiation ...

  16. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    James C. Bresee, ScD, JD Advisory Board Member Office of Nuclear Energy July 29, 2009 July 29, 2009 Fuel Cycle Research and Development DM 195665 2 Outline Fuel Cycle R&D Mission ...

  17. Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2011-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

  18. Pilot Application to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Screening Method for Guiding R&D Decisions: Pilot Application to Screen Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

  19. Fuel Cycle Assessment: Evaluation and Analyses using ORION for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuel Cycle Assessment: Evaluation and Analyses using ORION for US Fuel Cycle Options Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fuel Cycle Assessment: Evaluation and Analyses using ...

  20. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  2. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  3. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  4. A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Arie, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2007-07-01

    A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

  5. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Comparison of PWR-IMF and FR fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darilek, Petr; Zajac, Radoslav; Breza, Juraj |; Necas, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    The paper gives a comparison of PWR (Russia origin VVER-440) cycle with improved micro-heterogeneous inert matrix fuel assemblies and FR cycle. Micro-heterogeneous combined assembly contains transmutation pins with Pu and MAs from burned uranium reprocessing and standard uranium pins. Cycle analyses were performed by HELIOS spectral code and SCALE code system. Comparison is based on fuel cycle indicators, used in the project RED-IMPACT - part of EU FP6. Advantages of both closed cycles are pointed out. (authors)

  7. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.; Carter, J.

    2010-10-13

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S; (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated; (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass; and (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  8. FUEL CYCLE POTENTIAL WASTE FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J.

    2011-01-03

    The United States (U.S.) currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel (UNF) is stored on-site in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal in a deep mined geologic repository envisioned. Within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCR&D) develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development of advanced fuel cycles, including modified open and closed cycles. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Yet, the routine disposal of used nuclear fuel and radioactive waste remains problematic. Advanced fuel cycles will generate different quantities and forms of waste than the current LWR fleet. This study analyzes the quantities and characteristics of potential waste forms including differing waste matrices, as a function of a variety of potential fuel cycle alternatives including: (1) Commercial UNF generated by uranium fuel light water reactors (LWR). Four once through fuel cycles analyzed in this study differ by varying the assumed expansion/contraction of nuclear power in the U.S. (2) Four alternative LWR used fuel recycling processes analyzed differ in the reprocessing method (aqueous vs. electro-chemical), complexity (Pu only or full transuranic (TRU) recovery) and waste forms generated. (3) Used Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel derived from the recovered Pu utilizing a single reactor pass. (4) Potential waste forms generated by the reprocessing of fuels derived from recovered TRU utilizing multiple reactor passes.

  9. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  10. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  11. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  12. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Presentation Title

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels - Update and Status David Henderson, Acting Director, Fuel Cycle R&D Office of Nuclear Energy NEAC Meeting December 10, 2014 Presentation Overview  Background: Where does ATF fit in NE?  Status: Where is the ATF Program and where is it going?  Collaborations: University and International Partners  Funding  Questions Deputy Assistant Secretary for Fuel Cycle Technologies John Herczeg (Andrew Griffith, acting ADAS) NE-5 Office of Systems Engineering

  13. Fuel Cycle Research & Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit

  14. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle You are accessing a ...

  15. NEAC Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report for December 11, 2015 Meeting NEAC Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report for December 11, 2015 Meeting PDF ...

  16. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Authors: Talou, Patrick 1 + ...

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of ...

  18. Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Report of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee of the Nuclear...

  19. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Option Catalog SAND2015-2174 W

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    benefits and challenges of nuclear fuel cycle options (i.e., the complete nuclear ... of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. ...

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities You are accessing a document from the ...

  1. Comprehensive Fuel Cycle Research Study - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SRSCRO Completes Study of Region's Role in Nuclear Fuel Cycle In June 2012, the Savannah River Site Community Reuse Organization (SRSCRO) commissioned a study to provide leaders in the five county region in South Carolina and Georgia represented by the SRSCRO with information necessary to determine what resources the region has available to participate in a national solution for managing the back-end of the fuel nuclear cycle. The scope of the study was to help answer the following question:

  2. Identification of fuel cycle simulator functionalities for analysis of transition to a new fuel cycle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Carlsen, Brett W.; Dixon, Brent W.; Feng, Bo; Greenberg, Harris R.; Hays, Ross D.; Passerini, Stefano; Todosow, Michael; Worrall, Andrew

    2016-06-09

    Dynamic fuel cycle simulation tools are intended to model holistic transient nuclear fuel cycle scenarios. As with all simulation tools, fuel cycle simulators require verification through unit tests, benchmark cases, and integral tests. Model validation is a vital aspect as well. Although compara-tive studies have been performed, there is no comprehensive unit test and benchmark library for fuel cycle simulator tools. The objective of this paper is to identify the must test functionalities of a fuel cycle simulator tool within the context of specific problems of interest to the Fuel Cycle Options Campaign within the U.S. Department of Energy smore » Office of Nuclear Energy. The approach in this paper identifies the features needed to cover the range of promising fuel cycle options identified in the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening (E&S) and categorizes these features to facilitate prioritization. Features were categorized as essential functions, integrating features, and exemplary capabilities. One objective of this paper is to propose a library of unit tests applicable to each of the essential functions. Another underlying motivation for this paper is to encourage an international dialog on the functionalities and standard test methods for fuel cycle simulator tools.« less

  3. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: Combined stability in isothermal ageing and thermal cycling with YSZ coated ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-01-01

    An alkali-containing silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass contains about 17 mole% alkalis (K+Na) and has low glass transition and softening temperatures. It remains vitreous and compliant around 750-800oC after sealing without substantial crystallization, as contrary to conventional glass-ceramic sealants, which experience rapid crystallization after the sealing process. The glassy nature and low characteristic temperatures can reduce residual stresses and result in the potential for crack healing. In a previous study, the glass was found to have good thermal cycle stability and was chemically compatible with YSZ coating during short term testing. In the current study, the compliant glass was further evaluated in a more realistic way in that the sealed glass couples were first isothermally aged for 1000h followed by thermal cycling. High temperature leakage was measured. The chemical compatibility was also investigated with powder mixtures at 700 and 800oC to enhance potential interfacial reaction. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and evaluated with regard to the leakage and chemical compatibility results.

  4. Multi-cycle boiling water reactor fuel cycle optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottinger, K.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a new computer code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor Optimization), is presented. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the out-of-core optimization problem coupled with an in-core optimization that determines the optimum fuel loading pattern. However it uses a Haling power profile for the depletion instead of optimizing the operating strategy. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant sampling probabilities for the solution perturbation types throughout the optimization as is usually done in PSA optimizations the sampling probabilities are varied to get a better solution and/or decrease runtime. The new fuel types available for use can be sorted into an array based on any number of parameters so that each parameter can be incremented or decremented, which allows for more precise fuel type selection compared to random sampling. Also, the results are sorted by the new fuel inventory of the first cycle for ease of comparing alternative solutions. (authors)

  5. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0) Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director...

  6. A combined cycle engine test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engers, R.; Cresci, D.; Tsai, C.

    1995-09-01

    Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines intended for missiles and/or space launch applications incorporate features of rocket propulsion systems operating in concert with airbreathing engine cycles. Performance evaluation of these types of engines, which are intended to operate from static sea level take-off to supersonic cruise or accerlerate to orbit, requires ground test capabilities which integrate rocket component testing with airbreathing engine testing. A combined cycle engine test facility has been constructed in the General Applied Science Laboratories, Inc. (GASL) Aeropropulsion Test Laboratory to meet this requirement. The facility was designed to support the development of an innovative combined cycle engine concept which features a rocket based ramjet combustor. The test requirements included the ability to conduct tests in which the propulsive force was generated by rocket only, the ramjet only and simultaneous rocket and ramjet power (combined cycle) to evaluate combustor operation over the entire engine cycle. The test facility provides simulation over the flight Mach number range of 0 to 8 and at various trajectories. The capabilities of the combined cycle engine test facility are presented.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Fuel Cycle Transitioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon; Steve Piet; David Shropshire; Gretchen Matthern

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle to a closed fuel cycle. The once-through system involves only Light Water Reactors (LWRs) operating on uranium oxide fuel UOX), while the closed cycle includes both LWRs and fast spectrum reactors (FRs) in either a single-tier system or two-tier fuel system. The single-tier system includes full transuranic recycle in FRs while the two-tier system adds one pass of mixed oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX U-Pu) fuel in the LWR. While the analysis primarily focuses on burner fast reactors, transuranic conversion ratios up to 1.0 are assessed and many of the findings apply to any fuel cycle transitioning from a thermal once-through system to a synergistic thermal-fast recycle system. These findings include uranium requirements for a range of nuclear electricity growth rates, the importance of back end fuel cycle facility timing and magnitude, the impact of employing a range of fast reactor conversion ratios, system sensitivity to used fuel cooling time prior to recycle, impacts on a range of waste management indicators, and projected electricity cost ranges for once-through, single-tier and two-tier systems. The study confirmed that significant waste management benefits can be realized as soon as recycling is initiated, but natural uranium savings are minimal in this century. The use of MOX in LWRs decouples the development of recycle facilities from fast reactor fielding, but also significantly delays and limits fast reactor deployment. In all cases, fast reactor deployment was significantly below than predicted by static equilibrium analyses.

  8. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  9. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model This presentation by ...

  10. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananyev, S. S. Spitsyn, A. V. Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  11. Nuclear reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlman, H

    1989-11-01

    According to the author, the first sustained nuclear fission chain reaction was not at the University of Chicago, but at the Oklo site in the African country of Gabon. Proof of this phenomenon is provided by mass spectrometric and analytical chemical measurements by French scientists. The U.S. experience in developing power-producing reactors and their related fuel and fuel cycles is discussed.

