National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel production facility

  1. Feasibility of a digester gas fuel production facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakes, G.; Greene, D.S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Results of studies on the feasibility of using digester gas produced from wastewater sludge to fuel vehicles are reported. Availability and suitability of digester gas as well as digester gas production records and test analyses on digester gas were reviewed. The feasibility of the project based on economic and environmental considerations is reported and compared to possible alternative uses of the digester gas.

  2. MORTALITY AMONG WORKERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NUCLEAR FUELS PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MORTALITY AMONG WORKERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NUCLEAR FUELS PRODUCTION FACILITY Donna L. Cragle and Janice P. Watkins, Center for Epidemiologic Research; Kathryn Robertson-DeMers, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Donna Cragle, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 Key Words: mortality study, radiation exposure, leukemia, occupational cohort, trend test INTRODUCTION Since 1952 the Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, South Carolina, has operated as a Department of

  3. Nuclear Facilities Production Facilities

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Facilities Production Facilities Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sand 2011-4582P. ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) The GIF provides test cells for the irradiation of experiments with high-intensity gamma ray sources. The main features

  4. Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0%2A en Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility http:nnsa.energy.govfieldofficessavannah-river-field-officemixed-oxide-mox-fuel-fabrication-facility

  5. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  6. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  7. Ethanol as a fuel: design and construction of an ethanol production facility for a farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelger, E.C. III

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation describes the production of ethanol from biomass. It includes descriptions of photosynthesis, feedstock preparation, fermentation, distillation and end use. Technical problems and limitations as well as social, political, and economic aspects of producing ethanol are addressed. The potential of small-scale ethanol production and specific case studies are reviewed. A low-cost efficient design for a single farm ethanol facility is included. (DMC)

  8. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Fuel Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Distribution Buses The Energy Systems Integration Facility's integrated fuel distribution buses provide natural gas, hydrogen, and diesel for fueling applications. Standard, ...

  9. Farmstead production of fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority Agricultural Energy Applications Section (Muscle Shoals, AL) has designed and constructed a small-scale fuel alcohol production facility which can produce 10 gph of 190-proof alcohol. Information presented includes some factors relative to facility design, layout, and construction, plus operation and performance experiences.

  10. American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hempstead Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Hempstead Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  11. Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cathode Materials Production Facility Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt017_es_han_2013_p.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Material/Component Production Facilities

  12. American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Delaware Valley...

  13. Pyroprocessing of Fast Flux Test Facility Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; G.L. Fredrickson; G.G. Galbreth; D. Vaden; M.D. Elliott; J.C. Price; E.M. Honeyfield; M.N. Patterson; L. A. Wurth

    2013-10-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electrorefined uranium products exceeded 99%.

  14. Pyroprocessing of fast flux test facility nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Wurth, L.A.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Galbreth, G.G.; Vaden, D.; Elliott, M.D.; Price, J.C.; Honeyfield, E.M.; Patterson, M.N.

    2013-07-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electro-refined uranium products exceeded 99%. (authors)

  15. Toda Material/Component Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt017_es_han_2012_p.pdf (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility Toda Material/Component Production Facilities

  16. Toda Material/Component Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt017_es_han_2011_p.pdf (1.08 MB) More Documents & Publications Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility

  17. Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

  18. Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition Strategy Lessons Learned Report, NNSA, Feb 2010 Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition...

  19. Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amanda Rynes

    2010-11-01

    With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

  20. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this design calculation is to perform a criticality evaluation of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) and the operations and processes performed therein. The current intent of the FHF is to receive transportation casks whose contents will be unloaded and transferred to waste packages (WP) or MGR Specific Casks (MSC) in the fuel transfer bays. Further, the WPs will also be prepared in the FHF for transfer to the sub-surface facility (for disposal). The MSCs will be transferred to the Aging Facility for storage. The criticality evaluation of the FHF features the following: (I) Consider the types of waste to be received in the FHF as specified below: (1) Uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF); (2) Canistered CSNF (with the exception of horizontal dual-purpose canister (DPC) and/or multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)); (3) Navy canistered SNF (long and short); (4) Department of Energy (DOE) canistered high-level waste (HLW); and (5) DOE canistered SNF (with the exception of MCOs). (II) Evaluate the criticality analyses previously performed for the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified transportation casks (under 10 CFR 71) to be received in the FHF to ensure that these analyses address all FHF conditions including normal operations, and Category 1 and 2 event sequences. (III) Evaluate FHF criticality conditions resulting from various Category 1 and 2 event sequences. Note that there are currently no Category 1 and 2 event sequences identified for FHF. Consequently, potential hazards from a criticality point of view will be considered as identified in the ''Internal Hazards Analysis for License Application'' document (BSC 2004c, Section 6.6.4). (IV) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the fuel transfer bay for defense in depth. The SNF/HLW waste transfer activity (i.e., assembly and canister transfer) that is being carried out in the FHF has been classified as safety category in the ''Q-list'' (BSC 2003, p. A-6

  1. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  2. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers.

