National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel space heating

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  10. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  12. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ... 10% for a residential multifunction heat pump that provides space conditioning, water ...

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (million gallons) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (gallonssquare foot) Energy-Related Space Functions (more than one may apply) Commercial Food Preparation.... 860 720 87 Q 41...

  14. Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Winter Heating Fuels Click on the map to view state specific heating fuels data below | click to reset to U.S. values Click on map above to view state-specific heating fuel data ...

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12 1 18 (*) 2 1 Q 6 Buildings without Cooling ... 30 1 (*) 4 (*) 14 (*) 4 (*) 1 6 Water-Heating Energy Source Electricity ... 402 21 57 42...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat,

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat

  17. Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Winter Heating Fuels Click on the map to view state specific heating fuels data below | click to reset to U.S. values Click on map above to view state-specific heating fuel data Propane Heating oil Natural gas Electricity For more data on: Heating oil and propane prices - Heating Oil and Propane Update Propane stocks - Weekly Petroleum Status Report Heating oil/distillate stocks - Weekly Petroleum Status Report Natural gas storage - Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Natural gas prices - Natural

  18. Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Space Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarSpaceHeat&oldid...

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cooling ... 96.7 33.7 8.1 6.6 7.5 20.2 2.9 5.8 1.1 2.4 8.4 Buildings with Water Heating ..... 98.0 34.7 7.8 6.6 8.0 20.1 3.0 5.8 1.1 2.4 8.5 Note: Due to rounding,...

  20. Solar space heating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar space heating Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of solar space heating technology.)1...

  1. Passive Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Solar Space Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePassiv...

  2. Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lakeview Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  3. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  4. Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",4657,4016,1880,2380,377,96,307,94 "Building Floorspace"

  5. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  6. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004...

  7. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, ...

  8. Solar space heating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar space heating (Redirected from - Solar Ventilation Preheat) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's...

  9. Heated transportable fuel cell cartridges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lance, Joseph R. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell stack protective system is made where a plurality of fuel cells, each containing liquid electrolyte subject to crystallization, is enclosed by a containing vessel, and where at least one electric heater is placed in the containing vessel and is capable of preventing electrolyte crystallization.

  10. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Glossary--Space-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space-Heating Equipment Glossary-Space-Heating Equipment Boiler: A type of space-heating equipment consisting of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such...

  11. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces;...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. ...

  12. ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Fueling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fredd, E.; Goulding, R.H.; Hosea, J.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-04-15

    The ITER burning plasma and advanced operating regimes require robust and reliable heating and current drive and fueling systems. The ITER design documents describe the requirements and reference designs for the ion cyclotron and pellet fueling systems. Development and testing programs are required to optimize, validate and qualify these systems for installation on ITER.The ITER ion cyclotron system offers significant technology challenges. The antenna must operate in a nuclear environment and withstand heat loads and disruption forces beyond present-day designs. It must operate for long pulse lengths and be highly reliable, delivering power to a plasma load with properties that will change throughout the discharge. The ITER ion cyclotron system consists of one eight-strap antenna, eight rf sources (20 MW, 35-65 MHz), associated high-voltage DC power supplies, transmission lines and matching and decoupling components.The ITER fueling system consists of a gas injection system and multiple pellet injectors for edge fueling and deep core fueling. Pellet injection will be the primary ITER fuel delivery system. The fueling requirements will require significant extensions in pellet injector pulse length ({approx}3000 s), throughput (400 torr-L/s,) and reliability. The proposed design is based on a centrifuge accelerator fed by a continuous screw extruder. Inner wall pellet injection with the use of curved guide tubes will be utilized for deep fueling.

  13. Miniature heat pumps for portable and distributed space conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drost, M.K.; Friedrich, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a miniature absorption heat pump for a range of microclimate control applications, including manportable cooling and distributed space conditioning. The miniature absorption heat pump will be sized to provide 350 W cooling, will have dimensions of 9 cm x 9 cm x 6 cm, and will weigh approximately 0.65 kg. Compared to a macroscale absorption heat pump, this represents reduction in volume by a factor of 60. A complete manportable cooling system including the heat pump, an air-cooled heat exchanger, batteries, and fuel is estimated to weight between 4 and 5 kg, compared to the 10 kg weight of alternative systems. Size and weight reductions are obtained by developing a device that can simultaneously take advantage of the high heat and mass transfer rates attainable in microscale structures while being large enough to allow electric powered pumping.

  14. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  15. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  16. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  17. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utility, which runs its own diesel fuel bulk storage facility for the diesel generators. However, residential heating oil and fuel for all public buildings except the...

  18. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  19. Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Wiesbaden Motel & Health Resort Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Ouray, Colorado Coordinates...

  20. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  1. Hot Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Lake RV Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Lake...

  2. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating Overview The City of Seattle ... in spring of 2015 of advanced efficient space heating options available for commercial ...

  3. Klamath Churches (5) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Churches (5) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Churches (5) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  4. Jackson Well Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Well Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson Well...

  5. Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson...

  6. Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Agua...

  7. List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 282 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 282) Incentive Incentive Type...

  8. Klamath County Shops Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shops Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath County Shops Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath...

  9. Hunters Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunters Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunters...

  10. Modoc High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Modoc High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Modoc...

  11. Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Medical...

  12. Corral Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Corral Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Corral Sector Geothermal energy...

  13. The Wilderness Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name The Wilderness Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility The Wilderness...

  14. Boulder Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boulder Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Boulder Hot...

  15. Manley Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Manley Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Manley Hot Springs...

  16. Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  17. Circle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Circle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Circle Hot Springs...

  18. Klamath Schools (7) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schools (7) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Schools (7) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  19. Health Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Health Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Glenwood Springs Health...

  20. Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Desert Hot...

  1. Vale Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vale Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Vale...

  2. Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin...

  3. Lava Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lava Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lava Hot Springs...

  4. Hot Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hot Sulphur...

  5. Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Medical Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  6. Klamath Residence (500) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residence (500) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath Residence (500) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  7. Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low...

  8. Van Norman Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Norman Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Van Norman Residences Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Cottonwood Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cottonwood Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  10. Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarville Elementary & High School Space Heating Low...

  11. Stroppel Hotel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Stroppel Hotel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Stroppel Hotel Sector...

  12. Tecopa Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Tecopa Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Tecopa Hot Springs...

  13. Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Walley's...

  14. Vale Slaughter House Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Slaughter House Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vale Slaughter House Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  15. Arrowhead Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Arrowhead Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  16. Box Canyon Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canyon Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Box Canyon Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Box...

  17. Melozi Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Melozi Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Melozi Sector Geothermal energy...

  18. Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fairmont...

  19. Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low...

  20. Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Maywood Industries of Oregon Space Heating Low Temperature...

  1. Lolo Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lolo Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lolo Hot...

  2. Henley High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Henley High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Henley High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  3. Vichy Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Vichy Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Vichy Hot Springs...

  4. Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Buckhorn...

  5. Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Shoshone Motel & Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Baranof Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Baranof Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Baranof Sector Geothermal...

  7. Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  8. White Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name White Sulphur Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  9. Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Waunita Hot...

  10. Twin Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin Springs...

  11. Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs Private Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  12. Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Merle West Medical Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  13. Olene Gap Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Olene Gap Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Olene Gap Sector Geothermal...

  14. Homestead Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Homestead Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Homestead...

  15. Chico Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chico Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chico Hot Springs...

  16. Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bell Island Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bell Island Sector...

  17. Mount Princeton Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mount Princeton Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Mount...

  18. LDS Wardhouse Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wardhouse Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name LDS Wardhouse Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility LDS Wardhouse...

  19. Reno-Moana Area (300) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reno-Moana Area (300) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Reno-Moana Area (300) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  20. Saratoga Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Saratoga Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Saratoga...

  1. Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  2. Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hillbrook Nursing Home Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  3. Indian Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Indian Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Indian...

  4. Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chena Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  5. Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ft Bidwell Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ft Bidwell...

  6. Breitenbush Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Breitenbush Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  7. Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bozeman Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bozeman Hot...

  8. Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pinkerton Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Senior Citizens' Center Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  10. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Langel Valley Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Langel Valley Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Langel Valley Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Langel...

  12. LDS Church Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LDS Church Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name LDS Church Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility LDS Church...

  13. Klamath County Jail Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jail Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Klamath County Jail Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath...

  14. Jemez Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jemez Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jemez Springs Sector...

  15. YMCA Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    YMCA Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name YMCA Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility YMCA Sector Geothermal...

  16. Utah State Prison Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prison Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Utah State Prison Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Utah State...

  17. Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warner Springs Ranch Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  18. Surprise Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surprise Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Surprise Valley Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Del Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Del Rio Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  20. Miracle Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot...

  1. St. Mary's Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name St. Mary's Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility St....

  2. Cotulla High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cotulla High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cotulla High School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  3. Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  4. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  5. Miracle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Miracle Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Miracle Hot...

  6. Marlin Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marlin Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Marlin Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Marlin...

  7. Radium Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Radium Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Radium Hot Springs...

  8. Summer Lake Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Summer Lake Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Summer Lake...

  9. Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Banbury Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Banbury Hot...

  10. Peppermill Hotel Casino Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peppermill Hotel Casino Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Peppermill Hotel Casino Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  11. Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Modesto Memorial Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  12. Indian Springs School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Indian Springs School Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Indian...

  13. Geronimo Springs Museum Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geronimo Springs Museum Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geronimo Springs Museum Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  14. Ophir Creek Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ophir Creek Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ophir Creek Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Ophir Creek...

  15. Burgdorf Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Burgdorf Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Burgdorf Hot...

  16. Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  17. Canon City Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canon City Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Canon City Area Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Canon...

  18. Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (13) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Klamath Apartment Buildings (13) Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location Klamath Falls, Oregon...

  19. Hi-Tech Fisheries Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hi-Tech Fisheries Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hi-Tech Fisheries...

