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1

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

2

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

3

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon...

4

Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and Sales Type Energy Information Administration ...

5

Effects of Fuel Sulfur Content and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on PM Emitted from Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work aims at the particle number concentrations and size distributions, sulfate and trace metals emitted from a diesel engine fueled with three different sulfur content fuels, operating with and without DOC. ... Figure 2. Sulfate emission rate and fuel consumption as a function of sulfur content at engine speed of 2690 rpm. ... Thus, the use of low metal fuels and lubricating oil is as important to the environment and human health as low sulfur fuels, especially for engines with after-treatment devices. ...

Hong Zhao; Yunshan Ge; Xiaochen Wang; Jianwei Tan; Aijuan Wang; Kewei You

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

6

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

80.8 75.7 76.2 67.5 71.8 77.4 83.7 75.0 64.4 See footnotes at end of table. 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information...

7

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

74.4 73.3 70.4 60.5 69.0 71.9 77.8 71.0 60.5 See footnotes at end of table. 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information...

8

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

SULFUR-TOLERANT CATALYST FOR THE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??JP-8 fuel is easily accessible, transportable, and has hydrogen content essential to solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation. However, this syngas has sulfur content which… (more)

Bozeman, Joe Frank, III

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Assessment of the impacts on health due to the emissions of Cuban power plants that use fossil fuel oils with high content of sulfur. Estimation of external costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuel electricity generation has been demonstrated to be a main source of atmospheric pollution. The necessity of finding out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost have lead to the process of estimating the external costs derived from these impacts and not included in the electricity prices as a quantitative measure of it that, even when there are large uncertainties involved, can be used by decision makers in the process of achieving a global sustainable development. The external costs of the electricity generation in three Cuban power plants that use fossil fuel oils with high sulfur content have been assessed. With that purpose a specific implementation of the Impact Pathways Methodology for atmospheric emissions was developed. Dispersion of atmospheric pollutants is modeled at local and regional scales in a detailed way. Health impacts include mortality and those morbidity effects that showed relation with the increment of selected pollutant concentration in national studies. The external cost assessed for the three plants was 40,588,309 USD yr?1 (min./max.: 10,194,833/169,013,252), representing 1.06 USD Cent kWh?1. Costs derived from sulfur species (SO2 and sulfate aerosol) stand for 93% of the total costs.

L. Turtós Carbonell; E. Meneses Ruiz; M. Sánchez Gácita; J. Rivero Oliva; N. Díaz Rivero

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Availability of heavy fuel oils by sulfur level, September 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A narrative analysis of the status of the United States' total new supply of heavy fuel oils, is given with emphasis on sulfur levels. Tables detail refinery production, stocks, and imports of residual fuel oil and No. 4 fuel oil by sulfur content. All data except stock figures are reported on a monthly and on a year-to-date basis; stock data are reported on an end-of-current-month basis. Units of measure are thousands of barrels. Stocks held, refineries and bulk terminals and refinery production are given by Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) and refinery Districts. Imports are given by PAD District, by country of origin, and by importing State. Waterborne movements from PAD District III to other districts are detailed for the most recent month only. This report was previously published by the Bureau of Mines in the Minerals Industries Surveys Series under the same title. Publication was discontinued with the December 1981 issue. 2 figures, 13 tables.

Wolfrey, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

14

Availability of heavy fuel oils by sulfur levels, February 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This monthly report includes a narrative analysis of the status of the United States' total new supply of heavy fuel oils, with an emphasis on sulfur levels. Tables detail refinery production, stocks, and imports of residual fuel oil and No. 4 fuel oil by sulfur content. All data except stock figures are reported on a monthly and on a year-to-date basis; stock data are reported on an end-of-current-month basis. Units of measure are thousands of barrels. Stocks held at refineries and bulk terminals and refinery production are given by Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) and Refinery Districts. Imports are given by PAD District, by country or origin, and by importing state. Waterborne movements from PAD District III to other districts are detailed for the most recent month only. The December issue repeats the seven major tables with final data in all categories for the previous calendar year. This report was previously published by the Bureau of Mines in the Minerals Industries Surveys Series under the same title. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Wolfrey, J.

1981-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Availability of heavy fuel oils by sulfur levels, March 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This monthly report includes a narrative analysis of the status of the United States' total new supply of heavy fuel oils, with an emphasis on sulfur levels. Tables detail refinery production, stocks, and imports of residual fuel oil and No. 4 fuel oil by sulfur content. All data except stock figures are reported on a monthly and on a year-to-date basis; stock data are reported on an end-of-current-month basis. Units of measure are thousands of barrels. Stocks held at refineries and bulk terminals and refinery production are given by Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) and Refinery Districts. Imports are given by PAD District, by country of origin, and by importing state. Waterborne movements from PAD District III to other districts are detailed for the most recent month only. The December issue repeats the seven major tables with final data in all categories for the previous calendar year. This report was previously published by the Bureau of Mines in the Minerals Industries Survey Series under the same title. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

Wolfrey, J.

1981-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Availability of heavy fuel oils by sulfur level, August 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A narrative analysis of the status of the United States' total new supply of heavy fuel oils, is given with emphasis on sulfur levels. Tables detail refinery production, stocks, and imports of residual fuel oil and No. 4 fuel oil by sulfur content. All data except stock figures are reported on a monthly and on a year-to-date basis; stock data are reported on an end-of-current-month basis. Units of measure are thousands of barrels. Stocks held at refineries and bulk terminals and refinery production are given by Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) and Refinery Districts. Imports are given by PAD District, by country of origin, and by importing State. Waterborne movements from PAD District III to other districts are detailed for the most recent month only. This report was previously published by the Bureau of Mines in the Minerals Industries Surveys Series under the same title. Publication was discontinued with the December 1981 issue. 1 figure, 14 tables.

Wolfrey, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Availability of heavy fuel oils by sulfur level, October 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A narrative analysis of the status of the United States' total new supply of heavy fuel oils, is given with emphasis on sulfur levels. Tables detail refinery production, stocks, and imports of residual fuel oil and No. 4 fuel oil by sulfur content. All data except stock figures are reported on a monthly and on a year-to-date basis; stock data are reported on an end-of-current-month basis. Units of measure are thousands of barrels. Stocks held at refineries and bulk terminals and refinery production are given by Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) and refinery Districts. Imports are given by PAD District, by country of origin, and by importing State. Waterbone movements from PAD District III to other districts are detailed for the most recent month only. This report was previously published by the Bureau of Mines in the Minerals Industries Surveys Series under the same title. Publication was discontinued with the December 1981 issue. 1 figure, 14 tables.

Wolfrey, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2) 2) Distribution Category UC-98 U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content February 1993 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Information Administration/ U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content ii This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ U.S. Coal Reserves: An Update by Heat and Sulfur Content iii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Energy

19

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Tier 2 Vehicle and Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program

23

More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

enabled TDA to develop and commercialize its direct oxidation process-a simple, catalyst-based system for removing sulfur from natural gas and petroleum-that was convenient and economical enough for smaller fuel processing plants to use. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) of Wheat Ridge, CO, formed in 1987, is a privately-held R&D company that brings products to market either by forming internal business

24

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - ashless low-sulfur fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Blendstocks for Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel in PADD III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17... markets for low ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Transportation...

26

Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

To help ensure that sulfates in engine exhaust do not To help ensure that sulfates in engine exhaust do not prevent manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines from meeting new particulate emissions standards for 1994 and later model years, 1 the Clean Air Act Amend- ments of 1990 (CAAA90) require refiners to reduce the sulfur content of on-highway diesel fuel from current average levels of 0.30 percent by weight to no more than 0.05 percent by weight. The new standard, which goes into effect October 1, 1993, also requires that on-highway diesel fuel have a minimum cetane index of 40 or a maximum aromatic content of 35 percent by volume. 2 (See list of terms and definitions on the fol- lowing page.) This provision is designed to prevent any future rises in aromatics levels. 3 Since the direct mea- surement of aromatics is complex, a minimum cetane

27

Effect of fuel gas composition in chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carriers. 1. Fate of sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been suggested among the best alternatives to reduce the economic cost of CO{sub 2} capture using fuel gas because CO{sub 2} is inherently separated in the process. For gaseous fuels, natural gas, refinery gas, or syngas from coal gasification can be used. These fuels may contain different amounts of sulfur compounds, such as H{sub 2}S and COS. An experimental investigation of the fate of sulfur during CH{sub 4} combustion in a 500 W{sub th} CLC prototype using a Ni-based oxygen carrier has been carried out. The effect on the oxygen carrier behavior and combustion efficiency of several operating conditions such as temperature and H{sub 2}S concentration has been analyzed. Nickel sulfide, Ni3S{sub 2}, was formed at all operating conditions in the fuel reactor, which produced an oxygen carrier deactivation and lower combustion efficiencies. However, the oxygen carrier recovered their initial reactivity after certain time without sulfur addition. The sulfides were transported to the air reactor where SO{sub 2} was produced as final gas product. Agglomeration problems derived from the sulfides formation were never detected during continuous operation. Considering both operational and environmental aspects, fuels with sulfur contents below 100 vppm H{sub 2}S seem to be adequate to be used in an industrial CLC plant.

Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L.F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J.; Abad, A.; Dueso, C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

principles, we model here the likely sulfur contents of (1) the martian and terrestrial mantles and (2 a denser atmosphere are shown to be dominated by CO ± CO2 and H2 ± H2O species, depending on fO2, sulfur by H2S, which should have favored the acidification of any persistent water layer. The calculated

Boyer, Edmond

29

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Percent) (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 1.43 1.38 1.41 1.43 1.47 1.42 1985-2013 PADD 1 0.75 0.73 0.69 0.68 0.73 0.68 1985-2013 East Coast 0.67 0.66 0.61 0.63 0.66 0.57 1985-2013 Appalachian No. 1 2.0 1.72 1.52 1.40 1.55 1.74 1985-2013 PADD 2 1.42 1.34 1.44 1.46 1.61 1.49 1985-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1.45 1.36 1.47 1.56 1.75 1.67 1985-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 2.33 2.11 2.18 2.03 2.01 1.69 1985-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo. 0.89 0.89 0.92 0.82 0.87 0.85 1985-2013 PADD 3 1.54 1.48 1.51 1.52 1.54 1.48 1985-2013

31

Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Processor and Sulfur Trap„Precision Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Processor and Sulfur Trap-Precision Combustion Background Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for auxiliary power units (APUs) offers the potential for major contributions toward Department of Energy (DOE) objectives such as clean energy deployment and improved efficiency. Reforming of conventional liquid fuels to produce synthesis gas (syngas) fuel for SOFC stacks is a practical approach for operating fuel cell APUs

32

Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel Simulants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,2 operated by fuel cells. Unfortunately, the lack of infrastructure, such as a network of hydrogen refueling of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which poisons the anode in the fuel cell stack, leading to low SOFC efficiencyPerformance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

33

Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Process for alternately steam reforming sulfur containing hydrocarbons that vary in oxygen content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the hydrotreating and steam reforming of an oxygen and sulfur bearing hydrocarbon fuel, the oxygen is first removed in an oxidizer containing a bed of platinum catalyst, the inlet temperature being well below 1000/sup 0/F and preferably on the order of 300/sup 0/F. The sulfur in the fuel does not harm the oxidizer catalyst and may be removed downstream by known hydrodesulfurization techniques prior to reforming. A process is described for removing oxygen from an oxygen and sulfur bearing hydrocarbon fuel, such as peak shared natural gas, upstream in the process so that sulfur can be removed later. The fuel and some hydrogen are introduced into an oxidizer at a temperature of 350/sup 0/F or less down to the minimum ignition temperature. The oxidizer consists of a platinum bed catalyst which catalyzes the oxidation of the oxygen to water with accompanying heat release to raise the exit gas temperature to less than 650/sup 0/F. The temperature desorbs the sulfur from the catalyst, and the exit gases are passed downstream to nickel subsulfide or molybdenum desfulfide catalysts where the hydrosulfurization process takes place. (BLM)

Lesieur, R.R.; Setzer, H.J.; Hawkins, J.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

38

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

39

Effects of Switching to Lower Sulfur Marine Fuel Oil on Air Quality in the San Francisco Bay Area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effects of Switching to Lower Sulfur Marine Fuel Oil on Air Quality in the San Francisco Bay Area ... Beginning in July 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of lower sulfur fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. ...

Ling Tao; David Fairley; Michael J. Kleeman; Robert A. Harley

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

40

UNDERSTANDING OF CATALYST DEACTIVATION CAUSED BY SULFUR POISONING AND CARBON DEPOSITION IN STEAM REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production.… (more)

Xie, Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Sulfur capture in combination bark boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of sulfur dioxide emission data for eight combination bark boilers in conjunction with the sulfur contents of the fuels reveals significant sulfur capture ranging from 10% to over 80% within the solid ash phase. Wood ash characteristics similar to activated carbon as well as the significant wood ash alkali oxide and carbonate fractions are believed responsible for the sulfur capture. Sulfur emissions from combination bark-fossil fuel firing are correlated to the sulfur input per ton of bark or wood residue fired.

Someshwar, A.V.; Jain, A.K. (National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. ... The sequence of SO2 release for fuel particles in the size interval 1–2 mm was found to be tire rubber granulate > sewage sludge > pine wood sawdust > petcoke > polypropylene flakes. ... Five different solid fuels have been tested: tire rubber, pine wood, polypropylene, petcoke, and sewage sludge. ...

Anders R. Nielsen; Morten B. Larsen; Peter Glarborg; Kim Dam-Johansen

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Sulfur accumulation in pinewood (Pinus sylvestris) induced by bacteria in a simulated seabed environment: Implications for marine archaeological wood and fossil fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fresh pinewood blocks were submerged in sulfate and iron(II) containing media, inoculated with bacterial consortia isolated from seawater, aiming to simulate the seabed conditions of the Vasa shipwreck (1628). The consortia contained erosion (EB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and scanning X-ray spectromicroscopy images showed that organic sulfur, mainly thiols (R-SH), had accumulated in the lignin-rich middle lamella in EB-degraded parts of the wood. The sulfur content in the wood increased more than 10 times in 2 years. In another series with active inoculums from marine archaeological wood, the sulfur XANES spectra showed, after 4 years of anaerobic treatment, considerable amounts also of inorganic iron sulfides, Fe1?xS, which oxidized at atmospheric exposure. A sediment sample from the Vasa's seabed was also rich in iron sulfides, including pyrite, FeS2. X-ray fluorescence mappings of sulfur and phosphorous distributions indicate that scavenging SRB penetration, producing hydrogen sulfide in situ, is restricted to EB-degraded parts of the wood structure. The sulfur isotope depletion of 34S from ?34S = 21‰ in marine sulfate to ?34S = 6‰ and 1.8‰ for fractions of reduced sulfur and sulfate separated from a Vasa wood sample, respectively, suggests bacterial transformation. A fuller understanding of the routes of sulfur accumulation, as reactive iron sulfides and as organic sulfur, has important implications for improving conservation methods of marine archaeological wood. Moreover, the biogenic accumulation of organically bound sulfur, specifically in lignin-rich parts of waterlogged wood, has wider geochemical significance for fossil fuels of marine origin, as lignin-rich humic matter is important for the diagenetic formation of kerogens from anoxic marine sediments.

Yvonne Fors; Thomas Nilsson; Emiliana Damian Risberg; Magnus Sandström; Peter Torssander

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Case study covering TDA Research, Inc and its direct oxidation process, which is economical enough for smaller fuel processing plants to use.

45

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

46

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

48

Estimates of central Appalachian coal reserves by cost of production and sulfur content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study provides information on the quantity, quality, and production costs for all minable coal reserves in the major coal-producing counties of central Appalachia, a region that contains the large majority of low-sulfur and compliance coal reserves in the eastern US. Presently, the best source of detailed reserve information in the Appalachian region is the estimates produced by the mining and land holding companies that control the reserves. The authors have been able to obtain overall reserve estimates based on the detailed geological and engineering studies conducted by these companies. In areas where this information does not exist, the authors have relied on published estimates of reserves and modified these estimates based on known conditions on surrounding properties. This reserve information has been combined with data on coal quality and mining costs to produce cost curves for all minable coal reserves by sulfur content. Results to date indicate that most of the major coal-producing counties in central Appalachia will be able to increase production levels significantly on a sustainable basis for at least the next 20 years, without major real increases in coal prices.

Watkins, J.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

Waller, Laura

50

Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials ... Whereas the literature contains numerous comparisons of the specific energy of battery technologies and hydrocarbons typically found in fuel, the methodology used to obtain these values is usually not specified. ... The calculated specific energies are based on standard Gibbs free energy of formation of the elements and compounds of interest. ...

Nitash P. Balsara; John Newman

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

51

FUEL CARD POLICY Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" for the purpose of purchasing gasoline, oil, and services for university vehicles. 2. The responsibility change allowed. l. Fuel tank capacity (liters). 4. MEDCO SAL's address: Medco Dora Station, Medmart the cardholder. b. To increase or decrease the monthly gas limits, a written request must be sent to MEDCO

Shihadeh, Alan

52

Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single...

53

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0%

54

Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies. Part I: Experimental campaign and results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Levels of PCDD/F production in a 140 MWth bubbling fluidized bed boiler were measured. The boiler uses solid recovered fuel, bark and sludge. Homologue distribution patterns suggest the de novo mechanism is the main pathway for the generation of dioxin and furans in the post combustion zones of the boiler. Two modes of sulfur addition were tested to induce the deactivation of Cu which has been identified as the prime catalyst of this mechanism. First, S-pellet promoted Cu sulfation as supported by aerosol sampling data and resulted in a decrease in PCDD/F levels. The second approach was adding sulfur through peat; this resulted in an increase in PCDD/F concentration. Factors such as high Cu content in the SRF-peat-sludge fuel mixture and reduced volatilization of Cu may have contributed to the said increase. For all test cases, phase redistribution of PCDD/F was observed in the electrostatic precipitator favoring more gaseous PCDD/F at the outlet. The homologue distribution pattern did not change in the flue gas path, suggesting that further synthesis and/or chlorination in the stream were minimized. There is however evidence for subsequent reactions happening in the ESP fly ash. The homologue distribution pattern in the latter was different from that of the flue gas, and more highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs were present. Furthermore, the ratio of PCDD and PCDF was different from that of the samples in the flue gas path.

Cyril Jose E. Bajamundi; Pasi Vainikka; Merja Hedman; Irina Hyytiäinen; Jaani Silvennoinen; Teemu Heinanen; Raili Taipale; Jukka Konttinen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

New materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells to be powered by carbon- and sulfur-containing fuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to use a wide variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons and gasified coal or… (more)

Yang, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has… (more)

Hennings, Ulrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

SUPPLEMENT 1 The procedure for calculating the SOx emission factor from fuel sulphur content is given  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is given below. The units are given in parenthesis. SFOC = Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (g/kWh) SC in parenthesis. SFOC = Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (g/kWh) CC = Carbon content of fuel (mass-%) M(C) = MolarSUPPLEMENT 1 The procedure for calculating the SOx emission factor from fuel sulphur content

Meskhidze, Nicholas

60

Extension of an Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Estimating Sulfur Content of Sour Gases at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extension of an Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Estimating Sulfur Content of Sour Gases at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures ... (1, 39) The i neuron within the hidden k layer performs the following tasks: summation of the arriving weighted inputs and propagations of the resulting summation through an activation function, f, to the adjacent neurons of the next hidden layer or to the output neuron(s). ... This work deals with the potential application of artificial neural networks (ANN) to represent PVT data within their exptl. ...

