National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel ultra low-sulfur

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

    2010-01-01

    The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

  2. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  3. Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the implications of the new regulations for vehicle fuel efficiency and examines the technology, production, distribution, and cost implications of supplying diesel fuel to meet the new standards.

  4. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  5. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

    2003-04-01

    Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

  6. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  7. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  8. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

    2000-01-19

    While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    with a 10% aromatic, ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel used inequivalent 10% aromatic ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel used inx emissions compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD).

  10. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  11. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    S and a reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5 ppmof the reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (5 ppm). SF CD =diesel fuel (CD), ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD),

  12. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    = distillate fuel; ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur distillate fuel;ppm S and a reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5content of the reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (5 ppm). SF

  13. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by switching to LNG instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil and installing new emission controls that stands to benefit if regulators approve LNG shipments to the state. "Beyond payment for this study, FGE will receive no compensation whatsoever whether the state decides to import LNG or not, and no matter under

  14. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  15. Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Diesel Vehicles BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the...

  16. DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 2015 GATEWAY Takes 9. TechnologyDOE Web Managers

  17. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  18. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/S The National Interim714 CreatedDemand and

  19. Visbreaker hardware has alternate uses in low-sulfur fuel era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, J.J.; Beckman, R.F. (Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA (United States))

    1993-03-22

    Several possible alternate uses for visbreaker equipment are available to refiners who must significantly increase the degree of residue processing to meet future fuel oil sulfur requirements. In both the U.S. and the European Economic Community (EEC), specifications for the sulfur content of residual fuels will likely be difficult to achieve for refiners who process high-sulfur crudes. Those refiners will have to curtail fuel oil production unless they have a significant fuel oil export market. To meet the coming specifications, residue streams will have to be either directly desulfurized or partially or totally destroyed in more-severe conversion processes such as coking, fluid-bed hydrocracking, or gasification. Under this scenario, normal operation of the visbreaker will not serve a useful purpose for the refiner. But revamping the visbreaker furnace and tower-as well as utilizing existing vessels, pumps, heat-exchange equipment, and piping-for alternative uses will require significantly less capital than would building an entirely new facility. The paper describes regulations; the role of visbreaker; integration of the visbreaker to form a new hydrotreating fractionator; and the use of the visbreaker as a preflash system.

  20. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    produced in CA Diesel Ultra-low-sulfur diesel produced in CAbelow) California ultra low sulfur diesel, pathway D2

  1. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    produced in CA Diesel Ultra-low-sulfur diesel produced in CAbelow) California ultra low sulfur diesel, pathway D2

  2. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.

    1996-05-01

    Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01

    n.e. RFG n.e. dist. n.e. ULSD n.e. fuel oil n.e. LPG n.e.dist. = distillate fuel; ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur distillateultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5 ppm S, then weights

  4. Ultra-Clean Diesel Fuel: U.S. Production and Distribution Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2001-02-15

    Diesel engines have potential for use in a large number of future vehicles in the US. However, to achieve this potential, proponents of diesel engine technologies must solve diesel's pollution problems, including objectionable levels of emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen. To meet emissions reduction goals, diesel fuel quality improvements could enable diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment systems to achieve the necessary emissions performance. The diesel fuel would most likely have to be reformulated to be as clean as low sulfur gasoline. This report examines the small- and large-market extremes for introduction of ultra-clean diesel fuel in the US and concludes that petroleum refinery and distribution systems could produce adequate low sulfur blendstocks to satisfy small markets for low sulfur (30 parts per million) light duty diesel fuel, and deliver that fuel to retail consumers with only modest changes. Initially, there could be poor economic returns on under-utilized infrastructure investments. Subsequent growth in the diesel fuel market could be inconsistent with U.S. refinery configurations and economics. As diesel fuel volumes grow, the manufacturing cost may increase, depending upon how hydrodesulfurization technologies develop, whether significantly greater volumes of the diesel pool have to be desulfurized, to what degree other properties like aromatic levels have to be changed, and whether competitive fuel production technologies become economic. Low sulfur (10 parts per million) and low aromatics (10 volume percent) diesel fuel for the total market could require desulfurization, dearomatization, and hydrogen production investments amounting to a third of current refinery market value. The refinery capital cost component alone would be 3 cents per gallon of diesel fuel. Outside of refineries, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant investment cost would be 3 to 6 cents per gallon. With total projected investments of $11.8 billion (6 to 9 cents per gallon) for the U.S. Gulf Coast alone, financing, engineering, and construction and material availability are major issues that must be addressed, for both refinery and GTL investments.

  5. Energy Department Provides Additional Emergency Fuel Loan to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Defense with additional ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in response to a request from the State of Connecticut. The Energy Department...

  6. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11simnick.pdf More...

  8. Sibley station low-sulfur coal conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupinskas, R.L. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Rembold, D.F. [Missouri Public Service, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After embarking on an upgrade project in 1986 that was designed to allow efficient and reliable operation of its coal-fired Sibley station through 2010, Missouri Public Service (MPS) faced the uncertainty of impending acid-rain legislation. To protect its investment in the Sibley Rebuild Program, the utility evaluated compliance options based on the emerging legislation and concluded that switching to low-sulfur coal offered the least-cost compliance approach. Compared to installing a scrubber, switching to a low-sulfur coal was also more straightforward, although not without challenges and complications. This paper reviews the Sibley low-sulfur coal conversion program. At Sibley, fuel switching was chosen only after numerous internal and external studies; it withstood late challenges from natural gas and allowance trading. Switching demanded additional equipment to blend Power River Basin coals and other coals, and demanded additional and upgraded protective equipment in the areas of fire protection, dust collection, and explosion prevention. In the year since the coal conversion project was completed the facility has operated reliably, the economic benefits of the lower cost Powder River Basin coals have been realized, and the station has also met the requirements of both phases of the acid rain legislation. Fuel switching at Sibley required a team approach and careful analysis. The coal conversion project also required attention and dedication by team members in order to minimize fuel costs while maintaining optimum plant efficiency and availability.

  9. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions...

  10. reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department Shore Capacity - Low Profile, Easy Siting Connects to existing electricity and fuel infrastructure Cell Stack and operated with high sulfur naval logistic fuel (JP-5 jet fuel) · Over 1000 Hours of Fuel

  11. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  12. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  13. Investigation of Solid Particle Number Measurement of Engine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zhongqing

    2012-01-01

    of the testing. CARB Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel (SResources Board (CARB) ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel (

  14. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

  15. Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    of Low Sulfur, Ultra Low Sulfur and Biodiesel Blends in a DIengine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-dieselengine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with

  16. Performance of plasma sputtered Fuel Cell electrodes with ultra-low Pt M. Cavarroca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Performance of plasma sputtered Fuel Cell electrodes with ultra-low Pt loadings M. Cavarroca , A. Abstract Ultra-low Pt content PEMFC electrodes have been manufactured using magnetron co- sputtering cell; Plasma sputtering deposition; ultra low platinum loading * Corresponding author: Fax: +33 2 38 41

  17. ORNL/TM-2000/191 ULTRA-CLEAN DIESEL FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2000/191 ULTRA-CLEAN DIESEL FUEL: U.S. PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION CAPABILITY G.R. Hadder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. CURRENT DIESEL FUEL MARKET STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. SMALL MARKET: LIGHT DUTY DIESEL FUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3

  18. Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends andengine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended withMaterials B0 Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel B20 20% Biodiesel 80%

  19. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  20. Investigation of Solid Particle Number Measurement of Engine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zhongqing

    2012-01-01

    the testing. CARB Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel (S = 8Board (CARB) ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel (S < 15

  1. Investigation of Solid Particle Number Measurement of Engine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zhongqing

    2012-01-01

    CARB Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel (S = 8 ppmw) andCARB) ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel (S < 15 ppm). The

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complying with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) mandate, at least 2% biodiesel (B2) must be used as an additive to ULSD for lubricity,...

  3. Sterling Technology ultra-pure filtered diesel fuel. Final report, April 1984-April 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, E.C.

    1988-05-01

    This report details testing done on ultra-pure filtered diesel fuel and unfiltered diesel fuel. Several barrels of filtered fuel, shipped from the manufacturer--Sterling Technology, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida--were tested using the 690-in. Deutz F-8L-413A Air Cooled V8 Engine. No significant difference was found, but due to a delay in starting the tests, it was suspected that some deterioration might have occurred in the fuel. The objective was to investigate the possible benefits of the ultra-pure filtered diesel fuel in power improvement and reduction of exhaust smoke.

  4. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    fueled by ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and operating on afrom burning ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to a 50/50 blendwhen switching from ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to A50.

  5. High Performance Plasma Sputtered PdPt Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    fuel cells currently used in cars have a resource efficiency of 1 or 2 kW gPt -1 . The high amount of platinum makes commercial fuel cells reliable but the resource efficiency is far too low to provideHigh Performance Plasma Sputtered PdPt Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low Loading M. Mougenot1, 2

  6. High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 High Performance Plasma Sputtered Fuel Cell Electrodes with Ultra Low catalytic metal Loadings C in plasma fuel cell deposition devices. Pt loadings lower than 0.01 mg cm-2 have been realized. The Pt density of 250 kW gPt -1 . 1-Introduction The great potential for the fuel cell technology to overcome

  7. Environmental implications of trade liberalization on North American transport services: the case of the trucking sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Linda

    2010-01-01

    requires the use of ultra low-sulfur diesel, now required inthe shift toward ultra low-sulfur fuel. The nationwide plan

  8. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers |Gamma-Ray Logging VP of2 DOE

  9. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers |Gamma-Ray Logging VP of2 DOE1

  10. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  11. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  12. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  13. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  14. SERVICE STATION INFORMATION There are 2 campus service stations for use by University of Michigan vehicles. The Baxter Road Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    to alternative fuel by refining our biodiesel fuel to Ultra Low Sulfur B20 biodiesel meeting 2009 diesel fuel

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  16. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  17. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

  18. Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2003-01-23

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  1. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  2. Ultra-high current density water management in polymer electrolyte fuel cell with porous metallic flow field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Ultra-high current density water management in polymer electrolyte fuel cell with porous metallic with the open metallic element architecture and high current density. Flooding is not limiting at high current. Stable operation was demonstrated at 90 C using a polymer electrolyte membrane. Real time NWD

  3. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  4. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  6. Project Sponsor: Siemens Power GenerationUCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (DF2), its discrete water droplet size distribution and the injection

  7. January2013Update Growing Together

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    , electric or ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel equipment, and the washing of truck undercarriages and wheels

  8. November 30, 2006 -TCAT to put six hybrid buses on the road Home News Opinion Accent Sports Click. Exclusively Online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be using an ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel that is being phased in nationally starting this fall. Sulfur

  9. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System- Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System, given by Pinakin Patel at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  10. 8, 27152744, 2008 Nanoparticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    formation in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel Hua Du and Fangqun Yu Atmospheric regenerating diesel particle filters (CRDPFs) have to be employed5 on vehicles and fuel with ultra-low sulfur concentrations have also been detected for vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel but without CRDPFs. The main

  11. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  12. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 47294739, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/4729/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    and Physics Nanoparticle formation in the exhaust of vehicles running on ultra-low sulfur fuel H. Du and F. Yu on vehicles and fuel with ultra-low sulfur is to be used. Although CRDPFs were found to be effective in reduc of nanoparticles in an exhaust plume under ultra-low sulfur conditions. Such a study is necessary to project fu

  13. Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2012-09-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

  14. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells0|

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

  16. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by Sulfur Content and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

  17. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by Sulfur Content and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

  19. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End...