  20. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  1. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 01, 2013 Planned end date: August 31, 2015 Key Milestones: 1. Cycle & System Design: 12/31/2014 2. Breadboard Test Results: 12/31/2014 3. Packaged Prototype Results: 04/01/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $629,730 Total future DOE $: $273,140 Target

  2. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump fro Building Space Heating

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Michael Garrabrant mgarrabrant@stonemtntechnologies.com Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 01, 2013 Planned end date: February 28, 2015 Key Milestones: 1. Cycle & System Design: 12/31/2014 2. Breadboard Test Results: 06/30/2014 3. Packaged Prototype Results: 02/28/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $305,396 Total future DOE $: $597,474 Target

  3. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Power Systems | Department of Energy for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells for Supermarkets, April 4, 2011. PDF icon infocallapr11_smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells at Supermarkets: NYSERDA's Perspective Fuel Cell Case Study Hydrogen

  4. "Table B21. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,61612,32291,37902,5611,5534,2728,945 "Building

  5. "Table B22. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Useda" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ................",4657,4016,1128,2189,302,77 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  6. "Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Useda" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,17627,32729,3719,5077 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  7. NREL Ignites New Renewable Fuels Heating Plant - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignites New Renewable Fuels Heating Plant Innovative DOE Contract Helps Lab Reduce Fuel Use, Carbon Emissions November 20, 2008 Golden, Colo. - With the spark from a high intensity road flare, engineers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory lit its new, smoke-free Renewable Fuels Heating Plant today. The $3.3 million project is the Laboratory's latest step toward operating as a net-zero energy facility. The RFHP will heat NREL's South Table Mountain Campus

  8. East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name East Middle School and Cayuga Community College Space...

  9. Sandia Energy - From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving Fungi Are Sequenced Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy News Modeling Modeling & Analysis From Compost to Sustainable...

  10. An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013... Before the House Subcommittee on Energy and Power - Committee on Energy and Commerce

  11. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  12. Space Heating and Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating and Cooling Basics Space Heating and Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:04pm Addthis A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as thermostats and ducts, which provide opportunities for saving energy. Learn how these technologies and systems work. Learn about: Cooling Systems Heating Systems Heat Pump Systems Supporting Equipment for

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  14. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  15. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/activesteve/5259747234/">Flickr user ActiveSteve</a>. Get tips on heating and cooling product information and services. | Photo courtesy of Flickr user ActiveSteve. Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for space

  16. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  17. Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 0.3 N Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 77.5 63.7 4.2 1.8 2.2 5.6 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 77.2 63.6 4.2 1.8 2.1 5.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 Q N Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel

  18. Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total................................................................ 111.1 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.6 Q Q Q 0.3 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 32.3 8.0 3.3 5.8 14.1 1.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 31.8 8.0 3.2 5.6 13.9 1.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.5 N Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel

  19. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and

  20. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces This tip sheet recommends installing waste heat recovery systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase the energy efficiency of process heating systems. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #8 PDF icon Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System Using Waste

  2. Schutz's Hot Spring Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Technology's Geo-Heat Center Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSchutz%27sHotSpringSpaceHeatingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility&oldid305547" ...

  3. List of Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 512 Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-512) Incentive Incentive Type...

  4. Avila Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Facility Avila Hot Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Space Heating Location San Luis Obispo, California Coordinates 35.2827524, -120.6596156 Show Map Loading...

  5. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's presentation about passive solar building design and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications.

  6. Low Temperature Direct Use Space Heating Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":8...

  7. York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $200 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residences, commercial, and industrial...

  8. List of Geothermal Heat Pumps Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat...

  9. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  10. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems in terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.

  11. Data mining of space heating system performance in affordable housing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Xiaoxin; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen

    2015-02-16

    The space heating in residential buildings accounts for a considerable amount of the primary energy use. Therefore, understanding the operation and performance of space heating systems becomes crucial in improving occupant comfort while reducing energy use. This study investigated the behavior of occupants adjusting their thermostat settings and heating system operations in a 62-unit affordable housing complex in Revere, Massachusetts, USA. The data mining methods, including clustering approach and decision trees, were used to ascertain occupant behavior patterns. Data tabulating ON/OFF space heating states was assessed, to provide a better understanding of the intermittent operation of space heating systems inmore » terms of system cycling frequency and the duration of each operation. The decision tree was used to verify the link between room temperature settings, house and heating system characteristics and the heating energy use. The results suggest that the majority of apartments show fairly constant room temperature profiles with limited variations during a day or between weekday and weekend. Data clustering results revealed six typical patterns of room temperature profiles during the heating season. Space heating systems cycled more frequently than anticipated due to a tight range of room thermostat settings and potentially oversized heating capacities. In conclusion, from this study affirm data mining techniques are an effective method to analyze large datasets and extract hidden patterns to inform design and improve operations.« less

  12. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump For Building Space Heating Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Credit: Stone Mountain Technologies Lead Performer: Stone Mountain Technologies - Erwin, TN Partners: -- A.O. Smith - Milwaukee, WI -- Gas Technology Institute - Des Plaines, IL DOE Funding: $903,000 Cost Share: $232,294 Project Term: March 1, 2013 - August 31, 2015 Funding Opportunity: Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies

  13. "Table B27. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Other a" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,28600,36959,5988,5198,3204,842

  14. "Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Used a" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,15996,32970,3818,4907 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  15. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The value of the tax credit is $0.01/gallon for each percent of biodiesel blended with conventional home heating oil, up to a maximum of $0.20/ gallon. In other words, the purchaser of a mixture ...

  16. Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

    2013-05-01

    A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

  17. Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing evaluating the performance of 5 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems that have been deployed in Oregon and California. It also describes the business case that was developed to identify markets and address cost.

  18. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  19. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  20. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Fuel Oil - A Commercial Perspective Steve Lupton Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewable Heating Oil Substitution Fuel in New ...

  1. City of Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Twenty-Nine Palms Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  3. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  4. Heat pipe heat transport system for the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alger, D.L.

    1992-08-01

    Life issues relating to a sodium heat pipe heat transport system are described. The heat pipe system provides heat, at a temperature of 1050 K, to a 50 kWe Stirling engine/linear alternator power converter called the Stirling Space Power Converter (SSPC). The converter is being developed under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration program. Since corrosion of heat pipe materials in contact with sodium can impact the life of the heat pipe, a literature review of sodium corrosion processes was performed. It was found that the impurity reactions, primarily oxygen, and dissolution of alloy elements were the two corrosion process likely to be operative in the heat pipe. Approaches that are being taken to minimize these corrosion processes are discussed.

  5. Application of U10Mo Fuel for Space Fission Power Applications - White Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Werner

    2014-07-01

    A novel reactor design has been proposed for space applications to provide hundreds of watts to one or two kilowatts of electrical power. The reactor concept proposed uses the alloy U10Mo (uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum) as the fuel. This fuel was selected for its high uranium density, high thermal conductivity, and excellent neutronic characteristics for this application. The core is surrounded by a BeO reflector. Heat is carried from the reactor by liquid metal heat pipes. A shadow shield of LiH tungsten is also utilized to reduce the neutron and gamma radiation dose to the rest of the spacecraft. This design represents a best effort at minimizing the complexity of the fission system and reducing the mass of the system. The compact nature of the block UMo core and BeO radial reflector allows the reactor diameter to be as small as practical while still meeting the neutronic and thermal power demands. This directly results in a reduced shield mass since the reactor diameter dictates the footprint of the radiation shield. The use of heat pipes offers a straightforward primary heat transport approach using proven liquid-metal heat pipe technology. Further, the elimination of a liquid core coolant system heat transport components, both at the reactor side and radiator side, contributes to reducing the total part-count and lowering system mass. The proposed reactor is using a fuel that is being developed by DOE, but there are significant differences in the fuels enrichment, operating conditions and the physical shape of the fuel itself. This paper attempts to highlight some of the basic consideration and needs that would be expected to be met in developing this fuel and qualifying it for use.

  6. GenSys Blue: Fuel Cell Heating Appliance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GenSys Blue: Fuel Cell Heating Appliance GenSys Blue: Fuel Cell Heating Appliance Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meetng, Nov. 16, 2009. PDF icon ...

  7. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System This tip sheet discusses ... PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 9 PDF icon Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired ...

  8. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research ...

  9. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses on Digg Find More places to share

  11. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for installation labor and materials, and $627 for overhead and management), and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.48. A general trend toward higher-than-average fuel-oil savings was observed in houses with high pre-weatherization fuel-oil consumption. Program savings could likely be increased by targeting higher energy consumers for weatherization, although equity issues would have to be considered. Weatherization measures associated with higher-than-average savings were use of a blower door for air-sealing, attic and wall insulation, and replacement space-heating systems. Space-heating system tune-ups were not particularly effective at improving the steady-state efficiency of systems, although other benefits such as improved seasonal efficiency, and system safety and reliability may have resulted. The Program should investigate methods of improving the selection and/or application of space-heating system tune-ups and actively promote improved tune-up procedures that have been developed as a primary technology transfer activity. Houses were more air-tight following weatherization, but still leakier than what is achievable. Additional technology transfer effort is recommended to increase the use of blower doors considering that only half the weatherized houses used a blower door during air sealing. A guidebook developed by a committee of experts and covering a full range of blower-door topics might be a useful technology transfer and training document. Weatherization appeared to make occupants feel better about their house and house environment.

  12. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  13. Compatibility in space reactor fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R.E.; Matthews, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    Isothermal out-of-pile tests for compatibility between Nb-1Zr, tungsten or rhenium, and UN identified high-temperature interactions. These tests demonstrated uranium transport to the inner surface of the cladding and zirconium transport from the cladding to the pellet surface. A URe/sub 2/ layer was found on the rhenium barrier of tests performed at 1800 K. No other reactions between UN and rhenium were observed. Interdiffusion of rhenium and tungsten with Nb-1Zr was consistent with rates reported in the literature. Significant cladding grain growth was observed in specimens tested at or above 1600 K. One compatibility pin was heated until the cladding melted and the pin was breached. The pin components began melting below the melting point of Nb-1Zr. The cladding and end caps were first to melt; then the liquid partially dissolved the tungsten in barrier and disks and the UN from the surface of the pellet. 6 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  15. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  16. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004 report was to determine the best opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DER/CHP) applications, examine the DER/CHP technologies that can use them, and assess the potential market impacts of opportunity fueled DER/CHP applications. PDF icon chp_opportunityfuels.pdf More

  17. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of

  18. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  19. Y-12 to help create fuel for NASA's long-range space exploration...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to help create fuel for NASA's long-range space exploration missions Tuesday, December 9, ... potential to lead to small fission power reactors for future space exploration missions. ...