Mehdi Mehrpooya; Amir H. Mohammadi; Dominique Richon

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Adsorptive desulfurization of low sulfur diesel fuel using palladium containing mesoporous silica synthesized via a novel in-situ approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a novel in-situ synthesis route was applied for preparation of an adsorbent, i.e. palladium containing MCM-41. At first, a hydrophobic palladium precursor was added to the ethanolic micellar solution followed by vacuum distillation of ethanol which decreases the hydrophobic characteristic of the solution. Distillation caused diffusion of hydrophobic palladium precursor into the hydrophobic core of the micelles. Then, tetraethyl orthosilicate was added to the above solution and the silicate spices arranged around the palladium containing micelles. The XRD, N2 physisorption and TEM studies revealed that 4 wt.% palladium loading was achieved without considerable loss of pore ordering. H2-TPR showed that the palladium nanoparticles were accessible for hydrogen molecules. Adsorptive desulfurization of low sulfur diesel fuel was then investigated using synthesized samples. The effect of three valuable parameters, i.e., temperature (25, 75, 150 and 200 °C), concentration of palladium (2, 4 and 5 wt.%) and feed flow rate (0.3 and 1 mL/min) were tested using a fixed-bed flowing device. The highest sulfur break through adsorption capacity and total sulfur adsorption capacity obtained at 200 °C, 0.3 mL/min of feed flow rate and 4 wt.% of palladium concentration were 1.67 and 2.35 mg sulfur/g adsorbent, respectively.

Mohammad Teymouri; Abdolraouf Samadi-Maybodi; Amir Vahid; Aliakbar Miranbeigi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Solid Recovered Fuel: Influence of Waste Stream Composition and Processing on Chlorine Content and Fuel Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solid recovered fuel (SRF) produced by mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) of municipal waste can replace fossil fuels, being a CO2-neutral, affordable, and alternative energy source. ... (4) The concentration of chlorine in SRF is key to fuel quality due to concern that elevated concentrations could exacerbate ash deposition in the convective part of boilers;(8) cause high-temperature corrosion (>500 °C) of boiler steel due to alkali chlorides and lower temperature melt deposits (300–400 °C) in the presence of zinc and lead;(9) generate high acid gases emissions (hydrogen chloride (HCl));(10) and contribute to the formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) (for [Cl] above 0.3% w/wd)(11) during thermal recovery. ... The overall moisture content MT, reported as % w/wd (d: dry solids), was measured in two steps. ...

Costas Velis; Stuart Wagland; Phil Longhurst; Bryce Robson; Keith Sinfield; Stephen Wise; Simon Pollard

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

63

MHUG process for production of low sulfur and low aromatic diesel fuel. [Medium-pressure Hydro UpGrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new hydro-upgrading process operated under medium pressure has been developed to reduce the sulfur and the aromatics content in light cycle oil (LCO). Two catalysts were used in series in this technology. The commercial RN-1 catalyst, which is known as having high activity in hydrodenitrogenation, desulfurization and aromatic saturation, was chosen as the first catalyst. The second one was a nickel-tungsten zeolite catalyst, named RT-5, which was developed by RIPP specially for hydrogenolysis of naphthenic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The pilot plant tests showed that high quality diesel oil with aromatics content less than 20 v% and sulfur content less than 0.05 wt% could be produced from various LCO/straight-run-gas-oil (SRGO) blended feedstocks under hydrogen partial pressure of 6.4 MPa. The reaction temperature and overall space velocity (S.V.) varied in the range of 350--380 C and 0.6--1.2 h[sup [minus]1], respectively, depending on the properties of the feedstocks to be processed and the upgrading depth required. Several examples presented also illustrated that this technology could be used to prepare catalytic reforming feedstock as well, which is in urgent need in China. A life test operated in relatively high severity for 3,000 hr. indicated that the catalysts possessed excellent stability. A commercial demonstration unit has been running well since the last Oct 1.

Shi, Yu Lin; Shi, Jian Wen; Zhang, Xin Wei; Shi, Ya Hua; Li, Da Dong (SINOPEC, Beijing (China). Research Inst. of Petroleum Processing)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Experimental investigation of regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with ethanol and dodecanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the main fuel, ethanol as the oxygenate additive and dodecanol as the solvent, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev min?1. Blended fuels containing 6.1%, 12.2%, 18.2% and 24.2% by volume of ethanol, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. The results indicate that with an increase in ethanol in the fuel, the brake specific fuel consumption becomes higher while there is little change in the brake thermal efficiency. Regarding the regulated emissions, HC and CO increase significantly at low engine load but might decrease at high engine load, \\{NOx\\} emission slightly decreases at low engine load but slightly increases at high engine load, while particulate mass decreases significantly at high engine load. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde increase but formaldehyde, ethene, ethyne, 1,3-butadiene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decrease, especially at high engine load. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is found to reduce significantly most of the pollutants, including the air toxics.

C.S. Cheung; Yage Di; Zuohua Huang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Direct Determination of Pyrite Content in Argonne Premium Coals by the Use of Sulfur X-ray Near Edge Absorption Spectroscopy (S-XANES)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct Determination of Pyrite Content in Argonne Premium Coals by the Use of Sulfur X-ray Near Edge Absorption Spectroscopy (S-XANES) ... Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 ... Argonne premium coal samples are used by researchers worldwide as standards in coal research. ...

Trudy B. Bolin

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of fuel composition on the fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium was investigated during an extensive measurement campaign in a 107 \\{MWth\\} bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor. Bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) were co-combusted in different proportions during the campaign. The elemental composition of the fuel and outgoing ashes was determined, supplemented with gas composition measurements, to obtain the distribution of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium. Additionally, chemical fractionation was carried out for the pure fuels to study the leachability of the ash-forming elements. When firing bark and bark +sludge, potassium, sulfur, and chlorine ended up mainly in the fly ash stream. When SRF was a part of the fuel mixture a considerable amount of SO2 was measured in the second pass. Most of the chlorine entering with the fuel was found as gaseous \\{HCl\\} in the second pass, which indicates that sulfation reactions took place in the furnace. Most of the \\{HCl\\} and a part of the SO2 were captured in the baghouse filter ash and the emissions of these gases were low. This work showed the positive effects of co-firing challenging fuels.

Emil Vainio; Patrik Yrjas; Maria Zevenhoven; Anders Brink; Tor Laurén; Mikko Hupa; Tuula Kajolinna; Hannu Vesala

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides with Low Phosphate Diester Content:? Greater than 99.9% Sulfurization Efficiency with “Aged” Solutions of Phenylacetyl Disulfide (PADS)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides with Low Phosphate Diester Content:? Greater than 99.9% Sulfurization Efficiency with “Aged” Solutions of Phenylacetyl Disulfide (PADS) ... Modified oligonucleotides as modulators of gene expression are currently under intense investigation as novel therapeutic agents of high specificity through antisense mechanisms of action.1 Among the oligonucleotide modifications reported to date, phosphorothioate (PS) oligonucleotides, where one nonbridging oxygen of the internucleotide linkage is replaced by a sulfur atom, are the first class of antisense therapeutics to get marketing approval by regulatory agencies. ... Incomplete sulfurization during solid-phase synthesis of PS-oligonucleotides using phosphoramidite chemistry was identified as the cause of formation of two new classes of process-related oligonucleotide impurities containing a DMTr-C-phosphonate moiety. ...

Achim H. Krotz; Dennis Gorman; Paul Mataruse; Craig Foster; James D. Godbout; Christopher C. Coffin; Anthony N. Scozzari

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Particle size distributions from heavy-duty diesel engine operated on low-sulfur marine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter (PM) emission characteristics of a four-stroke diesel engine were investigated while operating on low-sulfur marine gas oil. PM size distributions appeared to be unimodal (accumulation mode) with fairly constant count median diameter (CMD) of 55–65 nm for all test modes at maximum engine speed. The slightly bigger CMD of around 76 nm for unimodal particle size distributions at 1080 rpm at medium- and high-load conditions was observed. The bimodal size distribution was registered only at very low load with nuclei CMD being below 15 nm, accumulation CMD of around 82 nm and percentage of nanoparticles of around 65%. The study of primary dilution air temperature (PDT) effect revealed a significant reduction in total particle number for all operating conditions when PDT was increased from 30 °C to 400 °C. This also had an effect on particle CMD values and is believed to be due to evaporation of sulfuric acid with bound water and certain organic fractions that were formed during dilution process (at PDT = 30 °C). At very low load intermediate speed conditions, the heating of dilution air had a very little effect on the nucleation mode, which could suggest that it primarily consists of heavy hydrocarbons associated with lubrication oil.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jørgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

57.3 57.3 61.4 66.0 65.3 62.6 51.3 56.6 62.7 66.3 60.3 49.1 February ........................... 55.3 59.2 63.2 63.3 60.2 49.6 55.4 61.1 63.7 58.8 47.9 March ................................ 53.0 57.1 61.1 61.7 58.1 47.2 52.8 58.3 61.6 56.2 45.1 April .................................. 54.6 58.4 61.5 63.6 59.1 49.7 54.8 59.7 63.8 58.6 46.8 May ................................... 53.8 57.9 61.7 63.8 59.0 48.8 54.4 58.2 64.1 58.5 45.5 June .................................. 50.7 54.2 59.0 60.3 56.0 45.0 50.9 56.3 60.3 55.1 42.4 July ................................... 49.8 53.8 57.9 57.9 54.9 43.8 50.0 55.5 58.2 53.7 41.6 August .............................. 48.5 53.1 56.2 57.3 53.6 42.4 49.5 53.2 58.3 52.8 40.7 September ........................ 51.6 55.9 58.2 60.1 55.9 46.6 50.8 55.8 60.5 54.8 44.0 October .............................

70

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

62.7 62.7 68.1 69.9 69.7 67.1 57.5 59.9 66.9 68.8 64.1 55.1 February ........................... 64.2 70.1 70.7 71.2 68.3 59.3 61.1 67.8 69.6 65.2 56.9 March ................................ 68.7 74.6 75.1 75.3 72.7 63.6 64.2 71.6 73.6 68.7 59.9 April .................................. 76.7 82.7 82.6 84.5 80.8 71.8 71.4 78.1 80.8 75.9 65.8 May ................................... 74.4 82.6 81.2 83.4 79.1 68.4 70.4 76.6 78.3 74.2 63.2 June .................................. 66.5 75.7 74.5 76.7 72.0 60.4 63.5 70.5 73.3 68.2 57.7 July ................................... 67.0 74.4 73.2 75.8 71.4 61.4 63.4 71.0 73.9 68.2 58.3 August .............................. 71.1 78.0 75.8 79.6 74.8 66.1 67.0 74.3 76.2 71.2 63.1 September ........................ 77.0 84.5 81.7 85.1 80.7 72.5 74.3 80.9 82.7 78.3 70.9 October .............................

71

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

76.6 76.6 82.7 84.1 83.7 81.2 71.0 73.8 80.7 83.7 78.2 69.4 February ........................... 74.9 81.6 81.9 82.5 79.3 68.8 71.5 76.8 81.7 75.4 66.5 March ................................ 69.0 74.8 76.5 76.7 73.7 64.0 67.0 71.7 76.6 70.6 60.9 April .................................. 67.7 74.4 75.5 77.0 72.8 63.2 65.8 71.0 77.4 70.6 60.6 May ................................... 66.4 72.0 74.5 76.3 71.8 61.8 65.1 70.5 76.3 69.9 59.1 June .................................. 62.9 68.7 72.2 73.9 69.1 57.7 62.6 67.6 73.0 66.9 56.1 July ................................... 61.7 67.7 70.5 72.5 67.7 56.9 61.9 66.5 71.4 65.9 55.1 August .............................. 64.4 69.8 71.9 74.2 69.6 59.9 63.9 68.4 72.7 67.5 58.0 September ........................ 63.5 70.3 71.4 74.2 68.9 58.7 63.7 68.1 73.2 67.5 57.9 October .............................

72

Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

56.9 56.9 63.4 65.6 64.6 62.1 51.4 54.0 60.9 64.4 58.4 49.7 February ........................... 56.9 63.4 65.0 64.4 61.7 51.9 54.2 60.9 63.5 58.6 49.9 March ................................ 57.6 64.4 65.1 66.2 62.4 52.6 53.7 61.4 64.5 58.7 49.4 April .................................. 60.6 67.4 66.8 68.8 64.9 56.0 56.8 63.6 67.4 61.6 52.6 May ................................... 61.5 67.7 68.5 70.4 66.1 56.9 58.6 65.4 68.6 63.3 54.4 June .................................. 59.2 65.3 67.4 68.7 64.4 53.7 56.8 63.7 67.5 61.7 51.6 July ................................... 57.8 63.8 65.9 67.3 63.0 52.7 55.3 62.1 65.5 59.9 50.2 August .............................. 59.7 66.3 66.5 68.3 64.3 55.4 57.2 63.3 65.9 61.3 52.5 September ........................ 61.1 67.3 67.9 70.4 65.8 56.8 57.8 64.5 68.1 62.5 53.8 October .............................

73

Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1996 January ... 62.7 68.1 69.9 69.7 67.1 57.5 59.9 66.9 68.8 64.1 55.1 February ... 64.2 70.1 70.7 71.2 68.3 59.3 61.1 67.8 69.6...

74

Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 January ... - - - - - - - - - - - February ... - - - - - - - - - - - March ... - - - - - - - - - -...

75

Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

1996 ... 72.3 79.1 78.8 80.6 76.7 67.3 68.7 75.9 78.4 73.2 63.9 1997 January ... 76.6 82.7 84.1 83.7 81.2 71.0 73.8...

76

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim data report summarizes results as of August, 1999, on the status of the test programs being conducted on three technologies: lean-NO{sub x} catalysts, diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Response of Different Types of Sulfur Compounds to Oxidative Desulfurization of Jet Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Michael T. Timko *†, Ezequiel Schmois ‡, Pushkaraj Patwardhan ‡, Yuko Kida ‡, Caleb A. Class ‡, William H. Green ‡, Robert K. Nelson §, and Christopher M. Reddy § ... Refer to ref 3 for a summary of our previous efforts to identify specific BT isomers in jet fuel using one-dimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and ref 44 provides even greater detail. ... We then analyzed the JP-8 samples using GC×GC–SCD to resolve the UCM and identify specific compound classes within it. ...

Michael T. Timko; Ezequiel Schmois; Pushkaraj Patwardhan; Yuko Kida; Caleb A. Class; William H. Green; Robert K. Nelson; Christopher M. Reddy

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Selenium and Sulfur in a Greenland Ice Sheet: Relation to Fossil Fuel Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...selenium content of these samples was determined by measurement of neutron induced 81Se. The samples were from the Camp Century area of the Greenland ice sheet (77 10'N and 61 07'W) and from a virgin area 80 km east southeast of this location...

Herbert V. Weiss; Minoru Koide; Edward D. Goldberg

1971-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

79

Mercury and lead content in fuels: a literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scope of this report is to provide information on levels of mercury and lead in fuels entering the portland cement manufacturing process. Information was gathered from published literature and cement companies. Most information available for fuels was for coal, followed by information on tire-derived and waste-derived fuel. Limited information was available for petroleum coke and heavy oil. The majority of studies report the maximum levels of mercury in coal, tire-derived fuel, petroleum coke, and heavy oil to be under 1 ppm. Mercury in coal is likely to be associated with pyrite, or organically associated. The majority of studies report the maximum levels of lead in coal to be under 25 ppm, with higher levels in tire-derived and waste-derived fuel, and no information found for lead in petroleum coke and heavy oil fuels. Values provided in this report are concentration levels, mean values, and standard deviation (as available). 24 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

Hills, L.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Experimental and Modeling Study of Sulfur Capture by Limestone in Selected Conditions of Air-Fired and Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liu et al.(5) noticed the influence of the system itself, noting that SO2 is enriched in the furnace of oxy-fuel combustion systems because the flue gas is recycled. ... This work has also been supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 124368 and Foster Wheeler Energia Oy. ... In this study, the influence of CO2 on sulfur capture efficiency was studied during fluidized-bed desulfurization by experiments and modeling. ...

Sirpa Takkinen; Timo Hyppänen; Jaakko Saastamoinen; Toni Pikkarainen

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

83

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concen- tration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estima- tion of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust

Stefanopoulou, Anna

84

Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies. Part II: Thermodynamic analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A staged equilibrium process model was developed for a bubbling fluidized bed boiler firing SRF, bark and sludge. The model was used to study the influence of sulfur addition strategies (S-pellet additive and peat co-firing) on the behavior of copper, bromine, and alkalis. Aerosol samples collected from the backpass of the boiler were used to validate the chemistry predicted by the model. The model revealed that Cu existed as Cu2S(s3) in the reducing zone, and CuCl(g) (for all test cases) and CuO(s) (during peat co-firing) in the oxidation zones. CuBr3(g) was also present after the introduction of tertiary air. However the model failed to predict the formation of CuSO4, an important passive species of Cu necessary for PCDD/F abatement. The modes of occurrence of Cu were classified as either active or passive with respect to de novo synthesis and an active/passive species molar ratio (APR) was introduced. APR showed high correlation with the PCDD/F production levels. Sensitivity analysis revealed that excessive Cu in the fuel mixture decreased the volatility of the element due to the formation of CuO(s). Simulation for peat co-firing with low Cu content showed that PCDD/F concentration is decreased and is comparable to that of S-pellet addition. Sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing the energy share of sludge can likewise lower PCDD/F production.

Cyril Jose E. Bajamundi; Pasi Vainikka; Merja Hedman; Jukka Konttinen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Effects of altitude and fuel oxygen content on the performance of a high pressure common rail diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The change of intake oxygen content caused by altitude variation and the change of fuel oxygen content both affect the performance of diesel engines. In this paper, comparative experiments were performed on a high pressure common rail diesel engine fueled with pure diesel and biodiesel–ethanol–diesel (abbreviated as BED) blends with oxygen content of 2%, 2.5%, and 3.2% in mass percentage at different atmospheric pressures of 81 kPa, 90 kPa, and 100 kPa. Moreover, in order to study the effect of different fuel blends with the same oxygen content on the performance of the diesel engine, tests were conducted on the diesel engine fueled with the BED blend and a biodiesel–diesel (abbreviated as BD) blend at 81 kPa ambient pressure. The experimental results indicate that the influence of altitude variation on the full-load engine brake torque is not significant when the pure diesel fuel is used. With the increase of BED fuel oxygen content, the engine brake torque reduces. When the pure diesel fuel is used, with the increase of atmospheric pressure, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases. As the fuel oxygen content increases, there is no significant difference in brake specific fuel consumption of the BED blends. And the values of brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) gradually decrease. Soot emissions of the diesel engine decrease with the increase of atmospheric pressure and fuel oxygen content. The effect of soot emission reduction by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel is more significant than the effect of increasing atmospheric pressure. The effects of BD and BED fuels with basically the same oxygen content on the full-load performance, fuel economy, and soot emissions of the diesel engine are different. The BSFC and soot emissions of the BED fuel are lower than those of the BD fuel.