  12. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  13. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  14. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  15. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  16. Combined cycle comes to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The first combined cycle power station in the Philippines has gone into operation at National Power Corporation`s (NPC) Limay Bataan site, some 40 km west of Manila. The plant comprises two 300 MW blocks in 3+3+1 configuration, based on ABB Type GT11N gas turbines. It was built by a consortium of ABB, with their Japanese licensee Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Marubeni Corporation. This paper discusses Philippine power production, design and operation of the Limay Bataan plant, and conversion of an existing turbine of the nuclear plant project that was abandoned earlier, into a combined cycle operation. 6 figs.

  17. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus ... Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus Robb Barnitt and ...

  18. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-26

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.

  19. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  20. A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flashing Binary Combined Cycle For Geothermal Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Flashing Binary Combined Cycle...

  1. Plutonium transmutation in thorium fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Necas, Vladimir; Breza, Juraj |; Darilek, Petr

    2007-07-01

    The HELIOS spectral code was used to study the application of the thorium fuel cycle with plutonium as a supporting fissile material in a once-through scenario of the light water reactors PWR and VVER-440 (Russian design). Our analysis was focused on the plutonium transmutation potential and the plutonium radiotoxicity course of hypothetical thorium-based cycles for current nuclear power reactors. The paper shows a possibility to transmute about 50% of plutonium in analysed reactors. Positive influence on radiotoxicity after 300 years and later was pointed out. (authors)

  2. Fuel Cycle Technologies 2014 Achievement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Bonnie C.

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) mission to: “Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges.” Goal 1 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  3. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

  4. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 21, 2017 Title: Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already

  5. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-04-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies – once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectru

  6. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  7. Proliferation prevention in the commercial fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcliffe, W G

    1999-04-09

    This website contains the papers presented on November 17, 1998 during the session, "Proliferation Prevention in the Commercial Fuel Cycle," at the American Nuclear Society meeting in Washington, DC. The abstracts are in a separate section; individual papers also contain the author's bio and e-mail address. In the session planning phase, it was suggested that the following questions and other relevant issues be addressed: * What are the difficulties and issues with defining and enforcing international standards for the physical protection of Pu and HEU (beyond the Convention on the Physical protection of Nuclear Material, which primarily addresses transportation)? * How do we (or can we) keep nuclear technology in general, and reprocessing and enrichment technologies in particular, from spreading to undesirable organizations (including governments), in light of Article IV of the NPT? Specifically, can we (should we) prevent the construction of light-water reactors in Iran; and should we support the construction of light-water reactors in North Korea? * Are there more proliferation-resistant fuel cycles that would be appropriate in developing countries? * Can the concept of "nonproliferation credentials" be defined in a useful way? * Is there historical evidence to indicate that reprocessing (or enrichment of HEU) in the US, Japan, or the EURATOM countries has impacted the acquisition (or attempted acquisition) of nuclear weapons by other nations or groups? * What is the impact of a fissile material cutoff treaty (FMCT) be on commercial nuclear fuel cycles? * Does MOX spent fuel present a greater proliferation risk than LEU spent fuel? Although the authors did not explicitly attempt to answer all these questions, they did enlighten us about a number of these and related issues.

  8. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  9. NEAC Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report for December

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11, 2015 Meeting | Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report for December 11, 2015 Meeting NEAC Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report for December 11, 2015 Meeting Fuel Cycle Research and Development Subcommittee Report (146.05 KB) More Documents & Publications MEETING MATERIALS: DECEMBER 11, 2015 MEETING MATERIALS: JUNE 26, 2015 MEETING MATERIALS: DECEMBER 10, 2014

  10. W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thorium fuel reprocessing experience Brooksbank, R.E.; McDuffee, W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; NUCLEAR MATERIALS DIVERSION; SAFEGUARDS; SPENT FUELS;...

  11. Waste-heat boiler application for the Vresova combined cycle plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicek, Z.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes a project proposal and implementation of two combined-cycle units of the Vresova Fuel Complex (PKV) with 2 x 200 MWe and heat supply. Participation of ENERGOPROJECT Praha a.s., in this project.

  12. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, J. D.; Collins, E. D.; Crum, J. V.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Garn, T. G.; Gombert, D.; Jones, R.; Jubin, R. T.; Maio, V. C.; Marra, J. C.; Matyas, J.; Nenoff, T. M.; Riley, B. J.; Sevigny, G. J.; Soelberg, N. R.; Strachan, D. M.; Thallapally, P. K.; Westsik, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  13. Future nuclear fuel cycles: prospects and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boullis, Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has played, from the early steps, a major role in the development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies, both in the front end and back end. Today's stakes in the field of energy enhance further than before the need for a sustainable management of nuclear materials. Recycling actinides appears as a main guideline, as much for saving resources as for minimizing the final waste impact, and many options can be considered. Strengthened by the important and outstanding performance of recent PUREX processing plants, solvent-extraction processes seem a privileged route to meet the new and challenging requirements of sustainable future nuclear systems. (author)

  14. Assessment of transition fuel cycle performance with and without a modified-open fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, B.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2012-07-01

    The impacts of a modified-open fuel cycle (MOC) option as a transition step from the current once-through cycle (OTC) to a full-recycle fuel cycle (FRC) were assessed using the nuclear systems analysis code DANESS. The MOC of interest for this study was mono-recycling of plutonium in light water reactors (LWR-MOX). Two fuel cycle scenarios were evaluated with and without the MOC option: a 2-stage scenario with a direct path from the current fleet to the final FRC, and a 3-stage scenario with the MOC option as a transition step. The FRC reactor (fast reactor) was assumed to deploy in 2050 for both scenarios, and the MOC reactor in the 3-stage scenario was assumed to deploy in 2025. The last LWRs (using either UOX or MOX fuels) come online in 2050 and are decommissioned by 2110. Thus, the FRC is achieved after 2110. The reprocessing facilities were assumed to be available 2 years prior to the deployment of the MOC and FRC reactors with maximum reprocessing capacities of 2000 tHM/yr and 500 tHM/t for LWR-UOX and LWR-MOX used nuclear fuels (UNFs), respectively. Under a 1% nuclear energy demand growth assumption, both scenarios were able to sustain a full transition to the FRC without delay. For the 3-stage scenario, the share of LWR-MOX reactors reaches a peak of 15% of installed capacity, which resulted in 10% lower cumulative uranium consumption and SWU requirements compared to the 2-stage scenario during the transition period. The peak UNF storage requirement decreases by 50% in the 3-stage scenario, largely due to the earlier deployment of the reprocessing plants to support the MOC fuel cycle. (authors)

  15. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-07-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state.

  16. Comprehensive Fuel Cycle - Community Perspective - 13093

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLeod, Richard V.; Frazier, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Should a five-county region surrounding the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site ('SRS') use its assets to help provide solutions to closing the nation's nuclear fuel cycle? That question has been the focus of a local ad hoc multi-disciplinary community task force (Tier I) that has been at work in recent months outlining issues and identifying unanswered questions to determine if assuming a leadership role in closing the nuclear fuel cycle is in the community's interest. If so, what are the terms and conditions under which we the community would agree to participate? Our starting point was the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future ('Commission') which made a total of eight (8) recommendations in its final report. There are several recommendations that are directly relevant to the Tier I group and potential efforts of the Region. These are the 'consent-based approach', the creation of an independent nuclear waste management entity funded from the existing nuclear waste fee; the 'prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities', and 'continued U.S. innovation in nuclear energy technology and for workforce development'. (authors)

  17. (Coordinated research on fuel cycle cost)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, R.A.; Shelton, R.B.; Krupnick, A.J.

    1990-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) have been exploring the possibility of parallel studies on the externals costs of employing fuel cycles to deliver energy services. These studies are of particular importance following the activities of the US National Energy Strategy (NES), where the potential discrepancies between market prices and the social costs of energy services were raised as significant policy concerns. To respond to these concerns, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Resources for the Future (RFF) have begun a collaborative effort for the DOE to investigate the external costs, or externalities, generated by cradle to grave fuel cycle activities. Upon initiating this project, the CEC expressed an interest to the DOE that Europe should conduct a parallel study and that the two studies should be highly coordinated for consistency in the results. This series of meetings with members of the CEC was undertaken to resolve some issues implied by pursuing parallel, coordinated studies; issues that were previously defined by the August meetings. In addition, it was an opportunity for some members of the US research team and the DOE sponsor to meet with their European counterparts for the study, as well as persons in charge of research areas that ultimately would play a key role in the European study.

  18. Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The UFD Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the performance assessment, or the characterization of uncertainty associated with a geologic disposal system in the regulatory environment of the US.

  19. Fuel cycle centers revisited: Consolidation of fuel cycle activities in a few countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratzer, M.B.

    1996-07-01

    Despite varied expressions, the general impression remains that the international fuel cycle center concept, whatever its merits, is visionary. It also is quite possibly unattainable in light of strong national pressures toward independence and self-sufficiency in all things nuclear. Is the fuel cycle center an idea that has come and gone? Is it an idea whose time has not yet come? Or is it, as this paper suggests, an idea that has already arrived on the scene, attracting little attention or even acknowledgement of its presence? The difficult in answering this questions arises, in part, from the fact that despite its long and obvious appeal, there has been very little systematic analysis of the concept itself. Such obvious questions as how many and where fuel cycle centers should be located; what characteristics should the hot country or countries possess; and what are the institutional forms or features that endow the concept with enhanced proliferation protection have rarely been seriously and systematically addressed. The title of this paper focuses on limiting the geographic spread of fuel cycle facilities, and some may suggest that doing so does not necessarily call for any type of international or multinational arrangements applicable to those that exist. It is a premise of this paper, however, that a restriction on the number of countries possessing sensitive fuel cycle facilities necessarily involves some degree of multinationalization. This is not only because in every instance a nonproliferation pledge and international or multinational safeguards, or both, will be applied to the facility, but also because a restriction on the number of countries possessing these facilities implies that those in existence will serve a multinational market. This feature in itself is an important form of international auspices. Thus, the two concepts--limitation and multinationalization--if not necessarily one and the same, are at least de facto corollaries.