  20. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  1. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  2. DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE FACT SHEET: Transition to High Efficiency Space Heating Overview The City of Seattle was recognized as a Climate Action Champion (CAC) by The White House and the Department of Energy (DOE) in December 2014. In 2015, DOE released a Notice of Technical Assistance (NOTA) to provide CACs with additional opportunities for financial and technical assistance to support and advance their greenhouse gas emissions reduction and climate resilience objectives. DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and

  3. Numerical simulation of gas dynamics and heat exchange tasks in fuel assemblies of the nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuchenko, S. V.

    2014-11-12

    This report presents a PC-based program for solution gas dynamics and heat exchange mathematical tasks in fuel assemblies of the fast-neutron nuclear reactors. A fuel assembly consisting of bulk heat-generating elements, which are integrated together by the system of supply and pressure manifolds, is examined. Spherical heat-generating microelements, which contain nuclear fuel, are pulled into the heat-generating elements. Gaseous coolant proceed from supply manifolds to heat-generating elements, where it withdraws the nuclear reaction heat and assembles in pressure manifolds.

  4. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  5. In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity Stratification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores in-cylinder mechanisms by which fuel reactivity stratification via a two fuel system affects premixed charge compression ignition heat release rate to achieve diesel-like efficiency

  6. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  7. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today applauded the commissioning of a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system at Portland Community College in Oregon. The CHP fuel cell system will help...

  8. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Com- bined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central ... installed a 1.4 MW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system, consisting of seven ...

  9. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power Steve Lupton presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Worskshop on RTP green fuel. PDF icon pyrolysis_lupton.pdf More Documents & Publications Known Challenges Associated with the Production, Transportation, Storage and Usage of Pyrolysis Oil in Residential and Industrial Settings Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today Technical Information

  10. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy...

  11. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  12. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study ...

  13. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer for Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nix, Andrew Carl

    2015-03-23

    The focus of this program was to experimentally investigate advanced gas turbine cooling schemes and the effects of and factors that contribute to surface deposition from particulate matter found in coal syngas exhaust flows on turbine airfoil heat transfer and film cooling, as well as to characterize surface roughness and determine the effects of surface deposition on turbine components. The program was a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary collaborative effort between aero-thermal and materials faculty researchers and the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The primary technical objectives of the program were to evaluate the effects of combustion of syngas fuels on heat transfer to turbine vanes and blades in land-based power generation gas turbine engines. The primary questions to be answered by this investigation were; What are the factors that contribute to particulate deposition on film cooled gas turbine components? An experimental program was performed in a high-temperature and pressure combustion rig at the DOE NETL; What is the effect of coal syngas combustion and surface deposition on turbine airfoil film cooling? Deposition of particulate matter from the combustion gases can block film cooling holes, decreasing the flow of the film coolant and the film cooling effectiveness; How does surface deposition from coal syngas combustion affect turbine surface roughness? Increased surface roughness can increase aerodynamic losses and result in decreased turbine hot section efficiency, increasing engine fuel consumption to maintain desired power output. Convective heat transfer is also greatly affected by the surface roughness of the airfoil surface; Is there any significant effect of surface deposition or erosion on integrity of turbine airfoil thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and do surface deposits react with the TBC in any way to decrease its thermal insulating capability? Spallation and erosion of TBC is a persistent problem in modern turbine engines; and What advancements in film cooling hole geometry and design can increase effectiveness of film cooling in turbines burning high-hydrogen coal syngas due to the higher heat loads and mass flow rates of the core flow? Experimental and numerical investigations of advanced cooling geometries that can improve resistance to surface deposition were performed. The answers to these questions were investigated through experimental measurements of turbine blade surface temperature and coolant coverage (via infrared camera images and thermocouples) and time-varying surface roughness in the NETL high-pressure combustion rig with accelerated, simulated surface deposition and advanced cooling hole concepts, coupled with detailed materials analysis and characterization using conventional methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), 3-D Surface Topography (using a 3-D stylus profilometer). Detailed surface temperatures and cooling effectiveness could not be measured due to issues with the NETL infrared camera system. In collaboration with faculty startup funding from the principal investigator, experimental and numerical investigations were performed of an advanced film cooling hole geometry, the anti-vortex hole (AVH), focusing on improving cooling effectiveness and decreasing the counter-rotating vortex of conventional cooling holes which can entrain mainstream particulate matter to the surface. The potential benefit of this program is in gaining a fundamental understanding of how the use of alternative fuels will effect the operation of modern gas turbine engines, providing valuable data for more effective cooling designs for future turbine systems utilizing alternative fuels.

  15. Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During RIA This paper describes a model for the cladding-coolant heat transfer of high burnup fuel during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) which is implemented in the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN 1.2. The minimum stable film boiling temperature, affected by the subcooling and the

  16. Conceptual study of measures against heat generation for TRU fuel fabrication system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawaguchi, Koichi; Namekawa, Takashi

    2007-07-01

    To lower the reprocessing cost and the environmental burden, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed low decontamination TRU fuel fabrication system. TRU fuel contains MA of 1.2 to 5 wt% and its decay heat is estimated a few tens W/kg-HM. As the heat affects fuel quality through oxidation of fuel material and members, it is necessary to remove decay heat. In this work, authors designed concepts of the measures against heat generation at typical equipments using with the thermal hydraulics analysis technique. As a result, it is shown that it is possible to cool fuel materials with specific heat generation up to 20 W/kg-HM enough, though more detailed study is required for comprehensive equipments. (authors)

  17. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  18. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Office | Department of Energy Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study about Verizons Communications, who installed a 14-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system at its Central Office in Garden City, New York, in 2005 and is now reaping environmental benefits and demonstrating the viaility of fuel cells in a commerical, critical telecommunications

  19. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  20. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

  1. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  2. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  3. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, is developing a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing

  4. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  5. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  6. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  7. Table HC9.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment................ 1.2 Q Q N 0.3 0.8 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.8 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.7 22.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment..................... 109.1 10.9 26.0 27.3 23.2 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It........................ 0.8 N N Q

  8. "Table HC14.4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,0.7,"Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating Equipment",109.8,23.4,7.5,16

  9. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  10. Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Did you know 50 percent of the energy generated annually from all sources is lost as waste heat? What scientists are doing to take advantage of this opportunity to save money and new developments in harvesting fuel through photosynthesis.

  11. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  12. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  13. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries ...

  14. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    higher electrical effciency than an ... of hybrid fuel cell systems also make them a suitable power source for urban and ... for material stability, strength, and ...

  15. Mixed-oxide fuel decay heat analysis for BWR LOCA safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, R. T.

    2013-07-01

    The mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel decay heat behavior is analyzed for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) safety evaluation. The physical reasoning on why the decay heat power fractions of MOX fuel fission product (FP) are significantly lower than the corresponding decay heat power fractions of uranium-oxide (UOX) fuel FP is illustrated. This is primarily due to the following physical phenomena. -The recoverable energies per fission of plutonium (Pu)-239 and Pu-241 are significantly higher than those of uranium (U)-235 and U-238. Consequently, the fission rate required to produce the same amount of power in MOX fuel is significantly lower than that in UOX fuel, which leads to lower subsequent FP generation rate and associated decay heat power in MOX fuel than those in UOX fuel. - The effective FP decay energy per fission of Pu-239 is significantly lower than the corresponding effective FP decay energy per fission of U-235, e.g., Pu-239's 10.63 Mega-electron-Volt (MeV) vs. U-235's 12.81 MeV at the cooling time 0.2 second. This also leads to lower decay heat power in MOX fuel than that in UOX fuel. The FP decay heat is shown to account for more than 90% of the total decay heat immediately after shutdown. The FP decay heat results based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI)/American Nuclear Society (ANS)-5.1-1979 standard method are shown very close to the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method are shown very close to but mostly slightly lower than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method are shown significantly larger than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 standard method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. (authors)

  16. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During a site visit to the Native Village of Teller in April 2012, the Office of Indian Energy's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team helped the community successfully transfer 10,000 gallons of fuel to a bulk fuel facility to secure the community's heating supply for the winter.

  17. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  18. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  19. Fundamentals of Understanding & Collecting data for SHOPPs EIA-877 Winter Heating Fuels Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Collection Procedures for Winter Heating Fuels Telephone Survey State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Office of Energy Statistics Office of Petroleum & Biofuels Statistics Petroleum Marketing Statistics Team October 8, 2014 | Washington, D.C. Presentation Roadmap Office of Petroleum and Biofuels Statistics 2 * Survey Overview * Getting Started * Pricing Characteristics * Collecting Additional Information * Weekly Data Submission * Weekly Data Collection Tips * Data

  20. Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

  1. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-05-01

    Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than 7 quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However these variations are mostly driven by a few influential parameters related to building design and operation. The findings provide insights for building designers, owners, operators, and energy policy makers to make better decisions on energy-efficiency technologies to reduce space-heating energy use for both new and existing buildings.

  2. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology February 6, 2013 - 11:20am Addthis Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate Director and Chief Technology Officer of the National Fuel Cell Research Center, points out the tri-generation facility that uses biogas from Orange County Sanitation District’s wastewater treatment plant to produce hydrogen, heat and power. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate

  3. Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

  4. Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David; Piet, Steven

    2007-07-01

    As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  5. Lightning Dock Geothermal Space Heating Project: Lightning Dock...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The proposed project was to take the existing geothermal greenhouse and home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive...