Shaohua Liu; Lizhong Shen; Yuhua Bi; Jilin Lei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Damage Model for Degradation in the Electrodes of solid oxide fuel cells: Modeling the effects of sulfur and antimony in the anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over their designed lifetime, high temperature electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), can experience degradation in their electrochemical performance due to environmental conditions, operating conditions, contaminants, and other factors. Understanding the different degradation mechanisms in SOFCs and other electrochemical devices is essential to reducing performance degradation and increasing the lifetime of these devices. In this paper SOFC degradation mechanisms are discussed and a damage model is presented which describes performance degradation in SOFCs due to damage or degradation in the electrodes of the SOFC. A degradation classification scheme is presented that divides the various SOFC electrode degradation mechanisms into categories based on their physical effects on the SOFC. The application of the damage model and the classification method is applied to sulfur poisoning and antimony poisoning which occur in the anode of SOFCs. For sulfur poisoning the model is able to predict the degradation in SOFC performance based on the operating temperature and voltage of the fuel cell and the concentration of gaseous sulfur species in the anode. For antimony poisoning the effects of nickel removal from the anode matrix is investigated.

Ryan, Emily M.; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Fuel cycle cost, reactor physics and fuel manufacturing considerations for Erbia-bearing PWR fuel with > 5 wt% U-235 content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efforts to reduce fuel cycle cost have driven LWR fuel close to the licensed limit in fuel fissile content, 5.0 wt% U-235 enrichment, and the acceptable duty on current Zr-based cladding. An increase in the fuel enrichment beyond the 5 wt% limit, while certainly possible, entails costly investment in infrastructure and licensing. As a possible way to offset some of these costs, the addition of small amounts of Erbia to the UO{sub 2} powder with >5 wt% U-235 has been proposed, so that its initial reactivity is reduced to that of licensed fuel and most modifications to the existing facilities and equipment could be avoided. This paper discusses the potentialities of such a fuel on the US market from a vendor's perspective. An analysis of the in-core behavior and fuel cycle performance of a typical 4-loop PWR with 18 and 24-month operating cycles has been conducted, with the aim of quantifying the potential economic advantage and other operational benefits of this concept. Subsequently, the implications on fuel manufacturing and storage are discussed. While this concept has certainly good potential, a compelling case for its short-term introduction as PWR fuel for the US market could not be determined. (authors)

Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N. [Westinghouse Electric Co. LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function.

Horak, W.C.; Lu, Ming-Shih

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Comparison of selected fuel and chemical content values for seven Populus hybrid clones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel and chemical content values were determined for seven Populus clones by component (wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens) and tissue age (1 to 8 years old). The fuel and chemical content values obtained included: gross heat of combustion, extractives, holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, lignin and ash. In general, analysis of the data for the wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens indicated that: 1) wood was higher in holocellulose and alpha-cellulose content than bark; 2) bark was higher in gross heat of combustion, lignin, extractive, and ash content values than wood; and 3) combined wood/bark fuel and chemical content values were usually between the individual values for the wood and bark. Statistical analyses indicated that significant differences existed within and among clones. Within the wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens, tissue age influenced the chemical content values more than the parentage. Potential chemical yields derived from the seven Populus hybrid clones investigated will depend on component and age with limited parentage effects. 15 references.

Blankenhorn, P.R.; Bowersox, T.W.; Kuklewski, K.M.; Stimely, G.L.; Murphey, W.K.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Why sequence Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution remediation? Burning sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contributes significantly to global environmental problems, such as air pollution and acid rain, besides contributing to the loss of the ozone layer. One method of managing sulfur compounds released as byproducts from industrial processes is to scrub them out using chemical treatments and activated charcoal beds. A lower-cost solution relies on incorporating alkaliphic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria into biofilters to convert the volatile and toxic compounds into insoluble sulfur for easier removal. Discovered in the last decade, these bacteria have been found to thrive in habitats that span the full pH range. The bacteria could have applications

91

Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards)....

92

Definition: Diesel fuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Diesel fuel Diesel fuel Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Diesel fuel A liquid fuel produced from petroleum; used in diesel engines.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Diesel oil and Gazole (fuel) redirect here. Sometimes "diesel oil" is used to mean lubricating oil for diesel engines. Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost

93

Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has Along with heating oil prices, the distillate supply squeeze has severely impacted diesel fuel prices, especially in the Northeast. Diesel fuel is bascially the same product as home heating oil. The primary difference is that diesel has a lower sulfur content. When heating oil is in short supply, low sulfur diesel fuel can be diverted to heating oil supply. Thus, diesel fuel prices rise with heating heating oil prices. Retail diesel fuel prices nationally, along with those of most other petroleum prices, increased steadily through most of 1999. But prices in the Northeast jumped dramatically in the third week of January. Diesel fuel prices in New England rose nearly 68 cents per gallon, or 47 percent, between January 17 and February 7. While EIA does not have

94

Differential die-away technique for determination of the fissile contents in spent fuel assembly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the differential die-away (DDA) technique to quantify its capability to measure the fissile contents in spent fuel assemblies of 64 different cases in terms of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. The DDA count rate varies according to the contents of fissile isotopes such as {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu contained in the spent fuel assembly. The effective {sup 239}Pu concept was introduced to quantify the total fissile mass of spent fuel by weighting the relative signal contributions of {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu compared to that of {sup 239}Pu. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the count rate of the DDA instrument for a spent fuel assembly of 4% initial enrichment, 45 GWD/MTU burnup, and 5 year cooling time is {approx} 9.8 x 10{sup 4} counts per second (c/s) with the 100-Hz repeated interrogation pattern of 0 to 10 {micro}s interrogation, 0.2 ms to 1 ms counting time, and 1 x 10{sup 9} n/s neutron source. The {sup 244}Cm neutron background count rate for this counting time scheme is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 4} c/s, and thus the signal to background ratio is {approx}10.

Lee, Tachoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Nartyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Towards controlling PCDD/F production in a multi-fuel fired BFB boiler using two sulfur addition strategies. Part III: Cu speciation in the fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract PCDD/F abatement strategies – sulfur pellet addition and peat co-combustion – were tested for a BFB boiler facility utilizing SRF-bark-sludge as fuel. In this paper chemical and physical analyses of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ashes were used to explain the differences in the performance of these strategies. These analyses revealed a difference between the coarse and fine fly ashes collected in the ESP. Chemical analysis of the fine fly ashes revealed high concentration of easily volatilized elements while the SEM micrographs showed that fine ash are composed of clusters of spherical particles, thereby leading to a conclusion that fine ashes were originally in a gas phase in the high temperature zones of the boiler. Variation in the distribution of active and passive forms of Cu in fly ashes was revealed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES mode). It was also found that peat co-combustion led to increased formation of Cu oxides that may act as active catalysts in de novo synthesis. Furthermore, XANES revealed the formation of CuSO4 for all the test cases. By applying the empirical ratio between mole fractions of the active and passive species of Cu, the role of Cu speciation to PCDD/F production was emphasized. It is concluded that sulfur pellet addition is more effective than peat addition as a PCDD/F abatement strategy for the BFB facility understudy.

Cyril Jose E. Bajamundi; Pasi Vainikka; Irina Hyytiäinen; Kirsi Korpijärvi; Manu Lahtinen; Wantana Klysubun; Jukka Konttinen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

97

Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Auxiliary Power Units (APUs), driven by truck engines, consume over 800 million gallon of diesel fuel while idling. Use of separate SOFC based APUs are an excellent choice to reduce the cost and pollution associated with producing auxiliary power. However, diesel fuel is a challenging fuel to use in fuel cell systems because it has heavy hydrocarbons that can transform into carbon deposits and gums that can block passages and deactivate fuel reformer and fuel cell reactor elements. The work reported herein addresses the challenges associated with the diesel fuel sulfur and carbon producing contaminants in a Fuel Preprocessor (FPP). FPP processes the diesel fuel onboard and ahead of the reformer to reduce its carbon deposition tendency and its sulfur content, thus producing a fuel suitable for SOFC APU systems. The goal of this DOE supported Invention and Innovation program was to design, develop and test a prototype Fuel Preprocessor (FPP) that efficiently and safely converts the diesel fuel into a clean fuel suitable for a SOFC APU system. The goals were achieved. A 5 kWe FPP was designed, developed and tested. It was demonstrated that FPP removes over 80% of the fuel sulfur and over 90% of its carbon residues and it was demonstrated that FPP performance exceeds the original project goals.

M. Namazian, S. Sethuraman and G. Venkataraman

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, J.L.

1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

HEALTH AND CLIMATE POLICY IMPACTS ON SULFUR EMISSION CONTROL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both

Russell, Lynn

103

Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

Lopez, Jose Ignacio

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

104

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type" No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Distillate",7,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 2","No. 2 Diesel Fuel",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Data 3","No. 2 Diesel Fuel, Ultra Low-Sulfur",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2007" ,"Data 4","No. 2 Diesel Fuel, Low-Sulfur",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Data 5","No. 2 Diesel Fuel, High-Sulfur",5,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994"

105

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Operations Office RPD relative percent difference RSD relative standard deviation TIC tentatively identified compound DOERL-96-68, HASQARD Table of Contents, Rev. 3 Volume...

106

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS March 21, 2013 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 3.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 CRITICAL LIFTS ......

107

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assurancecontrol) 3. Responsible operations manager 4. Equipment custodian 5. Cognizant engineer. *Reviewapproval is mandatory. 18.3.3 Hostile Environment Plan Contents The plan...

108

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

109

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CONTENTS CONTENTS Introduction ........................................................................................................3 ON THE HORIZON: Promising Research Efforts Currently Underway A Smarter Charge .........................................................................................4 Unlocking Fire Ice .........................................................................................5 CRISP Crunches Cyber Threats ....................................................................6 Gel Zeroes in on Cancer ...............................................................................7 Liquid Solvent: A Solid Solution for CO 2 .....................................................8 Real-time Grid Stability ................................................................................9

110

Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration.

Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

111

Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

No. 2 Distillate No. 4 Fuel a Total Distillate and Kerosene No. 2 Fuel Oil No. 2 Diesel Fuel No. 2 Distillate Low-Sulfur High-Sulfur Total United States January...

113

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

diesel. Qualifying vehicles include compressed natural gas vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, vehicles operating on biodiesel or ultra low sulfur...

114

Monte Carlo simulations of a differential die-away instrument for determination of fissile content in spent fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The differential die-away (DDA) technique has been simulated by using the MCNPX code to quantify its capability to measure the fissile content in spent fuel assemblies, For 64 different spent fuel cases of various initial enrichment, burnup and cooling time, the count rate and signal to background ratios of the DDA system were obtained, where neutron backgrounds are mainly coming from the {sup 244}Cm of the spent fuel. To quantify the total fissile mass of spent fuel, a concept of the effective {sup 239}Pu mass was introduced by weighting the relative contribution to the signal of {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Pu compared to {sup 239}Pu and the calibration curves of DDA count rate vs. {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} were obtained by using the MCNPX code. With a deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator of 10{sup 9} n/s strength, signal to background ratios of sufficient magnitude are acquired for a DDA system with the spent fuel assembly in water.

Lee, Taehoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines - University of California, Irvine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines-University of California, Irvine Background Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and components in the hot section of gas turbines are degraded by coal-derived high hydrogen content (HHC) synthesis gas (syngas). In this project the University of California, Irvine (UCI) will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the degradation of critical turbine system materials in HHC-fueled

116

Effects of outside storage on the energy potential of hardwood particulate fuels: part 1. Moisture content and temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Widespread use of woody materials for industrial fuels has generated interest and concern about the energy value of fuels stored outdoors. This paper reports on the effect of storage for periods up to 1 year on the temperature and moisture content (MC) of wood particulate fuels in cone-shaped piles according to the type of fuel and height of pile. Three fuels - hardwood whole-tree chips, bark, and sawdust - were stored in piles 10, 15, and 20 feet high. The experimental piles were built during the late summer of 1978 at the Union Camp woodyard in Ford, Virginia. Internal pile temperatures rose rapidly during the first weeks to highs of 45 degrees C for whole-tree chips and 73 degrees C for bark and sawdust. In the bark and chip piles these temperatures fluctuated seasonally. The interior temperature of the sawdust pile was insensitive to ambient temperature changes and declined slowly throughout the remainder of the study. Within the first 60 to 120 days of storage, the surfaces of all piles became saturated with moisture. The interior zones of the bark and sawdust piles remained at or slightly above the original MC while the corresponding regions of the chip pile exhibited some drying. After 1 year's time, the weighted average MCs of chips, bark, and sawdust increased by 84, 108, and 191 percent, respectively, over the original MCs. To minimize increases of MC in stored woody fuels, storage time should be kept to less than 60 days, chips should be preferred to bark and sawdust, and piles should be built as high as possible consistent with available space and storage procedures which limit the potential for spontaneous combustion.

White, M.S.; Curtis, M.L.; Sarles, R.L.; Green, D.W.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Production of high-energy fuel with low volatile content from 3B and D coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments on the carbonization of coal show that high-energy fuel with satisfactory piece strength (?8 MPa in compression) may be produced in the nonoxidative heating of 3B and D coal, with gradual increase ...

M. V. Kulesh; S. R. Islamov

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

Tang, Hairong

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Spent Nuclear Fuel Self-Induced XRF to Predict Pu to U Content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area of interest, would improve input accountability and shipper/receiver differences. XRF measurements were made on individual PWR fuel rods with varying fuel ages and final burn-ups at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July 2008 and January... Committee NRF Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence viii ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pu Plutonium PUREX Plutonium and Uranium Recovery by Extraction PWR Pressurized Water Reactor RPP Reprocessing Plant SNM Special Nuclear Material...

Stafford, Alissa Sarah

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

Behavior of shale oil jet fuels at variable severities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic hydroprocessed shale oil jet fuels in the USA were characterized and compared with petroleum jet fuel to demonstrate their possibility as a conventional jet fuel substitute. The shale oils (Geokinetics, Occidental, Paraho and Tosco II) were hydrotreated in a 0.058m ID by 1.52m long reactor containing Ni/MO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst. The fractionated hydrogenated shale oils at jet fuel ranges (120-300/sup 0/C) were analyzed for composition and physical properties. The increasing hydroprocessing severity proportionally decreased nitrogen, sulfur, olefins, and aromatics, and increased hydrogen content. The nitrogen content even at high severity conditions was considerably higher than that of conventional jet fuel. Sulfur and olefin contents were lower at all severities. The heat of combustion and the physical properties, except the freezing point, were comparable to petroleum jet fuels. The yields of jet fuels increased proportionally to increased severity. The study showed that high severity hydroprocessing gave better performance in processing shale oils to jet fuels.

Mukherjee, N.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g?1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

Ya Liu; Jinxin Guo; Jun Zhang; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 PM)" 8 PM)" "Alaska" "Fuel, Quality",1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",203,141,148 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",8698,8520,8278 " Average sulfur Content (percent)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.33,0.5,0.71

125

Verification of plutonium content in spent fuel assemblies using neutron self-interrogation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The large amounts of plutonium in reactor spent fuel assemblies has led to increased research directed toward the measurement of the plutonium for safeguards verification. The high levels of fission product gamma-ray activity and curium neutron backgrounds have made the plutonium measurement difficult. We have developed a new technique that can directly measure both the {sup 235}U concentration and the plutonium fissile concentration using the intrinsic neutron emission fronl the curium in the fuel assembly. The passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) method has been described previously where the curium neutrons are moderated in the surrounding water and reflect back into the fuel assembly to induce fissions in the fissile material in the assembly. The cadmium (Cd) ratio is used to separate the spontaneous fission source neutrons from the reflected thermal neutron fission reactions. This method can measure the sum of the {sup 235}U and the plutonium fissile mass, but not the separate components. Our new differential die-away self-interrogation method (DDSI) can be used to separate the {sup 235}U from the {sup 239}Pu. The method has been applied to both fuel rods and full assemblies. For fuel rods the epi-thermal neutron reflection method filters the reflected neutrons through thin Cd filters so that the reflected neutrons are from the epi-cadmium energy region. The neutron fission energy response in the epi-cadmium region is distinctly different for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. We are able to measure the difference between {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu by sampling the neutron induced fission rate as a function of time and multiplicity after the initial fission neutron is detected. We measure the neutron fission rate using list-mode data collection that stores the time correlations between all of the counts. The computer software can select from the data base the time correlations that include singles, doubles, and triples. The die-away time for the doubles distribution is distinctly different for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. The {sup 239}Pu has a higher fission cross-section in the epi-cadmium neutron region and larger induced fission moments than {sup 235}U, so the measured die-away time can provide the relative amounts of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U. This paper will present the Monte Carlo simulations for the detector and sample configurations for both fuel pins and full fuel assemblies.

Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Apencer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Sulfur and ash in Paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short toms of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plans region. This is more than 30% of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more F or Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5% sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6% ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short toms of >26% of the total US coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Sulfur and ash in paleocene Wyodak-Anderson coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: A fuel source beyond 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When coal-fired power plants are required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet more stringent sulfur emission standards (0.6 pound per million Btu) after the year 2000, most of the clean and compliant coals will come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. In 1996 more than 300 million short tons of these clean and compliant coals were produced from the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This is more than 30 percent of the total US coal production of 1.03 billion short tons in 1996. Future demand for clean and compliant coals can probably be met through production of more Fort Union coals in the region. It is projected by the Energy Information Agency (1996) that most of the low-sulfur and low-ash coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region will be produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin. To date, coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed/zone, containing 0.5 percent sulfur, 1.2 lb SO{sub 2} per million btu, and 6 percent ash (mean values on an as-received basis) meet current EPA regulatory compliance. This coal bed/zone alone produced 262 million short tons or >26 percent of the total U.S. coal production in 1996. Based on the current consumption rates of coal and a forecast by the EIA (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coals are projected to produce an additional 153 million short tons a year by the year 2016. At this rate of production, high quality Wyodak-Anderson coals may be adequate to fill our future energy needs.

Ellis, M.S.; Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Development of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 250 kW External Fuel Processor was developed and tested that will supply the gases needed by a pipeline natural gas fueled, solid oxide fuel cell during all modes of operation. The fuel processor consists of three major subsystems--a desulfurizer to remove fuel sulfur to an acceptable level, a synthesis gas generator to support plant heat-up and low load fuel cell operations, and a start gas generator to supply a non-flammable, reducing gas to the fuel cell during startup and shutdown operations. The desulfurization subsystem uses a selective catalytic sulfur oxidation process that was developed for operation at elevated pressure and removes the fuel sulfur to a total sulfur content of less than 80 ppbv. The synthesis gas generation subsystem uses a waterless, catalytic partial oxidation reactor to produce a hydrogen-rich mixture from the natural gas and air. An operating window was defined that allows carbon-free operation while maintaining catalyst temperatures that will ensure long-life of the reactor. The start gas subsystem generates an oxygen-free, reducing gas from the pipeline natural gas using a low-temperature combustion technique. These physically and thermally integrated subsystems comprise the 250 kW External Fuel Processor. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was tested at the Rolls-Royce facility in North Canton, Ohio to verify process performance and for comparison with design specifications. A step wise operation of the automatic controls through the startup, normal operation and shutdown sequences allowed the control system to be tuned and verified. A fully automated system was achieved that brings the fuel processor through its startup procedure, and then await commands from the fuel cell generator module for fuel supply and shutdown. The fuel processor performance met all design specifications. The 250 kW External Fuel Processor was shipped to an American Electric Power site where it will be tested with a Rolls-Royce solid oxide fuel cell generator module.