  20. The FIT 2.0 Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Gregory M Teske

    2011-06-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010b] are steps by the Fuel Cycle Technology program toward an analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each fuel cycle component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. This report describes FIT 2, an update of the original FIT model.[Piet2010c] FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles; in particular, to determine how changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say, fuel burnup, cooling, or separation efficiencies) chemically affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT provides the following: Rough estimate of physics and mass balance feasibility of combinations of technologies. If feasibility is an issue, it provides an estimate of how performance would have to change to achieve feasibility. Estimate of impurities in fuel and impurities in waste as function of separation performance, fuel fabrication, reactor, uranium source, etc.

  1. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004...

  2. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, ...

  3. Why reconsider the thorium fuel cycle?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, S.; Croff, A.; Ault, T.; Wymer, R.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we have endeavored to present the available technical information on the potential use of Th in nuclear fuel cycle (FC) applications as compared to U without subjective evaluations. Where helpful, we have compared the technical attributes of Th-232 as a fertile isotope and U-233 as a fissile isotope with other similar isotopes (i.e., U-238, and U-235 and Pu-239, respectively). In addition, we have summarized (a) experience gained to-date with fabricating and reprocessing of Th-232/U-233 fuels, (b) factors concerning Th fuel irradiation in both test reactors and power reactors, and (c) differences in the backend of the FC with emphasis on repository risks. As might be expected, many technical aspects of Th vs. U have not changed since the sixties. However, there are some factors elaborated in this paper that have changed. Changes potentially encouraging Th use are: (a) the ability to recover large amounts of Th as a byproduct with small attendant costs and environmental impacts, (b) the potential to produce fewer minor actinides (MA) and less Pu during power production, and (c) increased concerns about proliferation which might be somewhat mitigated by the high radioactivity and amenability to isotopic dilution of U-233. Changes challenging Th utilization are: (a) obtaining sufficient experience handling Th/U-233 fuels, (b) the existence of large inventories of depleted U and continuing discovery of large U resources, and (c) recognition that the extent to which U-233 might mitigate proliferation concerns is not as large as originally hoped.

  4. CASL-U-2015-0151-000 SMR Fuel Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-000 SMR Fuel Cycle Optimization and Control Rod Depletion Using NESTLE and LWROPT Keith ... CASL-U-2015-0151-000 Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management V (ANFM 2015) Hilton Head ...

  5. Sustainable Thorium Nuclear Fuel Cycles: A Comparison of Intermediate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 eV and 105 eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. ... continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. ...

  6. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  7. FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM DOCUMENT | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM DOCUMENT FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM DOCUMENT The purpose of this Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) is to define qualityassurance (QA) requirements for the FCT Program. These requirements are applicable to FCT activities and Participants (see definition) to the extent defined herein. In developing these requirements, it is recognized that each Department of Energy (DOE)

  8. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  9. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A ... Resource Relation: Conference: GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - ...

  10. Updated Uranium Fuel Cycle Environmental Impacts for Advanced Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitschke, R.

    2004-10-03

    The purpose of this project was to update the environmental impacts from the uranium fuel cycle for select advanced (GEN III+) reactor designs.

  11. The Application of CYCLUS to Fuel Cycle Transition Analysis ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: GLOBAL 2015, 21st International Conference & Exhibition: "Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future", Paris, France, Sep 20 - Sep 24, ...

  12. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  13. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  14. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  15. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C.; Friedlander, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  16. Fuel Cycle Technology Documents | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 22, 2015 Development of Light Water Reactor Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance - Report to ... The result of the accident tolerant fuel development activities, if successful, ...

  17. Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.

  18. Sensitivity analysis and optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Kazimi, M. S.; Shwageraus, E.

    2012-07-01

    A sensitivity study has been conducted to assess the robustness of the conclusions presented in the MIT Fuel Cycle Study. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is considered as the base-line case, while advanced technologies with fuel recycling characterize the alternative fuel cycles. The options include limited recycling in LWRs and full recycling in fast reactors and in high conversion LWRs. Fast reactor technologies studied include both oxide and metal fueled reactors. The analysis allowed optimization of the fast reactor conversion ratio with respect to desired fuel cycle performance characteristics. The following parameters were found to significantly affect the performance of recycling technologies and their penetration over time: Capacity Factors of the fuel cycle facilities, Spent Fuel Cooling Time, Thermal Reprocessing Introduction Date, and in core and Out-of-core TRU Inventory Requirements for recycling technology. An optimization scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle is proposed. Optimization criteria and metrics of interest for different stakeholders in the fuel cycle (economics, waste management, environmental impact, etc.) are utilized for two different optimization techniques (linear and stochastic). Preliminary results covering single and multi-variable and single and multi-objective optimization demonstrate the viability of the optimization scheme. (authors)

  19. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  20. Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

  1. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  2. 2013 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review MeetingTransactions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2013-11-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is charged with identifying promising sustainable fuel cycles and developing strategies for effective disposition of used fuel and high-level nuclear waste, enabling policymakers to make informed decisions about these critical issues. Sustainable fuel cycles will improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation while minimizing waste, improve safety, and limit proliferation risk. To achieve its mission, FCT has initiated numerous activities in each of the technical campaign areas, of which this report provides a sample.

  3. Microsoft Word - Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 15, 2011 Washington, D.C. Members: Burton Richter (Chairman) Darleane Hoffman Raymond Juzaitis Sekazi Mtingwa Ron Omberg Joy Rempe Dominique Warin Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Report 6/15/2011 2 I. Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle subcommittee of NEAC met April 25-26 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The main topics of discussion were the Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) disposal program, the System Study Program's methodology that is to be used to set priorities

  4. Proliferation resistance and the advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, Scott; Thomas, Kenneth; Tobin, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The planned Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is intended to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by demonstrating separation and fuel fabrication processes required to support an Advanced Burner Reactor. The processes, materials and safeguards will be selected and designed to enhance proliferation resistance beyond that of the existing plutonium based mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. This paper explores the concept of proliferation resistance and how the AFCF will advance the related state of the art. (authors)

  5. Closing nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors: problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadrin, A.; Dvoeglazov, K.; Ivanov, V.

    2013-07-01

    The closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) is the most promising way of nuclear energetics development because it prevents spent nuclear fuel (SNF) accumulation and minimizes radwaste volume due to minor actinides (MA) transmutation. CNFC with FR requires the elaboration of safety, environmentally acceptable and economically effective methods of treatment of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The up-to-date industrially implemented SNF reprocessing technologies based on hydrometallurgical methods are not suitable for the reprocessing of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The alternative dry methods (such as electrorefining in molten salts or fluoride technologies) applicable for such SNF reprocessing have not found implementation at industrial scale. So the cost of SNF reprocessing by means of dry technologies can hardly be estimated. Another problem of dry technologies is the recovery of fissionable materials pure enough for dense fuel fabrication. A combination of technical solutions performed with hydrometallurgical and dry technologies (pyro-technology) is proposed and it appears to be a promising way for the elaboration of economically, ecologically and socially accepted technology of FR SNF management. This paper deals with discussion of main principle of dry and aqueous operations combination that probably would provide safety and economic efficiency of the FR SNF reprocessing. (authors)

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  7. Benefits and concerns of a closed nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.

    2010-11-17

    Nuclear power can play an important role in our energy future, contributing to increasing electricity demand while at the same time decreasing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States today is unsustainable. As stated in the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of spent nuclear fuel generated by commercial nuclear power plants operating in a “once-through” fuel cycle in the deep geologic repository located at Yucca Mountain. However, unyielding political opposition to the site has hindered the commissioning process to the extant that the current administration has recently declared the unsuitability of the Yucca Mountain site. In light of this the DOE is exploring other options, including closing the fuel cycle through recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of closing the fuel cycle is receiving special attention because of its ability to minimize the final high level waste (HLW) package as well as recover additional energy value from the original fuel. The technology is, however, still very controversial because of the increased cost and proliferation risk it can present. To lend perspective on the closed fuel cycle alternative, this presents the arguments for and against closing the fuel cycle with respect to sustainability, proliferation risk, commercial viability, waste management, and energy security.

  8. Filling Knowledge Gaps with Five Fuel Cycle Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Jess Gehin; William Halsey; Temitope Taiwo

    2010-11-01

    During FY 2010, five studies were conducted of technology families’ applicability to various fuel cycle strategies to fill in knowledge gaps in option space and to better understand trends and patterns. Here, a “technology family” is considered to be defined by a type of reactor and by selection of which actinides provide fuel. This report summarizes the higher-level findings; the detailed analyses and results are documented in five individual reports, as follows: • Advanced once through with uranium fuel in fast reactors (SFR), • Advanced once through (uranium fuel) or single recycle (TRU fuel) in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in light water reactors (LWRs), • Sustained recycle with Th/U-233 in molten salt reactors (MSR), and • Several fuel cycle missions with Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH). Each study examined how the designated technology family could serve one or more designated fuel cycle missions, filling in gaps in overall option space. Each study contains one or more illustrative cases that show how the technology family could be used to meet a fuel cycle mission, as well as broader information on the technology family such as other potential fuel cycle missions for which insufficient information was available to include with an illustrative case. None of the illustrative cases can be considered as a reference, baseline, or nominal set of parameters for judging performance; the assessments were designed to assess areas of option space and were not meant to be optimized. There is no implication that any of the cases or technology families are necessarily the best way to meet a given fuel cycle mission. The studies provide five examples of 1-year fuel cycle assessments of technology families. There is reasonable coverage in the five studies of the performance areas of waste management and uranium utilization. The coverage of economics, safety, and proliferation resistance and physical protection in

  9. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  10. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors.

  11. Evaluation of Waste Arising from Future Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas; Taiwo, Temitope; Wigeland, Roald

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was recently completed at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to evaluate and screen nuclear fuel cycles. The final report was issued in October 2014. Uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles were evaluated using both fast and thermal spectrum reactors. Once-through, limited-recycle, and continuous-recycle cases were considered. This study used nine evaluation criteria to identify promising fuel cycles. Nuclear waste management was one of the nine evaluation criteria. The waste generation criterion from this study is discussed herein.