  6. Space Heating and Cooling Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Conditioning Research Institute A directory listing air conditioning and heat pump products that meet energy performance tiers established by the Consortium for Energy...

  7. Fuel Cells Shine a Light on the Last Endeavour Space Shuttle Launch |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cells Shine a Light on the Last Endeavour Space Shuttle Launch Fuel Cells Shine a Light on the Last Endeavour Space Shuttle Launch May 16, 2011 - 9:35am Addthis Sunita Satyapal Director, Fuel Cell Technologies Office What does this mean for me? A new hydrogen fuel cell-powered mobile light tower that has the potential to drastically reduce dependence on diesel-fueled mobile lighting across the United States. They are cleaner and quieter than diesel mobile light towers

  8. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for ...

  9. Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S. Housing Units.................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Heating Equipment..................... 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment....................... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Space Heating Equipment........................ 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Space Heating Usage During 2005

  10. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  11. "Table HC11.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q" "Have Main

  12. "Table HC12.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N" "Have Main

  13. "Table HC13.4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating

  14. An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: The Transportation Issue Amped Up! Volume 1, No. 4: The Transportation Issue Amped_Up_4.jpg Amped Up! is a bimonthly newsletter that highlights the initiatives, events, and technologies in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that influence change. Features in this issue include: - Meet EV Everywhere Director Bob Graham - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Reuben Sarkar on the New Optima Initiative - Sustainable Transportation Day 2015 - Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

  15. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  16. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  17. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Pump - 2013 Peer Review Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech07_vineyard_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance Database - 2013 BTO Peer Review

  18. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  19. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for UO2 Fuel Based on the IFA-432 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    The IFA-432 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the effects of gap size, fuel density, and fuel densification on fuel centerline temperature in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for uranium dioxide (UO$_2$) fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the densification stage (2.2 \\unitfrac{GWd}{MT(UO$_{2}$)}). In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole. The analysis demonstrated excellent agreement for rods 1, 2, 3, and 5 (varying gap thicknesses and density with traditional fuel), demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for traditional fuel. For rod 6, which contained unstable fuel that densified an order of magnitude more than traditional, stable fuel, the magnitude of densification was over-predicted and the temperatures were outside of the experimental uncertainty. The radial power shape within the fuel was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures, whereas modeling the fuel at the thermocouple location as either annular or solid was relatively negligible. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for UO$_2$ fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  20. Numerical simulation of solar heat absorption within indoor space by means of composite grid method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omori, Toshiaki; Murakami, Shuzo; Kato, Shinsuke

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the method for numerical simulation of solar radiation entering indoor spaces through fenestration. The proposed method can systematically deal with the interception of sunlight by buildings in the outdoor space and obstacles in the indoor space by tracing a large number of particles directed toward the sun. Configuration factors from the fenestration to the sky are also three-dimensionally treated by accounting for outdoor geometries. Distribution of the solar heat absorption in the indoor space is calculated by assuming radiation equilibrium. After the solar heat absorption analysis is carried out, heat transfer analysis in the space is conducted taking account of longwave radiation, convective heat transfer, thermal conduction, and cooling/heating by air conditioning. Then, the indoor thermal environment is evaluated using the resulting temperature distribution of air and indoor surfaces. To evaluate the applicability of these procedures, the thermal environment in a model hall with large glass windows and an overhang is predicted. The analyzed hall is assumed to be located near a tall building.

  1. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  2. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  3. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, W.J.; Husser, D.L.; Mohr, T.C.; Richardson, W.C.

    2004-02-04

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  4. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  5. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  6. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Space Heating Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing

  7. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  8. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  9. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  10. "Table HC10.4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.7 "Have Main Space Heating

  11. "Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Main Space Heating

  12. Electrochemical Potential (ECP) of Clean Heated Fuel Cladding Material and Structural SS under BWR Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pop, Mike G.; Bell, Merl; Kilian, Renate; Dorsch, Thomas; Christian, Mueller

    2007-07-01

    To preliminarily monitor the relative effect of advanced water chemistry measures on SS structural material and fuel cladding in BWR environments a number of experiments were performed using laboratory equipment (recirculation loop, autoclave with heated electrodes, reference electrodes, etc.). The simulation of the plant condition was done without impurities or crud deposit contribution (clean surfaces). Subsequent testing, performed during 2007 and not yet cleared for release, is considering the effect of combined complex BWR chemistries and crud deposition. The heated Zircaloy fuel cladding tubing was prepared to simulate heat transfer by internal heating at levels existing in BWR (70 W/cm{sup 2}). For comparison purposes additional type SS347 electrode and unheated zirconium was used. A platinum electrode was used to measure the redox potential of the electrolyte. A high temperature Ag/AgCl electrode was used as a reference electrode. The assembly was installed in a recirculation 1 liter autoclave. Present report presents corrosion potential measurements performed under the following BWR water chemistry conditions (at 288 deg. C fluid exit temperature, 86 bar with surface temperature of Zirconium hot finger at 296 deg. C) - normal (inert) water conditions, - hydrogen injection in three steps from 0.68 ppm to 1.6 ppm, - oxygen injection in three steps from 2.4 ppm to 10 ppm - -methanol 2 ppm and oxygen 2 ppm in a close loop (without methanol refreshing) (authors)

  13. Assessment of Heating Fuels and Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cold weather that blanketed much of the Eastern United States in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 exhibited unique characteristics that prompted different — but related — challenges across heating fuels and...

  14. Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aceves, Salvador; Berry, Gene; Weisberg, Andrew H.

    2004-03-23

    A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space therebetween, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

  15. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  16. "Table HC10.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.7 "Have Space Heating

  17. "Table HC14.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"West Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total West" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,,"Mountain","Pacific" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,24.2,7.6,16.6 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,0.7,"Q",0.7 "Have Space Heating

  18. "Table HC15.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Space Heating

  19. "Table HC8.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Urban/Rural Location, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Urban/Rural Location (as Self-Reported)" ,"Housing Units (millions)" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,"City","Town","Suburbs","Rural" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,47.1,19,22.7,22.3 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,0.7,"Q",0.2,"Q" "Have Space Heating

  20. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Elias P.

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  1. Y-12 to help create fuel for NASA's long-range space exploration missions

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration to help create fuel for NASA's long-range space exploration missions Tuesday, December 9, 2014 - 10:38am NNSA Blog The NNSA Production Office (NPO) at Y-12 recently entered an agreement earlier this year with NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, to support the design of a small nuclear-powered reactor with potential to lead to small fission power reactors for future space exploration missions. For the first phase of the project, Y-12

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  3. "Table HC9.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Climate Zone1" ,,"Less than 2,000 CDD and --",,,,"2,000 CDD or More and Less than 4,000 HDD" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Greater than 7,000 HDD","5,500 to 7,000 HDD","4,000 to 5,499 HDD","Less than 4,000 HDD" "Space Heating Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  5. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i This report received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express

  6. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  7. MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

    2010-07-18

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

  8. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  9. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  10. Co-flow anode/cathode supply heat exchanger for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2005-11-22

    In a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly, a co-flow heat exchanger is provided in the flow paths of the reformate gas and the cathode air ahead of the fuel cell stack, the reformate gas being on one side of the exchanger and the cathode air being on the other. The reformate gas is at a substantially higher temperature than is desired in the stack, and the cathode gas is substantially cooler than desired. In the co-flow heat exchanger, the temperatures of the reformate and cathode streams converge to nearly the same temperature at the outlet of the exchanger. Preferably, the heat exchanger is formed within an integrated component manifold (ICM) for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly.

  11. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  12. A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat Introduction In order for metal products to have desired properties, most metal is thermally processed at a high temperature one or more times under a controlled atmosphere. Many different thermal operations are used including oxide reduction, annealing, brazing, sintering, and carburizing. A mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen gas often provides a

  13. Examination of frit vent from Sixty-Watt Heat Source simulant fueled clad vent set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    The flow rate and the metallurgical condition of a frit vent from a simulant-fueled clad vent set (CVS) that had been hot isostatically pressed (HIP) for the Sixty-Watt Heat Source program were evaluated. The flow rate form the defueled vent cup subassembly was reduced approximately 25% from the original flow rate. No obstructions were found to account for the reduced flow rate. Measurements indicate that the frit vent powder thickness was reduced about 30%. Most likely, the powder was compressed during the HIP operation, which increased the density of the powder layer and thus reduced the flow rate of the assembly. All other observed manufacturing attributes appeared to be normal, but the vent hole activation technique needs further refinement before it is used in applications requiring maximum CVS integrity.

  14. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  15. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, V.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7{percent} efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Volney C.

    1997-01-10

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10 A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500 W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7% efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel.

  17. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mago, Pedro; Newell, LeLe

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  18. Applications of high-temperature solar heat to the production of selected fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beall, S.E. Jr.; Bamberger, C.E.; Goeller, H.A.