  20. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

  1. Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Self-cleaning ceramic filter cartridges offer the advantage of better fuel economy, faster regeneration time, improved heat transfer, and reduction in manufacturing steps

  2. No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 200820087 DOE/NASEONA NA NA

  3. No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayDecadeFeet) Decade Year-08

  4. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  5. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  6. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul; Fuchs, Benjamin S.; Booten, Chuck W.

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  7. Additive development for ultra-clean coal slurry fuel: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Swanson, W.W.

    1988-05-24

    AMAX performed research to develop improved quality, cost-effective dispersing additives for coal-water slurry fuels intended for high-intensity combustion systems. Dispersants were identified on the basis of coal surface characteristics and coal-dispersant interactions. Micronized samples of physically and chemically cleaned coal feedstocks from the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States were examined using bulk and surface analysis techniques. Utilization of coal surface and dispersant functionality was optimized through multicomponent application of additives, pH control, and control of surface oxidation. A low-cost, low-alkali, sulfur-free dextrin compound was found to be effective in enhancing dispersion when applied to the coal surfaces as a pretreatment or with conventional dispersants as a co-additive. The cleaning method and ash content had minimal direct impact on coal surface functionality. Parameters such as internal moisture, particle size, surface area, surface oxidation, and soluble ions were the primary considerations which influenced slurry loading and additive consumption. The dispersing additive packages functioned over the range of coal types and cleaning levels investigated. The preferred additives were compatible with each other, allowing for blending to optimize performance, cost, and alkali contamination. Each additive was found to be suitable for use in applications which utilize elevated-temperature fuel delivery systems. 17 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Shell. The Evolution of Movement Continues

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Focus of presentation is on emergence of future diesel fuel technologires and fule properties compare to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel properties.

  9. A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF LIFECYCLE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    n.a. CG oil n.e. RFG oil n.e. ULSD oil n.e. FTD NG n.e. Fueln.a. n.a. CG n.a. RFG n.a. ULSD n.a. M100 M85 CNG CH2 n.a.RFG = reformulated gasoline, ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur diesel,

  10. A Multi-Country Analysis of Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels and Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01

    n.a. CG oil n.e. RFG oil n.e. ULSD oil n.e. FTD NG n.e. Fueln.a. n.a. CG n.a. RFG n.a. ULSD n.a. M100 M85 CNG CH2 n.a.RFG = reformulated gasoline, ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur diesel,

  11. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Note: In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel was added. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A,...

  12. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by...

  13. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  14. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  15. The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    of low sulfur, ultra low sulfur and biodiesel blends in a DIbiofuels produced have ultra-low sulfur levels thanks to thefuels; 5. It contains ultra-low sulfur level and could meet

  16. Accelerating From vehicles on the road to the energy that powers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel rule ORNL and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory co-2 emis- sions levels with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Power electronics and electric propulsion-led a comprehensive research and test program to determine the effects of diesel fuel sulfur on emissions and emission

  17. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C. J.; Cannella, W. J.; Bruno, T. J.; Bunting, B.; Dettman, H. D.; Franz, J. A.; Huber, M. L.; Natarajan, M.; Pitz, W. J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Wright, K.

    2012-06-21

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the state-of-the-art techniques of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two well-characterized, ultra-low-sulfur No.2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found.

  18. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented...

  19. 93FY 2006 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program Produce ultra-pure hydrogen fuel, at 99.999% purity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    will include separation of both clean shifted syngas and raw shifted syngas, both coal-derived. To prepare of hydrogen from coal, due to its low cost and abundance in the U.S. A critical part of this process is to separate the hydrogen from carbon dioxide, resulting in a pure clean fuel (hydrogen) stream, and a separate

  20. Performance and mass transport in open metallic element architecture fuel cells at ultra-high current density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    transport Mass transport Flooding Diffusion a b s t r a c t Performance and mass transport of a polymer at extremely high currents. Ó 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The polymer electrolyte metallic element; PEFC, polymer electrolyte fuel cell; RH,

  1. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

  2. Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Violet Waterworks Water Disinfecting Device Saves Lives Resources with Additional Information Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW) device Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW) is a...

  3. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  4. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Annual progress report of the Advanced Petroleum-based fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Project. Contains information on 5 test projects to determine the best combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emissions standards.

  5. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    fuel was switched from ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to 50:50 blend of ULSD and algae fuels. The dissertationquartz and Teflo filter for ULSD and A50 fuels 76 Figure

  6. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  7. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  8. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  9. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  10. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    profile from burning ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to awhen switching from ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to A50.emission profile burning ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to a

  11. Energy Emergency Energy Emergency Preparedness Quarterly Preparedness...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel Issues For the first time since the creation of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, the President directed DOE to loan ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel from the...

  12. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of the NOx adsorber system with catalyst aged to useful life conditions (simulated 120k miles), comparing performance betweem B20 fuel blend and base ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

  13. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Distillate + No. 4 Fuel Oil (published on Table 46). Note: In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel was added. Note: Totals may not equal the sum of the components due to...

  14. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Distillate + No. 4 Fuel Oil (published on Table 46). Note: In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel was added. Note: Totals may not equal the sum of the components due to...

  15. Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 60.5 64.5 68.5 69.4 65.4 55.2 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories...

  16. Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 51.6 56.2 59.3 60.4 56.2 45.4 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories...

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR/%2Afissile4/%2A en

  18. High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel...

  19. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  20. Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels with Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Bunting, Bruce G.; Dettman, Heather; Franz, James A.; Huber, Marcia L.; Natarajan, Mani; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Wright, Ken

    2012-07-26

    In this study, a novel approach was developed to formulate surrogate fuels having characteristics that are representative of diesel fuels produced from real-world refinery streams. Because diesel fuels typically consist of hundreds of compounds, it is difficult to conclusively determine the effects of fuel composition on combustion properties. Surrogate fuels, being simpler representations of these practical fuels, are of interest because they can provide a better understanding of fundamental fuel-composition and property effects on combustion and emissions-formation processes in internal-combustion engines. In addition, the application of surrogate fuels in numerical simulations with accurate vaporization, mixing, and combustion models could revolutionize future engine designs by enabling computational optimization for evolving real fuels. Dependable computational design would not only improve engine function, it would do so at significant cost savings relative to current optimization strategies that rely on physical testing of hardware prototypes. The approach in this study utilized the stateof- the-art techniques of 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the advanced distillation curve to characterize fuel composition and volatility, respectively. The ignition quality was quantified by the derived cetane number. Two wellcharacterized, ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel reference fuels produced from refinery streams were used as target fuels: a 2007 emissions certification fuel and a Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuel. A surrogate was created for each target fuel by blending eight pure compounds. The known carbon bond types within the pure compounds, as well as models for the ignition qualities and volatilities of their mixtures, were used in a multiproperty regression algorithm to determine optimal surrogate formulations. The predicted and measured surrogate-fuel properties were quantitatively compared to the measured target-fuel properties, and good agreement was found. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Jim Franz. Funding for this research was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies, and by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the companies that employ the CRC members. The study was conducted under the auspices of CRC. The authors thank U.S. DOE program manager Kevin Stork for supporting the participation of the U.S. national laboratories in this study.

  1. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  2. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore »imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  3. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    not equal the sum of the components due to rounding. Note: In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel was added. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A,...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    are from the revised survey system and are consistent. Note: In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel was added. Sources: Energy Information Administration Forms EIA-782A,...

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    not equal the sum of the components due to rounding. Note: In January 2007, ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel was added. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A,...

  6. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, and K. Kim, "Measurement of the Energy Use and Emissions of Passenger Rail Locomotives Using a Portable Emission Measurement System," Paper 2009-A-243-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    using ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. In collaboration with the locomotive owner and operator. There are also plans to switch these locomotives from ULSD to soy-based B20 biodiesel. The current work

  7. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    from Oceangoing Shipping: An Assessment of Low-Sulfur Fuelfrom oceangoing shipping: an assessment of low-sulfur fuelfrom Oceangoing Shipping: An Assessment of Low-Sulfur Fuel

  8. Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC...

  9. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System DE-EE0003679 FuelCell Energy, Inc. 1012010 - 9302011 Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. ppatel@fce.com 203-825-6072...

  10. The Engineering Meetings Board has approved this paper for publication. It has successfully completed SAE's peer review process under the supervision of the session organizer. This process requires a minimum of three (3) reviews by industry experts.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    through the use of engine optimization, aftertreatment system integration, and ultra-low sulfur diesel

  11. Ballistic Imaging of High-Pressure Fuel Sprays using Incoherent, Ultra- short Pulsed Illumination with an Ultrafast OKE-based Time Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical Kerr effect based time-gate with the collinear incidence of the pump and probe beams at the Kerr medium, liquid carbon disulfide, for ballistic imaging of the high-pressure fuel sprays. The probe pulse used to illuminate the object under study is extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses inside water, thereby destroying their coherence. The optical imaging spatial resolution and gate timings are investigated and compared with a similar setup without supercontinuum generation, where the probe is still coherent. And finally, a few ballistic images of the fuel sprays using coherent and incoherent illumination with the proposed time-gate are presented and compared qualitatively.

  12. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  13. BID MUST BE RECEIVED NO LATER THAN Please indicate: Minority Business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    for unleaded gasoline and Number 2 Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel (#2 Red Diesel) for use on their Grounds or decrease quantities. ESTIMATES: Grounds Unleaded Gasoline ­ 2,000 gallons Diesel, ultra low sulphur #2 Red gallons Diesel, ultra low sulphur #2 Red ­ 700 gallons Award will be made on an "all or none" or "item

  14. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  15. 2006 ORNL Story Tips | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the original amount of information, making what remains manageable. Emissions - Ultra-low sulfur October 16, 2006 - New low-sulfur diesel available at gas stations and travel...

  16. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  17. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  18. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, New York: EnergyU.S. EPAEnergyUltra High Temperature Jump to:

  19. Ultra Motor Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ Climate Oriented Mobility Jump to:UkrainianUltra

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  1. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact...