  12. Perspective and current status on fuel cycle system of fast reactor cycle Technology development (FaCT) project in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Itoh, Masanori

    2007-07-01

    FaCT Project taking over from Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR cycle system (FS) has been launched in 2006 by Japanese joint team with the participation of all parties concerned in Japan. Combination system of (the sodium-cooled reactor,) the advanced aqueous reprocessing system and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication (MOX fuel) is evaluated as the most promising fuel cycle system concept so that it has potential conformity to the design requirements, as well as a high level of technical feasibility as the final report of Phase II in FS. Current status and R and D prospects for this combination system of the advanced aqueous reprocessing system and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication (MOX fuel) system until around 2015 have been studied. Then, it is anticipated that in FR reprocessing commercial facility will start to operate around same time that in LWR reprocessing subsequent plant will be required to replace Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (provided that life time 40 years) around 2050. From the view point of the smooth transition from LWRs to FRs in approximately the year 2050 and beyond in Japan, some issues on fuel cycle have been also discussed. (authors)

  13. Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycle Schemes.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-03-17

    Version 00 SMAFS was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model aremore » represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can easily modify values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs.« less

  14. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    smith.pdf (0 B) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells at Supermarkets: NYSERDA's Perspective Fuel Cell Case Study Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status

  15. Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    advice to DOE regarding research and development of nuclear fuel and waste management technologies that meet the nation's energy supply, environmental, and energy security needs. ...

  16. Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microtur

  17. NEAC Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and combustion * Fission product release and transport behavior - MELCOR is now being used to assess Accident Tolerant Fuels (Brad Merrill, et al., 2015 and K. Robb, 2015). ...

  18. Effects of cooling time on a closed LWR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, R. P.; Forsberg, C. W.; Shwageraus, E.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the effects of cooling time prior to reprocessing spent LWR fuel has on the reactor physics characteristics of a PWR fully loaded with homogeneously mixed U-Pu or U-TRU oxide (MOX) fuel is examined. A reactor physics analysis was completed using the CASM04e code. A void reactivity feedback coefficient analysis was also completed for an infinite lattice of fresh fuel assemblies. Some useful conclusions can be made regarding the effect that cooling time prior to reprocessing spent LWR fuel has on a closed homogeneous MOX fuel cycle. The computational analysis shows that it is more neutronically efficient to reprocess cooled spent fuel into homogeneous MOX fuel rods earlier rather than later as the fissile fuel content decreases with time. Also, the number of spent fuel rods needed to fabricate one MOX fuel rod increases as cooling time increases. In the case of TRU MOX fuel, with time, there is an economic tradeoff between fuel handling difficulty and higher throughput of fuel to be reprocessed. The void coefficient analysis shows that the void coefficient becomes progressively more restrictive on fuel Pu content with increasing spent fuel cooling time before reprocessing. (authors)

  19. Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

  20. The Prospective Role of JAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojima, Hisao; Dojiri, Shigeru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Seiichiro; Nomura, Shigeo

    2007-07-01

    JAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories was established in 2005 to take over the activities of the JNC Tokai Works. Many kinds of development activities have been carried out since 1959. Among these, the results on the centrifuge for U enrichment, LWR spent fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication have already provided the foundation of the fuel cycle industry in Japan. R and D on the treatment and disposal of high-level waste and FBR fuel reprocessing has also been carried out. Through such activities, radioactive material release to the environment has been appropriately controlled and all nuclear materials have been placed under IAEA safeguards. The Laboratories has sufficient experience and ability to establish the next generation closed cycle and strives to become a world-class Center Of Excellence (COE). (authors)

  1. A review of nuclear fuel cycle options for developing nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, R.K.; Scopatz, A.M.; Ernesti, M.

    2007-07-01

    A study of several nuclear reactor and fuel cycle options for developing nations was performed. All reactor choices were considered under a GNEP framework. Two advanced alternative reactor types, a nuclear battery-type reactor and a fuel reprocessing fast reactor were examined and compared with a conventional Generation III+ LWR reactor. The burn of nuclear fuel was simulated using ORIGEN 2.2 for each reactor type and the resulting information was used to compare the options in terms of waste produced, waste quality and repository impact. The ORIGEN data was also used to evaluate the economics of the fuel cycles using unit costs, discount rates and present value functions with the material balances. The comparison of the fuel cycles and reactors developed in this work provides a basis for the evaluation of subsidy programs and cost-benefit comparisons for various reactor parameters such as repository impact and proliferation risk versus economic considerations. (authors)

  2. Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

  3. Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1986-10-01

    In order to compare several nuclear-safeguards verification approaches to one another and to the conventional facility-oriented approach, we establish a framework of the classes of information routinely verifiable by IAEA safeguards inspections. For each facility type within a State nuclear fuel cycle, the classes include flow data, inventory data, and shipper and receiver data. By showing which classes of information are verified for each facility type within three fuel cycles of different complexity, we distinguish the inspection approaches from one anoter and exhibit their fuel-cycle dependence, i.e., their need for sets of safeguards inspection activities different from those required under the facility-oriented approach at similar facilities in fuel cycles of differing complexity. Tables V-1, V-2, and V-3 graphically depict these relations and give a qualitative summary of the relative effectiveness and effort requirements of the approaches classified. The zone, information-correlation, diversion-assumption-change, and randomization-over-facilities approaches depend intrinsically on the complexity of the fuel cycle: their very definition implies fuel-cycle dependence. The approaches involving randomization over activities and goal relaxations do not have such dependence.

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

    1984-03-01

    This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids - international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

  5. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide: (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs; and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

  6. Safety aspects of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrester, R.J.; Lineberry, M.J.; Charak, I.; Tessier, J.H.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gabor, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the important safety considerations related to the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle technology, the pyroprocess. Argonne has been developing the IFR since 1984. It is a liquid metal cooled reactor, with a unique metal alloy fuel, and it utilizes a radically new fuel cycle. An existing facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) is being modified and equipped to provide a complete demonstration of the fuel cycle. This paper will concentrate on safety aspects of the future HFEF/S operation, slated to begin late next year. HFEF/S is part of Argonne's complex of reactor test facilities located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. HFEF/S was originally put into operation in 1964 as the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) (Stevenson, 1987). From 1964--69 FCF operated to demonstrate an earlier and incomplete form of today's pyroprocess, recycling some 400 fuel assemblies back to EBR-II. The FCF mission was then changed to one of an irradiated fuels and materials examination facility, hence the name change to HFEF/S. The modifications consist of activities to bring the facility into conformance with today's much more stringent safety standards, and, of course, providing the new process equipment. The pyroprocess and the modifications themselves are described more fully elsewhere (Lineberry, 1987; Chang, 1987). 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Financing Strategies For A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2006-07-01

    To help meet the nation’s energy needs, recycling of partially used nuclear fuel is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle, but implementing this step will require considerable investment. This report evaluates financing scenarios for integrating recycling facilities into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options from fully government owned to fully private owned were evaluated using DPL (Decision Programming Language 6.0), which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest lifecycle cost, lowest unit cost). This evaluation concludes that the lowest unit costs and lifetime costs are found for a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. However, this does not mean that the facilities should necessarily be constructed and operated by the government. The costs for hybrid combinations of public and private (commercial) financed options can compete under some circumstances with the costs of the government option. This analysis shows that commercial operations have potential to be economical, but there is presently no incentive for private industry involvement. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) currently establishes government ownership of partially used commercial nuclear fuel. In addition, the recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) suggests fuels from several countries will be recycled in the United States as part of an international governmental agreement; this also assumes government ownership. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual facility capacity led to the greatest variations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; and the annual operating costs, forgiveness of debt, and overnight costs dominate the costs computed for

  8. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  9. Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.

    2008-11-15

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... In a fuel fabrication plant great care is taken with the size and shape of processing ... Generation of electricity in a nuclear reactor is similar to a coal-fired steam station. The ...

  11. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  12. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy`s activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration`s annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment.

  13. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  14. A Comparison Study of Various Nuclear Fuel Cycle Alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Eun-ha; Ko, Won-il

    2007-07-01

    As a nation develops its nuclear strategies, it must consider various aspects of nuclear energy such as sustainability, environmental-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies, and so on. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects; the nation must identify its top priority and accordingly evaluate all the possible nuclear fuel cycle options. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 3. Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of resource utilization and waste generation. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive from these aspects. (authors)

  15. Spent fuel storage and waste management fuel cycle optimization using CAFCA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinton, S.; Kazimi, M.

    2013-07-01

    Spent fuel storage modeling is at the intersection of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics and waste management policy. A model that captures the economic parameters affecting used nuclear fuel storage location options, which complements fuel cycle economic assessment has been created using CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycles Assessment) of MIT. Research has also expanded to the study on dependency of used nuclear fuel storage economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Storage options costs can be compared to literature values with simple variation available for sensitivity study. Additionally, a first of a kind optimization scheme for the nuclear fuel cycle analysis is proposed and the applications of such an optimization are discussed. The main tradeoff for fuel cycle optimization was found to be between economics and most of the other identified metrics. (authors)

  16. Fuel Cycle Scenario Definition, Evaluation, and Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson; Christopher T. Laws; Lee C. Cadwallader; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Robert N. Hill; J. D. Smith; Andrew S. Goldmann; George Bailey

    2006-08-01

    This report aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, potential need for transmutation of technetium and iodine, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. It documents most of the work produced by INL, ANL, and SNL personnel under their Simulation, Evaluation, and Trade Study (SETS) work packages during FY2005 and the first half of FY2006. This report represents the first attempt to calculate a full range of metrics, covering all four AFCI program objectives - waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety - using a combination of "static" calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This is a technical report, not aimed at a policy-level audience. A wide range of options are studied to provide the technical basis for identifying the most attractive options and potential improvements. Option improvement could be vital to accomplish before the AFCI program publishes definitive cost estimates. Information from this report will be extracted and summarized in future policy-level reports. Many dynamic simulations of deploying those options are included. There are few "control knobs" for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future, even though it is dark (uncertain) and controls are sluggish with slow time response: what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants. Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would

  17. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that there was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive information to

  18. Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

    2013-10-01

    This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

  19. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  20. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  1. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  2. Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes the efforts of the team led by ESPEC Corp. to investigate thermal cycling combined with dynamic mechanical load, a solar project funded by the SunShot Initiative.