    1981-07-01

    An attempt is made to judge whether solar heat in the 500 K to 2500 K temperature range might be economical for some important fuel- and chemical-production processes. Previous work in related areas is reviewed and the chemicals aluminum oxide (and bauxite), calcium sulfate (and gypsum), and calcium oxide (lime) chosen for detailed study. In addition to reviewing the energy needs of the more common bulk chemicals, several innovative processes requiring heat in the 1500 to 2500 K range were investigated. Hydrogen production by several thermochemical means, carbon monoxide production by thermochemical and direct thermal dissociation, and nitrogen fixation by direct thermal reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in air were considered. The engineering feasibility of the processes is discussed. The problem of matching the conventional and innovative processes to a high-temperature solar supply is studied. Some solar-thermal power plants of current designs are examined and several advanced concepts of highly concentrating systems are considered for very high-temperature applications. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  19. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

  20. Submersion criticality safety of tungsten-rhenium urania cermet fuel for space propulsion and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.E. Craft; R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. C. King

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear thermal rockets are the preferred propulsion technology for a manned mission to Mars, and tungsten–uranium oxide cermet fuels could provide significant performance and cost advantages for nuclear thermal rockets. A nuclear reactor intended for use in space must remain subcritical before and during launch, and must remain subcritical in launch abort scenarios where the reactor falls back to Earth and becomes submerged in terrestrial materials (including seawater, wet sand, or dry sand). Submersion increases reflection of neutrons and also thermalizes the neutron spectrum, which typically increases the reactivity of the core. This effect is typically very significant for compact, fast-spectrum reactors. This paper provides a submersion criticality safety analysis for a representative tungsten/uranium oxide fueled reactor with a range of fuel compositions. Each submersion case considers both the rhenium content in the matrix alloy and the uranium oxide volume fraction in the cermet. The inclusion of rhenium significantly improves the submersion criticality safety of the reactor. While increased uranium oxide content increases the reactivity of the core, it does not significantly affect the submersion behavior of the reactor. There is no significant difference in submersion behavior between reactors with rhenium distributed within the cermet matrix and reactors with a rhenium clad in the coolant channels. The combination of the flooding of the coolant channels in submersion scenarios and the presence of a significant amount of spectral shift absorbers (i.e. high rhenium concentration) further decreases reactivity for short reactor cores compared to longer cores.

  1. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  2. "Table HC11.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q"

  3. "Table HC12.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Midwest" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,,"East North Central","West North Central" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,25.6,17.7,7.9 "Do Not Have Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","N"

  4. "Table HC13.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total U.S. Housing Units",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Heating

  5. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  6. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51⁰C to 43 ⁰C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturer’s rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

  7. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  8. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  9. Effects of installing economizers in boilers used in space heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Medina, M.A.; Schruben, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses how the performance of a boiler can be improved by adding an economizer to preheat the boiler's feedwater. An energy analysis was applied to a boiler and then to both a boiler and an economizer (water pre-heater) to evaluate the benefits of heat recovery. Exergy rates calculated for both the boiler and the economizer determined that the temperature of the stack gases had primary effects on the performance of a boiler. The results from this study showed that 57% of the heat rejected at the boiler's stack could be recovered by installing an economizer to preheat the feedwater. As a result, the average cost savings that would be realized for a 36,400 kg/h (80,000 lbm/h) boiler averages US$8 per hour. The cost savings to steam production averaged US$0.20 per 455 kg (1,000 lbm) of steam and the ration between the cost savings to stack temperature averaged $0.02 per C (1.8 F). For this case, the fuel and the cost savings realized from using an economizer were averaged at 3.8% and 3.7%, respectively. These results translated to total cost savings, for an eight-day period considered, of US$940.

  10. Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

  11. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  12. Transient fission-gas behavior in uranium nitride fuel under proposed space applications. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deforest, D.L.

    1991-12-01

    In order to investigate whether fission gas swelling and release would be significant factors in a space based nuclear reactor operating under the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program, the finite element program REDSTONE (Routine For Evaluating Dynamic Swelling in Transient Operational Nuclear Environments) was developed to model the 1-D, spherical geometry diffusion equations describing transient fission gas behavior in a single uranium nitride fuel grain. The equations characterized individual bubbles, rather than bubble groupings. This limits calculations to those scenarios where low temperatures, low burnups, or both were present. Instabilities in the bubble radii calculations forced the implementation of additional constraints limiting the bubble sizes to minimum and maximum (equilibrium) radii. The validity of REDSTONE calculations were checked against analytical solutions for internal consistency and against experimental studies for agreement with swelling and release results.

  13. Geothermal space heating applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Final report, August 20, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birman, J.H.; Cohen, J.; Spencer, G.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a first-stage evaluation of the overall feasibility of utilizing geothermal waters from the Madison aquifer in the vicinity of Poplar, Montana for space heating are reported. A preliminary assessment of the resource characteristics, a preliminary design and economic evaluation of a geothermal heating district and an analysis of environmental and institutional issues are included. Preliminary investigations were also made into possible additional uses of the geothermal resource, including ethanol production. The results of the resource analysis showed that the depth to the top of the Madison occurs at approximately 5,500 feet at Poplar, and the Madison Group is characterized by low average porosity (about 5 percent) and permeability (about 0.004 gal/day-ft), and by hot water production rates of a few tens of gallons per minute from intervals a few feet thick. The preliminary heating district system effort for the town of Poplar included design heat load estimates, a field development concept, and preliminary design of heat extraction and hot water distribution systems. The environmental analysis, based on current data, indicated that resource development is not expected to result in undue impacts. The institutional analysis concluded that a Tribal geothermal utility could be established, but no clear-cut procedure can be identified without a more comprehensive evaluation of legal and jurisdistional issues. The economic evaluation found that, if the current trend of rapidly increasing prices for fossil fuels continues, a geothermal heating district within Poplar could be a long-term, economically attractive alternative to current energy sources.

  14. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The purpose of this Steam Technical Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its ... A heat pump is a device that can increase the temperature of a waste-heat source to a ...

  15. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  16. An Assessment of Heating Fuels And Electricity Markets During the Winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cold weather that blanketed much of the Eastern United States in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 exhibited unique characteristics that prompted different — but related — challenges across heating fuels and electricity markets. In an effort to understand the impacts of the winter conditions on these markets, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability conducted an in-depth analysis of regional fuel and electricity sectors during the winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to assess market behavior and performance.

  17. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Would the heat loss be considerable? 4. What type of ... Will an auxiliary heating system be needed? Resources See ... will mean a stronger economy, a cleaner environment, ...

  18. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Presented ...

  19. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkus, P.; Tuluca, A.

    1993-06-01

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  20. "Table HC3.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes"

  1. "Table HC3.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  2. "Table HC4.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  3. "Table HC4.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Renter-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Space Heating Usage Indicators",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile

  4. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  5. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. This analysis showed that the cost of replacing natural gas with crude glycerol requires a strong function of the market price per unit of energy for the traditional fuel. However, the economics can be improved through the inclusion of a federal tax credit for the use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in remote regions, where the cost of energy is higher and the cost of crude glycerol is lowest. Lastly, the commercialization strategy analyzed competing technologies, namely traditional natural gas and electric heaters, as well as competing glycerol burners, and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for a pilot demonstration.

  6. Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  8. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  9. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  10. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  11. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  12. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel ...

  13. In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty ... (RCCI) Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity ...

  14. Benchmark Evaluation of Fuel Effect and Material Worth Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Space Reactor Mockup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.

    2015-02-01

    The critical configuration of the small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in 1962-1965 have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The initial intent of these experiments was to support the design of the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) program, whose purpose was to study “power plants for the production of electrical power in space vehicles.” The third configuration in this series of experiments was a beryllium-reflected assembly of stainless-steel-clad, highly enriched uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel mockup of a potassium-cooled space power reactor. Reactivity measurements cadmium ratio spectral measurements and fission rate measurements were measured through the core and top reflector. Fuel effect worth measurements and neutron moderating and absorbing material worths were also measured in the assembly fuel region. The cadmium ratios, fission rate, and worth measurements were evaluated for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The fuel tube effect and neutron moderating and absorbing material worth measurements are the focus of this paper. Additionally, a measurement of the worth of potassium filling the core region was performed but has not yet been evaluated Pellets of 93.15 wt.% enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) were stacked in 30.48 cm tall stainless steel fuel tubes (0.3 cm tall end caps). Each fuel tube had 26 pellets with a total mass of 295.8 g UO2 per tube. 253 tubes were arranged in 1.506-cm triangular lattice. An additional 7-tube cluster critical configuration was also measured but not used for any physics measurements. The core was surrounded on all side by a beryllium reflector. The fuel effect worths were measured by removing fuel tubes at various radius. An accident scenario was also simulated by moving outward twenty fuel rods from the periphery of the core so they were touching the core tank. The change in the system reactivity when the fuel tube(s) were removed/moved compared with the base configuration was the worth of the fuel tubes or accident scenario. The worth of neutron absorbing and moderating materials was measured by inserting material rods into the core at regular intervals or placing lids at the top of the core tank. Stainless steel 347, tungsten, niobium, polyethylene, graphite, boron carbide, aluminum and cadmium rods and/or lid worths were all measured. The change in the system reactivity when a material was inserted into the core is the worth of the material.

  15. Contaminant and heat removal effectiveness and air-to-air heat/energy recovery for a contaminated air space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, D.R.; Simonson, C.J.; Saw, K.Y.; Besant, R.W.

    1998-12-31

    Measured contaminant and heat removal effectiveness data are presented and compared for a 3:1 scale model room, which represents a smoking room, lounge, or bar with a two-dimensional airflow pattern. In the experiments, heat and tracer gases were introduced simultaneously from a source to simulate a prototype smoking room. High-side-wall and displacement ventilation schemes were investigated, and the latter employed two different types of ceiling diffuser,low-velocity slot and low-velocity grille. Results show that thermal energy removal effectiveness closely follows contaminant removal effectiveness for each of the ventilation schemes throughout a wide range of operating conditions. The average mean thermal and contaminant removal effectiveness agreed within {+-}20%. Local contaminant removal effectiveness ranged from a low of 80% for a high-wall slot diffuser to more than 200% for a low-velocity ceiling diffuser with displacement ventilation. Temperature differences between the supply and the indoor air were between 0.2 C (0.36 F) and 41.0 C (73.8 V) and ventilation airflow rates ranged from 9.2 to 36.8 air changes per hour at inlet conditions. For small temperature differences between supply and exhaust air, all three ventilation schemes showed increased contaminant removal effectiveness near the supply diffuser inlet with decreasing values toward the exhaust outlet. For the high-side-wall slot diffuser, effectiveness was up to 140% near the inlet and 100% near the exhaust, but for the second displacement scheme (low-velocity grille) the effectiveness was more than 200% near the inlet and 110% near the exhaust. This paper also shows a potential significant reduction in cooling load for a 50-person-capacity smoking lounge that utilizes an air-to-air heat/energy exchanger to recover heat/energy from the exhaust air.