  2. Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Erika Andrea

    2010-01-01

    2.2.1 Electrochemistry & Fuel Cells . . . .General Electrochemistry and Redox xiii Thermodynamics &2.2.2 Ultra-micro-electrochemistry (UME) System time

  3. Maintenance and operation of the US Alternative Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Ferrill, J.L.; Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. This report covers the first year at the 3-year contract. The principal objective was to assist the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals with two new fuel initiatives selected for tasks in the project year: (1) Production of low-sulfur, low-olefin catalytically cracked gasoline blendstock; and (2) production of low-reactivity/low-emission gasoline. Supporting goals included maintaining equipment in good working order, performing reformulated gasoline tests, and meeting the needs of other government agencies and industries for fuel research involving custom processing, blending, or analysis of experimental fuels.

  4. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  5. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

  6. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  7. Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles Using Supercapacitors: Device Characteristics, Control Strategies, and Simulation Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2010-01-01

    In automotive applications, fuel cell systems must be ablesource for automotive applications, fuel cells can deliverfuel cell/ultra-capacitor hybrid system for vehicular applications,

  8. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide...

  9. Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Transfer Tube TL Transfer Line ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesellow sulfur diesel (ULSD) (ULSD/biodiesel blends (B20,

  10. Growing Together Columbia University's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    . In addition, all construction equipment use air pollution control devices and Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD

  11. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-09-06

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, [+-] UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 16 figs.

  12. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  13. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-06-04

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, {+-}UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 21 figs.

  14. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  15. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermally Stable Ultra-Low Temperature Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermally stable ultra-low...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Next-Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain, LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ultra Efficient Light Duty Powertrain with Gasoline Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Powertrain at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ultra efficient light duty...

  20. Ultra Soy of America DBA USA Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, New York: EnergyU.S. EPAEnergyUltra High Temperature Jump

  1. Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinal design andBiofuels for

  2. Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  3. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  4. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.

    1994-12-31

    The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, the authors will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. This quarter pellet production work commenced and planning for collection and processing of a preparation plant fines fraction is underway.

  5. Ultra-stable Gold Nanocatalysts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinal design andBiofuels forUltra-DeepwaterEnergy Storage

  6. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Low-Temperature Laboratory Freezers Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature Laboratory Freezers Ultra-low temperature laboratory freezers (ULTs) are some...

  7. Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguide Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    1, 2012 Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguidepreviously demonstrated ultra-low-loss technologies. Groupet al. : MULTILAYER PLATFORM FOR ULTRA-LOW-LOSS WAVEGUIDE

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  9. Case Study: 16 MW Combined Cycle Cogeneration Plant for a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    low pressure steam distribution system now serving 11 million SF building area Medium pressure steamLb./hr. Steam Chillers 0-40,000 #/hr Summer Standby and Line Losses 30,000 #/hr Low Pressure (15psig) 30 steam generation. Fuel supply primarily natural gas, interruptible, with ultra low sulfur #2 oil backup

  10. THE FINAL SERIES OF OILS TESTED AS A POTENTIAL SOLUTION TO THE GALVESTON FERRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    DOT) began using an ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel, Texas Low Emission Diesel (TxLED), in all of its diesel dithiophosphate (ZDP). This oil was chosen to examine the effects of a synthetic oil with a low ash content. EMD low-cost solution. Additionally, none of the GFO engines is still under warranty. Also, the oil

  11. This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    refineries to produce ultra-low-sulfur diesel by allowing a maximum sulfur level of 15 ppm. Gasoline also://www.elsevier.com/copyright #12;Author's personal copy Development of ceria-supported sulfur tolerant nanocatalysts: Pd by steam reforming is attractive but poses great challenge since these fuels contain sulfur up to about

  12. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  13. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  14. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  15. Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems to articulate information-based principles for ultra-low-power design that apply to biology or to electronics of ultra- low-power electronics and bioelectronics is shown in the figure below. Engineering can aid

  16. Requirements for Emergency Generator Operation All Emergency Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    .2% Sulfur or less) As of October 1, 2007 Ultra low Sulfur Diesel must be used (0.05% Sulfur or less be received from manufacturer and sent to REHS Diesel emergency Generators must use low Sulfur Diesel ( 0

  17. Ultra-wideband digital baseband

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blázquez-Fernández, Raúl, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    The FCC approved the use of Ultra-wideband signals for communication purposes in February 2002 in the band from 3.1GHz to 10.6GHz, effectively opening 7.5GHz of free unlicensed bandwidth. There are two main constraints for ...

  18. Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07

    The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

  19. The effect of fuel and engine design on diesel exhaust particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine`s particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075--0.046 {micro}m) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel. Nucleation theory indicated that H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles may form during dilution at 0.03 wt% fuel sulfur levels and above. The 1991 engine was designed for lower particulate emissions than the 1988 engine and the 1991 engine`s accumulation mode particles (0.046-1.0 {micro}m) were reduced more than 80% by volume compared to the 1988 engine using the same low sulfur fuel. The particle size composition model indicated that using low sulfur fuel and the 1991 engine, the nuclei mode contained more than 45% of the total solid particles and over 85% of the soluble organic fraction.

  20. Assessment of capital requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure under the PNGV program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.; Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an assessment of the capital requirements of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a new Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels include two petroleum-based fuels (reformulated gasoline and low-sulfur diesel) and four alternative fuels (methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen). This study develops estimates of cumulative capital needs for establishing fuels production and distribution infrastructure to accommodate 3X vehicle fuel needs. Two levels of fuel volume-70,000 barrels per day and 1.6 million barrels per day-were established for meeting 3X-vehicle fuel demand. As expected, infrastructure capital needs for the high fuel demand level are much higher than for the low fuel demand level. Between fuel production infrastructure and distribution infrastructure, capital needs for the former far exceed those for the latter. Among the four alternative fuels, hydrogen bears the largest capital needs for production and distribution infrastructure.

  1. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would open many markets for waste heat recovery applications. By installing Hi-Z's materials in applications in which electricity could be produced from waste heat sources could result in significant energy savings as well as emissions reductions. For example, if QW thermoelectric generators could be introduced commercially in 2015, and assuming they could also capture an additional 0.1%/year of the available waste heat from the aluminum, steel, and iron industries, then by 2020, their use would lead to a 2.53 trillion Btu/year reduction in energy consumption. This translates to a $12.9 million/year energy savings, and 383.6 million lb's of CO2 emissions reduction per year. Additionally, Hi-Z would expect that the use of QW TE devices in the automotive, manufacturing, and energy generation industries would reduce the USA's petroleum and fossil fuel dependence, and thus significantly reduce emissions from CO2 and other polluting gasses such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter (PM), etc.

  2. Hydroprocessing key issue in low-sulfur' era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-26

    Refiners gave heavy attention to hydroprocessing operations at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were diesel color, blending to meet diesel sulfur specs, and ammonia injection in hydrocracking units. The panelists also related their experiences with increasing vacuum gas oil conversion in hydrocracking operations. These discussions are reproduced here.

  3. Ultra-Peripheral Collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Nystrand

    2008-01-23

    This presentation summarizes the results on ultra-peripheral collisions obtained at RHIC. It also discusses some aspects of the corresponding electromagnetic interactions in pp and pbarp collisions.

  4. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01

    a high current ion source for ultra-low energy ions has beenthe Department of Energy ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT IONedited by A. Anders. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION

  5. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  6. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  7. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  8. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  9. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  10. ULTRA-DEEP WATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ULTRA-DEEP WATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 2014 ULTRA-DEEPWATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS i Table of Contents Research and...

  11. Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials We...

  12. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

  13. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  14. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

  15. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flaherty, R.

    1981-08-11

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation is claimed. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  16. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  17. Version 1.0 UltraSPARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Version 1.0 June 2003 UltraSPARC® IIIi Processor User's Manual #12;#12;Copyright © 2003 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa Clara, California 95054, U.S.A. All rights reserved. Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, Java, Solaris, Chorus, VIS, OpenBootPROM, UltraSPARC IIIi Processor User's Manual

  18. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  19. Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee Elena Melchert Acting Designated Federal Officer

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryin the Nation's,USDA &Ultra-Deepwater Advisory

  20. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryin the Nation's,USDA &Ultra-Deepwater

  1. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryin the Nation's,USDA &Ultra-DeepwaterCatalysts |

  2. Mini-MITEE: Ultra Small, Ultra Light NTP Engines for Robotic Science and Manned Exploration Missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John [Plus Ultra Technologies, Incorporated, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    A compact, ultra lightweight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine design is described with the capability to carry out a wide range of unique and important robotic science missions that are not possible using chemical or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). The MITEE (MInature ReacTor EnginE) reactor uses hydrogeneous moderator, such as solid lithium-7 hydride, and high temperature cermet tungsten/UO2 nuclear fuel. The reactor is configured as a modular pressure tube assembly, with each pressure tube containing an outer annual shell of moderator with an inner annular region of W/UO2 cermet fuel sheets. H2 propellant flows radially inwards through the moderator and fuel regions, exiting at {approx}3000 K into a central channel that leads to a nozzle at the end of the pressure tube. Power density in the fuel region is 10 to 20 megawatts per liter, depending on design, producing a thrust output on the order of 15,000 Newtons and an Isp of {approx}1000 seconds. 3D Monte Carlo neutronic analyses are described for MITEE reactors utilizing various fissile fuel options (U-235, U-233, and Am242m) and moderators (7LiH and BeH2). Reactor mass ranges from a maximum of 100 kg for the 7LiH/U-235 option to a minimum of 28 kg for the BeH2/Am-242 m option. Pure thrust only and bi-modal (thrust plus electric power generation) MITEE designs are described. Potential unique robotic science missions enabled by the MITEE engine are described, including landing on Europa and exploring the ice sheet interior with return of samples to Earth, hopping to and exploring multiple sites on Mars, unlimited ramjet flight in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and landing on, and sample return from Pluto.

  3. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  4. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  5. ORNL 's Sluder elected SAE International fellow | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    policies. Sluder's research has supported the 2000 Environmental Protection Agency ultra-low sulfur diesel rulemaking, EPA decisions in 2010 and 2011 related to gasoline...

  6. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2004deerblock.pdf More Documents & Publications Dumping Dirty Diesels: The View From the Bridge EPA Diesel Update Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel...

  7. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  8. Port Authority of Allegheny County: Green Facts Hybrid Buses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    began using ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) on select buses in April 2005, and went system-wide with ULSD

  9. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

  10. Ultra-wide bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajati, Arman

    Here, we present an ultra wide-bandwidth energy harvester by exploiting the nonlinear stiffness of a doubly clamped microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) resonator. The stretching strain in a doubly clamped beam shows a ...

  11. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

  12. Antenna design for ultra wideband radio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Johnna, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    The recent allocation of the 3.1-10.6 GHz spectrum by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for Ultra Wideband (UWB) radio applications has presented a myriad of exciting opportunities and challenges for design in ...

  13. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  14. Ultra wide-bandwidth micro energy harvester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajati, Arman

    2011-01-01

    An ultra wide-bandwidth resonating thin film PZT MEMS energy harvester has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. It harvests energy from parasitic ambient vibration at a wide range of amplitude and frequency via ...