  3. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book: Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. The Fact Book contains: national summaries in which a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; and international agencies in which a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement, and a listing of nuclear societies. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States.

  5. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  6. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The most common fuel used in microturbines is currently natural gas. However, a combination ... Integration of a syngas-fueled microturbine with a CHP system and a gasifer is only one ...

  7. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  8. Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda Rynes

    2010-11-01

    With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

  9. Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. X. Li; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict; T. A. Johnson; B. R. Westphal; Guy L. Frederickson

    2007-09-01

    An integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electrorefiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 54.4 kg heavy metal) were processes under the fixed operating parameters that have been developed for this equipment based on over a decades worth of processing experience. A mass balance across this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test.

  10. Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.X.; Vaden, D.; Westphal, B.R.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Benedict, R.W.; Johnson, T.A.

    2007-07-01

    An integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electro-refiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 54.4 kg heavy metal) were processed under the fixed operating parameters that have been developed for this equipment based on over a decade's worth of processing experience. A mass balance across this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test. (authors)

  11. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  12. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  13. Full fuel-cycle comparison of forklift propulsion systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L. L.; Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-11-05

    Hydrogen has received considerable attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) investigates the technical and economic feasibility of promising new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells. A recent report for DOE identified three near-term markets for fuel cells: (1) Emergency power for state and local emergency response agencies, (2) Forklifts in warehousing and distribution centers, and (3) Airport ground support equipment markets. This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Industry data and the Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources, back to the primary feedstocks for fuel production. Also considered are other environmental concerns at work locations. The benefits derived from using fuel-cell propulsion are determined by the sources of electricity and hydrogen. In particular, fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen made from the reforming of natural gas had lower impacts than those using hydrogen from electrolysis.

  14. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel

  15. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Stationary (Combined...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stationary (Combined Heat and Power) Applications DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell ... is running. g Battelle preliminary 2015 cost assessment of stationary CHP systems, ...

  16. HRSGs, steam turbines, and auxiliaries for combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    1994-09-01

    This article examines current steam turbine/boiler technology and how it fits in with current combined-cycle powerplants. It seems fair to state that the world's continued interest in combined-cycle (CC) powerplants is fed in part by the rapidly advancing gas-turbine (GT) technology. The steam cycle simply plays a subservient role--for example, as GT exhaust temperatures arise, steam-cycle components are selected to match them. And certainly from today's vantage point, one can extrapolate a future of GTs continuing to lead and steam cycles following, as GT technology moves to higher firing temperatures and more efficient and powerful machines. But here's the important questions: is the next incremental efficiency advance most economically obtained in the GT Brayton cycle or the steam cycle That's a tough question to answer today because GT technology has enjoyed the limelight--and deservedly so. Of course, the emerging fully competitive environment for electricity generation--and wholesale and retail delivery--underscores the need for efficiency. New components--such as those for recovering more heat from the GT exhaust through sub-dew point cooling--could emerge in the steam cycle in the next few years.

  17. VISION -- A Dynamic Model of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; S. J. Piet; D. E. Shropshire; G. E. Matthern

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that – if implemented – would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deploy¬ment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential “exit” or “off ramp” approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  18. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Utility Combinations (LCCA) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corin, N.

    1989-09-01

    The Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Utility Combinations (LCCA) system evaluates housing project utility systems. The system determines the cost-effectiveness and aids in the selection of the utility combination with the lowest life-cycle cost. Because of the large number of possible combinations of fuels, purchasing methods, types of installations and utility rates, a systematic analysis of costs must be made. The choice of utilities may substantially influence construction cost. LCCA calculates initial and monthly costs of both individual dwelling units and project totals. Therefore, the LCCA system calculates costs for four combinations of fuel/energy. LCCA analyzes the following four utility combinations: Combination 1--Electricity; Combination 2--Electricity and Gas; Combination 3--Electricity and Oil; and Combination 4--Electricity, Gas and Oil. Software Description: The software is written in the Lotus 1-2-3 programming language for implementation on an IBM PC microcomputer using Lotus 1-2-3. Software requires 160K of disk storage, with a hard disk and one floppy or two floppy disk drives.

  19. Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-04-21

    Version 00 VSOP94 (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprises neutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculation based on neutron flux synthesis with depletion and shut-down features, in-core and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to Pebble Bed HTRs). Various techniques have been employed to accelerate the iterativemore » processes and to optimize the internal data transfer. The code system has been used extensively for comparison studies of reactors, their fuel cycles, and related detailed features. In addition to its use in research and development work for the High Temperature Reactor, the system has been applied successfully to Light Water and Heavy Water Reactors.« less

  20. Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01

    This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N,N-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.

  1. VHTR Prismatic Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-09-01

    The advanced Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the VHTRs innovative features is the reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel prismatic block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, if the fuel kernels are not perfect black absorbers, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced Kernel-by-Kernel (K-b-K) hexagonal super lattice model can be used to address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The developed Prismatic Super Homogeneous Lattice Model (PSHLM) is verified by comparing the calculated burnup characteristics of the double-heterogeneous Prismatic Super Kernel-by-Kernel Lattice Model (PSK-b-KLM). This paper summarizes and compares the PSHLM and PSK-b-KLM burnup analysis study and results. This paper also discusses the coupling of a Monte-Carlo code with fuel depletion and buildup code, which provides the fuel burnup analysis tool used to produce the results of the VHTR EqFC burnup analysis.

  2. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

  3. Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

    2009-04-17

    Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

  4. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  5. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  6. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  7. Pros and cons of power combined cycle in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, C.; Hernandez, S.

    1997-09-01

    In Venezuela combined cycle power has not been economically attractive to electric utility companies, mainly due to the very low price of natural gas. Savings in cost of natural gas due to a higher efficiency, characteristic of this type of cycle, does not compensate additional investments required to close the simple cycle (heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine island). Low gas prices have contributed to create a situation characterized by investors` reluctance to commit capital in gas pipe lines and associated equipment. The Government is taking measures to improve economics. Recently (January 1, 1997), the Ministry of Energy and Mines raised the price of natural gas, and established a formula to tie its price to the exchange rate variation (dollar/bolivar) in an intent to stimulate investments in this sector. This is considered a good beginning after a price freeze for about three years. Another measure that has been announced is the implementation of a corporate policy of outsourcing to build new gas facilities such as pipe lines and measuring and regulation stations. Under these new circumstances, it seems that combined cycle will play an important role in the power sector. In fact, some power generation projects are considering building new plants using this technology. An economical comparative study is presented between simple and combined cycles power plant. Screening curves are showed with a gas price forecast based on the government decree recently issued, as a function of plant capacity factor.

  8. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  9. Safeguards optimization tool for the advanced fuel cycle facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, Scott; Thomas, Kenneth; Dixon, Eleanor

    2007-07-01

    The planned Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is intended to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by demonstrating separation and fuel fabrication processes required to support an Advanced Burner Reactor. Advanced safeguards will be based on new world standards for the prevention of nuclear materials proliferation. Safeguarding nuclear facilities includes inventory accountancy, process monitoring, and containment and surveillance. An effort has been undertaken to optimize selection of technology for advanced safeguards accountancy, by way of using the Standard Error in the Inventory Difference (SEID) as a basis for cost/benefit analyses. (authors)

  10. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of

  11. Exploratory Design of a Reactor/Fuel Cycle Using Spent Nuclear Fuel Without Conventional Reprocessing - 13579

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertch, Timothy C.; Schleicher, Robert W.; Rawls, John D.

    2013-07-01

    General Atomics has started design of a waste to energy nuclear reactor (EM2) that can use light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This effort addresses two problems: using an advanced small reactor with long core life to reduce nuclear energy overnight cost and providing a disposal path for LWR SNF. LWR SNF is re-fabricated into new EM2 fuel using a dry voloxidation process modeled on AIROX/ OREOX processes which remove some of the fission products but no heavy metals. By not removing all of the fission products the fuel remains self-protecting. By not separating heavy metals, the process remains proliferation resistant. Implementation of Energy Multiplier Module (EM2) fuel cycle will provide low cost nuclear energy while providing a long term LWR SNF disposition path which is important for LWR waste confidence. With LWR waste confidence recent impacts on reactor licensing, an alternate disposition path is highly relevant. Centered on a reactor operating at 250 MWe, the compact electricity generating system design maximizes site flexibility with truck transport of all system components and available dry cooling features that removes the need to be located near a body of water. A high temperature system using helium coolant, electricity is efficiently produced using an asynchronous high-speed gas turbine while the LWR SNF is converted to fission products. Reactor design features such as vented fuel and silicon carbide cladding support reactor operation for decades between refueling, with improved fuel utilization. Beyond the reactor, the fuel cycle is designed so that subsequent generations of EM2 reactor fuel will use the previous EM2 discharge, providing its own waste confidence plus eliminating the need for enrichment after the first generation. Additional LWR SNF is added at each re-fabrication to replace the removed fission products. The fuel cycle uses a dry voloxidation process for both the initial LWR SNF re-fabrication and later for EM2

  12. EIS-0409: Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Mississippi

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to provide funding for the Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project in Kemper County, Mississippi to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a project proposed by Southern Power Company, through its affiliate Mississippi Power Company, which has been selected by DOE for consideration under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program.