  16. Effects of Zircaloy oxidation and steam dissociation on PWR core heat-up under conditions simulating uncovered fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viskanta, R.; Mohanty, A.K.

    1986-04-01

    The studies described in this report identify the regimes of slow transients in a partially uncovered core of a PWR. The threshold height and onset time for oxidation of the cladding of a fuel rod have been evaluated. The effects of oxidation in increasing the decay heat load, component temperature, reduction of cladding thickness and generation of hydrogen have been estimated. The condition for steam starvation has been determined. At high uncovered core heights, typically say 2.8 m for a geometry simulating the TMI-2 type of reactor, the solid and coolant temperatures can reach the limits of steam dissociation. The effects of radiation heat exchange between cladding and coolant, Zircaloy oxidation, steam dissociation, gap conductance between fuel and cladding and system pressure on the heatup of fuel rods have been investigated. The time for uncovering a certain core height is taken as the independent parameter. It is seen that if the uncovering process is allowed to continue beyond 9 minutes corresponding to an uncovered height of 1.9 m, onset of cladding oxidation can be a reality. These values provide a guideline for the response time of the emergency core cooling systems. 10 refs., 22 figs.

  17. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  18. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance ...

  19. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Working to expand the usage of thermoelectric technology beyond seat heating and cooling and in doing so reduce CO2 emissions and conserve energy.

  20. Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Products, Fuels, and Power: Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects exploring thermochemical conversion processes that use heat and chemistry to convert biomass into a liquid or gaseous intermediate.

  1. Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a Motored Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  2. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the

  3. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Success story about using waste water treatment gas for hydrogen production at UC Irvine. Presented by Jack Brouwer, UC Irvine, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  4. Modeling Cladding-Coolant Heat Transfer of High-Burnup Fuel During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN 1.2. The minimum stable film boiling temperature, affected by the subcooling and the clad oxidation, is modeled by a modified Henry correlation. ...

  5. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  6. U.S. Army Fort Knox: Using the Earth for Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    FEMP case study overview of the geothermal/ground source heat pump project at the U.S. Army Fort Knox Disney Barracks.

  7. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed

  8. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  9. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  10. List of Heat recovery Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Energy Storage Nuclear Wind Heat recovery Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels No Agricultural Energy Efficiency...

  11. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space /newsroom/_assets/images/s-icon.png Space Space-based treaty verification technology; instrumentation to explore Mars, Saturn, the Van Allen Radiation Belts and other alien environments; discovering and witnessing cosmic processes. . Health Space Computing Energy Earth Materials Science Technology The Lab All Los Alamos scientists developed the BURST computer code to predict-to unprecedented precision-the amounts of light nuclei synthesized in the Big Bang. Numerical simulations shed new

  12. A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

    2011-01-14

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

  13. Geothermal space heating for the Senior Citizens Center at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.; Chaturvedi, L.N.; Gebhard, T.G.

    1982-03-01

    A demonstration project to heat the Senior Citizens Center at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico with geothermal waters is described. There were three phases to the project: Phase I - design and permitting; Phase II - installation of the heating system and well drilling; and Phase III - operation of the system. All three phases went well and there was only one major problem encountered. This was that the well which was drilled to serve as the geothermal source was dry. This could not have been anticipated and there was, as a contingency plan, the option of using an existing sump in the Teen Center adjacent to the Senior Citizens Center as the geothermal source. The system was made operational in August of 1981 and has virtually supplied all of the heat to the Senior Citizens Center during this winter.

  14. Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2010-10-01

    A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000C in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

  15. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating: Field Assessment Minneapolis, Minnesota PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating: Field Assessment Location: Minneapolis, MN Partners: Center for Energy and Environment, www.mncee.org/ Sustainable Resources Center, www.src-mn.org/ University of Minnesota, www.bbe.umn.edu/index.htm NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership Building Component: HVAC Application: Retrofit; single family Year Tested: 2012 Climate

  16. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  17. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  18. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gökhan O. Alptekin TDA Research, Inc. Wheat Ridge, CO U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  The objective is to develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable sorbent to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit  The high concentrations of sulfur species in the

  19. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  20. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  1. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  2. EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources.

  3. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiling, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  4. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  5. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Equipment, Waste Heat Recovery Costs, ... Fuel Cell CHP Fuel Cell Electric Gas Turbine Internal Combustion ... Equipment, Waste Heat Recovery Costs, ...

  6. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  7. Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Space The Lab has explored space for more than 50 years and prompted many discoveries. Climb aboard our newest instruments and learn more about the planets and stars Curious about Mars and if life ever existed on the planet? Now you can learn all about the Red Planet and the Los Alamos technologies on board the Curiosity rover exploring Mars. Travel to Mars Curious about Mars and if life ever existed on the planet? Now you can learn all about the Red Planet and the Los Alamos technologies

  8. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD ... tested in early April An absorption heat pump transfers heat to the water from fuel and ...

  9. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  10. METHOD OF MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, C.H.; Macherey, R.E.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for fabricating fuel elements, particularly for enclosing a plate of metal with a second metal by inserting the plate into an aperture of a frame of a second plate, placing a sheet of the second metal on each of opposite faces of the assembled plate and frame, purging with an inert gas the air from the space within the frame and the sheets while sealing the seams between the frame and the sheets, exhausting the space, purging the space with air, re-exhausting the spaces, sealing the second aperture, and applying heat and pressure to bond the sheets, the plate, and the frame to one another.

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2003-06-09

    This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  12. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  14. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  15. MEASURED SPACE CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE OFA VERTICAL-BORE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) OVER TWELVE MONTHS UNDER SIMULATED OCCUPANCY LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 7.56 kW (2.16 ton) GSHP serving the space conditioning loads of a 251m2 (2700ft2) residential home with a phase change material in its envelope, and a single vertical-bore 94.5m (310 ft) ground loop. The same ground loop also serviced a ground source heat pump water heater. Envelope characteristics are discussed briefly in the context of reducing thermal losses. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, energy delivered/removed, compressor electricity use, COP, GSHP run times (low and high compressor stages), and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Both practical as well as research and development issues are discussed. The findings suggest that GSHPs represent a practical technology option to reduce source energy reduction and greenhouse emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 target of generating over 25% of heat consumed in the EU from renewable energy.

  16. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  17. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  18. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-08-16

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  19. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFCs performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cells microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  20. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant, influence. Lastly, temperature stratification had a negligible influence due to the NTC behavior of the PRF mixtures.

  1. Indoor air pollution from portable kerosene-fired space heaters. [Effects of wick height and fuel consumption rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Dillworth, J.F.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1983-02-01

    Indoor use of unvented combustion appliances is known to cause an increase in indoor air pollutant levels. Laboratory tests were conducted on radiant and convective portable kerosene-fired space heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and to determine their emission rates. Laboratory-derived CO and NO/sub 2/ emission rates from unvented portable kerosense-fired space heaters are summarized and the effect of wick height and fuel consumption rate on CO and NO/sub 2/ emissions is given. Pollutant concentration profiles resulting from the use of kerosene heaters in a 27m/sup 3/ environmental chamber and a 240m/sup 3/ house are presented. When such heaters are operated for one hour in a 27m/sup 3/ chamber with 0.4 air changes per hour, the resultant CO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above the U.S. occupational standard, and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above California's short-term outdoor standard. Further data on parameters such as heater usage patterns and air exchange rates are needed to determine the actual pollutant exposure that kerosene heater users experience.

  2. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pumps Work Using a heat exchanger, a geothermal heat pump can move heat from one space to another. In summer, the geothermal heat pump extracts heat from a building ...

  3. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  4. Atoms for space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig.

  5. Building America Case study: Advanced Controls Improve Performance of Combination Space and Water Heating Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Controls Improve Performance of Combination Space- and Water-Heating Systems Minneapolis, Minnesota PROJECT INFORMATION Combined Space and Water Heating: Next Steps to Improved Performance Location: Minneapolis, MN Partners: University of Minnesota and The Energy Conservatory Center for Energy and Environment, mncee.org NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership Building Component: Space conditioning and water heating Application: New and retrofit; single-family Year Tested: 2011-2014 Applicable

  6. Fuel Cell Financing Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paul J. Rescsanski, Manager, Business Finance UTC Power Paul J. Rescsanski, Manager, Business Finance Transportation Stationary Fuel Cells Space & Defense * Fuel cell technology ...

  7. Refuse-derived fuels in US Air Force heating and power systems. Final report, June 1982-February 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joensen, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to document and review all data associated with densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF)--its preparation and properties, storage and handling, boiler cofiring efficiency and environmental emissions, potential boiler metal wastage, and any other experiences associated with the use of this fuel. The results of this investigation provide the basis for the development of an optimum dRDF fuel specification. These results identify performance characteristics and operating problems of the existing dRDF fuel pellet and contain an economic feasibility assessment of using this fuel.

  8. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  9. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel cells provide power and heat cleanly and efficiently, using diverse domestic fuels, including hydrogen produced from renewable resources and biomass-based fuels. Fuel ...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    units displayed. QData withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in...

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    89.8 34.0 6.7 5.9 6.9 17.6 2.6 5.5 1.0 2.3 7.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 98.9 30.5 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.7 7.1 20.2 1.2 1.7 8.1 5,001 to...

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 147 7 20 20 3 64 1 5 3 7 16 Principal Building Activity Education ... 109 4 22 24 3 33 (*) 5 1 9 6 Food Sales...