  4. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 30,319 28,678 30,812 28,059 30,228 30,258 1981-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 641 698 804 725 734

  5. Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeeEarl Vaden

    2005-10-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

  6. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Baily, Scott A.; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Wheat, Robert Mitchell Jr.

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  8. Hydrogen Production and Dispensing Facility Opens at W. Va. Airport |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen Production and Dispensing Facility Opens at W. Va. Airport Hydrogen Production and Dispensing Facility Opens at W. Va. Airport August 19, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Washington, D.C. -- A

  9. President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility Washington, DC The Reagan Administration announces a nuclear energy policy that anticipates the establishment of a facility for the storage of high-level radioactive waste and lifts the ban on commercial reprocessing of nuclear fuel

  10. American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Biomass Facility | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Niagara Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Niagara Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal...

  11. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  12. Webinar: Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides presented at the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production" on January 24, 2011.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on AddThis.com... More in this section...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production on AddThis.com... More

  15. American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of SE CT Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Garn, Troy; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack; Jubin, Robert T.; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2013-07-22

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing. These can evolve in volatile species in the reprocessing facility off-gas streams, depending on the separations and reprocessing technologies that are used. Radionuclides that have been identified as “volatile radionuclides” are noble gases (most notably isotopes of Kr and Xe); 3H; 14C; and 129I. Radionuclides that tend to form volatile species that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas systems are more challenging to efficiently control compared to radionuclides that tend to stay in solid or liquid phases. Future used fuel reprocessing facilities in the United States can require efficient capture of some volatile radionuclides in their off-gas streams to meet regulatory emission requirements. In aqueous reprocessing, these radionuclides are most commonly expected to evolve into off-gas streams in tritiated water [3H2O (T2O) and 3HHO (THO)], radioactive CO2, noble gases, and gaseous HI, I2, or volatile organic iodides. The fate and speciation of these radionuclides from a non-aqueous fuel reprocessing facility is less well known at this time, but active investigations are in progress. An Off-Gas Sigma Team was formed in late FY 2009 to integrate and coordinate the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities directed towards the capture and sequestration of the these volatile radionuclides (Jubin 2012a). The Sigma Team concept was envisioned to bring together multidisciplinary teams from across the DOE complex that would work collaboratively to solve the technical challenges and to develop the scientific basis for the capture and immobilization technologies such that the sum of the efforts was greater than the individual parts. The Laboratories currently participating in this effort are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific

  18. Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility Documents related to the project: Plutonium Disposition Study Options Independent Assessment Phase 1 Report, April 13, 2015 Plutonium Disposition Study Options Independent Assessment Phase 2 Report, August 20, 2015 Final Report of the Plutonium Disposition Red Team, August 13, 2015 Commentary on

  19. Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation arravt006_es_pham_2011_p.pdf (566.72 KB) More Documents & Publications Dow/Kokam Cell/Battery Production Facilities Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery

  20. Overview of Idaho National Laboratory's Hot Fuels Examination Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam B. Robinson; R. Paul Lind; Daniel M. Wachs

    2007-09-01

    The Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) of the Idaho National Laboratory was constructed in the 1960’s and opened for operation in the 1975 in support of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor research. Specifically the facility was designed to handle spent fuel and irradiated experiments from the Experimental Breeder Reactor EBRII, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). HFEF is a large alpha-gamma facility designed to remotely characterize highly radioactive materials. In the late 1980’s the facility also began support of the US DOE waste characterization including characterizing contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. A description of the hot cell as well as some of its primary capabilities are discussed herein.

  1. American Ref-Fuel of Essex Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Essex Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name American Ref-Fuel of Essex Biomass Facility Facility American Ref-Fuel of Essex Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid...

  2. Analysis of a Nuclear Accident: Fission and Activation Product Releases from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Facility as Remote Indicators of Source Identification, Extent of Release, and State of Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Clark, Richard A.