Daniel Birmingham; Crispin Debellis; Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

Effect of severity on catalytic hydroprocessed shale oil jet fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic hydroprocessed shale oil jet fuels in the USA were characterized and compared with petroleum jet fuel to demonstrate their possibility as a conventional jet fuel substitute. The shale oils (Geokinetics, Occidental, Paraho and Tosco II) were hydrotreated in a 0.0508m ID by K1.524m long reactor containing Ni/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst. The fractionated hydrogenated shale oils at jet fuel ranges (120-300/degree/C) were analyzed for composition and physical properties. The increasing hydroprocessing severity proportionally decreased nitrogen, sulfur, olefins, aromatics and increased hydrogen content. The nitrogen content was considerable higher even at high severity conditions. Sulfur and olefin contents were lower at all severities. The heat of combustion and the physical properties, except the freezing point, were comparable to petroleum jet fuels. The yields of jet fuels increased proportionally to increased severity. The study showed that high severity hydroprocessing gave better performance in processing shale oils to jet fuels.

Mukherjee, N.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

George Sverdrup

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

Offshore Sulfur Comes In  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Offshore Sulfur Comes In ... "The deposit is a major new source of sulfur," say Hines H. Baker, president of Humble Oil, and Langbourne M. Williams, president of Freeport Sulphur. ... Humble's deposit, known as Grand Isle (Block 18), was discovered in the course of offshore oil exploration and it ranks among the most important sulfur discoveries of recent years. ...

1956-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

Euler-Euler simulation of wood chip combustion on a grate - effect of fuel moisture content and full scale application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, it is common practice to perform CFD calculations for optimisation purposes of technical biomass combustion applications. A numerical model for wood chip combustion on grate firing arrangements has been developed. The model is based on an Euler-Euler approach, enabling a detailed multiphase description of the combustion chamber in terms of flow, turbulence and heat transfer. The model explicitly accounts for interactions between bed and freeboard region and comprises a global description of the whole incineration process associated with wood combustion. For validation purposes, the effect of fuel moisture content in a 240 kWth test facility has been observed experimentally and the results are opposed to the model predictions. Additionally, measurements within a 58 MWth full scale grate firing system have been conducted and the scalability of the numerical model towards industrial applications is investigated.

D. Kurz; U. Schnell; G. Scheffknecht

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

136

The reaction kinetics of gasoline sulfur compounds: Catalytic mechanisms for sulfur reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the key elements of reformulated gasoline is the reduction of the sulfur compounds produced by fluid catalytic cracking. This paper probes the reaction kinetics of refractory gasoline-range thiophene derivatives (thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, and alkylthiophenes) in an effort to determine the mechanisms of sulfur compound cracking in the FCC unit. The gasoline-range sulfur compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with an atomic emission detector. The authors` results show that the FCC catalysts affects the cracking of sulfur compounds through both hydrogen transfer and zeolite pore restriction mechanisms. An experimental FCC catalyst is shown to reduce gasoline sulfur content in the Davidson Circulating Riser (DCR{sup TM}) pilot unit. Model compound tests show that the activity of the catalyst is due to both its catalytic and adsorptive properties. Tetrahydrothiophene, which is produced from thiophenes by hydrogen transfer, is completely removed by the experimental catalyst.

Harding, R.H.; Gatte, R.R.; Albro, T.G.; Wormsbecher, R.F. [W.R. Grace & Co. Conn, Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

138

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive/thermo-chemical attack mechanisms; (iv) developing a mechanics-based analysis of the driving forces for crack growth and delamination, based on molten phase infiltration, misfit upon cooling, and loss of compliance; (v) understanding changes in TGO growth mechanisms associated with these emerging combustion product streams; and (vi) identifying degradation resistant alternative materials (including new compositions or bi-layer concepts) for use in mitigating the observed degradation modes. To address the materials stability concerns, this program integrated research thrusts aimed at: (1) Conducting tests in simulated syngas and HHC environments to evaluate materials evolution and degradation mechanisms; assessing thermally grown oxide development unique to HHC environmental exposures; carrying out high-resolution imaging and microanalysis to elucidate the evolution of surface deposits (molten phase formation and infiltration); exploring thermo-chemical instabilities; assessing thermo-mechanical drivers and thermal gradient effects on degradation; and quantitatively measuring stress evolution due to enhanced sintering and thermo-chemical instabilities induced in the coating. (2) Executing experiments to study the melting and infiltration of simulated ash deposits, and identifying reaction products and evolving phases associated with molten phase corrosion mechanisms; utilizing thermal spray techniques to fabricate test coupons with controlled microstructures to study mechanisms of instability and degradation; facilitating thermal gradient testing; and developing new materials systems for laboratory testing; (3) Correlating information on the resulting combustion environments to properly assess materials exposure conditions and guide the development of lab-scale simulations of material exposures; specification of representative syngas and high-hydrogen fuels with realistic levels of impurities and contaminants, to explore differences in heat transfer, surface degradation, and deposit formation; and facilitating combustion rig testing of materials test coupons.

Mumm, Daniel

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

CANDU core analysis with spent PWR fuel of fixed {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in a CANDU (DUPIC) fuel cycle requires that the spent PWR fuel be refabricated as a DUPIC fuel to be used in a CANDU reactor that was originally designed for the natural uranium fuel. Because there is no separation of isotopes from the spent PWR fuel, the DUPIC fuel contains all the actinides and fission products as fuel constituents and, therefore, the isotopic composition changes depending on the initial and discharge conditions of PWR fuels. Such heterogeneity in fuel composition is not desirable, especially for a CANDU reactor that adopts an on-power refueling scheme, because the operational flexibility is reduced appreciably if the fuel bundles of different composition are loaded throughout the core.

Choi, Hangbok; Roh, Gyu H.; Park, J.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) to Measure the Fissile Content in Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diversion of 6% of fuel pins within 3? from LWR spent LEU and MOX fuel. 3) SINRD is insensitive to the boron concentration and initial fuel enrichment and can therefore be used at multiple spent fuel storage facilities. 4) The calibration of SINRD at one...

Lafleur, Adrienne

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

Performance and emissions of a diesel tractor engine fueled with marine diesel and soybean methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is cleaner than petrodiesel. Biodiesel can be used directly as fuel for a diesel engine without having to modify the engine system. It has the major advantages of having high biodegradability, excellent lubricity and no sulfur content. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of soybean methyl ester (SME) and its blend with marine diesel fuel from 5%, 20% and 50% blends by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. The results indicate that the use of biodiesel produces lower smoke opacity (up to 74%), but higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (up to 12%) compared to marine fuel (MF). The measured carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of B5 and B100 fuels were found to be 3% and 52% lower than that of the MF, respectively.

B. Gokalp; E. Buyukkaya; H.S. Soyhan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The biogenic content of process streams from mechanical–biological treatment plants producing solid recovered fuel. Do the manual sorting and selective dissolution determination methods correlate?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon emissions trading market has created a need for standard methods for the determination of biogenic content (?B) in solid recovered fuels (SRF). We compare the manual sorting (MSM) and selective dissolution methods (SDM), as amended by recent research, for a range of process streams from a mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant. The two methods provide statistically different biogenic content values, as expressed on a dry mass basis, uncorrected for ash content. However, they correlate well (r2 > 0.9) and the relative difference between them was <5% for ?B between 21% w/wd and 72% w/wd (uncorrected for ash content). This range includes the average SRF biogenic content of ca. 68% w/wd. Methodological improvements are discussed in light of recent studies. The repeatability of the SDM is characterised by relative standard deviations on triplicates of <2.5% for the studied population.

Mélanie Séverin; Costas A. Velis; Phil J. Longhurst; Simon J.T. Pollard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for LithiumSulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National...

147

Sulfur isotopes in coal constrain the evolution of the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obviously influence the average isotope values. For the other data, samples...pp 87–105 . 19 Price FT Casagrande DJ ( 1991 ) Sulfur...coals. Geology of Fossil Fuels, Proc 30th Int Geol Congress...Jersey Pinelands and its effect on stream water chemistry...223 – 248 . 29 Price FT Shieh YN ( 1979 ) Fractionation...

Donald E. Canfield

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

Chapter 11 - Sulfur Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sulfur is present in many raw industrial gases and in natural gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur removal facilities are located at the majority of oil and gas processing facilities throughout the world. The sulfur recovery unit does not make a profit for the operator but it is an essential processing step to allow the overall facility to operate, as the discharge of sulfur compounds to the atmosphere is severely restricted by environmental regulations. Concentration levels of H2S vary significantly depending upon their source. H2S produced from absorption processes, such as amine treating of natural gas or refinery gas, can contain 50–75% H2S by volume or higher. This chapter provides information about fundamentals of sulfur removal facilities in the natural gas industry.

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrocarbon profilers can provide a clear understanding of complex interactions between fuel chemistry, storage conditions, and quantity of biodiesel over time.

151

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Resources Board has certified to reduce particulate matter emissions by at least 85% as compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. (Reference Connecticut General Statutes 14-164o...

152

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 10. Jet fuels production by-products, utility, and sulfur-emissions control integration study. Interim report, 1 May 1988-1 April 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to evaluate the impact of integrating Jet Fuel and/or Chemical Production Facilities with the Great Plains Gasification Plant.

Rossi, R.J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

155

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George Sulfur is essential for all life, but it plays a particularly central role in the metabolism of many anaerobic microorganisms. Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for use when food is in short supply (Fig. 1). The chemical nature of the sulfur in these globules has been an enigma since they were first described as far back as 1887 (1); all known forms (or allotropes) of elemental sulfur are solid at room temperature, but globule sulfur has been described as "liquid", and it apparently has a low density – 1.3 compared to 2.1 for the common yellow allotrope a-sulfur. Various exotic forms of sulfur have been proposed to explain these properties, including micelles (small bubble-like structures) formed from long-chain polythionates, but all of these deductions have been based upon indirect evidence (for example the density was estimated by flotation of intact cells), and many questions remained.

157

Sulfur meter for blending coal at Plant Monroe: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-line sulfur analyzer, installed at the Detroit Edison, Monroe Power station, was placed into service and evaluated for coal blending optimization to minimize the cost of complying with changing stack gas sulfur dioxide regulations. The project involved debugging the system which consisted of an /open quotes/as-fired/close quotes/ sampler and nuclear source sulfur analyzer. The system was initially plagued with mechanical and electronic problems ranging from coal flow pluggages to calibration drifts in the analyzer. Considerable efforts were successfully made to make the system reliable and accurate. On-line testing showed a major improvement in control of sulfur dioxide emission rates and fuel blending optimization equivalent to as much as $6 million in fuel costs at the time of the evaluation. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

Trentacosta, S.D.; Yurko, J.O.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Selective Separation of Thiols from a Model Fuel by Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These fossil fuels typically contain sulfur compounds on the order of a few percent. ... The authors have found that sulfur-loaded coals adsorb heavy metals in aqueous solutions. ... methods for fuel oils in relation to demand of low-sulfur fuel oils for air pollution control. ...

Yuuki Mochizuki; Katsuyasu Sugawara

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

159

Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Industrial - Low Sulfur Diesel Industrial - High Sulfur Diesel Industrial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Industrial - Residual Fuel Oil Industrial - Kerosene Farm - Distillate Fuel Oil Farm - Diesel Farm - Other Distillate Farm - Kerosene Electric Power - Distillate Fuel Oil Electric Power - Residual Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Residual Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Distillate Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Residual Fuel Oil Railroad Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Residual Fuel Oil On-Highway - No. 2 Diesel Military - Distillate Fuel Oil Military - Diesel Military - Other Distillate Military - Residual Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Construction Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Non-Construction All Other - Distillate Fuel Oil All Other - Residual Fuel Oil All Other - Kerosene Period:

160

Effect of sulfur on heavy duty diesel engine lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diesel engine exhaust legislation has become quite onerous for heavy duty engines. Yet, these high thermal efficiency engines continue to meet lower exhaust particulate and NOx emissions limits, due to new engine designs and the complementary engine oil performance requirements of the API service categories. In addition, the EPA has mandated changes in on-highway diesel fuel to help meet particulate emissions regulations. On October 1, 1993, when the EPA outlawed high sulfur fuels for on-highway use, the development of the API CG-4 engine oil performance specification was already in progress. All the new diesel engine tests in the category were therefore designed to run with low (< 0.05% wt.) sulfur fuel. In some engine tests, this new fuel improved some lubricant performance characteristics and degraded others. An engine oil specification for low sulfur fuel brings new challenges to developing future specifications for diesel engine oils. Both higher and lower lubricant additive treat rate products, high performance single grade oils, and formulations to meet world-wide specifications become viable. This paper discusses the results of a diesel engine oil technology that performs well with the new, low sulfur fuel in both engine tests and in the field.

Hayden, T.E. [Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research Dept., Beacon, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 PM)" 1 PM)" "Maine" "Fuel, Quality",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",241,237,262,266,327,319,367,506,619 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",13138,13124,12854,12823,12784,13171,12979,12779,13011 " Average sulfur Content (percent)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.71,0.69,0.77,0.78,0.7,0.65,0.72,0.82,0.72

162

Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

58 45 51 H Content (% mass) 13.6 14.5 15.5 14.3 15.1 Heat of Combust. (MJ/kg) 43.3 43.8 44.4 43.8 441 Table S1. Fuel Properties. JP-8 Blend-1 FT-1 Blend-2 FT-2 Feedstock Petroleum Petroleum & Natural Gas Natural Gas Petroleum & Coal Coal Sulfur (ppm by mass) 1148 699 19 658 22 Alkanes (% vol.) 50

Meskhidze, Nicholas

163

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

164

Low temperature fracture evaluation of plasticized sulfur paving mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 1985 Major Subject: Civil Engineering LOW TEMPERATURE FRACTURE EVALUATION OF PLASTICIZED SULFUR PAVING MIXTURES A Thesis by KAMYAR MAHBOUB Approved as to style and content by: Dallas N. Li tie (Chai rman of Committee) Ro e . Lytto Member... modifications to the standard ASTM procedure. These modifications were required due to the nature of plasticized sulfur mixtures and asphalt cement mixtures. The J-integral version of Paris ' law was successfully used to characterize the fatigue...

Mahboub, Kamyar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said today. The State of New York and other Northeastern states are implementing more stringent fuel standards that require replacement of high sulfur (2,000 parts per million) heating oil to ultra low sulfur fuel (15 parts per million). As a result, DOE will sell the current inventory of the Northeast

166

DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said today. The State of New York and other Northeastern states are implementing more stringent fuel standards that require replacement of high sulfur (2,000 parts per million) heating oil to ultra low sulfur fuel (15 parts per million). As a result, DOE will sell the current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, a total of approximately 2 million barrels, and

167

Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; buy sulfur dioxide credits on the open market; install FGD; or switch to clean coal technology such as circulating fluidized bed combustion and gasification. Current trends in utility modernization are to utilize new clean coal technologies..., such as fluidized bed combustion or gasification, and install FGD technology. Regardless of which modernization method is used, it will feature high-sulfur fuel capability. In summary, public utilities are looking at low-sulfur fuel as a means to comply...

Dymond, R. E.

168

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

0.33 times the rate for diesel For other alternative fuels, the rate is based on the energy content of the fuels as compared to diesel fuel, using a lower heating value of...

169

Freeport Begins Offshore Sulfur Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Freeport Begins Offshore Sulfur Plant ... Discovered by Humble Oil & Refining, the sulfur deposit off Grand Isle is believed by industry observers to be one of the largest discovered in recent years. ...

1958-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Power Gas and Combined Cycles: Clean Power from Fossil Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gas has such a low heating value that it cannot...from residual fuel oil (the relatively...Oil Residual fuel oil with a low sulfur...stations in Maryland, Connecticut, and New York-has...low-sulfur residual fuel oil is growing and its price is rising. Residual...

William D. Metz

1973-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

172

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

173

Nanostructured Catalyst Systems for Fuel Cells: Synthesis and Characterization of Low Platinum Content Electrocatalysts for O{sub 2} Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to synthesize and characterize new O{sub 2} reduction catalysts with enhanced activity and ultra low Pt loading, and to test them in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) to determine their performance under fuel cell cathode operating conditions.

Adzic, Radoslav

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Polyethylene glycol as a green solvent for effective extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel at ambient conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Today there are serious regulations to reduce sulfur content of fuels because the \\{SOx\\} produced during the combustion of fuels containing sulfur compounds make the air polluted and have dangerous environmental impacts. With the aim of replacement of the present volatile, flammable and toxic organic solvents or inefficient, corrosive and expensive ionic liquids (ILs), the polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced as a green, effective, non-toxic, non-corrosive and also recyclable molecular solvent for extractive desulfurization (EDS) of benzothiophenic compounds from liquid fuel in this work for the first time. PEG shows excellent EDS and it has the higher extraction efficiency for dibenzothiophene (DBT) (76% within 90 s) than those of ILs. Using this extractant, the BDT content was reduced from 512 to 10 ppmw (98%) only within three extraction stages, the minimum number of cycles within shortest time reported up to now, and the deep desulfurization was achieved. Effect of some important parameters including initial concentration of sulfur compound, PEG dosage, time and temperature of extraction on the EDS process was investigated. It was fond that extraction performance of PEG is independent to temperature and initial sulfur content, which is an excellent finding for industrialization. The feasibility of PEG for extraction of different thiophenic compounds was observed in the order of dibenzothiophene > benzothiophene > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiopene. Finally, the PEG was reused in several cycles and then it was regenerated by adsorption method. The results of the present work hopefully provide useful information for future industrial application of PEG as an efficient green solvent for the EDS of liquid fuels.

Effat Kianpour; Saeid Azizian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Changes in trace element contents in ashes of oil shale fueled PF and CFB boilers during operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two oil shale combustion technologies, pulverized firing (PF) and circulated fluidized bed (CFB) were compared with respect to partitioning of selected elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, and Zn) in the ashes along the flue gas ducts. The ash samples were characterized by high-resolution ICP-MS. The average contents of toxic heavy metals in fly ash samples from the CFB boiler are lower compared to the PF boiler. Main differences in trace element contents between combustion technologies were as follows: Cd content in the fly ash samples of PF boiler was up to 0.9 mg/kg while in CFB boiler it remained below 0.1 mg/kg in all analyzed ash samples; Hg was observed in the ashes of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of CFB boiler while in the PF boiler it was close to or below detection limit. In the PF boiler content of Sn was detected only in the ashes of ESPs, while in CFB boiler it was evenly distributed between bottom and fly ash samples. Highest content among heavy metals in ash samples was observed for Pb in the last field of ESP of the PF boiler (142 mg/kg).