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 50.0 2.6 7.1 5.2 1.9 17.7 0.3 5.7 1.2 2.4 5.8 Other Excluding Electricity ... 52.4 1.3 6.4 7.9 (*) 20.5 0.4 6.2 1.0 2.7 6.0 Bldgs without Water...

  14. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Principal-Agent Problem in Commercial Buildings in the U.S.: Focus on Central Space Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Helcio; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-05-14

    We investigate the existence of the principal-agent (PA) problem in non-government, non-mall commercial buildings in the U.S. in 2003. The analysis concentrates on space heating and cooling energy consumed by centrally installed equipment in order to verify whether a market failure caused by the PA problem might have prevented the installation of energy-efficient devices in non-owner-occupied buildings (efficiency problem) and/or the efficient operation of space-conditioning equipment in these buildings (usage problem). Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2003 data for single-owner, single-tenant and multi-tenant occupied buildings were used for conducting this evaluation. These are the building subsets with the appropriate conditions for assessing both the efficiency and the usage problems. Together, these three building types represent 51.9percent of the total floor space of all buildings with space heating and 59.4percent of the total end-use energy consumption of such buildings; similarly, for space cooling, they represent 52.7percent of floor space and 51.6percent of energy consumption. Our statistical analysis shows that there is a usage PA problem. In space heating it applies only to buildings with a small floor area (<_50,000 sq. ft.). We estimate that in 2003 it accounts for additional site energy consumption of 12.3 (+ 10.5 ) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 14.6 [+- 12.4] TBtu), corresponding to 24.0percent (+- 20.5percent) of space heating and 10.2percent (+- 8.7percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings. In space cooling, however, the analysis shows that the PA market failure affects the complete set of studied buildings. We estimate that it accounts for a higher site energy consumption of 8.3 (+-4.0) TBtu (primary energy consumption of 25.5 [+- 12.2]TBtu), which corresponds to 26.5percent (+- 12.7percent) of space cooling and 2.7percent (+- 1.3percent) of total site energy consumed in those buildings.

  16. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  17. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Stack (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  18. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Components (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  19. List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Natural Gas Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Yes Alternative Energy Conservation...

  20. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake; Pienkos, Philip P.; O'Leary, Stephen J.; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

  1. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant, influence. Lastly, temperature stratification had a negligible influence due to the NTC behavior of the PRF mixtures.« less

  2. Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilledmaking the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms dont require light, so they can be grown anywhereinside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

  3. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  4. Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems; Industrial Technologi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fossil fuels and biomass; electric systems; and heat ... improve your plant's bottom line. * Many improvements ... Heat Losses Heat Losses Heat Transfer Advanced Materials ...

  5. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  6. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  7. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  8. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map...

  9. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-06-26

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4°C and 21.7°C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  10. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-06-26

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4°C and 21.7°C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical boremore » ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.« less

  11. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with regularly spaced helical screw-tape inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-02-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)

  12. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  13. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  14. Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a ...

  15. FUEL ROD CLUSTERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, A.B.

    1959-08-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods and a tubular casing therefor through which a coolant flows in heat-exchange contact with the fuel rods is described. The fuel rcds are held in the casing by virtue of the compressive force exerted between longitudinal ribs of the fuel rcds and internal ribs of the casing or the internal surfaces thereof.

  16. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  17. Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Energy Saver 101 Infographic: Home Heating Everything you need to know about home heating, including how heating systems work, the different types on the market and proper maintenance. Read more Thermostats Thermostats Save money on heating by automatically setting back your thermostat when you are asleep or away. Read more Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood

  18. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silica Aerogel (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents,

  19. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report summarizes the results of an information exchange sponsored by the DOE/EERE Bioenergy Technologies Office in Manchester, New Hampshire, on May 9-10, 2012. The participand identifies top challenges regarding feedstocks and production, logistics and compatibility, and operational issues, then prioritized next steps for expanding use of pyrolysis oil as a replacement for home heating oil in the Northeast

  20. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  1. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  2. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Heating and Cooling with Mini-Splits in the Northeast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I, conducted on October 23, 2014, by Kohta Ueno of Building Science Corporation.

  3. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  4. Space Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Videos Space

  5. Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 16,509,639 1,410,151 16,356,550 353,000 247,409 19,356,746

  6. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  7. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td> 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  8. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  9. The Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH,

  10. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer Surfaces Check Heat Transfer Surfaces This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems. PROCESS HEAT TIP SHEET #4 PDF icon Check Heat Transfer Surfaces (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction

  11. Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William L 09 BIOMASS FUELS biofuels, glycerin, glycerol,...

  12. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  13. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George; Meyers, Steven J.; Lee, Arthur

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  14. Qualification of Alternative Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualification of Alternative Fuels May 8, 2012 Pyrolysis Oil Workshop Thomas Butcher Sustainable Energy Technologies Department Applications Baseline - Residential and Light Commercial Pressure-atomized burners with 100-150 psi fuel pressure, no fuel heating; Cyclic operation - to 12,000 cycles per year; Fuel filtration to 90 microns or finer; Storage for periods of 1 year, possibly longer; Storage temperature varied; Visible range flame detection for safety; Nitrile seal materials common; Fuels

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions The definition of alternative fuel includes liquefied petroleum gas (propane). Special fuel is defined as all combustible gases and liquids that are suitable for powering an internal combustion engine or motor or are used exclusively for heating, industrial, or farm purposes. Special fuels include biodiesel, blended biodiesel, and natural gas products, including liquefied and compressed natural gas. (Reference Indiana Code 6-6-2.5-1 and 6-6-2.5-22

  16. Energy System and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Heat and Power High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Light Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2015-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE)s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is spearheading a program with industry to deploy and independently monitor five kilowatt-electric (kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) in light commercial buildings. This publication discusses results from PNNLs research efforts to independently evaluate manufacturer-stated engineering, economic, and environmental performance of these CHP FCSs at installation sites. The analysis was done by developing parameters for economic comparison of CHP installations. Key thermodynamic terms are first defined, followed by an economic analysis using both a standard accounting approach and a management accounting approach. Key economic and environmental performance parameters are evaluated, including (1) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of power, (2) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of energy, (3) the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution emissions with a switch from conventional power plants and furnaces to CHP FCSs; (4) the change in GHG mitigation costs from the switch; and (5) the change in human health costs related to air pollution. From the power perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical power is estimated to span a range from $1519,000/ kilowatt-electric (kWe) (depending on site-specific changes in installation, fuel, and other costs), while the average per unit cost of electrical and heat recovery power varies between $7,000 and $9,000/kW. From the energy perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical energy ranges from $0.38 to $0.46/kilowatt-hour-electric (kWhe), while the average per unit cost per unit of electrical and heat recovery energy varies from $0.18 to $0.23/kWh. These values are calculated from engineering and economic performance data provided by the manufacturer (not independently measured data). The GHG emissions were estimated to decrease by one-third by shifting from a conventional energy system to a CHP FCS system. The GHG mitigation costs were also proportional to the changes in the GHG gas emissions. Human health costs were estimated to decrease significantly with a switch from a conventional system to a CHP FCS system.

  17. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA Report No. 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engen, I.A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effort assesses the conversion of Colorado School District 50 facilities - a high school and gym, and a middle school building - at Pagosa Springs, Colorado to geothermal space heating. A preliminary cost-benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 150/sup 0/F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system-compatible components would be used for the building modifications. Asbestos-cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates. In view of the favorable economics and the uncertain future availability and escalating cost of natural gas, the conversion appears economicaly feasible and desirable.

  18. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  19. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  20. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  1. Forever Fuels Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forever Fuels Ltd Place: Maidenhead, United Kingdom Zip: SL6 8RT Product: Forever Fuels specialises in the distribution and supply of wood pellets for sustainable heating systems....

  2. Process Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Locate a Qualified Specialist in your area who can help optimize plant efficiency. Process Heating Tip Sheets Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Check Heat Transfer Surfaces Furnace ...

  3. Electric Resistance Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    about 30% of the fuel's energy into electricity. Because of electricity generation and transmission losses, electric heat is often more expensive than heat produced in homes or...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Parking Space Regulation An individual is not allowed to park a motor vehicle within any parking space specifically designated for public parking and fueling of AFVs unless the motor vehicle is an AFV fueled by electricity, natural gas, methanol, propane, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), or other fuel the Oregon Department of Energy approves. Eligible AFVs must also be in the process of fueling or charging to park in the space. A person found responsible for a

  5. GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING Dr. John W. Lund, PE Emeritus Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to a group of buildings, providing: *Space heating and cooling *Domestic hot water heating *Industrial process heat Could be a hybrid system augmented by: *Heat Pump to boost ...

  6. STEO October 2012 - home heating use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    most common primary heating fuel, is expected to be up 14 percent this winter, according to the U.S. Energy Information ... While prices for the major heating fuels will be mostly flat ...

  7. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Space Heating & Cooling » Heat Pump System Basics Heat Pump System Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:02am Addthis Like a refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space into a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless

  8. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  9. Solar Thermochemical Production of Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Mankins, John C.

    2007-06-25

    [Abstract] If cost and efficiency targets can be achieved, Solar Thermochemical Plants – occupying a few square kilometers each – can potentially generate substantial quantities of transportation fuels, therefore enabling reductions in imports of foreign petroleum and emissions of carbon dioxide. This paper describes the results of a comparative evaluation of various solar thermochemical approaches for producing chemical fuels. Common to each approach is the concentration of solar and/or other radiant energy so that high temperature heat is provided for thermochemical processes including chemical reactors, heat exchangers and separators. The study includes the evaluation of various feedstock chemicals as input to the Solar Thermochemical Plant: natural gas, biomass and zero-energy chemicals (water and carbon dioxide); the effect of combusting natural gas or concentrating beamed radiant energy from an orbiting platform (e.g., space solar power) as supplemental energy sources that support high plant capacity factors; and the production of either hydrogen or long-chain hydrocarbons (i.e., Fischer-Tropsch fuels) as the Solar Fuel product of the plant.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael; Draper, Robert

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  12. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance | Department of Energy Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance This presentation is included in the July 16, 2014, webinar and discusses various control strategies to improve hydronic space heating

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Activity Education ... 342 322 11 Q Q 0.18 0.17 0.01 Q (*) Food Sales ... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Food Service...