  13. FUEL CYCLE ISOTOPE EVOLUTION BY TRANSMUTATION DYNAMICS OVER MULTIPLE RECYCLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Bays; Steven Piet; Amaury Dumontier

    2010-06-01

    Because all actinides have the ability to fission appreciably in a fast neutron spectrum, these types of reactor systems are usually not associated with the buildup of higher mass actinides: curium, berkelium and californium. These higher actinides have high specific decay heat power, gamma and neutron source strengths, and are usually considered as a complication to the fuel manufacturing and transportation of fresh recycled transuranic fuel. This buildup issue has been studied widely for thermal reactor fuels. However, recent studies have shown that the transmutation physics associated with "gateway isotopes" dictates Cm-Bk-Cf buildup, even in fast burner reactors. Assuming a symbiotic fuel relationship with light water reactors (LWR), Pu-242 and Am-243 are formed in the LWRs and then are externally fed to the fast reactor as part of its overall transuranic fuel supply. These isotopes are created much more readily in a thermal than in fast spectrum systems due to the differences in the fast fission (i.e., above the fission threshold for non-fissile actinides) contribution. In a strictly breeding fast reactor this dependency on LWR transuranics would not exist, and thus avoids the introduction of LWR derived gateway isotopes into the fast reactor system. However in a transuranic burning fast reactor, the external supply of these gateway isotopes behaves as an external driving force towards the creation and build-up of Cm-Bk-Cf in the fuel cycle. It was found that though the Cm-Bk-Cf concentration in the equilibrium fuel cycle is dictated by the fast neutron spectrum, the time required to reach that equilibrium concentration is dictated by recycle, transmutation and decay storage dynamics.

  14. Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Charter of the Generation IV Roadmap Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group (FCCG) is to (1) examine the fuel cycle implications for alternative nuclear power scenarios in terms of Generation IV goals and ...

  15. LIFE vs. LWR: End of the Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Blink, J A; Shaw, H F

    2008-10-02

    LIFE are expected to result in a more straightforward licensing process and are also expected to improve the public perception of risk from nuclear power generation, transportation of nuclear materials, and nuclear waste disposal. Waste disposal is an ongoing issue for LWRs. The conventional (once-through) LWR fuel cycle treats unburned fuel as waste, and results in the current fleet of LWRs producing about twice as much waste in their 60 years of operation as is legally permitted to be disposed of in Yucca Mountain. Advanced LWR fuel cycles would recycle the unused fuel, such that each GWe-yr of electricity generation would produce only a small waste volume compared to the conventional fuel cycle. However, the advanced LWR fuel cycle requires chemical reprocessing plants for the fuel, multiple handling of radioactive materials, and an extensive transportation network for the fuel and waste. In contrast, the LIFE engine requires only one fueling for the plant lifetime, has no chemical reprocessing, and has a single shipment of a small amount of waste per GWe-yr of electricity generation. Public perception of the nuclear option will be improved by the reduction, for LIFE engines, of the number of shipments of radioactive material per GWe-yr and the need to build multiple repositories. In addition, LIFE fuel requires neither enrichment nor reprocessing, eliminating the two most significant pathways to proliferation from commercial nuclear fuel to weapons programs.

  16. Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transactions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lori Braase; W. Edgar May

    2014-11-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energys (DOEs) mission to: Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges. Goal 1 of DOEs Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOEs Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nations nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  17. Enduring Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Proceedings of a panel discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, C. E., LLNL

    1997-11-18

    The panel reviewed the complete nuclear fuel cycle in the context of alternate energy resources, energy need projections, effects on the environment, susceptibility of nuclear materials to theft, diversion, and weapon proliferation. We also looked at ethical considerations of energy use, as well as waste, and its effects. The scope of the review extended to the end of the next century with due regard for world populations beyond that period. The intent was to take a long- range view and to project, not forecast, the future based on ethical rationales, and to avoid, as often happens, long-range discussions that quickly zoom in on only the next few decades. A specific nuclear fuel cycle technology that could satisfy these considerations was described and can be applied globally.

  18. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  19. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully Encapsulated Microstructure fueled light water reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2013-02-01

    The use of TRISO-particle-based dispersion fuel within SiC matrix and cladding materials has the potential to allow the design of extremely safe LWRs with failure-proof fuel. This paper examines the feasibility of LWR-like cycle length for such fuel with the imposed constraint of strictly retaining the original geometry of the fuel pins and assemblies. The motivation for retaining the original geometry is to provide the ability to incorporate the fuel as-is into existing LWRs while retaining their thermalhydraulic characteristics. Another mandatory constraint is use of low enriched uranium (at or below 20 w/o). The feasibility of using this fuel is assessed by looking at two factors: cycle lengths and fuel material failure rates. Other considerations (e.g., safety parameters such as reactivity coefficients, feedback, etc.) were not considered at this stage of the study. The study includes the examination of increases in the TRISO kernel sizes without changing the thickness of any of the coating layers. In addition, cases where the buffer layer thickness is allowed to vary are also considered. The study shows that a nave use of UO2 (even up to 20 w/o enrichment) results in cycle lengths too short to be practical for existing LWR designs and operational demands. Increasing fissile inventory within the fuel compacts shows that acceptable cycle lengths can be achieved. The increase of fissile inventory can be accomplished through multiple means, including higher particle packing fraction, higher enrichment, larger fuel kernel sizes, and the use of higher density fuels (that contain a higher number of U atoms per unit volume). In this study, starting with the recognized highest packing fraction practically achievable (44%), combinations of the other means have been evaluated. The models demonstrate cycle lengths comparable to those of ordinary LWRs. As expected, TRISO particles with extremely large kernels are shown to fail under all considered scenarios. In

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY13 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2013-09-30

    In Fiscal Year 2012 (FY12) PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In Fiscal Year 2013 (FY13) the SNAP demonstration was enhanced with respect to query and navigation usability issues.

  1. Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems This report examines forklift propulsion systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell propulsion for existing technologies based on batteries and fossil fuels. Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Argonne National Laboratory. Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems (2.02 MB) More Documents

  2. Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 Fuel Cycle Potential Waste Inventory for Disposition Rev 5 The United States currently utilizes a once-through fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems with ultimate disposal envisioned in a deep mined geologic repository. This report provides an estimate of potential waste inventory and waste form characteristics for the DOE used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive

  3. A Non-Proliferating Fuel Cycle: No Enrichment, Reprocessing or Accessible Spent Fuel - 12375

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Frank L.

    2012-07-01

    Current fuel cycles offer a number of opportunities for access to plutonium, opportunities to create highly enriched uranium and access highly radioactive wastes to create nuclear weapons and 'dirty' bombs. The non-proliferating fuel cycle however eliminates or reduces such opportunities and access by eliminating the mining, milling and enrichment of uranium. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces the production of plutonium per unit of energy created, eliminates reprocessing and the separation of plutonium from the spent fuel and the creation of a stream of high-level waste. It further simplifies the search for land based deep geologic repositories and interim storage sites for spent fuel in the USA by disposing of the spent fuel in deep sub-seabed sediments after storing the spent fuel at U.S. Navy Nuclear Shipyards that have the space and all of the necessary equipment and security already in place. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces transportation risks by utilizing barges for the collection of spent fuel and transport to the Navy shipyards and specially designed ships to take the spent fuel to designated disposal sites at sea and to dispose of them there in deep sub-seabed sediments. Disposal in the sub-seabed sediments practically eliminates human intrusion. Potential disposal sites include Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain. Such sites then could easily become international disposal sites since they occur in the open ocean. It also reduces the level of human exposure in case of failure because of the large physical and chemical dilution and the elimination of a major pathway to man-seawater is not potable. Of course, the recovery of uranium from sea water and the disposal of spent fuel in sub-seabed sediments must be proven on an industrial scale. All other technologies are already operating on an industrial scale. If externalities, such as reduced terrorist threats, environmental damage (including embedded emissions), long

  4. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products (SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10/sup 6/ y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products.

  5. Apex nuclear fuel cycle for production of light water reactor fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Hiroshi, T.; Powell, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed that eliminates all the radioactive fission product (FP) waste effluent and the need for geological age high-level waste storage and provides a longterm supply of fissile fuel for a light water reactor (LWR) economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 yr old) to remove the stable nonradioactive FPs (NRFPs) e.g., lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived FPs (SLFP) (e.g., half-lives of less than or equal to 1 to 2 yr) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived FPs (LLFPs) (e.g., 30-yr half-life cesium and strontium, 10-yr krypton, and 16 X 10/sup 6/-yr iodine) and the transuranics (TUs) (e.g., plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel (FF) are to be supplied through the use of the spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the chelox process, which consists of chopping and leaching with an organic chelating reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and distillation of the organometallic compounds formed for purposes of separating and partitioning the FPs. The stable NRFPs and SLFPs are allowed to decay to background in 10 to 20 yr for final disposal to the environment.

  6. Fuel Cycle Services Needs Estimator v.2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-03-18

    The "Fuel Cycle Services Needs Estimator", Version 2.0 allows users to estimate the amount of uranium enrichment services needed and amount of spent nuclear fuel produced by a given fleet of nuclear power reactors through 2050 based on user-determined information about the size of a reactor fleet and average characteristics of reactors in that fleet. The program helps users evaluate the current and future supply of nuclear fuel cycle services. The program also allows usersmore » to compare the enrichment needs and spent fuel production of more up to seven defined nuclear power reactor fleets and to aggregate estimated needs. Version 2.0 of the program has an additions of new graphs to show results of calculations (calculation capabilities and other graphing tools included in version 1.o), maps showing flows of material based on calculation results, and additional calculation capabilities that allow the user to compare supply to demand (demand calculations included in version 1.0). Default values for seven selected nuclear energy programs in East Asia are included for reference and comparison. The program was designed using the dynamic simulation software, Powersim.« less

  7. Back-end of the fuel cycle - Indian scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wattal, P.K.

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has a key role in meeting the energy demands of India. This can be sustained by ensuring robust technology for the back end of the fuel cycle. Considering the modest indigenous resources of U and a huge Th reserve, India has adopted a three stage Nuclear Power Programme (NPP) based on 'closed fuel cycle' approach. This option on 'Recovery and Recycle' serves twin objectives of ensuring adequate supply of nuclear fuel and also reducing the long term radio-toxicity of the wastes. Reprocessing of the spent fuel by Purex process is currently employed. High Level Liquid Waste (HLW) generated during reprocessing is vitrified and undergoes interim storage. Back-end technologies are constantly modified to address waste volume minimization and radio-toxicity reduction. Long-term management of HLW in Indian context would involve partitioning of long lived minor actinides and recovery of valuable fission products specifically cesium. Recovery of minor actinides from HLW and its recycle is highly desirable for the sustained growth of India's NPPs. In this context, programme for developing and deploying partitioning technologies on industrial scale is pursued. The partitioned elements could be either transmuted in Fast Reactors (FRs)/Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS) as an integral part of sustainable Indian NPP. (authors)

  8. Fuel cycles and envisioned roles of fast neutron reactors and hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-19

    Future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will require insuring sustainability in terms of safe operation, optimal use of resources, radioactive waste minimization and reduced risk of proliferation. The present paper introduces some basic notions and fundamental fuel cycle strategies. The simulation approach needed to evaluate the impact of the different fuel cycle alternatives will also be shortly discussed.