Janek Reinik; Natalya Irha; Eiliv Steinnes; Gary Urb; Jekaterina Jefimova; Eero Piirisalu; Jüri Loosaar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

177

It's Elemental - The Element Sulfur  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phosphorus Phosphorus Previous Element (Phosphorus) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Chlorine) Chlorine The Element Sulfur [Click for Isotope Data] 16 S Sulfur 32.065 Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.065 Melting Point: 388.36 K (115.21°C or 239.38°F) Boiling Point: 717.75 K (444.60°C or 832.28°F) Density: 2.067 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word sulvere and the Latin word sulphurium. Say what? Sulfur is pronounced as SUL-fer. History and Uses: Sulfur, the tenth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. Sometime around 1777, Antoine Lavoisier convinced the rest of the scientific community that sulfur was an element. Sulfur is a

178

Why sequence purple sulfur bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

purple sulfur bacteria? purple sulfur bacteria? The process by which plants and some bacteria can convert light energy to sugar, or photosynthesis, is crucial to global food webs, and complicated. Very little is known about the photosynthetic bacteria in the purple sulfur bacteria group, which may represent one of the most primitive photosynthetic organisms and are capable of carbon fixation and sequestration in both light and dark conditions with the help of sulfur compounds. Purple sulfur bacteria are autotrophic and can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources. Researchers hope to learn more by sequencing nine type strains of purple sulfur bacteria that are found in freshwater, brackish and marine systems. The information would lead to a better understanding of the process of photosynthesis as well as the global

179

Volatilization characteristics of solid recovered fuels (SRFs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The volatilization characteristics of three MSW-derived materials (FO, RT and FL) produced by local waste-management companies were investigated as potential solid recovered fuels (SRFs). FL was prepared from sorted domestic waste and consisted of non-recyclable plastics, refuse paper and biomass. RT and FO were obtained through active hygienization of unsorted MSW and refuse materials from selective waste-collection streams. RT was rich in plastics and had low biomass, whereas FO was mainly biomass and refuse paper. The rate of energy release during volatilization depended on the content of biomass and plastic, especially at a low conversion. Major contaminants had different rates of volatilization. Nitrogen and sulfur tended to accumulate in the charred solid, and were released as SO2 and nitrous oxides during both the volatilization–combustion stage and the char burning stage. Chlorine release was faster for the fuels rich in plastic waste. According to their ash melting characteristics and slagging indexes (Fs: 1188 °C for FO, 1192 °C for RT and 1234 °C for FL) the three fuels were equivalent to commercial SRFs. The three fuels showed potential as standardized SRF, although it would be desirable to reduce their chlorine content and, in the case of FO, to increase it’s heating value.

Daniel Montané; Sònia Abelló; Xavier Farriol; César Berrueco

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

Hobbs, D.

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Microbial transformations of sulfur compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 13, 1978 ... tains a large part of the chemical energy transferred ... ical energy is partly preserved in the bio- mass of .... ethanol to remove elemental sulfur.

2000-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effects of dilution conditions on diesel particle size distribution and filter mass measurements in case of marine fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Particle emission characteristics were studied from heavy-duty diesel engine operating on fuels with sulfur levels relevant to marine operation, i.e. 0.05% S and 3% S respectively. Effects of primary dilution temperature (PDT) and primary dilution ratio (PDR) were investigated together with effect of filter media and time of filter conditioning. PDT increase was found slowing down nucleation rate due to increase of saturation vapor pressures of volatile species. In turn, increasing PDR reduces partial pressure of exhaust species and hence weakens both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. All these effects are amplified by high sulfur content in marine fuels which increases available amount of nucleation-prone vapor-phase semivolatile compounds. At the same time, water condensation artifact was observed at PDR = 3. No filter type was found to be overwhelmingly superior as certain positive and/or negative measurement artifacts are inherently associated with all filter materials. The filter conditioning time was also found to cause substantial PM mass variation, as control over VOC take up from (or lost to) laboratory air and hydration of sulfuric acid is required. The standard 24 hour conditioning time was found insufficient to reach complete PM mass equilibrium, so longer time is required when measuring from high-sulfur fuels.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jørgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fuel Guide Economy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS IN POPULAR VEHICLE CLASSES Listed below are the vehicles with the highest fuel economy for the most popular classes, including both automatic and manual transmissions and gasoline and diesel vehicles. Please be aware that many of these vehicles come in a range of engine sizes and trim lines, resulting in different fuel economy values. Check the fuel economy guide or the fuel economy sticker on new vehicles to find the values for a particular version of a vehicle. CONTENTS MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS ................. 1 HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE ..................................................... 2 FUEL ECONOMY AND YOUR ANNUAL FUEL COSTS .......... 3 WHY FUEL ECONOMY IS IMPORTANT .................................

184

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

2004-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

SOFC cells and stacks for complex fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reformed hydrocarbon and coal (syngas) fuels present an opportunity to integrate solid oxide fuel cells into the existing fuel infrastructure. However, these fuels often contain impurities or additives that may lead to cell degradation through sulfur poisoning or coking. Achieving high performance and sulfur tolerance in SOFCs operating on these fuels would simplify system balance of plant and sequestration of anode tail gas. NexTech Materials, Ltd., has developed a suite of materials and components (cells, seals, interconnects) designed for operation in sulfur-containing syngas fuels. These materials and component technologies have been integrated into an SOFC stack for testing on simulated propane, logistic fuel reformates and coal syngas. Details of the technical approach, cell and stack performance is reported.

Edward M. Sabolsky; Matthew Seabaugh; Katarzyna Sabolsky; Sergio A. Ibanez; Zhimin Zhong

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fuel cells and electrochemical energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cells and electrochemical energy storage ... Fuel cells and electrochemical energy storage : types of fuel cells, batteries for electrical energy storage, major batteries presently being investigated, and a summary of present major materials problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide battery. ...

Anthony F. Sammells

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Price Data Collection Procedures Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail on-highway diesel prices are collected by telephone and fax from a sample of approximately 350 retail diesel outlets, including truck stops and service stations. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that all on-highway diesel sold be ULSD by December 1, 2010 (September 1, 2006 in California). In January 2007, the weekly on-highway diesel price survey began collecting diesel prices for low sulfur diesel (LSD) which contains between 15 and 500 parts-per-million sulfur and ULSD separately. Prior to January 2007, EIA collected the price of on-highway fuel without distinguishing the sulfur

190

Assessing Potential Acidification of Marine Archaeological Wood Based on Concentration of Sulfur Species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of sulfur in marine archaeological wood presents a challenge to conservation. Upon exposure to oxygen, sulfur compounds in waterlogged wooden artifacts are being oxidized, producing sulfuric acid. This speeds the degradation of the wood, potentially damaging specimens beyond repair. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to identify the species of sulfur present in samples from the timbers of the Mary Rose, a preserved 16th century warship known to undergo degradation through acidification. The results presented here show that sulfur content varied significantly on a local scale. Only certain species of sulfur have the potential to produce sulfuric acid by contact with oxygen and seawater in situ, such as iron sulfides and elemental sulfur. Organic sulfurs, such as the amino acids cysteine and methionine, may produce acid but are integral parts of the wood's structure and may not be released from the organic matrix. The sulfur species contained in the sample reflect the exposure to oxygen while submerged, and this exposure can differ greatly over time and position. A better understanding of the species pathway to acidifications required, along with its location, in order to suggest a more customized and effective preservation strategy. Waterlogged archaeological wood, frequently in the form of shipwrecks, is being excavated for historical purposes in many countries around the world. Even after extensive efforts towards preservation, scientists are discovering that accumulation of sulfate salts results in acidic conditions on the surfaces of the artifacts. Sulfuric acid degrades structural fibers in the wood by acid hydrolysis of cellulose, accelerating the decomposition of the ship timbers. Determining the sulfur content of waterlogged wood is now of great importance in maritime archaeology. Artifact preservation is often more time consuming and expensive than the original excavation; but it is key to the availability of objects for future study as well as maintaining the integrity of historical data and preserving the value of museum pieces. Sulfur occurs in a wide number of oxidation states from -2 to +6, and appears in numerous organic and inorganic compounds in nature. However, it is a very minor component of wood. Sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a valuable technique because it has the ability to detect very low concentrations of sulfur in the specimen. XAS is also sensitive to differences in oxidation states, as well as long and short range order in molecules.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

implementation of minimum biodiesel content requirements, including information about the price and supply of biodiesel fuel. (Reference House File 2746, 2014, and Minnesota...

192

Fuel processing for fuel cells: a model for fuel conversion and carbon formation in the adiabatic steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In present fuel cell power plants the fuel processor is a catalytic steam reformer which is limited to the use of fuels such as naphtha and natural gas. The sulfur content of these feeds must be reduced to low levels by hydrotreatment before contacting the nickel catalyst in the reformer. However, future fuel cell power plants may be required to ue coal-derived liquid fuel or heavy petroleum distillates which are more difficult to hydrotreat and reform. To meet this requirement, an adiabatic steam reformer is being developed by United Technologies Corporation with the support of the Electric Power Research Institute. In the adiabatic reformer, air is added to the process stream to provide, by combustion, the heat for endothermic reforming in a catalyst bed. In the inlet section of the reformer, air and fuel combust, and reforming is initiated on special catalysts whose primary functon is to prevent formation and accumulation of carbon. Following the inlet section, catalysts with high activity for steam reforming complete the conversion of the remaining fuel, principally methane. The objective of the present program is to establish a reactor model for the adiabatic reformer which would predict process stream compositions and temperatures and include carbon formation processes. Progress is reported on the four tasks: (1) determine rate expressions for catalytic reactions occurring in the adiabatic reformer; (2) establish a reactor model to predict process stream compositions in the adiabatic reformer using data from Task 1 for cataytic reactions and data from the literature for homogeneous gas-phase reactions; (3) determine critical conditions for carbon formation on selected catalysts using microbalance experiments; and (4) establish a model to predict carbon formation by combination of the model for process stream composition from Task 2 and data for carbon formation from Task 3. (WHK)

Bett, J.A.S.; Cutlip, M.C.; Foley, P.F.; Lesieur, R.R.; Meyer, A.P.; Sederquist, R.A.; Setzer, H.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

194

Profit and policy implications of producing biodiesel–ethanol–diesel fuel blends to specification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear optimization model is developed in this work to analyze biodiesel–ethanol–diesel (BED) ternary blending processes. The model establishes optimal blends to improve the system profitability given production costs, market demand, and fuel prices while meeting multiple property criteria such as kinematic viscosity, density, lower heating value, cloud point, cetane number, fuel stability and sulfur content. Pertinent fuel mixing rules for predicting the fuel properties of BED blends were extrapolated from previous works and applied as constraints to the present model. Several dynamic and/or uncertainty factors were explored in further depth to quantify their impacts on the fuel composition of BED blends including petro-diesel supply reduction, diesel production cost, diesel blends market retail price, and policy changes on bio-fuel subsidies. By examining key optimization sensitivity analysis such as shadow prices and opportunity costs, the crucial limits or constraints on fuel specifications can be identified and used to proactively identify and promote the development of potential additives. The model also suggests the government policy of simultaneously implementing bio-fuel tax credits and mandates may not have a higher contribution to promoting bio-fuel production than the case only with tax credits for the firms with the goal of profit maximization. The firms enable 5–8% increase of the optimal profit from BED blends by utilizing ethanol derived from food waste feedstocks instead of edible biomass.

Jiefeng Lin; Gabrielle Gaustad; Thomas A. Trabold

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Mineral and Fuel Extraction: Health Consequences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Activities associated with mining and fuel extraction may present a range of potential health risks for nearby communities. The environmental legacy of mining and fuel extraction is extensive, with millions of active and abandoned mines globally. Evaluation of community risks from mineral and fuel extraction is often a complex task, given the variety of products produced, multiple potential exposure contexts, routes of contact, and health impacts. Adverse health outcomes that may arise from mineral-related processes include release of toxicants such as metals, metalloids, and mineral dusts, and indirect effects such as the increased potential of vectorborne disease. The ongoing processing and end-use of minerals also produce gas emissions (such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide), often on a large scale. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are substances of particular concern arising from conventional crude oil and coal extraction, oil sands/shales wastes, and tailings water, and are classified as either proven or suspected carcinogens. The geotechnical and structural aspects of mine sites must also be considered, including the risk of major hazardous events such as release of tailings dam contents. Indirect or delayed effects of mineral and fuel extraction include those that act to affect community health through contamination or disruption of water supplies and food sources (e.g., crops). As with many industries, the balance between risks and benefits of mining must be carefully calibrated.

A. Cook; R.B. Finkelman; A. Fourie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels According to Storage Conditions and Biodiesel Content Impact of the Fuel Molecular Structure on the Oxidation Process of Real Diesel fuels...

197

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020fl2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020fl2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:29 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Florida (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020FL2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Florida (MMcf)"

199

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020ct2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020ct2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Connecticut (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020CT2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Connecticut (MMcf)"

200

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020az2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020az2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:17 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Arizona (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020AZ2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Arizona (MMcf)"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020ca2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020ca2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:19 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in California (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020CA2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in California (MMcf)"

202

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020dc2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020dc2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in the District of Columbia (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020DC2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in the District of Columbia (MMcf)"

203

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020co2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020co2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:21 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Colorado (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020CO2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Colorado (MMcf)"

204

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020al2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020al2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:11 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Alabama (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020AL2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Alabama (MMcf)"

205

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9160us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9160us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:33:48 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9160US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" 29235,93000 29266,87000 29295,93000 29326,85000

206

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020ak2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020ak2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:09 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Alaska (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020AK2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Alaska (MMcf)"

207

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:23:36 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in the U.S. (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020US2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in the U.S. (MMcf)"

208

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020hi2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020hi2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:33 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Hawaii (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020HI2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Hawaii (MMcf)"

209

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020ga2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020ga2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:31 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Georgia (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020GA2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Georgia (MMcf)"

210

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020ar2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020ar2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:14 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Arkansas (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020AR2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Arkansas (MMcf)"

211

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020de2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020de2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:22:26 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Delaware (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3020DE2" "Date","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Delaware (MMcf)"

212

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

213

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT FY09 SECOND QUARTER REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer, and designed and built a larger, multi-cell stack electrolyzer. During FY08, SRNL continued SDE development, including development and successful testing of a three-cell electrolyzer stack with a rated capacity of 100 liters per hour. The HyS program for FY09 program will address improving SDE performance by focusing on preventing or minimizing sulfur deposition inside the cell caused by SO{sub 2} crossover, reduction of cell voltage for improved efficiency, an extension of cell operating lifetime. During FY09 a baseline technology development program is being conducted to address each of these issues. Button-cell (2-cm{sup 2}) and single cell (60-cm{sup 2}) SDEs will be fabricated and tested. A pressurized button-cell test facility will be designed and constructed to facilitate addition testing. The single cell test facility will be upgraded for unattended operation, and later for operation at higher temperature and pressure. Work will continue on development of the Gas Diffusion Electrode (GDE), or Gap Cell, as an alternative electrolyzer design approach that is being developed under subcontract with industry partner Giner Electrochemical Systems. If successful, it could provide an alternative means of preventing sulfur crossover through the proton exchange membrane, as well as the possibility for higher current density operation based on more rapid mass transfer in a gas-phase anode. Promising cell components will be assembled into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and tested in the single cell test facility. Upon modification for unattended operation, test will be conducted for 200 hours or more. Both the button-cell and modified single cell facility will be utilized to demonstrate electrolyzer operation without sulfur build-up limitations, which is a Level 1 Milestone.

Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Fuel Cells Energy Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen DOE Hydrogen and and Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting Fuel Cell Coordination Meeting June 2-3, 2003 Electricity Users Kathi Epping Kathi Epping Objectives & Barriers Distributed Energy OBJECTIVES * Develop a distributed generation PEM fuel cell system operating on natural gas or propane that achieves 40% electrical efficiency and 40,000 hours durability at $400-750/kW by 2010. BARRIERS * Durability * Heat Utilization * Power Electronics * Start-Up Time Targets and Status Integrated Stationary PEMFC Power Systems Operating on Natural Gas or Propane Containing 6 ppm Sulfur 40,000 30,000 15,000 Hours Durability 750 1,250 2,500 $/kWe Cost 40 32 30 % Electrical Efficiency Large (50-250 kW) Systems 40,000 30,000 >6,000 Hours Durability 1,000 1,500 3,000

215

Determination of optimum electrolyte composition for molten carbonate fuel cells. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Yuh, C.Y.; Pigeaud, A.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

SECA Fuel Processing Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

June 3, 2003 SECA Fuel Processing National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Strategic Center for Natural Gas REFORMING * Focus - Heavy hydrocarbons - Minimal use of water - Simplified system - Reduced cost - Sulfur tolerance with conversion to hydrogen sulfide * Challenges - Carbon deposition - Sulfur poisoning - Thermal gradients - Vaporization * Approaches - Metal oxide catalysts - Nobal metal cPox or ATR - Decorated nickel surface - Complete system interactions Tubular cPox Reformer Strategic Center for Natural Gas NETL Fuel Processing Budget Summary Proj. # PROJECT PERSONNEL KEY TASKS COST EST. 1 Diesel Reforming Kinetic Fundamentals *Shekhawat Gardner Berry 1.) Bring Reforming Lab Online 2.) Conduct Diesel Compound Interaction Study 3.) Level 1

217

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption (MMcf)","Florida Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)","Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)","Illinois Natural Gas...

219

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Alternative Fuels Data Center: Page Not Found Skip to Content Eere_header_logo U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Alternative Fuels Data Center Search Search Help Alternative Fuels Data Center Fuels & Vehicles Biodiesel | Diesel Vehicles

220

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 PM)" 1 PM)" "Hawaii" "Fuel, Quality",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",303,296,188,175,281,309,358,297,279 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",11536,11422,11097,10975,10943,10871,10669,10640,10562 " Average sulfur Content (percent)","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-","-",0.32,0.44,0.49,0.55,0.51,0.47,0.66,0.65,0.62

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Novel Nanoscale Catalysts and Desulfurizers for Aviation Fuels Martin Duran* and Abdul-Majeed Azad  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reforming catalysts for jet fuel", The Ohio Fuel Cell Symposium of the Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition, May 23Novel Nanoscale Catalysts and Desulfurizers for Aviation Fuels Martin Duran* and Abdul-Majeed Azad) to hydrogen through steam reforming poses a challenge since these fuels contain sulfur up to about 1000 ppm

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

222

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

223

Diesel Particle Filter and Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel Particle Filter and Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions ... Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels ...

Matthew A. Ratcliff; A. John Dane; Aaron Williams; John Ireland; Jon Luecke; Robert L. McCormick; Kent J. Voorhees

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significant poten- tial as a feedstock for conversion to liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel (Kadam to be limited. However, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment has proven to be a very effective in recov- ering most of these pretreatments to corn stover include dilute-sulfuric acid in a high-solids percola- tion reactor (Zhu et al

California at Riverside, University of

225

Amylopectin Wrapped Graphene Oxide/Sulfur for Improved Cyclability of Lithium–Sulfur Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amylopectin Wrapped Graphene Oxide/Sulfur for Improved Cyclability of Lithium–Sulfur Battery ... An amylopectin wrapped graphene oxide-sulfur composite was prepared to construct a 3-dimensionally cross-linked structure through the interaction between amylopectin and graphene oxide, for stabilizing lithium sulfur batteries. ...