    2012-09-10

    Measurements of several radionuclides within environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Company website following the recent tsunami-initiated catastrophe were evaluated for the purpose of identifying the source term, reconstructing the release mechanisms, and estimating the extent of the release. 136Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs ratios identified Units 1-3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil close to the facility. A trend was observed between the fraction of the total core inventory released for a number of fission product isotopes and their corresponding Gibbs Free Energy of formation for the primary oxide form of the isotope, suggesting that release was dictated primarily by chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the primary containment vessels of the vented reactors. The absence of any major fractionation beyond volatilization suggested all coolant had evaporated by the time of venting. High estimates for the fraction of the total inventory released of more volatile species (Te, Cs, I) indicated the damage to fuel bundles was likely extensive, minimizing any potential containment due to physical migration of these species through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall. 238Pu/239,240Pu ratios close-in and at 30 km from the facility indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of Pu to surface soil at the source but that this contribution likely decreased rapidly with distance from the facility. The fraction of the total Pu inventory released to the environment from venting units 1 and 3 was estimated to be ~0.003% based upon Pu/Cs isotope ratios relative to the within-reactor modeled inventory prior to venting and was consistent with an independent model evaluation that considered chemical volatility based upon measured fission product release trends. Significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel

  3. Solar Thermochemical Production of Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Mankins, John C.

    2007-06-25

    [Abstract] If cost and efficiency targets can be achieved, Solar Thermochemical Plants – occupying a few square kilometers each – can potentially generate substantial quantities of transportation fuels, therefore enabling reductions in imports of foreign petroleum and emissions of carbon dioxide. This paper describes the results of a comparative evaluation of various solar thermochemical approaches for producing chemical fuels. Common to each approach is the concentration of solar and/or other radiant energy so that high temperature heat is provided for thermochemical processes including chemical reactors, heat exchangers and separators. The study includes the evaluation of various feedstock chemicals as input to the Solar Thermochemical Plant: natural gas, biomass and zero-energy chemicals (water and carbon dioxide); the effect of combusting natural gas or concentrating beamed radiant energy from an orbiting platform (e.g., space solar power) as supplemental energy sources that support high plant capacity factors; and the production of either hydrogen or long-chain hydrocarbons (i.e., Fischer-Tropsch fuels) as the Solar Fuel product of the plant.

  4. President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    nuclear energy policy that anticipates the establishment of a facility for the storage of high-level radioactive waste and lifts the ban on commercial reprocessing of nuclear fuel

  5. Hanford Site existing irradiated fuel storage facilities description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, W.L.

    1995-01-11

    This document describes facilities at the Hanford Site which are currently storing spent nuclear fuels. The descriptions provide a basis for the no-action alternatives of ongoing and planned National Environmental Protection Act reviews.

  6. World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of ...

  7. Proliferation resistance and the advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, Scott; Thomas, Kenneth; Tobin, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The planned Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is intended to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by demonstrating separation and fuel fabrication processes required to support an Advanced Burner Reactor. The processes, materials and safeguards will be selected and designed to enhance proliferation resistance beyond that of the existing plutonium based mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle. This paper explores the concept of proliferation resistance and how the AFCF will advance the related state of the art. (authors)

  8. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  9. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Research Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facilities Photo of person at work in laboratory setting. NREL researcher evaluates catalyst activity at the Electrochemical Characterization Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL conducts hydrogen and fuel cell R&D at a variety of research facilities at our main 327-acre campus in Golden, Colorado, as well as the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. Industry, government, and university partners benefit from access to our state-of-the-art facilities and

  10. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  11. Summary of Off-Normal Events in US Fuel Cycle Facilities for AFCI Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. J. Piet; S. O. Sheetz; D. H. McGuire; W. B. Boore

    2005-09-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for facilities comprising the fission reactor fuel cycle, with the exception of reactor operations. This report includes mines, mills, conversion plants, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication plants, transportation of fuel materials between these centers, and waste storage facilities. Some of the facilities discussed are no longer operating; others continue to produce fuel for the commercial fission power plant industry. Some of the facilities discussed have been part of the military’s nuclear effort; these are included when the processes used are similar to those used for commercial nuclear power. When reading compilations of incidents and accidents, after repeated entries it is natural to form an opinion that there exists nothing but accidents. For this reason, production or throughput values are described when available. These adverse operating experiences are compiled to support the design and decisions needed for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The AFCI is to weigh options for a new fission reactor fuel cycle that is efficient, safe, and productive for US energy security.

  12. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios | Department of Energy Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel

  13. Product Recovery from HTGR Reactor Fuel Processing Salt Official...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstration of Fuel and Fission Product Recovery from HTGR Reactor Fuel Processing Salt ... HTGR, MST, CST Retention: Permanent Demonstration of Fuel and Fission Product Recovery ...