  15. Development of ultra-broadband modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamir, Orit A

    2008-01-01

    Optical signal modulation is a cornerstone of communication, allowing the transfer of information by electrically encoding data onto an optical carrier. Modulation with ultra-broadband capability enables the generation of ...

  16. ULTRA HIGH EFFICIENCY ESP DEVELOPMENT FOR AIR TOXICS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Anderson

    1999-11-01

    Because more than 90 percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), retrofitable ESP technologies represent a logical approach towards achieving the Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and mercury emissions (air toxics) from coal based power systems. EPA's recent issuance of significantly tightened ambient air standards for particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM{sub 2.5}) creates a new urgency for developing cost-effective means to control fine particulate emissions. This challenge is compounded by the on-going switch in the utility industry to low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, that generate higher resistivity and difficult-to-collect fly ash. Particulate emissions can increase by a factor of ten when a utility switches to a low-sulfur coal. Numerous power plants are presently limited in operation by the inability of their ESPs to control opacity at high loads. In Phase I of this program, ABB investigated five technologies to improve the collection of fine particulate and trace metals in ESPs. These included: (1) flue-gas cooling, (2) flue-gas humidification, (3) pulsed energization, (4) wet ESP and precharger modules, and (5) sorbent injection for mercury control. Tests were conducted with an Eastern bituminous coal and a Powder River Basin sub-bituminous low-sulfur coal in an integrated pilot-scale combustor and ESP test facility. The impacts of the different retrofit technologies on ESP performance, individually and in combination, were evaluated indepth through advanced sampling and measurement techniques. In Phase II, the most promising concepts identified from Phase I testing, flue-gas cooling and humidification, pulsed energization, and sorbent injection at low flue-gas temperatures for mercury control, were integrated into a commercially oriented sub-scale system for field testing at Commonwealth Edison's Waukegan Unit No. 8. The main objective of the proposed Phase II testing was to determine longer term ESP performance and mercury capture improvements with the above enhancements for a range of low-sulfur coals currently fired by utilities. Unanticipated cost growth in readying the Pilot Plant for shipment and during slipstream construction at the utility host site resulted in the issuance of a preemptive stop work order from ABB until a detailed technical and budgetary review of the project could be completed. Four program recovery scenarios were developed and presented to the DOE. After careful review of these options, it was decided to terminate the program and although the Pilot Plant installation was essentially completed, no testing was performed. The Pilot Plant was subsequently decommissioned and the host site returned to its preprogram condition.

  17. Ultra-Fast Quantum Efficiency Solar Cell Test - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinal design andBiofuels forUltra-Deepwater

  18. Ultra-low field magnetic resonance using optically pumped noble gases and SQUID detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Foy, Annjoe G.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement . . . . Ultra Low Field Xenon NMR ShowingIntroduction.. 4.2 Ultra Low FieldNuclear Polarization 5.10.3 Ultra Low Field Chemical Shift

  19. ULTRA-DEEPWATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-Sessions | Department of Correctiveof Deliverables UDAC Meeting

  20. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  1. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  2. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  3. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  4. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  5. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  6. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  7. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  8. Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-05-03

    Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

  9. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  10. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy...

  11. Faculty Position in Ultra High Precision Robotics & Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    , manipulation and metrology systems targeting additive manufacturing; · New kinematics, quasi-perfect guidings, actuators, transmission systems, sensors and methods targeting ultra-high precision additive manufacturingFaculty Position in Ultra High Precision Robotics & Manufacturing at the Ecole Polytechnique

  12. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  13. 7 -29 nm 29 -56 nm 56 -95 nm Particlenumberconcentration(#cm-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmén, Britt A.

    Freeway Stop-and-go ULSD n = 4 7 - 29 nm 29 - 56 nm 56 - 95 nm Pariclenumberconcentration,(#cm -3 ) 0 1e+5 2e+5 3e+5 4e+5 5e+5 Freeway Stop-and-go ULSD n = 4 Freeway Stop-and-go Particlenumberconcentration.4 miles ·Average speed: 30 mph · Fuel: ·Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) ConclusionsConclusions ELPI

  14. Progenitors of ultra-stripped supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauris, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of ultra-stripped stars in close binaries may explain new discoveries of weak and fast optical transients. We have demonstrated that helium star companions to neutron stars (NSs) may evolve into naked metal cores as low as ~1.5 Msun, barely above the Chandrasekhar mass limit, by the time they explode. Here we present a new systematic investigation of the progenitor evolution leading to such ultra-stripped supernovae (SNe), in some cases yielding pre-SN envelopes of less than 0.01 Msun. We discuss the nature of these SNe (electron-capture vs iron core-collapse) and their observational light-curve properties. Ultra-stripped SNe are highly relevant for binary pulsars, as well as gravitational wave detection of merging NSs by LIGO/VIRGO, since these events are expected to produce mainly low-kick NSs in the mass range 1.10-1.80 Msun.

  15. An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Joseph); Steven Blankenship, Alan Band (NIST) G O A L To develop an ultra-high vacuum, ultra-low temperature, high of subpicometer stability and can operate in ultra-high vacuum at 10 mK, and in magnetic fields up to 15 T

  16. Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL $200,000

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Data Center marks a significant accomplishment in its ultra-efficiency.

  17. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    from oceangoing shipping: An assessment of low-sulfur fueloil or solid-fuel combustion, and industrial and shipping

  18. ACCESS Magazine Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD). Similar requirements will beemissions controls and using ULSD could help curb emissions,

  19. Down to the Meter: Localized Vehicle Pollution Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun; Ong, Paul; Winer, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD). Similar requirements will beemissions controls and using ULSD could help curb emissions,

  20. Ultra-Low Power Time Synchronization Using Passive Radio Receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir, Yair

    Ultra-Low Power Time Synchronization Using Passive Radio Receivers Yin Chen Qiang Wang Marcus Chang. In this pa- per, we present an inexpensive and ultra-low power ( of elapsed seconds. The universal time sig- nal receiver combines an off-the-shelf radio chip with an ultra-low

  1. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Ultra Low Emissions Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzman, Jerry M.

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics T Ultra Low Emissions Combustor with Non-premixed modes of combustion with ultra low NOx emissions. The combustor consists of a tube with open and closed low temperatures with ultra low NOx emission in the 1 ppm range and below. It is also shown

  2. Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauters, Jared; Davenport, Michael; Heck, Martijn; Doylend, Jonathan; Chen, Arnold; Fang, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on aspiral is 78 mm long. 3. Ultra-low-loss waveguides with and

  3. Universal Hash Functions for Emerging Ultra-Low-Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Universal Hash Functions for Emerging Ultra-Low-Power Networks Kaan Y¨uksel, Jens-Peter Kaps provable security in ultra-low-power applications such as the next generation self-powered sensor networks in ultra-low-power applications such as "Smart Dust" motes and RFIDs. By virtue of their security

  4. Ultra Low Power Electronics for Medicine Rahul Sarpeshkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Ultra Low Power Electronics for Medicine Rahul Sarpeshkar Analog VLSI and Biological Systems Group on an implanted 100mAh rechargeable battery. Another example includes an ultra low power portable pulse oximeter monitoring. Medical applications in the future are likely to benefit greatly from ultra low power electronics

  5. Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low- Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM range of surface analytical techniques at low temperature ­ enables ultra-violet/X-ray photoelectron

  6. AERODYNAMICS AND DESIGN FOR ULTRA-LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    AERODYNAMICS AND DESIGN FOR ULTRA-LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER FLIGHT A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED at Reynolds numbers below 10,000, here termed ultra-low Reynolds numbers. The effects of airfoil geometry at ultra-low Reynolds numbers. To further explore this design space, the flow solver has been coupled

  7. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming UpgradesArea: PADD 1 to PADDFuelFuelFuel

  8. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  9. Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1997-12-31

    Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

  10. Fischer-Tropsch fuel for use by the U.S. military as battlefield-use fuel of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delanie Lamprecht [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

    2007-06-15

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) has been interested in low-sulfur, environmentally cleaner Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels since 2001 because they want to be less dependent upon foreign crude oil and ensure the security of the supply. A three-phase Joint Battlefield-Use Fuel of the Future (BUFF) program was initiated to evaluate, demonstrate, certify, and implement turbine fuels produced from alternative energy resources for use in all of its gas turbine and diesel engine applications. Sasol Synfuels International (Pty) Ltd. and Sasol Chevron Holdings Ltd., among others, were invited to participate in the program with the objective to supply the DoD with a FT BUFF that conforms to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP-8) and JP-5 fuel volatility and low-temperature fluidity requirements. Although the DoD is more interested in coal-to-liquid (CTL) technology, the product from a gas-to-liquid (GTL) Products Work-Up Demonstration Unit in Sasolburg, South Africa, was used to evaluate (on a bench scale) the possibility of producing a BUFF fraction from the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (Sasol SPD) low-temperature FT (LTFT) process and Chevron Isocracking technology. It was concluded from the study that the production of a synthetic FT BUFF is feasible using the Sasol SPD LTFT technology together with the current Chevron isocracking technology. The product yield for a BUFF conforming to JP-8 requirements is 30 vol % of the fractionator feed, whereas the product yield for a BUFF conforming to the JP-5 volatility requirement is slightly less than 22 vol % of the fractionator feed. Also concluded from the study was that the end point of the Sasol SPD LTFT BUFF will be restricted by the freezing point requirement of the DoD and not the maximum viscosity requirement. One would therefore need to optimize the hydrocracking process conditions to increase the Sasol SPD LTFT BUFF product yield. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2010-01-08

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  12. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  13. Shape-Adaptive Ultra-Lightweight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a concentrating solar power system. Traditional solar concentrators have no corrective capabilities to compensateShape-Adaptive Ultra-Lightweight Solar Concentrators Solar concentrators are key components the aberrations due to external disturbances during installation and operation, preventing the solar power system

  14. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  15. Fuels Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping intoand DavidEnergyVirginiaEnergy|Fuels

  16. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum

  17. Renewable Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWind Energy Wind Energy Renewable

  18. fuel cells

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR/%2Afissile4/%2A en

  19. Fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick (Bromley, GB)

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  20. Fuel rail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, M.; Herbert, J.D.; O'Leary, J.J.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes a fuel rail for a V-configuration automotive type internal combustion engine having a throttle body superimposed over an intake manifold. The throttle body has an air plenum above an induction channel aligned with a throttle bore passage in the manifold for flow or air to the engine cylinders. The rail includes a spacer body mounted sealingly between the throttle body and the manifold of the engine and having air induction passages therethrough to connect the throttle body channels and the manifold, the spacer body having at least on longitudinal bore defining a fuel passage extending through the spacer body, and a fuel injector receiving cups projecting from and communicating with the fuel passage. The spacer body consists of a number of separated spacer members, and rail member means through which the fuel passage runs joining the spacer members together.

  1. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  2. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  3. Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Authors: Bhattacharya, Tanmoy ; Cirigliano, Vincenzo ; Cohen, Saul D. ; Filipuzzi, Alberto ; Gonzlez-Alonso, Martn ; Graesser, Michael L. ;...