Weidong Zhou; Hao Chen; Yingchao Yu; Deli Wang; Zhiming Cui; Francis J. DiSalvo; Héctor D. Abruña

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

226

Sulfur: its clinical and toxicologic aspects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although there is no known dietary requirement for inorganic sulfur, it is an essential element for all animal species in as much as they all require the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. There are three predominate forms of organic sulfur in animals and humans: 1) the thiomethyl of methionine residues in protein; 2) the sulfhydryl disulfides of protein; and 3) the compounds containing ester or amide bound sulfates of glycosaminoglycans, steroids, and many xenobiotic metabolites. Thus, sulfur becomes an important constituent of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and other biomolecules. Unlike mammalian species, plants can use inorganic sulfur and synthesize methionine from which are synthesized all the other important sulfur compounds. Hence, sulfur deficiency occurs mainly when plants are grown in sulfur-depleted soils and when humans and animals consume low-protein diets. In recent times, however, the increasing prevalence of refining petroleum and smelting sulfur compounds of metallic minerals into free metals are having a large impact on the balance of sulfur in the environment. Sulfur toxicity is associated mainly with high levels of the element and its toxic volatile substances in the environment. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant, may adversely affect animal and human health by causing bronchitis, bronchoconstriction, and increased pulmonary resistance.

Lioudmila A Komarnisky; Robert J Christopherson; Tapan K Basu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a “clean fuel” for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Computational Study of Sulfur–nickel Interactions: A New S–Ni Phase Diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prediction of the interactions between H2S-contaminated hydrogen fuel and Ni surfaces under conditions similar to those for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation using DFT (density function theory) calculations (with thermodynamic corrections) has resulted in a new S–Ni phase diagram, which suggests the existence of an intermediate state between clean Ni surfaces and nickel sulfides – sulfur atoms adsorbed on Ni surfaces. This prediction is consistent with many experimental observations relevant to sulfur poisoning of Nibased anodes in SOFCs, which cannot be explained using the existing S–Ni bulk phase diagram from classical thermodynamics. The accurate prediction of the adsorption phase is vital to a fundamental understanding of the sulfur poisoning mechanism of Ni-based anodes under SOFC operating conditions.

Wang, Jeng-Han; Liu, Meilin

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

229

Changes in nesting behavior and lipid content of a marine amphipod (Amphithoe valida) to the toxicity of a no. 2 fuel oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory cultured amphipods, Amphithoe valida, were exposed to the water soluble fractions (WSF) of a No. 2 fuel oil for 6 days, and then transferred to clean sea water for one week. Survival and nesting behavi...

W.Y. Lee; S.A. Macko; J.A.C. Nicol

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance Opportunity This patent-pending technology, "Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance," consists of copper-palladium alloy compositions for hydrogen separation membranes that use less palladium and have a potential increase in hydrogen permeability and resistance to sulfur degradation compared to currently available copper-palladium membranes. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview NETL is working to help produce and deliver hydrogen from fossil fuels including coal in commercially applicable and environmentally

231

Apparatus for Determining Sulfur in Organic Compounds by Means of Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......fuel, crude oil, and various grades of coal. However, our experience with the method...in the Schiiniger flask. The complete combustion of sulfur in pure oxygen is readily effected...moles origin- ally present. Classical chemistry allows one to cal- culate the percentage......

Philipp W. H. Schuessler

1969-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures thanSulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor Yung Ho to hydrogen sulfide, even in the presence of hydrogen or oxygen at partial pressures of 20­600 times greater

Tobin, Roger G.

233

Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not consume fossil fuels or pro- duce CO2 while producing highly pure hydrogen.1-10 Gaseous SO2 fedTransport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur and Biological Systems Department, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA c Department of Materials Science

Weidner, John W.

234

Why Sequence Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Several environmental problems, such as acid rain, biocorrosion, etc., are caused by sulfur compounds, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). A sustainable process to remove these sulfur compounds is the production of elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gas streams by the use of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In this process, H2S is absorbed into the alkaline solution in the scrubber unit, followed by the biological oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur and the recycling of water. With this two-step process, a variety of gas streams (i.e., natural gas, synthesis gas, biogas, and refinery gas) can be treated. For the treatment of sulfate-containing waste streams, an extra step has to be introduced: the transformation of sulfate into H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In

235

Handbook of fuel cell performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1983-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1983-2013 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1983-2013 Connecticut - - - - - - 1983-2013 Maine - - - - - - 1983-2013 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1983-2013

237

The Use of Ion Chromatography in the Evaluation of Densified Refuse-Derived Fuel as a Potential Alternative Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Department of Chemistry, University...pollutants during combustion. The binder-enhanced...high-sulfur coal decrease when...for sulfurrich coal as a fuel and...Department of Chemistry, University...pollutants during combustion. T h e binder-enhanced...high-sulfur coal decrease when......

Jen-Fon Jen; Kenneth E. Daugherty; James G. Tarter

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with tert-butyl hydro peroxide in a photochemical micro-reactor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Sulfur content in fuels is an increasingly critical environmental issue. Hydrodesulfurization removes sulfur from hydrocarbons; however, further desulfurization is necessary in fuels. New methods are… (more)

Hebert, Eilleen M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Synthetic fuel concept to steal CO2 from air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to steal CO2 from air Lab has developed a low-risk, transformational concept, called Green Freedom(tm), for large-scale production of carbon-neutral, sulfur-free fuels and...

240

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the design and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates, and electrolyte ...

Ranga S. Jayashree; Michael Mitchell; Dilip Natarajan; Larry J. Markoski; Paul J. A. Kenis

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil Retail Sales by All Sellers (Dollars per Gallon)","New Mexico Residual Fuel Oil Retail Sales by All Sellers (Dollars per Gallon)","Texas Residual...

242

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Lease Fuel...

243

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Vessel Bunkering Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Vessel Bunkering Consumers (Thousand...

244

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Industrial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Industrial Consumers (Thousand...

245

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","Texas...

246

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Commercial Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Commercial Consumers (Thousand...

247

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels * Pourable, storable and transportable liquid fuel * Contains approximately 50-55% energy content of fossil fuel * Meets applicable ASTM Standard for industrial use (ASTM...

248

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2011 DOE...

249

Improve reformer operation with trace sulfur removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern bimetallic reforming catalysts typically have feed specifications for sulfur of 0.5 to 1 wppm in the reformer naphtha carge. Sulfur in the raw naphtha is reduced to this level by naphtha hydrotreating. While most naphtha hydrotreating operations can usually obtain these levels without substantial problems. It is difficult to obtain levels much below 0.5 to 1 wppm with this process. Revamp of a constrained existing hydrotreater to reduce product sulfur slightly can be extremely costly typically entailing replacement or addition of a new reactor. At Engelhard the authors demonstrated that if the last traces of sulfur remaining from hydrotreating can be removed, the resulting ultra-low sulfur feed greatly improves the reformer operation and provides substantial economic benefit to the refiner. Removal of the remaining trace sulfur is accomplished in a simple manner with a special adsorbent bed, without adding complexity to the reforming operation.

McClung, R.G.; Novak, W.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process presented at the PEM fuel cell pre-solicitation meeting held May 26, 2005 in Arlington, VA.

251

Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

Lyons, J. R.

252

HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Bioprocessing of High-sulfur Crudes Via Appliaction of Critical Fluid Biocatalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This experimental research project investigated protein-based biocatalysis in supercritical fluid solvents as an integrated process approach to catalyze the removal of sulfur atoms from crude oils and fuels. The work focused on the oxidation of model sulfur-containing compounds in supercritical reaction media and included three major tasks: microbiological induction experiments, proteincatalyzed biooxidation in supercritical solvents, and a work-in-kind cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). This work demonstrated that the biooxidation reaction could be improved by an order-of-magnitude by carrying out the reaction in emulsions in supercritical fluids.

Ginosar, Daniel Michael; Bala, Greg Alan; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Stanescue, Marina A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Thermodynamic Investigation of Carbon Deposition and Sulfur Evolution in Chemical Looping Combustion with Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Investigation of Carbon Deposition and Sulfur Evolution in Chemical Looping Combustion with Syngas ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) with syngas, a synthesized gas mixture of CO, H2, CO2, H2O(g), N2, and H2S, was investigated using thermodynamic simulation, with focus on carbon deposition and sulfur evolution in CLC. ... Abad, A.; Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L. F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J. Reduction kinetics of Cu-,Ni-, and Fe-based oxygen carriers using syngas (CO+H2) for chemical-looping combustion Energy Fuels 2007 21 4 1854 1858 ...

Baowen Wang; Rong Yan; Dong Ho Lee; David Tee Liang; Ying Zheng; Haibo Zhao; Chuguang Zheng

2008-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

255

Emission characteristics of GTL fuel as an alternative to conventional marine gas oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study examine the gaseous, smoke and particulate matter emission characteristics of a turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine operated on conventional marine gas oil and gas-to-liquid Fischer–Tropsch fuel under modes of propulsion and generator operation. The gas-to-liquid showed average reductions up to 19% in nitrogen oxides, 25% in carbon monoxide, 4% in carbon dioxide and 30% in smoke with slight increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Particulate number concentrations for gas-to-liquid were up to 21% higher, whereas particulates mass showed a 16% decrease at medium and high loads, while increasing by 12–15% under lower load conditions. Very low aromatic content of gas-to-liquid fuel and nearly zero sulfur level are responsible for particulate reduction.

Sergey Ushakov; Nadine G.M. Halvorsen; Harald Valland; Dag H. Williksen; Vilmar Æsøy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fuels & Lubricant Technologies- FEERC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuels & Lubricants Technology Fuels & Lubricants Technology Fuels and lubricants research at FEERC involves study of the impacts of fuel and lubricant properties on advanced combustion processes as well as on emissions and emission control strategies and devices. The range of fuels studied includes liquid fuels from synthetic and renewable sources as well as conventional and unconventional fossil-based sources. Combustion and emissions studies are leveraged with relevant single and multi-cylinder engine setups in the FEERC and access to a suite of unique diagnostic tools and a vehicle dynamometer laboratory. ORNL/DOE research has been cited by EPA in important decisions such as the 2006 diesel sulfur rule and the 2010/2011 E15 waiver decision. Major program categories and examples

257

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technoeconomic Appraisal," December 1991. 5. DOE Annual Report on Contract No. AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J., Hames, B., Chum, H. L., Dimmel, D. R, Althen, E., Caldwell, P. L., Daube, Oxidation ;; Diels-Alder .. I I -Methanol .. ~ 5 I 3 (C~O) OCH... - Hydrogen 3 (Q-IP) # Q-I 3 o o ~ o 1 2 ~ (H) Lignin DMBQ =two OCH3 groups Anthraquinone MMBQ =one OCH3 group A. K, and Kuroda, K-I.,"Sulfur-free Selective Pulping," March 1992. 6. DOE Annual Report on Contrac No. DE-AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

258

Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

Borguet, Eric

259

Hydrogen quality for fuel cell vehicles - a modeling study of the sensitivity of impurity content in hydrogen to the process variables in the SMR-PSA pathway.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As fuel cell vehicles approach wide-scale deployment, the issue of the quality of hydrogen dispensed to the vehicles has become increasingly important. The various factors that must be considered include the effects of different contaminants on fuel cell performance and durability, the production and purification of hydrogen to meet fuel quality guidelines, and the associated costs of providing hydrogen of that quality to the fuel cell vehicles. In this paper, we describe the development of a model to track the formation and removal of several contaminants over the various steps of hydrogen production by steam-methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas, followed by purification by pressure-swing adsorption (PSA). We have used the model to evaluate the effects of setting varying levels of these contaminants in the product hydrogen on the production/purification efficiency, hydrogen recovery, and the cost of the hydrogen. The model can be used to track contaminants such as CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}S in the process. The results indicate that a suggested specification of 0.2 ppm CO would limit the maximum hydrogen recovery from the PSA under typical design and operating conditions. The steam-to-carbon ratio and the process pressure are found to have a significant impact on the process efficiency. Varying the CO specification from 0.1 to 1 ppm is not expected to affect the cost of hydrogen significantly, although the cost of gas analysis to comply with such stringent requirements may add 2-10 cents/kg to the cost of hydrogen.

Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Joseck, F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; USDOE

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users " Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users ",9,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_dist_a_epd2dm10_pta_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_dist_a_epd2dm10_pta_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

2008 DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste Inventory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Management >> National Spent Nuclear Fuel INL Logo Search 2008 DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste Inventory Content Goes Here Skip Navigation Links Home Newsroom About INL...

262

The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

None

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Interactive chemical effects and instability of shale derived middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of instability of shale-derived fuels. Changes in fuel properties with time have been a continuing problem in the use of middle distillate fuels. The authors define instability as the formation of insoluble sediments and gums as well as the production of peroxides and color bodies. Nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles have long been implicated in fuel degradation, but present knowledge is limited regarding the chemistry of their autoxidation reactions in the complex fuel media. Based on the GC/MS identification of nitrogen heterocyclic constituents in several shale-derived middle distillate fuels, the authors have conducted gravimetric instability tests employing three model nitrogen heterocycles in shale-derived diesel fuels. Model sulfur compound dopant studies on shale-derived jet fuels were conducted by monitoring hydroperoxide formation/decomposition and the decreased quantity of sulfur compound. Potential interactive effects have been defined for these model dopants.

Mushrush, G.W.; Beal, E.J.; Watkins, J.M.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Sulfur...FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS, COMBUSTION...MAY FLUE GAS DES S E...1971 ). High-sulfur...was brief. Natural gas became...overdependent on natural gas and oil to...elevated pressure with a downward...coals of high ash-fusion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

265

The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

266

Analyzing organic sulfur in coal/char: Integrated mild degradation/XANES methods. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of sulfur in coals/chars via the use of combined advanced nondestructive and advanced destructive methods of sulfur analysis. This study combines selective oxidation, analytical pyrolysis, and sulfur X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. Samples with a wide variety of sulfur contents, (0.63%--4.40%) have been prepared for use in this study. This includes steam gasification chars, oxidized coals and desulfurized coals as well of the original unaltered coals. Mild pyrolysis and XANES data shows that the sulfur chemistry of gasification chars is significantly different from that of the original coals. Mild pyrolysis of the samples that were oxidized with peroxyacetic acid showed that the level of simple thiophene structures observed in the pyrolysis products declines with increasing levels of oxidation. Sulfur XANES spectra of treated samples showed various effects depending on the treatment severity. The XANES spectra of less severely treated samples were similar, although not identical, to the untreated coal spectra. XANES of gasification chars indicated conversion of pyrite to pyrrhotite, removal of organic sulfide sulfur and dissolution of soluble inorganic sulfur species during gasification. Mild oxidation with peroxyacetic acid results in preferential oxidation of sulfide forms before thiophene forms but increasing oxidation severity leads to virtually all sulfur species being oxidized. Good agreement between W-band EPR and XANES data for aromatic sulfur contents were obtained. The TPR analysis of coal indicated that organic sulfur was present as alkyl-aryl sulfide, aryl-aryl sulfides, simple thiophenes and condensed thiophenes. TPR shows that non-thiophenic compounds are removed by PAA oxidation, and that the longer the oxidation is performed the greater is the removal of non-thiophenic sulfur structures.

Palmer, S.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of...

269

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

270

Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Fate of Sulfur, Chlorine, Alkali Metal, and Vanadium Species during High-Temperature Gasification of Canadian Tar Sand Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-feed of alternative fuels, e.g., petcoke, gains increasing importance for energy conversion in not only Germany but also worldwide. ... The aim of this work was to obtain detailed information on the influence of fuel composition of the refinery product line tar sand, bitumen, and petcoke in comparison to the standard fuel hard coal on the release of sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur, and vanadium species during high-temperature gasification. ... In addition to the pure fuels, blends of hard coal and petcoke were gasified in lab-scale experiments in a helium/oxygen atmosphere at 1500 °C. ...

Marc Bläsing; Kaveh Nazeri; Michael Müller

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Production of biocomponent containing jet fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Further than quality requirements were more aggravated in front of jet fuels. This was generated by ... Keywords: aromatic content, biocomponent, crystallization point, jet fuel, kerosene, vegetable oil

Z. Eller; P. Solymosi; T. Kasza; Z. Varga; J. Hancsók

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Sulfur Behavior in the Sasol?Lurgi Fixed-Bed Dry-Bottom Gasification Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article reports on the findings of a study regarding the sulfur behavior across a Sasol?Lurgi gasifier. ... (2) This ash, referred to as “coarse ash”, is a combination of red and white to gray sintered clinkers with heterogeneous texture varying from fine material to large irregularly shaped aggregates of sizes ranging from 4 to 75 mm. ... South African coals that are used for the Sasol?Lurgi gasification process are normally low-grade medium rank C (bituminous) coal with a total sulfur content of approximately 1?2 wt %, on an as-received basis. ...

M. Pat Skhonde; R. Henry Matjie; J. Reginald Bunt; A. Christien Strydom; Herold Schobert

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

275

Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two kinds of graphene–sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ?5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene–sulfur composite (S–G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50–200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S–G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g?1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g?1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g?1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the “shuttle effect”, resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li–S batteries.

Jun Zhang; Zimin Dong; Xiuli Wang; Xuyang Zhao; Jiangping Tu; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

8: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content Fact 588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content The fuel economy of a vehicle is...

279

Model Year 1999 Fuel Economy Guide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FUEL FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE MODEL YEAR 1999 DOE/EE-0178 Fuel Economy Estimates October 1998 1 CONTENTS PAGE Purpose of the Guide ..................................................... 1 Interior Volume ................................................................ 1 How the Fuel Economy Estimates are Obtained ........... 1 Factors Affecting MPG .................................................... 2 Fuel Economy and Climate Change ............................... 2 Gas Guzzler Tax ............................................................. 2 Vehicle Classes Used in This Guide. .............................. 2 Annuel Fuel Costs .......................................................... 3 How to Use the Guide .................................................... 4 Where to Re-order Guides

280

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Diesel Fuel Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, cash self-serve on-highway diesel prices (including taxes) are collected from a sample of approximately 400 retail diesel outlets in the continental U.S. The sample includes a combination of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The prices are collected via telephone, fax, email, or the internet from participating outlets. All collected prices are subjected to automated edit checks during data collection and data processing. Data flagged by the edits are verified with the respondents. Imputation is used for companies

282

Task 4.7 - diesel fuel desulfurization. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reductions in the maximum permissible sulfur content of diesel fuel to less than 0.05 wt% will require deep desulfurization to meet these standards. In some refineries, a new hydrogenation catalyst may be required for diesel fuel production. The work very briefly described in this document is on the use of hydrotalcite-supported molybdenum sulfide in the catalysis of ethanol. The catalyst reaction was highly selective for 1-butanol, providing a very clean reaction. Since the catalysis contains the MoS{sub 2} needed for the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps, the reaction can be performed at lower temperatures and higher selectivity. The catalyst was very stable and not destroyed by the water produced in the reaction.

Olson, E.S.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

Stephen P. Bergin

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Theoretical specific energy and theoretical energy density Scanning electron micrograph of the GO-S nanocomposite June 2013 Searching for a safer, less expensive alternative to today's lithium-ion batteries, scientists have turned to lithium-sulfur as a possible chemistry for next-generation batteries. Li/S batteries have several times the energy storage capacity of the best currently available rechargeable Li-ion battery, and sulfur is inexpensive and nontoxic. Current batteries using this chemistry, however, suffer from extremely short cycle life-they don't last through many charge-discharge cycles before they fail. A research team led by Elton Cairns and Yuegang Zhang has developed a new

285

Phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites as active cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites cathode [triphosphazene sulfide composite (PS) or nitroaniline–triphosphazene disulfide composite (NPS)] which can give good affinity with electrolytes was...