  14. Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) fieldoffices / Savannah River Field Office Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility Documents related to the project: Plutonium Disposition Study Options Independent Assessment Phase 1 Report, April 13, 2015 Plutonium Disposition Study Options Independent Assessment Phase 2 Report, August 20, 2015 Final Report of the Plutonium Disposition Red Team, August 13, 2015 Commentary on Report by High Bridge Associates, Inc., Feb. 12, 2016 Related Topics Mixed Oxide Fuel

  15. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  16. Safeguards optimization tool for the advanced fuel cycle facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, Scott; Thomas, Kenneth; Dixon, Eleanor

    2007-07-01

    The planned Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is intended to support the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) by demonstrating separation and fuel fabrication processes required to support an Advanced Burner Reactor. Advanced safeguards will be based on new world standards for the prevention of nuclear materials proliferation. Safeguarding nuclear facilities includes inventory accountancy, process monitoring, and containment and surveillance. An effort has been undertaken to optimize selection of technology for advanced safeguards accountancy, by way of using the Standard Error in the Inventory Difference (SEID) as a basis for cost/benefit analyses. (authors)

  17. EARTHQUAKE CAUSED RELEASES FROM A NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-08-01

    The fuel cycle facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory is a nuclear facility which must be licensed in order to operate. A safety analysis is required for a license. This paper describes the analysis of the Design Basis Accident for this facility. This analysis involves a model of the transient behavior of the FCF inert atmosphere hot cell following an earthquake initiated breach of pipes passing through the cell boundary. The hot cell is used to process spent metallic nuclear fuel. Such breaches allow the introduction of air and subsequent burning of pyrophoric metals. The model predicts the pressure, temperature, volumetric releases, cell heat transfer, metal fuel combustion, heat generation rates, radiological releases and other quantities. The results show that releases from the cell are minimal and satisfactory for safety. This analysis method should be useful in other facilities that have potential for damage from an earthquake and could eliminate the need to back fit facilities with earthquake proof boundaries or lessen the cost of new facilities.

  18. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report ...

  19. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-08-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility`s nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities.

  20. Regulatory cross-cutting topics for fuel cycle facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Brown, Jason; Goldmann, Andrew Scott; Louie, David

    2013-10-01

    This report overviews crosscutting regulatory topics for nuclear fuel cycle facilities for use in the Fuel Cycle Research&Development Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening study. In particular, the regulatory infrastructure and analysis capability is assessed for the following topical areas:Fire Regulations (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and/or International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fire regulations to advance fuel cycle facilities)Consequence Assessment (i.e., how applicable are current radionuclide transportation tools to support risk-informed regulations and Level 2 and/or 3 PRA) While not addressed in detail, the following regulatory topic is also discussed:Integrated Security, Safeguard and Safety Requirement (i.e., how applicable are current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations to future fuel cycle facilities which will likely be required to balance the sometimes conflicting Material Accountability, Security, and Safety requirements.)

  1. Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research funded by EEREs Fuel Cell Technologies Office has dramatically increased the efficiency of biofuel production by changing certain genes in algae to make them pale green.

  2. Polyvalent fuel treatment facility (TCP): shearing and dissolution of used fuel at La Hague facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brueziere, J.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.; Durand, L.; Bertrand, N.

    2013-07-01

    Although many used nuclear fuel types have already been recycled, recycling plants are generally optimized for Light Water Reactor (LWR) UO{sub x} fuel. Benefits of used fuel recycling are consequently restricted to those fuels, with only limited capacity for the others like LWR MOX, Fast Reactor (FR) MOX or Research and Test Reactor (RTR) fuel. In order to recycle diverse fuel types, an innovative and polyvalent shearing and dissolving cell is planned to be put in operation in about 10 years at AREVA's La Hague recycling plant. This installation, called TCP (French acronym for polyvalent fuel treatment) will benefit from AREVA's industrial feedback, while taking part in the next steps towards a fast reactor fuel cycle development using innovative treatment solutions. Feasibility studies and R/Development trials on dissolution and shearing are currently ongoing. This new installation will allow AREVA to propose new services to its customers, in particular in term of MOX fuel, Research Test Reactors fuel and Fast Reactor fuel treatment. (authors)

  3. Fuel cell electric power production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hwang, Herng-Shinn; Heck, Ronald M.; Yarrington, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  4. Evaluation of existing United States` facilities for use as a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Motley, F.E.; Siebe, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    A number of existing US facilities were evaluated for use as a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition. These facilities include the Fuels Material Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, the Washington Power Supply Unit 1 (WNP-1) facility at Hanford, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) at Barnwell, SC, the Fuel Processing Facility (FPF) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the P-reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The study consisted of evaluating each facility in terms of available process space, available building support systems (i.e., HVAC, security systems, existing process equipment, etc.), available regional infrastructure (i.e., emergency response teams, protective force teams, available transportation routes, etc.), and ability to integrate the MOX fabrication process into the facility in an operationally-sound manner that requires a minimum amount of structural modifications.