  4. Ultra-Efficient Home Design | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenneth Kelly, NREL. What does this mean for me? Lower energy bills and improved comfort Energy reliability and security Environmental sustainability < Ultra-efficient home design...

  5. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The...

  6. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors Advanced Electric Motors Offer Large Energy Savings in Industrial Applications Pumps, fans, and compressors use more than 60% of...

  7. FE's Ultra-Deepwater Program focuses on spill prevention, safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    mission is to work toward mitigating the risks and challenges associated with ultra-deepwater drilling and production operations. This includes deepening the collaboration...

  8. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Community Earth System Model With the fourth release of the Community Climate System Model, the ability to perform ultra-high resolution climate simulations is now...

  9. An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ultra-sensitive microfluidic...

  10. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  11. Fuel economizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwierzelewski, V.F.

    1984-06-26

    A fuel economizer device for use with an internal combustion engine fitted with a carburetor is disclosed. The fuel economizer includes a plate member which is mounted between the carburetor and the intake portion of the intake manifold. The plate member further has at least one aperture formed therein. One tube is inserted through the at least one aperture in the plate member. The one tube extends longitudinally in the passage of the intake manifold from the intake portion toward the exit portion thereof. The one tube concentrates the mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor and conveys the mixture of fuel and air to a point adjacent but spaced away from the inlet port of the internal combustion engine.

  12. STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY TESTS ON ULTRA-LARGE STRIPA GRANITE CORE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorpe, R.

    2009-01-01

    and Characterization. Petrography of Ultra-Large Core. Testsin Stripa core. APPENDIX II I PETROGRAPHY OF ULTRA-LARGECORE To study the petrography of the ultra-large Stripa

  13. One-dimensional ordering of ultra-low density ion beams in a storage ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, H.; Okabe, K.; Yuri, Y.; Mohl, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional ordering of ultra-low density ion beams in ais applicable to an ultra-low density beam where collectiveabout 10 cm. In such an ultra-low density regime, no collec-

  14. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design for Exascale Floating Point Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Barrio, AA; Bagherzadeh, N; Hermida, R

    2014-01-01

    date: March 2014. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design fordate: March 2014. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design fordate: March 2014. Ultra-Low-Power Adder Stage Design for

  15. Development of a combustion technology for ultra-low emission (< 5 ppm nox) industrial burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, D.; Majeski, A.J.; Cheng, R.K.; Castaldini, C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of an Ultra-Low NO x Premixed CombustionInvestigation of an Ultra-Low NO x Premixed Combustioncombustion concept to achieve ultra-low emissions (NO x ? 2

  16. Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 wavequides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    R. Gao, and A. Garito, “Ultra-Low-Loss Polymer Waveguides,”Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4 waveguides Jaredan approach to make ultra-low-loss waveguides using stable

  17. Ultra-low field MRI of prostate cancer using SQUID detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busch, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    coil. Chapter 3 3 Ultra low field MRI 3.1 Polarization TheUltra-low field MRI of prostate cancer using SQUID detectionSteven Conolly Spring 2011 Ultra-low field MRI of prostate

  18. Quadrature Rotating-Frame Gradient Fields for Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge

    2005-01-01

    Frame Gradient Fields For Ultra-Low Field Nuclear Magneticslow, as in the limit of ultra-low ?elds. In the ?rst case,B. Slice selection in ultra-low ?elds We ?rst examine the

  19. Electrical activation and spin coherence of ultra low dose antimony implants in silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    and spin coherence of ultra low dose antimony implants inClara, CA 95054 We implanted ultra low doses (0.2 to 2×10 11100 nm, corresponding to ultra low ion implantation doses of

  20. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis N. Assanis; Arvind Atreya; Jyh-Yuan Chen; Wai K. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble; Chris Edwards; Zoran S. Filipi; Christian Gerdes; Hong Im; George A. Lavoie; Margaret S. Wooldridge

    2009-12-31

    The objective of the University consortium was to investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines and develop methods to extend those boundaries to improve the fuel economy of these engines, while operating with ultra low emissions. This work involved studies of thermal effects, thermal transients and engine management, internal mixing and stratification, and direct injection strategies for affecting combustion stability. This work also examined spark-assisted Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and exhaust after-treatment so as to extend the range and maximize the benefit of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/ Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) operation. In summary the overall goals were: ? Investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines. ? Develop methods to extend LTC boundaries to improve the fuel economy of HCCI engines fueled on gasoline and alternative blends, while operating with ultra low emissions. ? Investigate alternate fuels, ignition and after-treatment for LTC and Partially Premixed compression Ignition (PPCI) engines.

  1. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Technologies Office | 1 7142015 Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels Bioenergy 2015: Renewable Gaseous Fuels Breakout Session Sarah Studer, PhD ORISE Fellow Fuel Cell...

  2. Cycling excitation process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplification mechanism in semiconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplificationprocess: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplificationits merit rated by the efficiency and noise characteristics,

  3. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Mechanical...

  4. Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013)...

  5. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela V. Olinto

    1999-11-09

    The surprising lack of a high energy cutoff in the cosmic ray spectrum at the highest energies together with an apparently isotropic distribution of arrival directions have strongly challenged most models proposed for the acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Young neutron star winds may be able to explain the mystery. We discuss this recent proposal after summarizing the observational challenge and plausible acceleration sites. Young neutrons star winds differ from alternative models in the predictions for composition, spectrum, and angular distribution which will be tested in future experiments.

  6. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  7. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-09-30

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  8. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  9. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advances—on fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.—are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  10. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  11. Design Considerations for Ultra-Low Energy Wireless Microsensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    Design Considerations for Ultra-Low Energy Wireless Microsensor Nodes Benton H. Calhoun, Student of an energy harvesting source. These requirements place demands on all levels of the design. We propose an architecture for achieving the required ultra-low energy operation and discuss the circuit techniques necessary

  12. Digital Bimodal Function: An Ultra-Low Energy Security Primitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    Digital Bimodal Function: An Ultra-Low Energy Security Primitive Teng Xu, James B. Wendt function (DBF) that enables ultra low energy security protocols. DBF allows the computation of legitimate and energy expense. Our new approach is competitive with the energy efficiency of traditional security key

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    - combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion combustion technologies that can capture at least 90 % of a power plant's CO2 emissions with less than a 35 fossil fuels in O2, often in combination with recirculated flue gas, rather than in air. An optimized oxy

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    savings of fuels in electricity generation, we find thatTotal fuel used for electricity generation, includes oil.Electricity Generation (a) Low sulfur heavy fuel oil (b)

  15. Stretchers and compressors for ultra-high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-30

    This review is concerned with pulse stretchers and compressors as key components of ultra-high power laser facilities that take advantage of chirped-pulse amplification. The potentialities, characteristics, configurations and methods for the matching and alignment of these devices are examined, with particular attention to the history of the optics of ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses before and after 1985, when the chirped-pulse amplification method was proposed, which drastically changed the view of the feasibility of creating ultra-high power laser sources. The review is intended primarily for young scientists and experts who begin to address the amplification and compression of chirped pulses, experts in laser optics and all who are interested in scientific achievements in the field of ultra-high power laser systems. (review)

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    1096 (1990). S. Furuhama, "Hydrogen Engine Systems for LandGelse, "The Mercedes-Benz Hydrogen Engine for Application inI do assume that the hydrogen engines would run ultra lean,

  17. The Chemistry of Ultra-Radiopure Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Farmer, Orville T.; Fast, Jim E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miller, Erin A.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-11-15

    Ultra-pure materials are needed for the construction of the next generation of ultra-low level radiation detectors. These detectors are used for environmental research as well as rare nuclear decay experiments, e.g. probing the effective mass and character of the neutrino. Unfortunately, radioactive isotopes are found in most construction materials, either primordial isotopes, activation/spallation products from cosmic-ray exposure, or surface deposition of dust or radon progeny. Copper is an ideal candidate material for these applications. High-purity copper is commercially available and, when even greater radiopurity is needed, additional electrochemical purification can be combined with the final construction step, resulting in “electroformed” copper of extreme purity. Copper also offers desirable thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. To bridge the gap between commercially-available high purity copper and the most stringent requirements of next-generation low-background experiments, a method of additional chemical purification is being developed based on well-known copper electrochemistry. This method is complemented with the co-development of surface cleaning techniques and more sensitive assay for both surface and bulk contamination. Developments in the electroplating of copper, surface cleaning, assay of U and Th in the bulk copper, and residual surface contamination will be discussed relative to goals of less than 1 microBq/kg Th.

  18. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  19. Subsea valve actuator for ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.Z.; Skeels, H.B.; Montemayor, B.K.; Williams, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews the continuing development of gate valve and actuator technology for subsea completions extending into ultra deep water. The basic technical challenges inherent to subsea valve actuators are reviewed, along with the various factors which affect the design and performance of these devices in deepwater applications. The high external ambient pressures which occur in deep water, coupled with high specific gravity hydraulic control fluids, are shown to have a significant impact on the performance of the actuators. This paper presents design and analysis methods and the verification test procedures which are required to develop and qualify new deep water actuator designs. Gate valve actuators of the type described in this paper are currently in use on subsea christmas trees on the world`s deepest subsea wells offshore Brazil (water depths >3,000 feet). New applications of the deepwater actuators are in process for upcoming Gulf of Mexico subsea production systems in water depths approaching 6,000 feet. The actuator/valve development method described in this paper has been confirmed by performance verification testing of full scale valves and actuators using a hyperbaric chamber to simulate ultra deepwater operating conditions. Performance of the test valves and actuators correlated very well with analytical predictions. Test results have confirmed that the new valve actuator designs will satisfy API 17D performance requirements for water depths up to 7,500 feet, well in excess of the upcoming GOM application.

  20. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  1. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  2. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  3. Ultra-low velocities and Superplumes Garnero, Thorne, McNamara, Rost [2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnero, Ed

    Ultra-low velocities and Superplumes Garnero, Thorne, McNamara, Rost [2005] - 1- Fine-scale ultra-low, Arizona 85287-1404 USA Abstract. Ultra-low velocity layering at Earth's core-mantle boundary has now been in the overlying few hundred km of the mantle. Ultra-low velocity zones contain properties consistent with partial

  4. An Ultra-Low-Power Analog Memory System with an Adaptive Sampling Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, David W.