  14. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control ...

  15. Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)","Total of Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ...",4657,67338,81552,66424,10...

  16. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Sum of Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" ,,,,"Primary","Site" "All Buildings...

  17. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * Fuel costs vary widely based on feedstock, location, and technology option * Retail pellet costs are based on current prices in NE (~$243/ton) * Densifying biomass for heating (e.g. pyrolysis oil or pellets) can be a cost- competitive feedstock for residential heating system * These are not "drop-in" fuels

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A.; Zuppero, Anthony C.

    1997-06-24

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  20. FUEL ROD ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutter, E.

    1959-09-01

    A cluster of nuclear fuel rods aod a tubular casing through which a coolant flows in heat-change contact with the ruel rods are described. The casting is of trefoil section and carries the fuel rods, each of which has two fin engaging the serrated fins of the other two fuel rods, whereby the fuel rods are held in the casing and are interlocked against relative longitudinal movement.

  1. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England ...

  2. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England ...

  3. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are ...

  4. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  5. Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6, 2008 APCO Annual Conference and Expo 2 2 Fuel cells use hydrogen to create electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts Fuel Cell Overview * An individual fuel cell ...

  6. Fuel economizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwierzelewski, V.F.

    1984-06-26

    A fuel economizer device for use with an internal combustion engine fitted with a carburetor is disclosed. The fuel economizer includes a plate member which is mounted between the carburetor and the intake portion of the intake manifold. The plate member further has at least one aperture formed therein. One tube is inserted through the at least one aperture in the plate member. The one tube extends longitudinally in the passage of the intake manifold from the intake portion toward the exit portion thereof. The one tube concentrates the mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor and conveys the mixture of fuel and air to a point adjacent but spaced away from the inlet port of the internal combustion engine.

  7. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  8. Geothermal heating facilities for Frontier Inn, Susanville, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The Frontier Inn, located in Susanville, California, is a 38 unit motel composed of six major sections (coffee shop, A frame units, apartments, back units, two story units and office). These sections were built over a number of years and exhibit widely varying types of construction. Space heating is provided by primarily electric resistance equipment with some propane use. Domestic hot water is provided primarily by propane with some electric resistance. The coffee shop uses fuel oil for both space and domestic hot water heating. The City of Susanville is currently in the process of installing a geothermal district heating system. Although the motel site is not located in the area of present construction activity, it is expected that the pipeline will be extended in the near future. This study examines the potential of retrofitting the existing heating facilities at the Frontier Inn to geothermal.

  9. Experience with borehole heat exchangers in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybach, L.; Hopkirk, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    Switzerland undertakes, like many other countries, great efforts to reduce its dependence from foreign fossil fuels. Indigenous sources of energy like the heat content of the subsurface are especially in focus, also due to environmental concern (greenhouse effect due to CO{sub 2} emissions). The most popular and technically advanced space heating system to use ground heat is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). Shallow, coaxial or U-shaped BHEs are installed in 30-50 m deep, backfilled boreholes to extract, by closed-fluid circulation, heat from the ground. They feed the cold (evaporator) (e.g. floor panel) system to heat usually a single dwelling house. The energy supply for the heat exchanger comes from several sources: the vertical geothermal flux itself, the import of energy horizontally by conduction, advective transport with groundwater if present, and the compensating effect of heat exchange between the ground surface and the atmosphere. Multiple BHEs are installed for larger units like community buildings, etc. Since 1980, almost 5,000 such systems, using about 10,000 BHEs with a total length of more than 700,000 m have been installed in Switzerland. The BHE can be upscaled in order to be installed in otherwise abandoned deep boreholes (e.g., in {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} geothermal or hydrocarbon exploratory holes). Experimental as well as theoretical studies have been pursued in Switzerland in the last 10 years to establish a sound technical and energy economics base for shallow and deep BHE systems.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Parking Incentive Programs The California Department of General Services (DGS) and California Department of Transportation (DOT) must develop and implement AFV parking incentive programs in public parking facilities operated by DGS with 50 or more parking spaces and park-and-ride lots owned and operated by DOT. The incentives must provide meaningful and tangible benefits to drivers, such as preferential spaces, reduced fees, and fueling infrastructure. Fueling

  11. Sandia-Univ. of Rochester Win Funding to Demonstrate Fuel Magnetizatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia-Univ. of Rochester Win Funding to Demonstrate Fuel Magnetization and Laser Heating ... Sandia-Univ. of Rochester Win Funding to Demonstrate Fuel Magnetization and Laser Heating ...

  12. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  13. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  14. Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Fuel Cell Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Text Version Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. HOW FUEL CELLS WORK Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode

  15. Fuel Cells & Alternative Fuels | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Fuel cell shown with its inputs and outputs. Hydrogen input on left, oxygen input on right, water and heat outputs on the back, with an electrical circuit going around the top. A fuel cell is a device that uses hydrogen (or hydrogen-rich fuel) and oxygen to create electricity. Fuel cells are more energy-efficient than combustion engines and the

  16. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  17. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York Department of Taxation and Finance publishes a variety of sales tax reports detailing local tax rates and exemptions, including those for residential energy services. The residential...

  18. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Space Heaters For convection (non-radiant) space heaters, the best types incorporate a heat transfer liquid, such as oil, that is heated by the electric element. The heat ...

  19. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  20. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 GE Global Research developed and tested new fuel-flexible gas turbine nozzle technology concepts that will enable end users to efficiently generate power and heat from industrial off-gases and gasified industrial,

  1. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report prepared by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory describes a total cost of ownership model for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FAQs faq-header-big.jpg SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS - BASICS Q: What is a fuel cell? A: A fuel cell is a power generation device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant directly into electrical energy, with heat and water as byproducts. Since fuel cells produce electricity through an electrochemical reaction and not through a combustion process, they are inherently more efficient and environmentally friendly than conventional electric power generation processes. Q: What are the

  3. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel container is penetrated by twelve hexagonal control assembly (CA) guide tubes, each of which has 3.0 mm thickness and 69.4 mm flat-to-flat outer distance. The distance between two neighboring CA guide tube is selected to be 26 cm to provide an adequate space for CA driving systems. The fuel container has 18181 penetrating coolant tubes of 6.0 mm inner diameter and 2.0 mm thickness. The coolant tubes are arranged in a triangular lattice with a lattice pitch of 1.21 cm. The fuel, structure, and coolant volume fractions inside the fuel container are 0.386, 0.383, and 0.231, respectively. Separate steel reflectors and B4C shields are used outside of the fuel container. Six gas expansion modules (GEMs) of 5.0 cm thickness are introduced in the radial reflector region. Between the radial reflector and the fuel container is a 2.5 cm sodium gap. The TRU inventory at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC) is 5081 kg, whereas the TRU inventory at the beginning of life (BOL) was 3541 kg. This is because the equilibrium cycle fuel contains a significantly smaller fissile fraction than the LWR TRU feed. The fuel inventory at BOEC is composed of 34.0 a/o TRU, 41.4 a/o Ce, 23.6 a/o Co, and 1.03 a/o solid fission products. Since uranium-free fuel is used, a theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.011 kg/day is achieved. The semi-continuous fuel cycle based on the 300-batch, 1- day cycle approximation yields a burnup reactivity loss of 26 pcm/day, and requires a daily reprocessing of 32.5 kg of SLFFR fuel. This yields a daily TRU charge rate of 17.45 kg, including a makeup TRU feed of 1.011 kg recovered from the LWR used fuel. The charged TRU-Ce-Co fuel is composed of 34.4 a/o TRU, 40.6 a/o Ce, and 25.0 a/o Co.

  4. Using Waste Heat for External Processes (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Using Waste Heat for External Processes fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to use waste heat in industrial applications. The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery method. Figure 1 shows the heat lost in exhaust gases at various exhaust gas temperatures and percentages of excess air. Energy from gases exhausted from higher temperature processes (primary processes) can be recovered and used for lower temperature processes (secondary processes). One example is to generate steam using waste heat boilers for the fluid heaters used in petroleum crude processing. In addition, many companies install heat exchangers on the exhaust stacks of furnaces and ovens to produce hot water or to generate hot air for space heating.

  5. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  6. Heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2003-08-12

    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  7. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  8. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  9. Materials and Fuels Complex Tour

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory is home to several facilities used for the research and development of nuclear fuels. Stops include the Fuel Conditioning Facility, the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (post-irradiation examination), and the Space and Security Power System Facility, where radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are assembled for deep space missions. You can learn more about INL research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. List of Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Natural Gas Hydroelectric energy Small Hydroelectric Yes Alternative Energy Personal...

  11. List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Biomass Renewable Transportation Fuels Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Community Energy Project Grants (Michigan) State Grant Program...

  12. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  13. Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells Fuel Cells A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen or another fuel to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity. If hydrogen is the fuel, electricity, water, and heat are the only products. Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide power for systems as large as a utility power station and as small as a laptop computer. Why Study Fuel Cells Fuel cells can be used in a wide range of applications, including transportation,

  14. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    methods to improve thermal efficiency of heating equipment. This tool helps industrial users survey process heating equipment that consumes fuel, steam, or electricity,...

  15. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the fue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler ...

  16. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by ...

  17. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  18. Using Waste Heat for External Processes; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Waste Heat for External Processes The temperature of exhaust gases from fuel-fired industrial processes depends mainly on the process temperature and the waste heat recovery ...

  19. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  20. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.