  5. DOE to Build Hydrogen Fuel Test Facility at West Virginia Airport...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Build Hydrogen Fuel Test Facility at West Virginia Airport DOE to Build Hydrogen Fuel Test Facility at West Virginia Airport March 25, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The ...

  6. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for ...

  7. Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Adapting biomass waste molecules for energy production May 1, 2013 Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Lab research can yield energy from non-food biomass Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office

  8. Toda Material/Component Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Material/Component Production Facilities 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. esarravt017_han_2010_p.pdf (2.09 MB) More Documents & Publications Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Material/Component Production Facilities Toda Cathode Materials Production Facility

  9. Fuel Production/Quality Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, though they are also entitled to choose a petroleum...

  10. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  11. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  12. Mission Need Statement: Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Beller

    2007-09-01

    Approval is requested based on the information in this Mission Need Statement for The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to develop a project in support of the mission established by the Office of Environmental Management to "complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research". DOE-ID requests approval to develop the Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project that is required to implement the Department of Energy's decision for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel in the Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. The capability that is required to prepare Spent Nuclear Fuel for transportation and disposal outside the State of Idaho includes characterization, conditioning, packaging, onsite interim storage, and shipping cask loading to complete shipments by January 1,2035. These capabilities do not currently exist in Idaho.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added ...

  14. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added ...

  15. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Fourth Quarter: July 1-September 30, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility ...

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

    1998-12-20

    Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Publication and Product Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office Publication & Product Library Fuel Cell Technologies Office Home Publication and Product Library Share this resource Publications Advanced Search ...

  18. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production ...

  19. Implementation of cerium oxide structures in solar fuel production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of cerium oxide structures in solar fuel production systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Implementation of cerium oxide structures in solar fuel production systems. ...

  20. Economics of ethanol fuel for crop production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontana, C.; Rotz, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate conventional and ethanol fuel consumption for crop production. The model was validated by obtaining a close comparison between simulated and actual diesel requirements for farms in Michigan. Parameters for ethanol consumption were obtained from laboratory tests using total fueling of spark-ignition engines and dual-fueling of diesel engines with ethanol. Ethanol fuel will always be more economically used in spark-ignition engines than in dual-fueled diesel engines. The price of gasoline must inflate at least 14 percent/year greater than that of ethanol and diesel must inflate at least 23 percent/year more than ethanol to allow economic use of ethanol as tractor fuel within the next 5 years. (Refs. 13).

  1. Production Facility System Reliability Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Crystal Buchanan; Klein, Steven Karl

    2015-10-06

    This document describes the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) modeling of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) design for the Closed Loop Helium Cooling System (CLHCS) planned for the NorthStar accelerator-based 99Mo production facility. The current analysis incorporates a conceptual helium recovery system, beam diagnostics, and prototype control system into the reliability analysis. The results from the 1000 hr blower test are addressed.

  2. Calculation of parameters for inspection planning and evaluation: low enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reardon, P.T.; Mullen, M.F.; Harms, N.L.

    1981-02-01

    As part of Task C.35 (Calculation of Parameters for Inspection Planning and Evaluation) of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed some quantitative analyses of IAEA inspection activities at low-enriched uranium (LEU) conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. This report presents the results and conclusions of those analyses. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at LEU conversion and fuel fabrication facilities must take into account a variety of practical problems and constraints. One of the key concerns is the problem of flow verification, especially product verification. The objective of this report is to help put the problem of flow verification in perspective by presenting the results of some specific calculations of inspection effort and probability of detection for various product measurement strategies. In order to provide quantitative information about the advantages and disadvantages of the various strategies, eight specific cases were examined.

  3. Toda Material/Component Production Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review June 7-9, 2010 Washington D.C. Jun Nakano, David Han, Yasuhiro Abe Toda America Inc. Project ID: ARRAVT017 Esarravt017_han_2010_p_final This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Overview Li-ion Cathode Materials Production Facility Timelines Start: February, 2010 Finish: December, 2013 1 st Line Schedule: Feb., 2011 Completion: ~10% Challenges Compressed schedule - first line production within 1 year

  4. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  5. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  6. Doosan Fuel Cell Takes Closed Plant to Full Production | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Doosan Fuel Cell Takes Closed Plant to Full Production Doosan Fuel Cell Takes Closed Plant to Full Production December 8, 2015 - 12:06pm Addthis Photo Courtesy | Doosan Fuel Cell ...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Digg Find More

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Digg

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to

  11. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  12. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.