    An Ultra-Low-Power Analog Memory System with an Adaptive Sampling Rate Brandon M. Kelly, Brandon normally associated with sleep states in WSNs, we introduce an ultra-low-power analog memory buffer in which ultra- low-power operation is a necessity. In this paper, we propose an ultra-low-power analog mem

  5. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  6. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  7. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Charlene

    2013-01-09

    This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: –Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; –Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; –Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

  8. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-05-29

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  9. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  10. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Corral, Erica L. (Tucson, AZ)

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  11. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  12. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Bingham, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Goggin, Rita (Englewood, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Netter, Judy C. (Westminster, CO)

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  13. Physics of Ultra-Peripheral Nuclear Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos A. Bertulani; Spencer R. Klein; Joakim Nystrand

    2005-07-13

    Moving highly-charged ions carry strong electromagnetic fields that act as a field of photons. In collisions at large impact parameters, hadronic interactions are not possible, and the ions interact through photon-ion and photon-photon collisions known as {\\it ultra-peripheral collisions} (UPC). Hadron colliders like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce photonuclear and two-photon interactions at luminosities and energies beyond that accessible elsewhere; the LHC will reach a $\\gamma p$ energy ten times that of the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA). Reactions as diverse as the production of anti-hydrogen, photoproduction of the $\\rho^0$, transmutation of lead into bismuth and excitation of collective nuclear resonances have already been studied. At the LHC, UPCs can study many types of `new physics.'

  14. Physics of Ultra-Peripheral Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2005-02-02

    Moving highly-charged ions carry strong electromagnetic fields which act as a field of photons. In collisions at large impact parameters, hadronic interactions are not possible, and the ions interact through photon-ion and photon-photon collisions known as ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC). Hadron colliders like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce photonuclear and two-photon interactions at luminosities and energies beyond that accessible elsewhere; the LHC will reach a {gamma}p energy ten times that of the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA). Reactions as diverse as the production of anti-hydrogen, photoproduction of the {rho}{sup 0}, transmutation of lead into bismuth and excitation of collective nuclear resonances have already been studied. At the LHC, UPCs can study many types of ''new physics''.

  15. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  16. Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  18. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  19. A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Combined Electrochemical and Ultra-High Vacuum Approach to Heterogeneous Electrocatalysis Friday, February 24, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL Bldg. 137-322, 3rd floor Conference Room...

  20. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ultra-low temperature laboratory freezers (ULTs) are some of the most energy-intensive pieces of equipment in a scientific research laboratory, yet there are several barriers to...

  1. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-09-26

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  2. Design of wind turbines with Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jammes, François-Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) has proven an asset for bridge design as it significantly reduces costs. However, UHPC has not been applied yet to wind turbine technology. Design codes do not propose any recommendations ...

  3. Performance analysis of ultra-scaled InAs HEMTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    The scaling behavior of ultra-scaled InAs HEMTs is investigated using a 2-dimensional real-space effective mass ballistic quantum transport simulator. The simulation methodology is first benchmarked against experimental ...

  4. Charge pumping techniques in ultra-low current transconductor design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker-Gomez, Adriana

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce the use of interface-trap charge pumping devices (ITCP) in an analog application based in ultra-low-current transconductors. This application naturally exploits the continuous nature of the current...

  5. Pulse-based ultra-wideband transmitters for digital communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wentzloff, David D. (David Dale), 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-wideband radio (UWB) is a rapidly developing wireless technology that promises unprecedented data rates for short-range commercial radios, combined with precise locationing and high energy efficiency. These benefits ...

  6. THE STRUCTURE OF ULTRA-THIN OXIDE ON SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivanek, Ondrej L.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-thin (10-lOOA) silicon oxide layers on silicon are ofcrystalline silicon. The oxide layer is seen to be sharplyundulation of the whole oxide layer with ~300A wavelength.

  7. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-11-01

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  8. Ultra-short ion and neutron pulse production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Kwan, Joe W.

    2006-01-10

    An ion source has an extraction system configured to produce ultra-short ion pulses, i.e. pulses with pulse width of about 1 .mu.s or less, and a neutron source based on the ion source produces correspondingly ultra-short neutron pulses. To form a neutron source, a neutron generating target is positioned to receive an accelerated extracted ion beam from the ion source. To produce the ultra-short ion or neutron pulses, the apertures in the extraction system of the ion source are suitably sized to prevent ion leakage, the electrodes are suitably spaced, and the extraction voltage is controlled. The ion beam current leaving the source is regulated by applying ultra-short voltage pulses of a suitable voltage on the extraction electrode.

  9. Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

  10. Ultra High Frequency Volatility Estimation with Dependent Microstructure Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ultra High Frequency Volatility Estimation with Dependent Microstructure Noise Yacine Aït sampled at frequencies high enough for that noise to be a dominant consideration. We show that combining; Serial dependence; High frequency data; Realized volatility; Sub- sampling; Two Scales Realized

  11. The Design Space of Ultra-low Energy Asymmetric Cryptography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Targhetta, Andrew David

    2015-05-06

    The energy cost of asymmetric cryptography, a vital component of modern secure communications, inhibits its wide spread adoption within the ultra-low energy regimes such as Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs...

  12. UltraLight Technical Report 28 February 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Light Annual Report for 2004 ­ 2005 The UltraLight Collaboration NSF Grant 0427110 Director: Harvey Newman ...........................................................................................................11 2.5 Year 3 and 4 outlook .................................................................................................................13 3 High Energy Physics Application Services

  13. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break-through point at 5.0 ppmw sulfur level is 0.35 mg-S/g-A. The spent A-5 can be regenerated by using H2 gas at a flowing rate of 40-50 ml/min, 500 C, and ambient pressure. Adsorption desulfurization of model diesel fuels over metal-sulfide-based adsorbents (A-6-1 and A-6-2) has been conducted at different temperatures to examine the capacity and selectivity of the adsorbents. A regeneration method for the spent metal-sulfide-based adsorbents has been developed. The spent A-6-1 can be easily regenerated by washing the spent adsorbent with a polar solvent followed by heating the adsorbent bed to remove the remainder solvent. Almost all adsorption capacity of the fresh A-6-1 can be recovered after the regeneration. On the other hand, a MCM-41-supported HDS catalyst was developed for deep desulfurization of the refractory sulfur compounds. The results show that the developed MCM-41-supported catalyst demonstrates consistently higher activity for the HDS of the refractory dibenzothiophenic sulfur compounds than the commercial catalyst. On the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel is confirmed and improved further.

  14. Analysis of ultra-narrow ferromagnetic domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Catherine; Paul, David

    2012-01-10

    New materials with high magnetic anisotropy will have domains separated by ultra-narrow ferromagnetic walls with widths on the order of a few unit cells, approaching the limit where the elastic continuum approximation often used in micromagnetic simulations is accurate. The limits of this approximation are explored, and the static and dynamic interactions with intrinsic crystalline defects and external driving #12;elds are modeled. The results developed here will be important when considering the stability of ultra-high-density storage media.

  15. Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacock, Edward Dale

    1986-01-01

    PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l986 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis by EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Commi e) T D. eynol s (Member) Michael T. Lo necker (Member) Donald Mc...

  16. ultra_deepwater | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named|Got Solitons?scriptEnv -MediasupercomputersR I N

  17. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two Electron Holes in Hematite FacilitateTwo MenTwo Novel

  18. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two Electron Holes in Hematite FacilitateTwo MenTwo

  19. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014Two Electron HolesTwo New ARM

  20. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014Two Electron HolesTwo New ARMTwo Novel

  1. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014Two Electron HolesTwo New ARMTwo

  2. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014Two Electron HolesTwo New ARMTwoTwo

  3. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014Two Electron HolesTwo New ARMTwoTwoTwo

  4. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15, 2014Two Electron HolesTwo New

  5. Extending the physicochemical characterization of aerosol particles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zauscher, Melanie Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    from Oceangoing Shipping: An Assessment of Low-Sulfur Fuelof Fuel Quality Regulation and Speed Reductions on Shippingof Fuel Quality Regulation and Speed Reductions on Shipping

  6. Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    Low-voltage ultra-low-poweranalog IC design -djmamic translinearcircuits 1.3.1 1.3 Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits 0 (rg G x m .- E . . . . . a r, a" P, 44' s" +N m - _ c o3 #12;Low-voltage ultra-low-power analog IC design -dynamic translinear circuits I

  7. 208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Hüseyin

    208 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Novel Low-Cost Ultra communications applica- tions. An UWB, ultra-short-pulse radar has spectrum extending from very low to very high-Wideband, Ultra-Short-Pulse Transmitter with MESFET Impulse-Shaping Circuitry for Reduced Distortion and Improved

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas a Vehicle Fuel

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digglaws-incentivesFuelsPublicationsPlug-InBenefits

  10. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  11. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  12. Alternative Fuel Implementation Toolkit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels ­ biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas

  13. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre L. Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2002-07-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. This project complements another ongoing project titled ''Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus Demonstration Project''. The objectives of that research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, they have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, the activities have covered two areas: development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  14. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  15. Physics in Ultra-strong Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, R C

    2000-01-01

    In magnetic fields stronger than B_Q = 4.4 X 10^13 Gauss, an electron'sLandau excitation energy exceeds its rest energy. I review the physics of thisstrange regime and some of its implications for the crusts and magneto- spheresof neutron stars. In particular, I describe how ultra-strong fields >> render the vacuum birefringent and capable of distorting and magnifying images ("magnetic lensing"); >> change the self-energy of electrons: as B increases they are first slightly lighter than $m_e$, then slightly heavier; >> cause photons to rapidly split and merge with each other; >> distort atoms into long, thin cylinders and molecules into strong, polymer-like chains; >> enhance the pair density in thermal pair-photon gases; >> stronglysuppress photon-electron scattering, and >> drive the vacuum itself unstable,at extremely large B. In a concluding section, I discuss recent observations of the spindownhistories of soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars. The magnetarmodel gives a promising framework for...

  16. Physics in Ultra-strong Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert C. Duncan

    2000-02-23

    In magnetic fields stronger than B_Q = 4.4 X 10^13 Gauss, an electron's Landau excitation energy exceeds its rest energy. I review the physics of this strange regime and some of its implications for the crusts and magneto- spheres of neutron stars. In particular, I describe how ultra-strong fields >> render the vacuum birefringent and capable of distorting and magnifying images ("magnetic lensing"); >> change the self-energy of electrons: as B increases they are first slightly lighter than $m_e$, then slightly heavier; >> cause photons to rapidly split and merge with each other; >> distort atoms into long, thin cylinders and molecules into strong, polymer-like chains; >> enhance the pair density in thermal pair-photon gases; >> strongly suppress photon-electron scattering, and >> drive the vacuum itself unstable, at extremely large B. In a concluding section, I discuss recent observations of the spindown histories of soft gamma repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars. The magnetar model gives a promising framework for understanding these data.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places to

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places toEthanol PrintableEthanol

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places toEthanolVehicles Printable

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas a VehicleNaturalDimethyl

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanol Benefits and

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas a Vehicle FuelFueling Stations to

  3. Intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki pref., 319-1195 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shiro [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. 1-5-5, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe city, 651-2271 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Corrosion of the components which contains nitric acid solution such as vessels, tanks and pipes is an important problem for a PUREX method nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In Tokai Reprocessing Plant which was startup in 1977 as the first Japanese plant, several events caused by corrosion have been experienced for about 30 years operation. The second plant in Japan, Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, will start commercial operation from 2007. For stable operation of Rokkasho plant, maintenance management of components will be important. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the corrosion mechanism and to reflect the results of the research for a maintenance program of the plant adequately. If high burnup fuel will increase in future nuclear power plants, it will become necessary to reprocess the spent fuel which includes more fission products and transuranium from now. Then the study of corrosion mechanism and life evaluation will become more important problem. Authors were aimed for development of life evaluation method of components and clarification of intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In this report, the results of long-term corrosion test in boiling nitric acid by using ultra-low carbon stainless steel made mock-up test apparatus was described. And then, the relation between corrosion rate change and intergranular corrosion behavior were discussed. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Reforming for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells," Berichte derVan Dijkum, "The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Programme in thealkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. (Fuel cells

  5. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    regenerative braking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissionsconditions, the expected savings in fuel costs are notis whether the fuel cost savings over the lifetime of the

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  7. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (DNR) has defined. Eligible alternative fuels include natural gas, propane, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohol derived from biological materials, and...