J. D. Liu; S. Q. Zhang; S. B. Yang; Z. F. Shi; S. T. Zhang; L. K. Wu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Energy Levels in Sulfur Nuclei  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study has been made of the proton groups from the reaction of 3.22-Mev deuterons with sulfur in the form, primarily, of H2S gas. The following Q values have been assigned to the reaction S32(dp)S33:6.48, 5.69, 4.58, 4.31, 3.63, 3.33, 2.60, 2.33, 2.06, 1.78, 1.37, 0.85, and 0.18 Mev, corresponding to the ground state and twelve excited states of S33. Four of these groups have been investigated for proton gamma-ray coincidences to confirm this assignment. The yield as a function of deuteron energy has been observed for the six highest energy groups and indication of the presence of some broad resonances found. A qualitative measurement of the variation with angle of relative yields of the groups has indicated a proton intensity distribution that is symmetric for some groups and asymmetric for others. The cross section for the reaction for 90° observation has been found to be 1.2 barns. The mass difference S33-S32 has been calculated to be 0.99963 mass unit.Two low intensity, high energy groups have been assigned to the reaction S33(dp)S34 with Q values of 8.67 and 7.85 Mev. This, together with the above observation, leads to a value of 1.99691 for the mass difference S34-S32.

Perry W. Davison

1949-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in New York (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","102014" ,"Release Date:","12312014" ,"Next Release Date:","1...

288

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ies","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New York (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","102014" ,"Release Date:","12312014"...

289

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Fuel Consumption " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant...

290

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption ",35,"Annual",2013,"6301983" ,"Release Date:","12312014" ,"Next Release...

291

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for All Other Uses ",60,"Annual",2013,"6301984" ,"Release Date:","1242014"...

292

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil for All Other Uses ",60,"Annual",2013,"6301984" ,"Release Date:","1242014" ,"Next...

293

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","District of Columbia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","District of Columbia Natural Gas Price Sold...

294

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Prime Supplier Sales...

295

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

Speight, J. [University of Utah, UT (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

Ji-lu Chen

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Alaska has 4. 0 trillion tons of low-sulfur coal: Is there a future for this resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for and use of low-sulfur coal may increase because of concern with acid rain. Alaska's low-sulfur coal resources can only be described as enormous: 4.0 trillion tons of hypothetical onshore coal. Mean total sulfur content is 0.34% (range 0.06-6.6%, n = 262) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. There are 50 coal fields in Alaska; the bulk of the resources are in six major fields or regions: Nenana, Cook Inlet, Matanuska, Chignik-Herendeen Bay, North Slope, and Bering River. For comparison, Carboniferous coals in the Appalachian region and Interior Province have a mean total sulfur content of 2.3% (range 0.1-19.0%, n = 5,497) with a mean apparent rank of high-volatile A bituminous coal, and Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains Cretaceous and Tertiary coals have a mean total sulfur content of 0.86% (range 0.02-19.0%, n = 2,754) with a mean apparent rank of subbituminous B. Alaskan coal has two-fifths the total sulfur of western US coals and one-sixth that of Carboniferous US coals. Even though Alaska has large resources of low-sulfur coal, these resources have not been developed because of (1) remote locations and little infrastructure, (2) inhospitable climate, and (3) long distances to potential markets. These resources will not be used in the near future unless there are some major, and probably violent, changes in the world energy picture.

Stricker, G.D. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable sorbent to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high...

300

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with both conventional and ultra-low sulfur diesel, and FRFG motor fuels. * The UCF LCA develops a set of near-term (2006) and long-term (2015) scenarios to assess impacts...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

302

Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

Sullivan, Neal P

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

303

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

304

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

305

Naphthenic acid corrosion in synthetic fuels production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Serious corrosion damage to carbon steel piping in a fractionation unit associated with synthetic fuels production has been ascribed to the presence of naphthenic acids. Investigation of the problem revealed total acids numbers (TAN) ranging from 8--12mg KOH/g in the feed to the unit. Damage typically occurred in the temperature range 180--240 C and manifested as localized pitting, preferential weld corrosion, general wall thinning and end-grain attack. Filming amine corrosion inhibitors designed for refinery overhead systems have been proven ineffective and high temperature phosphate-based inhibitors could not be used due to potential catalyst poisoning in downstream refinery units. Coupon exposures indicated corrosion rates in the order of 2 mm/y on carbon steel in a reboiler line as well as pitting to austenitic stainless steel type UNS S30403. Line replacement in austenitic stainless steel UNS S31603 has been proven effective. The performance of this alloy is mainly ascribed to its molybdenum content. The absence of sulfur in the feed to the unit is also contributing to the alloy performance despite the extremely high total acid numbers.

Bruyn, H.I. de [Mossgas Ltd., Mossel Bay (South Africa)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries...

307

BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring onboard fuel monitoring of fuel and biofuel qualities using an optical sensor for engine...

308

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillate Fuel Oil " Distillate Fuel Oil " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil ",1,"Weekly","12/13/2013","2/8/1991" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_sum_sndw_a_epd0_vpp_mbblpd_w.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_sum_sndw_a_epd0_vpp_mbblpd_w.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

309

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (%)" Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (%)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (%)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1570_sal_4a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1570_sal_4a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:51:05 PM"

310

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gaseous Fuels (Bcf)" Gaseous Fuels (Bcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels (Bcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9090us1m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9090us1m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:33:16 PM"

311

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sdc_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1400_sdc_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:58:50 AM"

312

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iowa (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)" Iowa (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Iowa (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3060ia2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3060ia2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

313

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vehicle Fuel Consumers " Vehicle Fuel Consumers " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Delivered to Vehicle Fuel Consumers ",52,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1997" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_cons_sum_a_epg0_vdv_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_cons_sum_a_epg0_vdv_mmcf_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

314

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Illinois (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)" Illinois (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Illinois (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3060il2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3060il2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

315

Sorbent utilization prediction methodology: sulfur control in fluidized-bed combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Government has embarked on an ambitious program to develop and commercialize technologies to efficiently extract energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One of the more promising new technologies for steam and power generation is the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. In this process, coal is burned in a fluidized bed composed mainly of calcined limestone sorbent. The calcium oxide reacts chemically to capture the sulfur dioxide formed during the combustion and to maintain the stack gas sulfur emissions at acceptable levels. The spent sulfur sorbent, containing calcium sulfate, is a dry solid that can be disposed of along with coal ash or potentially used. Other major advantages of fluidized-bed combustion are the reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions because of the relatively low combustion temperatures, the capability of burning wide varieties of fuel, the high carbon combustion efficiencies, and the high heat-transfer coefficients. A key to the widespread commercialization of fluidized-bed technology is the ability to accurately predict the amount of sulfur that will be captured by a given sorbent. This handbook meets this need by providing a simple, yet reliable, user-oriented methodology (the ANL method) that allows performance of a sorbent to be predicted. The methodology is based on only three essential sorbent parameters, each of which can be readily obtained from standardized laboratory tests. These standard tests and the subsequent method of data reduction are described in detail.

Fee, D.C.; Wilson, W.I.; Shearer, J.A.; Smith, G.W.; Lenc, J.F.; Fan, L.S.; Myles, K.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The effects of gas-to-oil rate in ultra low sulfur diesel hydrotreating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrotreating has become a critical refining process as fuel sulfur specifications are tightened around the world. Recently, refiners in the United States have been learning how to optimize the performance of ultra low sulfur diesel (ulsd) hydrotreaters. The gas-to-oil feed rate ratio is known to be an important variable in this respect. It is well known that the gas-to-oil rate must be kept high enough to maintain the desired hydrogen partial pressure through the hydrotreating reactor, and to minimize the inhibiting effect of hydrogen sulfide. A lesser-known effect is the effect of gas-to-oil rate on the vapor–liquid equilibrium in the reactor. Changing the gas-to-oil rate alters the distribution of reactants between vapor and liquid in a way that changes the relative reaction rates of different sulfur compounds. This paper presents some pilot plant data and analysis showing this effect of phase equilibrium in deep diesel desulfurization. The effect can be modeled using the Frye–Mosby equation, which accounts for the effects of feed vaporization and phase equilibrium on the reaction rates of individual sulfur compounds in a trickle bed hydrotreater.

George Hoekstra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fuel processor and method for generating hydrogen for fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a H.sub.2 rich gas stream includes supplying an O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel to an inner reforming zone of a fuel processor that includes a partial oxidation catalyst and a steam reforming catalyst or a combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst. The method also includes contacting the O.sub.2 rich gas, steam, and fuel with the partial oxidation catalyst and the steam reforming catalyst or the combined partial oxidation and stream reforming catalyst in the inner reforming zone to generate a hot reformate stream. The method still further includes cooling the hot reformate stream in a cooling zone to produce a cooled reformate stream. Additionally, the method includes removing sulfur-containing compounds from the cooled reformate stream by contacting the cooled reformate stream with a sulfur removal agent. The method still further includes contacting the cooled reformate stream with a catalyst that converts water and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and H.sub.2 in a water-gas-shift zone to produce a final reformate stream in the fuel processor.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Naperville, IL); Lee, Sheldon H. D. (Willowbrook, IL); Carter, John David (Bolingbrook, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Myers, Deborah J. (Lisle, IL)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

318

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Sales of Residual...

319

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

for Oil Company Use " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil...

320

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oil Company Use " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Distillate Fuel Oil Sales...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residual Fuel Oil " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Adjusted Sales of...

322

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

323

SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic...

325

energy content  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

energy content, (weight) strength ? Arbeitsvermögen n (im ballistischen Mörser gemessen), Sprengenergie f (im ballistischen Mörser gemessen) [Mit 10 g Sprengstoff ermittelt

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

327

Effects of paleolatitude on coal quality - model for organic sulfur distribution in US coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the conterminous US, most Carboniferous peats accumulated at latitudes of 0/degrees/-15/degrees/S, Cretaceous Rocky Mountain province peats at 30/degrees/-45/degrees/N, Tertiary northern Great Plains peats at 40/degrees/-55/degrees/N, and Tertiary Gulf Coast peats at 30/degrees/-40/degrees/N. Alaskan Cretaceous and Tertiary peats accumulated at latitudes above 70/degrees/N. A comparison of paleolatitudes calculated from paleomagnetic poles and organic sulfur contents for more than 7000 coal samples indicates that the higher the latitude in which a peat swamp developed, the lower the mean organic sulfur content of the subsequent coal (correlation coefficient - 0.4; significant at the 99% confidence level). Mean organic sulfur contents range from 0.90% (range = 0.01-5.08%, standard deviation = 0.56) in low-latitude Carboniferous coal to 0.25% (range = 0.01-1.41%, standard deviation = 0.23) in high-latitude Alaskan Cretaceous and Tertiary coal.

Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8: September 14, 8: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content on

329

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 PM)" 2 PM)" "Rhode Island" "Fuel, Quality",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Petroleum (cents per million Btu)1",359,241,195,320,254,413,479,"-","-","-",730,802,1407,"-",1931,1649,934,1561 " Average heat value (Btu per gallon)",152445,151507,152617,150388,151314,139562,140390,"-","-","-",140564,140562,135160,"-",138571,141786,145243,140864 " Average sulfur Content (percent)",0.93,0.91,1,0.97,0.97,0.03,0.14,"-","-","-",0.14,0.09,0.03,"-",0.15,0.3,0.46,0.25 "Natural Gas (cents per million Btu)",217,198,213,239,222,185,223,326,329,455,650,680,951,734,781,1028,488,538

330

FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership 2008 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FreedomCAR FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership 2008 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments Table of Contents Item Page Preface iv Vehicle Technologies Advanced Combustion & Emissions Control * Hydrogen Engine Achieves 45% Efficiency 1 * A Detailed Picture of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Effects on HCCI Operation Developed 2 * A Predictive Model Developed for Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion 3 * Understanding Lean NO x Trap (LNT) Sulfur Tolerance 4 Electrical & Electronics * Direct Back-Side Cooling of Power Electronics 5 * High Temperature SOI Gate Driver 6 * Advanced DC to DC Converter 7 * High Temperature Polymer DC Bus Capacitors 8 Electrochemical Energy Storage * NCA-Based Li-ion Battery Packs Delivered 9 * Airless Spray Deposited Ceramic Separator 10

331

Table 6. Electric Power Delivered Fuel Prices and Quality for Coal, Petroleum, N  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 PM)" 6 PM)" "South Dakota" "Fuel, Quality",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Coal (cents per million Btu)",115,113,113,110,108,103,94,92,93,94,99,103,130,134,139,142,151,156,174,176,195 " Average heat value (Btu per pound)",6096,6025,6034,6057,6049,6972,9034,8687,8728,8630,8464,8540,8550,8560,8523,8711,8534,8530,8391,8386,8327 " Average sulfur Content (percent)",0.9,0.87,0.92,0.9,0.91,0.87,0.52,0.63,0.72,0.6,0.31,0.33,0.37,0.33,0.34,0.31,0.32,0.3,0.31,0.31,0.33 "Petroleum (cents per million Btu)1",565,488,"-",467,"-","-",598,"-","-","-","-","-","-",804,822,1245,1546,"-",1985,1248,1808

332

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

333

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

334

Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the surround1ng environment. As sulfur-modified paving materials were being developed, there was a corresponding concern for studying the amounts of gaseous emiss1ons that were generated. The Texas Trans- portat1on Inst1tute (TTI) was one of the first... organizations in the United States to become 1nvolved in the research and development of sulfur-modified pavements, Throughout 1ts laboratory stud1es TTI cont1nually mon1tored hydrogen sulf1de (H25) and sulfur d1oxide (502) em1ssions produced during mix...

Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

335

Engineering for Sustainability http://engineering.tufts.edu/ Nanoscale Gold Catalysts for the Upgrade of Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Upgrade of Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells What is the problem? Fuel processing by steam reforming or partial oxidation is presently used to produce a hydrogen-rich gas stream to feed the low- temperature PEM fuel cells. Impurities, such as carbon monoxide and sulfur, must be removed from the hydrogen stream

Tufts University

336

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Methylotrophs and iron oxidizers were also active in plume waters and expressed key proteins for methane by bacteria (especially, alpha-, gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria) that likely participate in the oxidationORIGINAL ARTICLE Sulfur oxidizers dominate carbon fixation at a biogeochemical hot spot in the dark

Hansell, Dennis

337

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...amounts of coal, because...Director-Mineral Re-sources...of Gas from Coal through a...on coals of high ash-fusion temperature...per ton of high-sulfur coal burned. Absorp-tion...particulate matter as well as...capable of remov-ing up to...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE AND RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. They are deposited on the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, slag must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Analysis indicated that slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to perform a series of tests to determine the factors that control the retention of the sulfur in the slag. 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed prior to the end of this reporting period, 12/31/98. This compares with 16 tests required in the original project plan. Combustor tests in early 1997 with high (37%) ash, Indian coal confirmed that high slag mass flow rates of about 500 lb/hr resulted in retention in the slag of up to 20% of the injected sulfur content mineral matter. To further increase the slag flow rate, rice husks, which contain 20% ash, and rice husk char, which contain 70% ash, were co-fired with coal in the combustor. A series of 13 combustor tests were performed in fourth quarter of 1997 and a further 6 tests were performed in January 1998 and in the summer of 1998. The test objective was to achieve slag flow rates between 500 and 1,000 lb/hr. Due to the very low bulk density of rice husk, compared to pulverized coal, almost the entire test effort focused on developing methods for feeding the rice husks into combustor. In the last test of December 1997, a peak mineral matter, injection rate of 592 lb/hr was briefly achieved by injection of coal, rice husk char, gypsum, and limestone into the combustor. However, no significant sulfur concentration was measured in the slag removed from the combustor. The peak injection rate reached with biomass in the 1997 tests was 310 lb/hr with rice husk, and 584 lb/hr with rice husk char.

Dr. Bert Zauderer

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short communication Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of molybdenum able to trigger the copper sulfur molybdenum interference in sheep was measured with either only) and 4 increasing molybdenum doses. The sulfur-molybdenum-copper interference was quantified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared ... ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. ... of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-li...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A simple approach to synthesize nanosized sulfur/graphene oxide materials for high-performance lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a simple and facile synthesis route for the sulfur/graphene oxide composite via ultrasonic mixing of the nano-sulfur and graphene oxide aqueous suspensions followed by a low-temperature heat treat...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Price Data Collection Procedures Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, cash self-serve on-highway diesel prices (including taxes) are collected from a sample of approximately 400 retail diesel outlets in the continental U.S. The sample includes a combination of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The prices are collected via telephone, fax, email, or the internet from participating outlets. All collected prices are subjected to automated edit checks during data collection and data processing. Data flagged by the edits are verified with the respondents. Imputation is used for companies that cannot be contacted and for reported prices that are extreme outliers.

343

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users " Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Prices of Refiner Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users ",60,"Monthly","9/2013","7/15/1975" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refoth_a_epjk_ptg_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refoth_a_epjk_ptg_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

344

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sca_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sca_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:35 PM"

345

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_stx_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_stx_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:43 PM"

346

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_smt_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_smt_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:39 PM"

347

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sfl_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sfl_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:36 PM"

348

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sks_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sks_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:37 PM"

349

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_spa_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_spa_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:42 PM"

350

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sut_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sut_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:44 PM"

351

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_soh_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_soh_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:41 PM"

352

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sak_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sak_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:34 PM"

353

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sor_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sor_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:42 PM"

354

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vehicle Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary) " Vehicle Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary) " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Vehicle Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary) ",52,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1997" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_sum_lsum_a_epg0_vdv_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_sum_lsum_a_epg0_vdv_mmcf_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

355

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary) " and Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary) " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas (Summary) ",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1980" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_sum_lsum_a_epg0_vgl_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_sum_lsum_a_epg0_vgl_mmcf_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

356

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sin_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sin_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:37 PM"

357

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sky_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sky_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:37 PM"

358

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_swy_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_swy_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:45 PM"

359

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sla_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sla_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:38 PM"

360

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_smo_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_smo_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:39 PM"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_smd_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_smd_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:38 PM"

362

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_saz_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_saz_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:34 PM"

363

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_stn_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_stn_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:43 PM"

364

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sms_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sms_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:39 PM"

365

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_snv_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_snv_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:41 PM"

366

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sne_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sne_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:40 PM"

367

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sok_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sok_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:42 PM"

368

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1998 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1470_sal_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1470_sal_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:44:34 PM"

369

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Reaction Profiles during Exhaust-Assisted Reforming of Diesel Engine Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reaction Profiles during Exhaust-Assisted Reforming of Diesel Engine Fuels ... The reforming efficiency was dependent on the fuel type and followed the general trend of bioethanol > rapeseed methyl ester > low-sulfur diesel fuel. ... The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions but results in an increased release of smoke and particulate matter (PM), as well as higher fuel consumption. ...

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; S. E. Golunski

2005-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability ... The resulting graphene–sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ?600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density. ...