  13. Financing Strategies For A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2006-07-01

    To help meet the nation’s energy needs, recycling of partially used nuclear fuel is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle, but implementing this step will require considerable investment. This report evaluates financing scenarios for integrating recycling facilities into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options from fully government owned to fully private owned were evaluated using DPL (Decision Programming Language 6.0), which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest lifecycle cost, lowest unit cost). This evaluation concludes that the lowest unit costs and lifetime costs are found for a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. However, this does not mean that the facilities should necessarily be constructed and operated by the government. The costs for hybrid combinations of public and private (commercial) financed options can compete under some circumstances with the costs of the government option. This analysis shows that commercial operations have potential to be economical, but there is presently no incentive for private industry involvement. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) currently establishes government ownership of partially used commercial nuclear fuel. In addition, the recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) suggests fuels from several countries will be recycled in the United States as part of an international governmental agreement; this also assumes government ownership. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual facility capacity led to the greatest variations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; and the annual operating costs, forgiveness of debt, and overnight costs dominate the costs computed for

  14. Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility Hanford, WA Selected as Plutonium Production Facility Hanford, WA Groves selects Hanford, Washington, as site for full-scale plutonium production and separation facilities. Three reactors--B, D, and F--are built

  15. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-12-19

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC

  16. Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells, February 2, 2011. infocallfeb11_lipman.pdf (0 B) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Financing Fuel Cells The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

  17. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    generation, industrial cogeneration, marine applications and uninterrupted power for military bases. FuelCell Energy operated a 1.8 MW plant at a utility site in 1996-97, the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in North America. This proof-of-concept power plant demonstrated high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power control, and unattended operation capabilities. Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the full-size power plant; FuelCell Energy launched the Product Design Improvement (PDI) program sponsored by government and the private-sector cost-share. The PDI efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program was initiated in December 1994. Year 2000 program accomplishments are discussed in this report.

  18. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  19. Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Tasios Melis, UC Berkeley 24-Jan-2011 1 UCB-Melis 2 CO 2 H 2 O Photosynthesis Photons H 2 HC O 2 , Biomass Feedstock and products Process offers a renewable fuels supply and mitigation of climate change. UCB-Melis Average US Solar insolation = 5 kWh m -2 d -1 CA household electricity consumption = 15 kWh d -1 Sunlight 3 UCB-Melis Gains upon improving the carbon reactions of photosynthesis: up to 50% 4 "Six potential routes of increasing

  20. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  1. Solar thermochemical fuel production. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; BIOMASS; GASIFICATION; LIQUID FUELS; OXIDES; PRODUCTION; REDOX REACTIONS; SOLAR ...

  2. Renewable Motor Fuel Production Capacity Under H.R.4

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes renewable motor fuel production capacity with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the renewable fuels standard.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation ...

  4. Testing standards for physical security systems at Category 1 fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG is a compilation of physical security testing standards for use at fuel cycle facilities using or possessing formula quantities of strategic special nuclear material.

  5. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  6. Production of biomass fuel for resource recovery: Trash recycling in Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauriello, P.J.; Brooks, K.G.

    1997-12-01

    Dade County, Florida has been in the forefront of resources recovery from municipal solid waste since the early 1980`s. The County completed its 3,000 tons per day (six days per week) refuse derived fuel waste-to-energy facility in 1982. The Resources Recovery facility is operated under a long-term agreement with Montenay-Dade, Ltd. The trash processing capability of this facility was upgraded in 1997 to process 860 tons per day (six days per week) of trash into a biomass fuel which is used off-site to produce electrical energy. Under current Florida law, facilities like trash-to-fuel that produce alternative clean-burning fuels for the production of energy may receive credit for up to one-half of the state`s 30 percent waste reduction goal.

  7. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste

  8. EERE Success Story-BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility EERE Success Story-BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility March 5, 2015 - 6:27pm Addthis BASF Catalysts, a battery component manufacturer, is running the largest cathode materials manufacturing facility in the country with support from EERE's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO). The factory was supported by a $25 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project. Located in Elyria, Ohio, the facility at full

  9. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. R. Soelberg; J. D. Law; T. G. Garn; M. Greenhalgh; R. T. Jubin; P. Thallapally; D. M. Strachan

    2013-08-01

    The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

  10. EA-1727: AE Polysilicon Corporation Polysilicon Production Facility in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fairless Hills, PA | Department of Energy 7: AE Polysilicon Corporation Polysilicon Production Facility in Fairless Hills, PA EA-1727: AE Polysilicon Corporation Polysilicon Production Facility in Fairless Hills, PA November 1, 2010 EA-1727: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee To AE Polysilicon Corporation for Construction And Startup Of Their Phase 2 Polysilicon Production Facility In Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania November 19, 2010 EA-1727: Finding of No Significant Impact

  11. KCP celebrates production milestone at new facility | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    celebrates production milestone at new facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  12. Stowe Power Production Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stowe Power Production Plant Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Montgomery County, Pennsylvania Coordinates 40.2290075, -75.3878525 Show Map Loading map......