  10. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  11. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  12. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  13. Engineered fuel: Renewable fuel of the future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczyk, L.

    1997-01-01

    The power generation and municipal solid waste management industries share an interest in the use of process engineered fuel (PEF) comprised mainly of paper and plastics as a supplement to conventional fuels. PEF is often burned in existing boilers, making PEF an alternative to traditional refuse derived fuels (RDF). This paper describes PEF facilities and makes a comparison of PEF and RDF fuels.

  14. OptFuels: Fuel Treatment Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OptFuels: Fuel Treatment Optimization Scientists a Rocky Mountain Research Station Missoula, MT, scientists at the University of Montana, are developing a tool to help forest managers prioritize forest fuel reduction treatments. Although several computer models analyz stand-level effects of fuel treatments

  15. California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department ofBusinessCEA90:2:09California EnergyFuel Cell

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanol Benefits andFueling Stations

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanolAFDCHydrogen PrintableFueling

  18. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinole...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low...

  19. Copy of Development of an Ultra Scalable Low Power Rad-Hard Nonvolatil...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Copy of Development of an Ultra Scalable Low Power Rad-Hard Nonvolatile Memory for Space Applications. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Copy of Development of an Ultra...

  20. 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and...

  1. 2008 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2008 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and...

  2. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Presentation given at DEER...

  3. Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC...

  4. Tips: Buying and Driving Fuel Efficient and Alternative Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Fuel Vehicles & Fuels Tips: Buying and Driving Fuel Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicles Tips: Buying and Driving Fuel Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicles...

  5. Ultra-soft fermionic excitation at finite chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Paul Blaizot; Daisuke Satow

    2014-05-13

    It has been suggested previously that an ultra-soft fermionic excitation develops, albeit with a small spectral weight, in a system of massless fermions and scalar bosons with Yukawa interaction at high temperature ($T$). In this paper we study how this excitation is modified at finite chemical potential ($\\mu$). We relate the existence of the ultra-soft mode to symmetries, in particular charge conjugation, and a supersymmetry of the free system which is spontaneously broken by finite temperature and finite density effects, as argued earlier by Lebedev and Smilga. A non vanishing chemical potential breaks both symmetries explicitly, and maximally at zero temperature where the mode ceases to exist. A detailed calculation indicates that the ultra-soft excitation persists as long as $T\\gtrsim \\mu$.

  6. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  7. (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) William Grove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    Fuel Cell #12; H2 O2 Power CH4 H2 Toyota H2 H2 #12; H2 ~253 #12; 2. 3. : 1. #12; #12;Fuel Cell #12; (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) 1839 William Grove A H2O2 H2O2 2H; Fuel Cell #12;!! PEMFC DMFC SOFC (60~200) (60~100) (600~1000) #12; Proton

  8. Dynamics of Ultra-Relativistic Nuclear Collisions with Heavy Beams: An Experimental Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Braun-Munzinger; Johanna Stachel

    1998-03-30

    We review, from an experimental point of view, the current status of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions with heavy beams.

  9. UltraDots Inc formely UltraPhotonics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film SolarTown(LECBP)BioGen LLCANDUltimate Best Buy

  10. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-26

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld. 5 figs.

  11. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C. (Fort Collins, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld.

  12. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  13. Technicolor Assisted Leptogenesis with an Ultra-Heavy Higgs Doublet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman Davoudiasl; Ian Lewis

    2012-07-20

    If fermion condensation is a main source of electroweak symmetry breaking, an ultra-heavy Higgs doublet of mass ~10^8 GeV can yield naturally small Dirac neutrino masses. We show that such a scenario can lead to a new leptogenesis mechanism based on the decays of the ultra-heavy Higgs. Given its very large mass, the requisite Higgs doublet can be considered an elementary particle and would point to a cutoff scale ~10^10 GeV. We outline how our scenario can also naturally lead to composite asymmetric dark matter. Some potential signals of this scenario are discussed.

  14. Appendix D: FEDERAL EMERGENCY AUTHORITIES AND POLICY DIRECTIVES

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Institute, 2013. Agency Waiver Used for Allows EPA 40 C.F.R. 80.510 and 80.520 Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Allows the use of higher sulfur diesel in older cars, generators,...

  15. New Energy Department Team Established to Help Local Authorities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    supply interruption and directed the Energy Department to loan the Department of Defense ultra-low sulfur diesel. The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) was directed to purchase up to...

  16. North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7409, Raleigh, NC 27695 | 919-513-7831 www.cleantransportation.org 8/13/13 Advancing Clean Energy for a Sustainable Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biodiesel perform? Because biodiesel is a better lubricant, using it reduces engine wear and tear. Ultra-low-sulfur particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. It can also reduce

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNaturalFueling

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNaturalFuelingVehicle

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNaturalFuelingVehicleLoans

  20. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0Department ofHigh2 DOEFactory-Built

  1. eCAM: Ultra Compact, High Data-Rate Wireless Sensor Node with a Miniature Camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    eCAM: Ultra Compact, High Data-Rate Wireless Sensor Node with a Miniature Camera Chulsung Park Email: {chulsung, phchou}@uci.edu Abstract-- eCAM is an ultra-compact, high data-rate wireless sensor to the theoretical peak performance. In this demo, we propose eCAM, an ultra compact, high data-rate wireless sensor

  2. Characterizing the Resource-Sharing Levels in the UltraSPARC T2 Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pajuelo, Alejandro

    POWER5 IBM POWER6 Intel Pentium4 Intel Core Duo Intel Core i7 Sun UltraSPARC IV+ Sun Ultra of the core are shared . Re- cently, Sun Microsystems has released the UltraSPARC T2, a processor with three of Systems]: General Terms Measurement, Performance Keywords Simultaneous Multithreading, Sun Nigara T2, CMT

  3. Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones Allen K. McNamara a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones Allen K. McNamara a, , Edward J, that directly overlies the core-mantle boundary (CMB). These regions have been dubbed Ultra-Low Velocity Zones. Introduction For over 15 yrs seismologists have mapped regions of ultra-low P- and S-wave velocities

  4. Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    Ultra-Low Voltage VCO Design Using Schmitt Trigger on SOI Kyung Ki Kim Department of Electrical trigger and an ultra low voltage current source on PD-SOI with low temperature and supply voltage oscillator based VCOs on SOI CMOS [4][5] have been reported. However, VCO with ultra low voltage less than 0

  5. Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve Maximum Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve performance because most of them are designed without considering a ultra low duty cycled environment to improve a network lifetime and a routing maintenance cost. We explain the issues of a ultra low duty

  6. Challenge: Ultra-Low-Power Energy-Harvesting Active Networked Tags (EnHANTs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zussman, Gil

    Challenge: Ultra-Low-Power Energy-Harvesting Active Networked Tags (EnHANTs) Maria Gorlatova, Peter posed by a new class of ultra-low-power devices referred to as Energy-Harvesting Ac- tive Networked Tags), and determining locations of disaster sur- vivors. Recent advances in ultra-low-power wireless communica- tions

  7. Integrated Ultra-Low-Loss 4-Bit Tunable Delay for Broadband Phased Array Antenna Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    F. Bauters, et al. , “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4JUNE 15, 2013 Integrated Ultra-Low-Loss 4-Bit Tunable Delaya 4-bit tunable delay in an ultra-low-loss Si 3 N 4 planar

  8. Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4 Elekta Oy, Helsinki, Finland Abstract Ultra-low. (2013) Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image

  9. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Airfoils in Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flow using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Airfoils in Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flow using Simultaneous;Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of Airfoils in Ultra-Low Reynolds Number Flow using Simultaneous Pseudo Abstract. The paper presents numerical results of optimized airfoils at ultra-low Reynolds numbers

  10. Fluctuation-induced dynamics of multiphase liquid jets with ultra-low interfacial tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fluctuation-induced dynamics of multiphase liquid jets with ultra-low interfacial tension Alban with an ultra-low interfacial tension presents new opportunities to the control of flow morphologies perturbation; this demonstrates the importance of the inertial effects in flow control at ultra-low interfacial

  11. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle Wooguil of high energy consumption mainly caused by the clock drift in ultra low duty cycled environments because most of them are designed without considering ultra low duty cycled environments. To achieve

  12. An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices , Sangwon Seo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices Mark Woh1 , Sangwon Seo1 , Chaitali, Tempe, AZ {mwoh,swseo,mahlke,tnm}@umich.edu chaitali@asu.edu ABSTRACT This paper presents an ultra low executed. For ultra low power operation, we advocate operating the processor at near threshold volt- age

  13. Invited Paper Ultra-low-power Electronics for Non-invasive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    Invited Paper Ultra-low-power Electronics for Non-invasive Medical Monitoring L. Turicchia1 , S on the monitoring of the heart--because of its importance--and we describe a micropower electrocardiograph, an ultra-low-power pulse oximeter, an ultra-low-power phonocardiograph, an integrated- circuit switched-capacitor model

  14. An Ultra Low Power CMOS pA/V Transconductor and its Application to Wavelet Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serdijn, Wouter A.