  9. June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC June 2011, Report of the Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcomm report final v2.pdf (166.24 KB) More Documents & Publications Meeting Materials: June 15, 2011 MEETING MATERIALS: DECEMBER 19, 2013 Meeting Materials: June 12, 2012

  10. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  11. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    The activities that produce electric power typically range from extracting and transporting a fuel, to its conversion into electric power, and finally to the disposition of residual by-products. This chain of activities is called a fuel cycle. A fuel cycle has emissions and other effects that result in unintended consequences. When these consequences affect third parties (i.e., those other than the producers and consumers of the fuel-cycle activity) in a way that is not reflected in the price of electricity, they are termed ''hidden'' social costs or externalities. They are the economic value of environmental, health and any other impacts, that the price of electricity does not reflect. How do you estimate the externalities of fuel cycles? Our previous report describes a methodological framework for doing so--called the damage function approach. This approach consists of five steps: (1) characterize the most important fuel cycle activities and their discharges, where importance is based on the expected magnitude of their externalities, (2) estimate the changes in pollutant concentrations or other effects of those activities, by modeling the dispersion and transformation of each pollutant, (3) calculate the impacts on ecosystems, human health, and any other resources of value (such as man-made structures), (4) translate the estimates of impacts into economic terms to estimate damages and benefits, and (5) assess the extent to which these damages and benefits are externalities, not reflected in the price of electricity. Each step requires a different set of equations, models and analysis. Analysts generally believe this to be the best approach for estimating externalities, but it has hardly been used! The reason is that it requires considerable analysis and calculation, and to this point in time, the necessary equations and models have not been assembled. Equally important, the process of identifying and estimating externalities leads to a number of complex issues

  12. System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-09-01

    This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a

  13. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  14. Steam turbine development for advanced combined cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Balling, L.; Termuehlen, H.

    1996-12-31

    For advanced combined cycle power plants, the proper selection of steam turbine models is required to achieve optimal performance. The advancements in gas turbine technology must be followed by advances in the combined cycle steam turbine design. On the other hand, building low-cost gas turbines and steam turbines is desired which, however, can only be justified if no compromise is made in regard to their performance. The standard design concept of two-casing single-flow turbines seems to be the right choice for most of the present and future applications worldwide. Only for very specific applications it might be justified to select another design concept as a more suitable option.

  15. Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications | Department of Energy of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications 2003 DEER

  16. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  17. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel at VVER-1000 operation in closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Bobrov, E. A. Chibinyaev, A. V.; Teplov, P. S.; Dudnikov, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    The basic features of loading the VVER-1000 core with a new variant of REMIX fuel (REgenerated MIXture of U–Pu oxides) are considered during its multiple recycle in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel composition is produced on the basis of the uranium–plutonium regenerate extracted at processing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a VVER-1000, depleted uranium, and the fissionable material: {sup 235}U as a part of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from warheads superfluous for defense purposes or {sup 233}U accumulated in thorium blankets of fusion (electronuclear) neutron sources or fast reactors. Production of such a fuel assumes no use of natural uranium in addition. When converting a part of the VVER-1000 reactors to the closed fuel cycle based on the REMIX technology, the consumption of natural uranium decreases considerably, and there is no substantial degradation of the isotopic composition of plutonium or change in the reactor-safety characteristics at the passage from recycle to recycle.

  18. A European perspective on the US nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Many Europeans believe that the main problems which have impeded progress in solving the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States have been a series of ideological and political hang-ups and these, coupled with excessive bureaucracy, have made logical decision making on the back-end problems impossible. This situation has been caused by a succession of political nondecisions. Public confidence in nuclear generation was thereby undermined and, because of plentiful supplies of other energy sources, there was no urgent need to expand the nuclear program in the United States. Since uranium was cheap and fast reactors not commercially attractive, there was no economic incentive to reprocess fuel from existing reactors in the United States. The problem facing the United States is that of managing the large stocks of spent fuel which have arisen over many years. A logical way forward for the United States would appear to be as follows: build more storage for spent fuel; consider overseas reprocessing to provide plutonium; develop reprocessing technology; and develop direct disposal technology.

  19. Estimating externalities of biomass fuel cycles, Report 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the biomass fuel cycle, in which biomass is combusted to produce electricity. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to implement the methodological concepts which were developed in the Background Document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles, and by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the biomass fuel cycle; (2) to develop, given the time and resources, a range of estimates of marginal (i.e., the additional or incremental) damages and benefits associated with selected impact-pathways from a new wood-fired power plant, using a representative benchmark technology, at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information available to support energy decision making and the estimation of externalities, and by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The demonstration of methods, modeling procedures, and use of scientific information was the most important objective of this study. It provides an illustrative example for those who will, in the future, undertake studies of actual energy options and sites. As in most studies, a more comprehensive analysis could have been completed had budget constraints not been as severe. Particularly affected were the air and water transport modeling, estimation of ecological impacts, and economic valuation. However, the most important objective of the study was to demonstrate methods, as a detailed example for future studies. Thus, having severe budget constraints was appropriate from the standpoint that these studies could also face similar constraints. Consequently, an important result of this study is an indication of what can be done in such studies, rather than the specific numerical estimates themselves.

  20. Reliability and availability requirements analysis for DEMO: fuel cycle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinna, T.; Borgognoni, F.

    2015-03-15

    The Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) will be a fusion reactor prototype designed to demonstrate the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. Two of the key elements of the engineering development of the DEMO reactor are the definitions of reliability and availability requirements (or targets). The availability target for a hypothesized Fuel Cycle has been analysed as a test case. The analysis has been done on the basis of the experience gained in operating existing tokamak fusion reactors and developing the ITER design. Plant Breakdown Structure (PBS) and Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) related to the DEMO Fuel Cycle and correlations between PBS and FBS have been identified. At first, a set of availability targets has been allocated to the various systems on the basis of their operating, protection and safety functions. 75% and 85% of availability has been allocated to the operating functions of fuelling system and tritium plant respectively. 99% of availability has been allocated to the overall systems in executing their safety functions. The chances of the systems to achieve the allocated targets have then been investigated through a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Reliability Block Diagram analysis. The following results have been obtained: 1) the target of 75% for the operations of the fuelling system looks reasonable, while the target of 85% for the operations of the whole tritium plant should be reduced to 80%, even though all the tritium plant systems can individually reach quite high availability targets, over 90% - 95%; 2) all the DEMO Fuel Cycle systems can reach the target of 99% in accomplishing their safety functions. (authors)

  1. Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne, see www.anl.gov. Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the “Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis” report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), “AFCI Economic Analysis” report, and the “AFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.” Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market—domestic and internationally—and impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from

  3. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Reasoner: PNNL FY12 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Pomiak, Yekaterina G.; Neorr, Peter A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2013-05-03

    Building on previous internal investments and leveraging ongoing advancements in semantic technologies, PNNL implemented a formal reasoning framework and applied it to a specific challenge in nuclear nonproliferation. The Semantic Nonproliferation Analysis Platform (SNAP) was developed as a preliminary graphical user interface to demonstrate the potential power of the underlying semantic technologies to analyze and explore facts and relationships relating to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). In developing this proof of concept prototype, the utility and relevancy of semantic technologies to the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D) has been better understood.

  4. Integrating repositories with fuel cycles: The airport authority model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The organization of the fuel cycle is a legacy of World War II and the cold war. Fuel cycle facilities were developed and deployed without consideration of the waste management implications. This led to the fuel cycle model of a geological repository site with a single owner, a single function (disposal), and no other facilities on site. Recent studies indicate large economic, safety, repository performance, nonproliferation, and institutional incentives to collocate and integrate all back-end facilities. Site functions could include geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with the option for future retrievability, disposal of other wastes, reprocessing with fuel fabrication, radioisotope production, other facilities that generate significant radioactive wastes, SNF inspection (navy and commercial), and related services such as SNF safeguards equipment testing and training. This implies a site with multiple facilities with different owners sharing some facilities and using common facilities - the repository and SNF receiving. This requires a different repository site institutional structure. We propose development of repository site authorities modeled after airport authorities. Airport authorities manage airports with government-owned runways, collocated or shared public and private airline terminals, commercial and federal military facilities, aircraft maintenance bases, and related operations - all enabled and benefiting the high-value runway asset and access to it via taxi ways. With a repository site authority the high value asset is the repository. The SNF and HLW receiving and storage facilities (equivalent to the airport terminal) serve the repository, any future reprocessing plants, and others with needs for access to SNF and other wastes. Non-public special-built roadways and on-site rail lines (equivalent to taxi ways) connect facilities. Airport authorities are typically chartered by state governments and managed by commissions with members

  5. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector | Department of Energy A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin 2004_deer_abbott.pdf (160.87 KB) More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids

  6. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  7. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  8. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M.