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-11-21

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  14. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major ...

  15. Decommissioning of U.S. Uranium Production Facilities

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report analyzes the uranium production facility decommissioning process and its potential impact on uranium supply and prices. 1995 represents the most recent publication year.

  16. EA-1727: AE Polysilicon Corporation Polysilicon Production Facility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    In Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania November 19, 2010 EA-1727: Finding of No Significant Impact Construction and Startup of their Phase 2 Polysilicon Production Facility in...

  17. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mines, Greg

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  18. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mines, Greg

    2013-12-24

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  19. Fuel and core testing plan for a target fueled isotope production reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years there has been an unstable supply of the critical diagnostic medical isotope 99Tc. Several concepts and designs have been proposed to produce 99Mo the parent nuclide of 99Tc, at a commercial scale sufficient to stabilize the world supply. This work lays out a testing and experiment plan for a proposed 2 MW open pool reactor fueled by Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) 99Mo targets. The experiments and tests necessary to support licensing of the reactor design are described and how these experiments and tests will help establish the safe operating envelop for a medical isotope production reactor is discussed. The experiments and tests will facilitate a focused and efficient licensing process in order to bring on line a needed production reactor dedicated to supplying medical isotopes. The Target Fuel Isotope Reactor (TFIR) design calls for an active core region that is approximately 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in fuel height. It contains up to 150 cylindrical, 1-cm diameter, LEU oxide fuel pins clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy), in an annular hexagonal array on a {approx}2.0 cm pitch surrounded, radially, by a graphite or a Be reflector. The reactor is similar to U.S. university reactors in power, hardware, and safety/control systems. Fuel/target pin fabrication is based on existing light water reactor fuel fabrication processes. However, as part of licensing process, experiments must be conducted to confirm analytical predictions of steady-state power and accident conditions. The experiment and test plan will be conducted in phases and will utilize existing facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories. The first phase is to validate the predicted reactor core neutronics at delayed critical, zero power and very low power. This will be accomplished by using the Sandia Critical Experiment (CX) platform. A full scale TFIR core will be built in the CX and delayed critical measurements will be taken. For low power experiments

  20. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today Keynote Success Story Robert Graham, Chairman and CEO, Ensyn Corporation b13_graham_ensyn.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Cellulosic Biofuels Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Integrated Biorefineries

  1. Patriot BioFuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioFuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Patriot BioFuels Place: Little Rock, Arkansas Zip: 72201 Product: Arkansas-based biodiesel company with production facilities at...

  2. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The FCE PDI program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current full-size field test to the commercial design. The specific objectives selected to attain the overall program goal are: Define power plant requirements and specifications; Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant; Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial-scale manufacturing facility; Define the stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment packaging arrangement, and module designs; Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and critical BOP equipment to prepare for commercial design; and Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues, and design, build and field test a modular prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry.

  3. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  4. Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility New capability expands existing program, creates treatment product in quantity. April 13, 2012 Medical Isotope Work Moves Cancer Treatment Agent Forward Medical Isotope Work Moves Cancer Treatment Agent Forward - Los Alamos scientist Meiring Nortier holds a thorium foil test target for the proof-of-concept production experiments. Research indicates that it

  5. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  6. EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    County, WY | Department of Energy 2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for Download November 27, 2009 EIS-0432: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Federal Loan Guarantee to Support the Construction and Startup of the Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, Wyoming December 16, 2009

  7. D.C. Hydrogen Fuel Station Demonstration Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. Hydrogen Fuel Station Demonstration Facility D.C. Hydrogen Fuel Station Demonstration Facility Addthis Description Below is the text version for the "D.C. Hydrogen Fuel Station Demonstration Facility" video. Text Version The video opens with six men at a ribbon-cutting ceremony. The crowd counts down 3-2-1. The men cut the ribbons, and everyone cheers. Text appears: Energy.gov presents In Partnership with the National Park Service, The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  8. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 1 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-11-04

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations.

  9. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    All Petrolem Reports U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity Release Date: June 29, ... This is the sixth release of the U.S. Energy Information Administration data on fuel ...