    An Ultra Low Power CMOS pA/V Transconductor and its Application to Wavelet Filters Peterson R topologies of ultra low-power CMOS triode transconductor are proposed. Its input transistors are kept with an extremely small transconductance gm is needed. This paper presents two topologies of ultra low

  15. Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and David Culler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Telos: Enabling Ultra-Low Power Wireless Research Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and David,szewczyk,culler}@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract-- We present Telos, an ultra low power wireless sensor module ("mote") for research and 128kB of flash), extensive sensor interfaces (8 analog lines, several digital IO Fig. 1. Telos ultra-low

  16. Ultra-Low Power DLMS Adaptive Filter For Hearing Aid Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    Ultra-Low Power DLMS Adaptive Filter For Hearing Aid Applications Hyung-il Kim Purdue University, USA +1-765-494-2361 kaushik@ecn.purdue.edu ABSTRACT We present an ultra-low power DLMS (delayed least suitable application areas for sub-threshold logic since ultra-low power consumption takes first priority

  17. An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An ultra-low voltage high gain operational transconductance amplifier for biomedical applications that work at ultra low voltage power supply. Moreover, low power dissipation is essential in these systems dissipation is also proposed in [5]. Differential pairs are commonly used as input stages, in an ultra-low

  18. An Ultra-Low-Power Human Body Motion Sensor Using Static Electric Field Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    An Ultra-Low-Power Human Body Motion Sensor Using Static Electric Field Sensing Gabe Cohn1 an ultra-low-power method for pas- sively sensing body motion using static electric fields by measuring to infer the amount and type of body motion anywhere on the body and demonstrate an ultra-low-power motion

  19. Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    Variation-aware Clock Network Design Methodology for Ultra-Low Voltage (ULV) Circuits Xin Zhao networks for ultra-low voltage (ULV) circuits. We show that both clock slew and skew play important roles) at comparable or even higher Fmax compared with the existing methods. Keywords--clock network design, ultra-low

  20. Ultra-Low Wearing Nanocomposites-How Low Can We Go? Angela Pitenis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    Ultra-Low Wearing Nanocomposites- How Low Can We Go? Angela Pitenis You know more about tribology), this new material, a nanocomposite, is able to achieve ultra-low wear (k~7x10-8 mm3 /(Nm)). This means limits of this ultra-low wearing nanocomposite. Our most recent experiments were conducted in a broad

  1. Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyathi, Jabulani

    Bulk CMOS Device Optimization for High-Speed and Ultra-Low Power Operations Brent Bero and Jabulani- Interest in subthreshold design has increased due to the emergence of systems that require ultra-low power creating a clear divide between designing for high speed and ultra-low power. It might be beneficial

  2. A Hybrid Adiabatic Content Addressable Memory for Ultra Low-Power Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    A Hybrid Adiabatic Content Addressable Memory for Ultra Low-Power Applications Aiyappan Natarajan/write operation. The adiabatic CAM is suitable for ultra low-power, low per- formance applications such as smart, Performance Keywords Ultra-low power, Energy recovery, adiabatic switching 1. INTRODUCTION Content Addressable

  3. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito T S No model can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied with ultra-low-volume technology of insecticides. We develop a validated model to predict the deposition of insecticides after ultra-low

  4. Cryptography for Ultra-Low Power Devices Jens-Peter Kaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cryptography for Ultra-Low Power Devices by Jens-Peter Kaps A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty classify them as ultra-low power devices. Early sensor nodes used simple 8-bit microprocessors to implement of cryptographic algorithms tailored for ultra-low power applications. The goal of this dissertation is to de

  5. Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures J. Elbs, C. Winkelmann, Yu. M. Bunkov of monolayers of 3He adsorbed on the surface of a cell filled with superfluid 3He. We found that at ultra low in the limit of ultra low temperatures. 1. INTRODUCTION A closed cell with a small orifice, immersed

  6. Analysis, Design, and Testing of Airfoils for Use at Ultra-Low Reynolds Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Analysis, Design, and Testing of Airfoils for Use at Ultra- Low Reynolds Numbers Peter J. Kunz Ilan M. Kroo Abstract: Advances in technology have begun to make ultra-low Reynolds number flight a real of the relevant aerodynamics. A reasonable starting point is the study of airfoil section aerodynamics at ultra-low

  7. COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INC. CryoCoatTM UltraLightTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INC. CTD CryoCoatTM UltraLightTM Insulation presented by: Michael L. Tupper COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOMENT INC. 1505 Coal Creek Drive Lafayette, Colorado 80026 January 2001 #12;COMPOSITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INC. CTD The Innovation of UltraLightTM Ultra

  8. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

  9. Preliminary design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor employing breed-and-burn strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tak, T. W.; Yu, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, D. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology, gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60564 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A new design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor with power rate of 1000 MWe (UCFR) has been developed based on the strategy of breed-and burn. The bottom region of the core with low enriched uranium (LEU) plays a role of igniter of the core burning and the upper natural uranium (NU) region acts as blanket for breeding. Fissile materials are bred in the blanket and the active core moves upward at a speed of 5.4 cm/year. Through the core depletion calculation using Monte Carlo code, McCARD, it is confirmed that a full power operation of 60 years without refueling is feasible. Core performance characteristics have been evaluated in terms of axial/radial power shapes, reactivity feedback coefficients, etc. This design will serve as a base model for further design study of UCFRs using LWR spent fuels in the blanket region. (authors)

  10. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  11. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  12. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  13. Ultra Bright LED Light Injection Calibration System for MINOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Anderson; A. Anjomshoaa; P. Dervan; J. A. Lauber; J. Thomas

    1998-10-26

    We describe here a proposal for a light injection calibration system for the MINOS detectors based on ultra bright blue LEDs as the light source. We have shown that these LEDs are bright enough to span over two orders of magnitude in light intensity, commensurate with that expected in a single scintillator strip in the MINOS neutrino detectors.

  14. Sgoldstinos: Primaries of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Gorbunov

    2002-05-30

    I describe supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model with light sgoldstinos and discuss the explanation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays above GZK cutoff in these models. Also I briefly discuss the possibility to solve other cosmological and astrophysical puzzles, such as gamma-ray bursts and dimming of high-redshift supernovae, within the models with light sgoldstinos.

  15. Imaging Electrons in Ultra-thin Nanowires A thesis presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quantum dot in an ultra-thin InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire (diameter = 30 nm) using a SGM. A weakly perturbing SGM tip slightly dents the electron wavefunction inside the quantum dot, and we propose measuring that the charged SPM tip's position or voltage can be used to control the number of electrons on the quantum dots

  16. Photoproduction in Ultra-Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Nystrand

    2008-02-13

    The strong electromagnetic fields present in ultra-peripheral collisions of heavy-ions offer a possibility to study two-photon and photonuclear collisions complementary to similar studies with lepton beams but over an increased photon energy range. This presentation will give an overview of photoproduction at hadron colliders.

  17. Sun Enterprise 10000 Ultra SPARC x 64CPU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    / 1 #12;(1) Sun Enterprise 10000 Ultra SPARC x 64CPU Share memory SGI Origin 2000 R10000 x 128;(2) TSUBAME 1 (NEC/Sun) Opteron x 16 CPU core x 655 node +ClearSpeed x 360 board +Tesla S1070 x680GPU 2006

  18. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  19. Shape-Adaptive Ultra-Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Shape-Adaptive Ultra-Lightweight Solar Concentrators From the Resnick-Lightweight Solar Concentrators Global Significance Solar energy offers a number of benefits such as reducing solar power (CSP) uses mirrors to focus the sunlight down to 100-1000x the normal intensity, and uses

  20. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  1. DISS. ETH NO. 18959 Ultra-Low Power Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISS. ETH NO. 18959 Ultra-Low Power Sensor Networks: Development Tools, Design, and Implementation) are a powerful tool for the surveillance of environmental conditions, natural habitats, or industrial machinery consider the design and implementation of energy-efficient communication protocols and applications

  2. Matched Public PUF: Ultra Low Energy Security Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    Matched Public PUF: Ultra Low Energy Security Platform Saro Meguerdichian and Miodrag Potkonjak and energy costs and enables a majority of security protocols to be completed in a single or a few clock an ultimately low energy and low latency security approach that enables the device to operate in hostile

  3. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuelMaterials

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative Fuel Infrastructure Tax

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative Fuel Infrastructure TaxSecond

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative Fuel Infrastructure

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative Fuel

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative FuelQualified

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative FuelQualifiedPropane

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative FuelQualifiedPropaneBiofuel

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternativeNational Alternative Fuels

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPorts USA Clean PortsRenewable Fuel

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPorts USA CleanAdvancedAlternative Fuel

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls onManualLiquefiedVehicleAlternative Fuel

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane RollsMississippiNaturalAlternative Fuel Vehicle

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane RollsMississippiNaturalAlternative Fuel

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropane School Bus Grants TheDieselFuel

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Definition

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV)

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV)Incentives

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel Vehicle

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel VehicleIncentives

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel VehicleIncentivesElectric

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative Fuel

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNatural Gas and Propane

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNatural Gas and

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNatural Gas

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNatural GasEthanol

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropanePropaneAlternative FuelNatural

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesTheAlternative Fuel, Advanced Vehicle,

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesTheAlternative Fuel, Advanced

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesTheAlternative Fuel,

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesTheAlternative Fuel,High Occupancy

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesTheAlternative Fuel,High

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesTheAlternative Fuel,HighHigh

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement Vouchers TheIncentiveAlternative Fuel and

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement Vouchers TheIncentiveAlternative Fuel

  18. PPPL3161 Preprint Date: February 1996, UC420, 426, 427 Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, ULART ULART ULART ULART ULART M

  19. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  20. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel Fuel CellsCells Fuel

  1. Abstract--Electrical energy storage is a central element to any electric-drivetrain technology whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    -drivetrain technology ­ whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell, or all-electric. A particularly cost-sensitive issue burden on batteries and fuel cells is to use ultra-capacitors as load-leveling devices. The high power that additional focus on this energy management controller is required in order to achieve optimization of both

  2. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  3. Surface Preparation in Ultra High Vacuum for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Surface Preparation in Ultra High Vacuum for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Karsten

    Department of Physics University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824 Ultra High Vacuum environments bring about removing the sample from the vacuum environment. New sets of tools must be developed that are usable within of the tunneling current the feedback electronic keeps the distance between tip and sample constant. Piezo electric

  4. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  5. PPPL-3161 -Preprint Date: February 1996, UC-420, 426, 427 Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stabili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak,Global Stability Study of the Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak, ULARTULARTULARTULARTULART M. Yamada1, A. Morita2, N

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Experience with the German Hydrogen Fuel Project," HydrogenHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Road Tax Alternative fuels including, but not limited to, natural gas or propane sold by a licensed alternative fuel dealer and used in on-road vehicles is subject to a...

  8. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  9. IP ADDRESS HOSTNAME MACHINE TYPE 129.252.130.106 canopus.cse.sc.edu # SUN Ultra10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    IP ADDRESS HOSTNAME MACHINE TYPE 129.252.130.106 canopus.cse.sc.edu # SUN Ultra10 129.252.130.107 deneb.cse.sc.edu # SUN Ultra10 129.252.130.108 glensh.cse.sc.edu # SUN Ultra10 129.252.130.111 menkar.cse.sc.edu # SUN Ultra10 129.252.130.112 nunki.cse.sc.edu # SUN Ultra10 129.252.130.113 pollux.cse.sc.edu # SUN

  10. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuelcomparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel121, 2011. C. Fischer. Renewable Portfolio Standards: When

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places to share EERE: Alternative

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places to share EERE: AlternativeLocal

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places to share EERE:

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNaturalStateVehicleTools Printable

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNaturalStateVehicleTools

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNaturalStateVehicleToolsIdle

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternative

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find MoreAlternativeNational Alternative

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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