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  9. Performance evaluation of a combined-cycle cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.F.; Naumowicz, T.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology for performance evaluation of a combined-cycle cogeneration system has been presented. Results for such a system using an advanced gas-turbine as the prime mover show that it is a very versatile system. It can produce a large power-to-heat ratio together with a high second-law efficiency over a wide range of process steam pressures. This work also demonstrates once again that the most appropriate and useful performance parameters for decision-making in cogeneration system design are the second-law efficiency and the power-to-heat ratio.

  10. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  11. The full fuel cycle of CO{sub 2} capture and disposal capture and disposal technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saroff, L.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the evaluation of the energy usage and cost both private and societal (external cost)for full fuel cycles. It was envisioned that other organizations could employ the methodology with minor alterations for a consistent means of evaluating full fuel cycles. The methodology has been applied to three fossil fuel electric generation processes each producing 500 MWe (net). These are: a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant burning natural gas with direct CO{sub 2} capture and disposal; an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant burning coal with direct CO{sub 2} capture and disposal; and a Pulverized Fuel (PC) power plant burning coal with a managed forest indirectly sequestering CO{sub 2}. The primary aim is to provide decision makers with information from which to derive policy. Thus, the evaluation reports total energy used, private costs to build the facility, emissions and burdens, and the valuation (externalities) of the impacts of the burdens. The energy usage, private costs including capture and disposal, and emissions are reported in this paper. The valuations and analysis of the impact of the plant on the environment are reported in the companion paper. The loss in efficiency (LHV) considering the full fuel cycle as opposed to the thermal efficiency of the power plant is; 0.9, 2.4, and 4.6 for the NGCC, IGCC, and PC+controls, respectively. Electricity cost, c/kWh, including capital, operating and fuel, at a 10% discount rate. ranges from 5.6 to 7.08 for NGCC and 7.24 to 8.61 for IGCC. The range is dependent on the mode of disposal, primarily due to the long pipeline to reach a site for the pope disposal in the ocean. For the PC+ controls then is a considerable range from 7.66 to over 16 c/kWh dependent on the size and cost of the managed forest.

  12. EARTHQUAKE CAUSED RELEASES FROM A NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-08-01

    The fuel cycle facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory is a nuclear facility which must be licensed in order to operate. A safety analysis is required for a license. This paper describes the analysis of the Design Basis Accident for this facility. This analysis involves a model of the transient behavior of the FCF inert atmosphere hot cell following an earthquake initiated breach of pipes passing through the cell boundary. The hot cell is used to process spent metallic nuclear fuel. Such breaches allow the introduction of air and subsequent burning of pyrophoric metals. The model predicts the pressure, temperature, volumetric releases, cell heat transfer, metal fuel combustion, heat generation rates, radiological releases and other quantities. The results show that releases from the cell are minimal and satisfactory for safety. This analysis method should be useful in other facilities that have potential for damage from an earthquake and could eliminate the need to back fit facilities with earthquake proof boundaries or lessen the cost of new facilities.

  13. Fuel cycle integration issues associated with P/T technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaels, G.E.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1992-04-01

    The three primary interfaces between a generic partitioning and transmutation (P/T) technology and the existing United States fuel cycle are the light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel inventory, the reprocessed uranium (RU) stream, and the high-level waste stream. The features and implications of these three interfaces are reviewed and their implications for P/T system design and for waste management are assessed. The variability of transuranic nuclide composition in the LWR spent fuel is calculated and its potential implications for transmutation system core design are discussed. The radiological characteristics of the RU stream are presented, and options for disposition of the stream are reviewed. Most P/T scenarios assume that RU will be recycled to LWRs. This study demonstrates, however, that LWR recycle cannot totally consume the reprocessed stream, and disposal of a waste uranium steam with high levels of radiologically-significant isotopes will still be necessary. The radioactivity of the tails stream for enrichment plants resulting from a dedicated RU campaign is calculated. The tendency of gaseous diffusion plant enrichment technology to deplete the tails stream of minor uranium isotopes is seen as a benefit and an advantage over Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation-type technology. Finally, the implications of P/T on LWR-origin wastes reporting to the repository is discussed, and several significant differences between LWR-origin waste originating from transmutation systems are assessed.

  14. Fuel cycle integration issues associated with P/T technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaels, G.E.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    The three primary interfaces between a generic partitioning and transmutation (P/T) technology and the existing United States fuel cycle are the light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel inventory, the reprocessed uranium (RU) stream, and the high-level waste stream. The features and implications of these three interfaces are reviewed and their implications for P/T system design and for waste management are assessed. The variability of transuranic nuclide composition in the LWR spent fuel is calculated and its potential implications for transmutation system core design are discussed. The radiological characteristics of the RU stream are presented, and options for disposition of the stream are reviewed. Most P/T scenarios assume that RU will be recycled to LWRs. This study demonstrates, however, that LWR recycle cannot totally consume the reprocessed stream, and disposal of a waste uranium steam with high levels of radiologically-significant isotopes will still be necessary. The radioactivity of the tails stream for enrichment plants resulting from a dedicated RU campaign is calculated. The tendency of gaseous diffusion plant enrichment technology to deplete the tails stream of minor uranium isotopes is seen as a benefit and an advantage over Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation-type technology. Finally, the implications of P/T on LWR-origin wastes reporting to the repository is discussed, and several significant differences between LWR-origin waste originating from transmutation systems are assessed.

  15. Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing evaluating the performance of 5 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems that have been deployed in Oregon and California. It also describes the business case that was developed to identify markets and address cost.

  16. Parametric analyses of single-zone thorium-fueled molten salt reactor fuel cycle options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, J.J.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Harrison, T.J.; Sunny, E.E.

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of fuel cycle options based on thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have been performed in support of fuel cycle screening and evaluation activities for the United States Department of Energy. The MSR options considered are based on thermal spectrum MSRs with 3 different separations levels: full recycling, limited recycling, and 'once-through' operation without active separations. A single-fluid, single-zone 2250 MWth (1000 MWe) MSR concept consisting of a fuel-bearing molten salt with graphite moderator and reflectors was used as the basis for this study. Radiation transport and isotopic depletion calculations were performed using SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. New methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) enables MSR analysis using SCALE, modeling material feed and removal by taking user-specified parameters and performing multiple SCALE/TRITON simulations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. Parametric analyses examined the sensitivity of the performance of a thorium MSR to variations in the separations efficiency for protactinium and fission products. Results indicate that self-sustained operation is possible with full or limited recycling but once-through operation would require an external neutron source. (authors)

  17. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D - Results, Insights, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. ... Resource Relation: Conference: International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants ...

  18. Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) have been under consideration for ...

  19. Testing standards for physical security systems at Category 1 fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG is a compilation of physical security testing standards for use at fuel cycle facilities using or possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material.

  20. Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.

    1986-01-01

    A framework is presented for comparing various safeguards verification approaches which have been proposed for consideration. Each inventory change, inventory, and material balance for each nuclear facility, reported by a state, may be verified. Verification approaches are compared by listing which of these reports would be verified and to what degree for each approach as they might be applied to a state with a closed fuel cycle. The comparison indicates that the extended-material-balance-area (or zone), the information-correlation, and the randomization-over-facilities approaches make more efficient use of Agency resources than the facility-oriented approach for states with large nuclear power programs. In contrast, any advantages of randomizing inspections over inspection activities within facilities are, percentagewise, relatively independent of the size of a state's nuclear program.

  1. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  2. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  3. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anan'ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I.; Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T.

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  4. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-09-24

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

  5. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  6. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  7. Transformation into combined cycle of old steam plants in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.; Valenti, G.

    1998-07-01

    The ongoing energy market liberalization is pushing the electricity industries towards generation systems capable to achieve low production costs for their plants. Combined cycles are today the best way to reach the above targets thanks to their very high efficiency, short completion time and low capital intensity. In industrialized countries like Italy, the existing steam plant fleet comprises several units with operating life of more than 20 years and modest efficiencies. Thanks to the following: possible easy and cheap revamping of existing steam turbines in order to extend their residual life of around 15 years or more; sites already devoted to power generation with reduced needs for further authorization procedures; existing connection to the grid and therefore no need for new overhead electric line construction (today practically impossible due to social and environmental opposition); the transformation into combined cycles of some existing old units (by replacing the old boiler with gas turbines and heat recovery steam generator) is of strategic importance for the mid term development and efficiency improvement of the power generation system. For the specific Italian reality, the paper reports the results of a study on the transformation into combined cycle of existing steam units sized 300 MW and 150 MW (the most common sizes in Italy) highlighting the advantages in terms of: reduction of generated kWh costs with respect to present power stations which otherwise should be modified (either by adding gas treatment systems or by changing the feeding fuel) to meet the emission limitation targets; drastic emission reduction for all the major pollutants: CO{sub 2} (increased efficiency), SO{sub x} (natural gas is sulfur free), NO{sub x} (low NO{sub x} burning technologies); reduced primary energy needs (Italy imports approximately 90% of its fossil fuel consumption).

  8. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  9. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  10. Combined goal gasifier and fuel cell system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gmeindl, Frank D.; Geisbrecht, Rodney A.

    1990-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell is combined with a catalytic coal or coal char gasifier for providing the reactant gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide used in the operation of the fuel cell. These reactant gases are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate material and are then separated in discrete gas streams for conveyance to appropriate electrodes in the fuel cell. The gasifier is arranged to receive the reaction products generated at the anode of the fuel cell by the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction therein. These reaction products from the anode are formed primarily of high temperature steam and carbon dioxide to provide the steam, the atmosphere and the heat necessary to endothermically pyrolyze the coal or char in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction products generated at the cathode are substantially formed of carbon dioxide which is used to heat air being admixed with the carbon dioxide stream from the gasifier for providing the oxygen required for the reaction in the fuel cell and for driving an expansion device for energy recovery. A portion of this carbon dioxide from the cathode may be recycled into the fuel cell with the air-carbon dioxide mixture.