Hailiang Wang; Yuan Yang; Yongye Liang; Joshua Tucker Robinson; Yanguang Li; Ariel Jackson; Yi Cui; Hongjie Dai

2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

373

Sulfur in the Changuinola peat deposit, Panama, as an indicator of the environments of deposition of peat and coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sulfur (S) content of coal is often used to infer aspects of paleoclimate, trophic state, and proximity to marine influence, of the mire in which it was deposited. In this study, the S content of peat in a large back-barrier mire complex on the Caribbean coast of Panama is related to climatic, biological, and tectonic factors of the depositional environment. The S content is in proportion to the degree of humidification of the peat, and both are independent of the pH of the groundwater. The distribution of forms of organic and inorganic sulfur in the tropical peats are found to be comparable to published values for temperate and subtropical peats, despite differences in vegetation and climate.The distribution of high-sulfur peats in the eastern part of the deposit and low-sulfur peats in the western part, and the SE-NW transgression parallel to the trend of the coastline, reflects the regional structural trend of coseismic subsidence greatest to the southeast.

Phillips, S.; Bustin, R.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

222014 5:11:47 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" "Sourcekey","EMMEPM0PTENUSDPG","EMMEPM0UPTENUSDPG","EMMEPM0RPTENUS...

375

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:08:27 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9012MO2" "Date","Missouri...

376

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"9262014 3:44:37 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use " "Sourcekey","N9170US2","NA1480SAL2","NA1480SAK2","NA1480SAZ...

377

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NRSDMCF"...

378

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:55 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

379

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:03 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas...

380

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:41 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:11:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1:...

382

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:32:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1:...

383

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:04 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia...

384

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:26:30 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Alabama...

385

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:01 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Rhode...

386

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:58 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

387

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Vermont...

388

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:10 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1:...

389

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:00 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oregon...

390

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:53 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Utah...

391

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:06:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Michigan...

392

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:30 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New...

393

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:52 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

394

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:24:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas...

395

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:07 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S....

396

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:02 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: South...

397

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:03 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee...

398

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Montana...

399

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:32 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New...

400

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:54 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:04 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Utah...

402

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:31 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

403

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:00 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oklahoma...

404

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:08:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Illinois...

405

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:06:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Maryland...

406

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Percent...

407

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:01 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1:...

408

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:54 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia...

409

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:08 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S....

410

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:04:51 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

411

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:05:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural...

412

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:05 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1:...

413

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:07 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Wyoming...

414

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:05 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Vermont...

415

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:57 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1:...

416

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:23:07 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West...

417

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:00:57 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Iowa...

418

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"1162014 3:01:45 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: South...

419

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Digg

420

Fuel System and Fuel Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel management provides optimal solutions to reduce fuel consumption. Merchant vessels, such as container ships, drive at a reduced speed to save fuel since the reduction of the speed from...?1 lowers consumption

Michael Palocz-Andresen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

Investigation of a Fatality Due to Diesel Fuel No. 2 Ingestion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......diesel oil No. 2. Diesel fuel No. 4 is marine diesel fuel or distillate marine diesel fuel (1,4). Diesel fuel No. 2 (CAS 68476-34-6...naphtalenes (dominant) to phenanthrenes. Some marine diesel fuels may content higher levels. Diesel fuel No......

María A. Martínez; Salomé Ballesteros

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

Colon-Mercado, H.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Maintenance and operation of the US Alternative Fuel Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. This report covers the first year at the 3-year contract. The principal objective was to assist the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals with two new fuel initiatives selected for tasks in the project year: (1) Production of low-sulfur, low-olefin catalytically cracked gasoline blendstock; and (2) production of low-reactivity/low-emission gasoline. Supporting goals included maintaining equipment in good working order, performing reformulated gasoline tests, and meeting the needs of other government agencies and industries for fuel research involving custom processing, blending, or analysis of experimental fuels.

Erwin, J.; Ferrill, J.L.; Hetrick, D.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

FAQs for Survey Forms 802 and 812  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 and 812 2 and 812 Is the EIA product called "distillate fuel oil 15 ppm sulfur and under" (EIA product Code 465) intended to be the same as ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel? Yes. While the product name gives a specific sulfur range, the intent was to capture all of the ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel even in cases where the sulfur content may exceed 15 ppm. Examples of diesel fuel with sulfur content exceeding 15 ppm that would be reported to EIA as "distillate fuel oil 15 ppm sulfur and under" include fuel with sulfur content greater than 15 ppm but within test tolerance, and fuel with sulfur content greater than 15 ppm during transitions or other periods when EPA regulations allow such fuel to be sold as ultra-low-sulfur diesel. Who should report Code 1 in Part 6?

427

Diesel engine lubrication with poor quality residual fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quality of marine residual fuel is declining. This is being caused by a gradual trend towards production of heavier crudes and increased residuum conversion processes in refineries to meet light product demand while holding down crude runs. Additionally, more stringent inland fuel sulfur regulations have caused the higher sulfur residues to be used for marine residual fuel blending. Engine manufacturers are making major efforts in design so that their engines can burn these fuels at high efficiency with minimum adverse effects. The oil industry is developing improved lubricants to reduce as much as possible the increased wear and deposit formation caused by these poor quality fuels. To guide the development of improved lubricants, knowledge is required about the impact of the main fuel characteristics on lubrication. This paper summarizes work conducted to assess the impact of fuel sulfur, Conradson carbon and asphaltenes on wear and deposit formation in engines representative of full scale crosshead diesel engines and medium speed trunk piston engines. Results obtained with improved lubricants in these engines are reviewed.

Van der Horst, G.W.; Hold, G.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions

429

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Motor Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle

430

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendalow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Alternative Solid Fuel Production from Paper Sludge Employing Hydrothermal Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Then, the treatment condition was achieved by injecting a saturated steam generated by a fire-tube boiler fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). ... From the lab-scale solid fuel production process, the dried solid input was 24% (moisture content 76%), and 22.7% dried solid fuel was recovered accounting 94.6% of fuel recovery. ... Drier fuels resulted in fuel-rich combustion and higher CO concn. ...

Chinnathan Areeprasert; Peitao Zhao; Dachao Ma; Yafei Shen; Kunio Yoshikawa

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Microstructured Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro fuel cells ; Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells ; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ...

Luc G. Frechette

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

434

CEDR Content  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CEDR Content" CEDR Content" "The Consolidated Energy Data Report (CEDR) consists of 27 worksheets that should be completed by each site, as applicable, and included as part each site's SSP in a MS Excel electronic format. The CEDR is due to the SPO no later than December 9th." "Worksheet",,"Overview","Action" 1.1,"Content","Stand-alone overview of the CEDR tabs.","None" 2.1,"Funds, Meters, Training","Collects information on energy and water spending, and metering status.","If applicable, complete cells highlighted in orange. Edited and new data cells should be highlighted in light blue." 3.1,"BTU & Gal Key","Reference tab containing all factors and dropdown menu information for all tabs starting with ""3"". If you need to divide up the CEDR, please keep all tabs starting with ""3"" together to ensure calculation links are not broken. ","None"

435

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The definition of an alternative fuel includes natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, hydrogen, fuel mixtures containing not less

436

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fueling Stations Photo of an ethanol fueling station. Thousands of ethanol fueling stations are available in the United States.

437

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Promotion The Missouri Alternative Fuels Commission (Commission) promotes the continued production and use of alternative transportation fuels in

438

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Fueling Stations Photo of a hydrogen fueling station. A handful of hydrogen fueling stations are available in the United States

439

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a biodiesel fueling station. Hundreds of biodiesel fueling stations are available in the United States.

440

Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

Eteman, Shahrokh

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Sulfur incorporation into copper indium diselenide single crystals through annealing in hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuInSe{sub 2} crystals were sulfurized in a H{sub 2}S-Ar gas mixture at 575 deg. C. The focus was on the resulting mass transport, in particular, on the interdiffusion of Se and S. Experiments were done for various sulfurization times, and the resulting S distribution was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling and analyzed with the Boltzmann-Matano method. A one-dimensional diffusion process had shaped the S distribution in these crystals. The respective diffusion coefficient was on the order of 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s, and it varied only slightly with the S content in CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}.

Titus, Jochen; Birkmire, Robert W.; Hack, Christina; Mueller, Georg; McKeown, Patrick [Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Materials Science, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Evans East, Princeton, New Jersey 08520 (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Sulfur-isotope separation by distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur-isotope separation by low-temperature distillation of hydrogen sulfide was studied in an 8-m, 25-mm diameter distillation column. Column temperature was controlled by a propane-propylene heat pipe. Column packing HETP was measured using nitric oxide in the column. The column was operated at pressures from 45 to 125 kPa. The relative volatility of S-32 vs. S-34 varied from 1.0008 to 1.0014.

Mills, T.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Workbook Contents" Workbook Contents" ,"U.S. State-to-State capacity" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","Units of Measurement","Frequency","Updated Date" ,"Pipeline State-to-State Capacity","State-to-State capacity","Million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d)","Quarterly","application/vnd.ms-excel" ,"State Inflow Capacity","Inflow capacity from other States","Million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d)","Quarterly","application/vnd.ms-excel" ,"State Outflow Capacity","Outflow capacity to other States","Million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d)","Quarterly","application/vnd.ms-excel"

444

Sulfur/three-dimensional graphene composite for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A sulfur/graphene composite is prepared by loading elemental sulfur into three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene), which is assembled using a metal ions assisted hydrothermal method. When used as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries, the sulfur/graphene composite (S@3D-graphene) with 73 wt % sulfur shows a significantly enhanced cycling performance (>700 mAh g?1 after 100 cycles at 0.1C rate with a Coulombic efficiency > 96%) as well as high rate capability with a capacity up to 500 mAh g?1 at 2C rate (3.35 A g?1). The superior electrochemical performance could be attributed to the highly porous structure of three-dimensional graphene that not only enables stable and continue pathway for rapid electron and ion transportation, but also restrain soluble polysulfides and suppress the “shuttle effect”. Moreover, the robust structure of 3D graphene can keep cathode integrity and accommodate the volume change during high-rate charge/discharge processes, making it a promising candidate as cathode for high performance Li–S batteries.

Chunmei Xu; Yishan Wu; Xuyang Zhao; Xiuli Wang; Gaohui Du; Jun Zhang; Jiangping Tu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Rapid Separation of Petroleum Fuels by Hydrocarbon Type  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......various fuels such as gasoline and jet fuel into...cleaning solvent and straight-run distillate have...various fuels such as gasoline and jet fuel into...cleaning solvent and straight-run distillate have...aromatic content of gasoline usually in- creases......

Robert Stevenson

1971-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

447

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

448

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com...

449

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on AddThis.com... More in this section...

450

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on AddThis.com...

451

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Prices, Average - Sales to End Users " Prices, Average - Sales to End Users " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users ",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_resid_a_eppr_pta_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_resid_a_eppr_pta_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

452

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1570_sdc_3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1570_sdc_3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

453

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iowa (MMcf)" Iowa (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Iowa (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020ia2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020ia2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

454

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Illinois (MMcf)" Illinois (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in Illinois (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n3020il2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3020il2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

455

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis Project Summary Full Title: H2 Production Infrastructure Analysis - Task 1: Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis Project ID: 78 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Hydrogen infrastructure; costs; methanol; hydrogen fueling Purpose As the DOE considers both direct hydrogen and reformer-based fuel cell vehicles, it is vital to have a clear perspective of the relative infrastructure costs to supply each prospective fuel (gasoline, methanol, or hydrogen). Consequently, this analysis compares these infrastructure costs as well as the cost to remove sulfur from gasoline (as will most likely be required for use in fuel cell systems) and the cost implications for several hydrogen tank filling options. This analysis supports Analysis

456

Fuel Cell Systems Sensors Air Management Benchmarking Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Systems Systems F u e l P r o c e s s o r Sensors Air Management Benchmarking Modeling Patrick Davis Patrick Davis Targets and Status 50 kWe (net) Integrated Fuel Cell Power System 5000 2000 1000 Hours Durability 45 125 275 $/kW Cost (including H2 storage) 650 500 400 W/L Power density (w/o H2 stor) Operating on direct hydrogen 5000 2000 1000 Hours Durability 45 125 325 $/kW Cost 325 250 140 W/L Power density Operating on Tier 2 gasoline containing 30 ppm sulfur, average 2010 2005 2003 status Units Characteristics Projects Fuel Cell Power Systems Analysis ANL NREL TIAX Directed Technologies, Inc. TIAX TIAX * Fuel Cell Systems Analysis * Fuel Cell Vehicle Systems Analysis * Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stacks/ Systems * DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel Cell/ Reformer Systems at Low, Medium, & High Production Rates * Assessment of Fuel Cell Auxiliary

457

Energy Department Provides Additional Emergency Fuel Loan to Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Provides Additional Emergency Fuel Loan to Provides Additional Emergency Fuel Loan to Department of Defense as Part of Hurricane Sandy and Nor'easter Recovery Energy Department Provides Additional Emergency Fuel Loan to Department of Defense as Part of Hurricane Sandy and Nor'easter Recovery November 9, 2012 - 7:15pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the government-wide response and recovery effort for Hurricane Sandy and the Nor'easter, the Energy Department is providing the Department of Defense with additional ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in response to a request from the State of Connecticut. The Energy Department will be loaning diesel fuel to the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), who in turn will provide emergency loans to fuel distributors in Connecticut to address fuel

458

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

459

Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel sulfur content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Synthetic Fuel  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

462

Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search LithiumSulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About...

463

Analyses of sulfur-asphalt field trials in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

128 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGF Layout of SNPA sulfur bitumen binder pavem nt test ? U. S. Highway 69, Lufkin, Texas 15 Col 1oi d mi 1 1 furnished by SNPA for preparation of sul fur-asphalt emulsions View of mixing station showing sulfur... designed to investigate the advantage of using a colloid mill to prepare sulfur-asphalt binders as compared to comingling the asphalt and molten sulfur in a pipeline leading directly to the pug mill. After only six months of testing, the results...

Newcomb, David Edward

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Development of sulfur cathode material for Li-S batteries.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??M.S. Efforts were taken to fabricate a cathode material having Sulfur as the active material. First step is composed of identifying potential ways of fabricating… (more)

Dharmasena, Ruchira Ravinath, 1984-

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Related Links FAQs Contact Us Offices You are here Home Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based...

466

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

467

Influence of Sulfur on the Carbon Deposition in Liquid Hydrocarbon Steam Reforming over CeO2-Al2O3 supported Ni and Rh Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was performed to elucidate the influence of sulfur on the carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni and Rh catalysts at 800 C. The characteristics of the carbon deposits on the used catalysts after the reactions without and with sulfur were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), temperature-programmed hydrogenation (TPH), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Though abundant carbon deposits can accumulate on the pure CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support due to fuel thermal cracking, the addition of Ni or Rh metal greatly reduced the carbon deposition in the sulfur-free reaction. The presence of sulfur increased the carbon deposition on both catalysts, which has a much more significant impact for the Ni catalyst. Carbon XANES study on the used catalysts revealed that graphitic carbon was dominant in the presence of sulfur, while oxidized carbon species (quinone-like carbon, carboxyl and carbonate) prevailed without sulfur. Meanwhile, the formation of carboxyl and carbonate more dramatically dropped on the Ni catalyst than that on the Rh catalyst. Our results strongly suggest that (I) the presence of sulfur can suppress carbon gasification and promote the formation of graphitic carbon on reforming catalysts due mainly to its poisoning effect on metals, and (II) Rh catalyst possesses stronger capability to maintain carbon gasification activity than Ni catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

C Xie; Y Chen; Y Li; X Wang; C Song

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

468

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

469

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a process that uses sulfur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesize polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a water treatment agent. The process uses sodium chlorate as an oxidant and ferrous sulfate as an absorbent. The major chemical mechanisms in this reaction system include oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. Oxidation determines sulfur conversion efficiency while hydrolysis and polymerization control the quality of product. Many factors, including SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, flow rate of simulated flue gas, reaction temperature, addition rate of oxidant and stirring rate, may affect the efficiencies of SO{sub 2} removal. Currently, the effects of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the flow rate of simulated flue gas and addition rate of flue gas on removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, are being investigated. Experiments shown in this report have demonstrated that the conversion efficiencies of sulfur dioxide with ferrous sulfate as an absorbent are in the range of 60-80% under the adopted process conditions. However, the conversion efficiency of sulfur dioxide may be improved by optimizing reaction conditions to be investigated. Partial quality indices of the synthesized products, including Fe{sup 2+} concentration and total iron concentration, have been evaluated.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Fuel Cell Transit Bus Coordination and Evaluation Plan California...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Energy Laboratory For the United States Department of Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program October 2003 1 Table of Contents About This...

473

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Ethanol (Renewable) Imports" Ethanol (Renewable) Imports" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports",19,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_impcus_a2_nus_epooxe_im0_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_impcus_a2_nus_epooxe_im0_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

474

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Prices - Sales to End Users " Prices - Sales to End Users " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices - Sales to End Users ",33,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_dist_a_epd2d_pta_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_dist_a_epd2d_pta_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

475

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

476

Lithium–sulfur batteries: Influence of C-rate, amount of electrolyte and sulfur loading on cycle performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the past four years major improvement of the lithium sulfur battery technology has been reported. Novel carbon cathode materials offer high sulfur loading, sulfur utilization and cycle stability. An often neglected aspect is that sulfur loading and amount of electrolyte strongly impact the performance. In this paper, we demonstrate how the amount of electrolyte, sulfur loading, lithium excess and cycling rate influences the cycle stability and sulfur utilization. We chose vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNT) as model system with a constant areal loading of carbon. For a high reproducibility, decreased weight of current collector and good mechanical adhesion of the VA-CNTs we present a layer transfer technique that enables a light-weight sulfur cathode. The sulfur loading of the cathode was adjusted from 20 to 80 wt.-%. Keeping the total amount of electrolyte constant and varying the C-rate, we are able to demonstrate that the capacity degradation is reduced for high rates, high amount of electrolyte and low sulfur loading. In addition idle periods in the cycling regiment and lower rates result in an increased degradation. We attribute this to the redox-reaction between reactive lithium and polysulfides that correlates with the cycling time, rather than cycle number.

Jan Brückner; Sören Thieme; Hannah Tamara Grossmann; Susanne Dörfler; Holger Althues; Stefan Kaskel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm_epg0_fgc_sky_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/ngm_epg0_fgc_sky_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:59:11 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kentucky Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (MMcf) " "Sourcekey","NGM_EPG0_FGC_SKY_MMCF" "Date","Kentucky Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (MMcf) "

478

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

479

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

480

The corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B in sulfur and sodium polysulfides at 623 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was completed to determine the corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B, a nickel-based alloy with high molybdenum content, in sulfur and sodium polysulfides (Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/,Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/) at 623 K. In sulfur, molybdenum corrodes very slowly, with a parabolic rate constant of 3.6 x 10/sup -9/ cm s/sup -1/2/. Hastelloy B shows no measurable corrosion after 100h of exposure to sulfur. The corrosion reaction of molybdenum in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is characterized by the formation of a protective film that effectively eliminates further corrosion after the first 100h of exposure. Hastelloy B, however, corrodes rapidly in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, with corrosion rates approaching those of pure nickel under the same conditions. After the first 4h of exposure, the kinetics for the corrosion of Hastelloy B in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ follows a linear rate law. The scale morphology has multiple spalled layers of NiS/sub 2/, with some crystallites of NiS/sub 2/ appearing on the leading face of the scale and between the individual scale layers. This spalling causes smaller coupons of the Hastelloy B to corrode faster than larger coupons.

Brown, A.P.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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