  10. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  11. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  12. The Science | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science The Science The need for a continuous energy supply and energy requirements for transportation necessitates technology for storage of energy from sunlight in fuel, as well as conversion to electricity. Cost-effective technologies for solar fuel production do not exist, prompting the need for new fundamental science. Fuel production requires not only energy, but also a source of electrons and precursor materials suitable for reduction to useful fuels. Given the immense magnitude of the

  13. An Integrated Assessment of Location-Dependent Scaling for Microalgae Biofuel Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Abodeely, Jared; Skaggs, Richard; Moeglein, William AM; Newby, Deborah T.; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Successful development of a large-scale microalgae-based biofuels industry requires comprehensive analysis and understanding of the feedstock supply chain—from facility siting/design through processing/upgrading of the feedstock to a fuel product. The evolution from pilot-scale production facilities to energy-scale operations presents many multi-disciplinary challenges, including a sustainable supply of water and nutrients, operational and infrastructure logistics, and economic competitiveness with petroleum-based fuels. These challenges are addressed in part by applying the Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF)—an integrated multi-scale modeling, analysis, and data management suite—to address key issues in developing and operating an open-pond facility by analyzing how variability and uncertainty in space and time affect algal feedstock production rates, and determining the site-specific “optimum” facility scale to minimize capital and operational expenses. This approach explicitly and systematically assesses the interdependence of biofuel production potential, associated resource requirements, and production system design trade-offs. The IAF was applied to a set of sites previously identified as having the potential to cumulatively produce 5 billion-gallons/year in the southeastern U.S. and results indicate costs can be reduced by selecting the most effective processing technology pathway and scaling downstream processing capabilities to fit site-specific growing conditions, available resources, and algal strains.

  14. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    The safe and efficient operation of the next generation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) recycling / reprocessing facilities is dependent upon the availability of high performance real time Non- Destructive Assay (NDA) systems at key in-line points. A diverse variety of such special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned at reprocessing plants worldwide over the past fifty years.. The measurement purpose, technique and plant performance for selected key systems have been reviewed. Obsolescence issues and areas for development are identified in the context of the measurements needs of future recycling facilities and their associated waste treatment plants. Areas of concern include (i) Materials Accountancy and Safeguards, (ii) Head End process control and feed envelope verification, (iii) Real-time monitoring at the Product Finishing Stages, (iv) Criticality safety and (v) Radioactive waste characterization. Common characteristics of the traditional NDA systems in historical recycling facilities are (i) In-house development of bespoke instruments resulting in equipment that if often unique to a given facility and generally not commercially available, (ii) Use of 'novel' techniques - not widely deployed in other applications, (iii) Design features that are tailored to the specific plant requirements of the facility operator, (iv) Systems and software implementation that was not always carried out to modern industry standards and (v) A tendency to be overly complex - refined by on-plant operational usage and experience. Although these systems were 'validated in use' and are generally fit for purpose, there are a number of potential problems in transferring technology that was developed ten or more years ago to the new build SNF recycling facilities of the future. These issues include (i) Obsolescence of components - particularly with respect to computer hardware and data acquisition electronics, (ii) Availability of Intellectual Property and design

  15. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technical paper on the development of a hydrogen reformer, vehicle refueling facility, and PEM fuel cell for Las Vegas, NV presented at the 2002 Annual Hydrogen Review held May 6-8, 2002 in Golden, CO.

  16. Analysis of a Nuclear Accident: Fission and Activation Product Releases from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Facility as Remote Indicators of Source Identification, Extent of Release, and State of Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Clark, Richard A.

    2011-12-05

    Evidence of the release Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station to the local environment and surrounding communities and estimates on fraction of total fuel inventory released

  17. Status of fuel, blanket, and absorber testing in the fast flux test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.B.; Bard, F.E.; Leggett, R.D.; Pitner, A.L. )

    1992-01-01

    On December 2, 1980, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reached its full design power of 400 MW for the first time. From the start, the FFTF provided a modern liquid-metal reactor (LMR) test facility recognized for excellence, innovation, and efficiency of operation. Its unique instrumentation and special test capabilities have allowed the facility to stay at the cutting edge of technology. Prototypical size and core environment allow the FFTF to demonstrate core components and directly support design optimization of LMRs. Since December 1980, the FFTF has irradiated > 64,000 mixed-oxide driver and test fuel pins, > 1,000 metal-fueled pins, > 100 carbide-fueled pins, and > 35 nitride-fueled pins (supporting the U.S. space reactor program). This paper reviews the status of one of the major activities at the FFTF for its first 12 yr of operation - DOE-sponsored testing and development of fuel, blanket, and absorber assemblies for commercial LMRs.

  18. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  19. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  20. Fast flux test facility radioisotope production and medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenter, R.E.; Smith, S.G.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-MW, sodium-cooled reactor that operated successfully from 1982 to 1992, conducting work in support of the liquid-metal reactor industry by developing and testing fuel assemblies, control rods, and other core reactor components. Upon termination of this program, the primary mission of FFTF ended, and it was placed in a standby mode in 1993. However, in January 1997 the U.S. Secretary of Energy requested that FFTF be evaluated for a future mission that would consist of a primary goal of producing tritium for nuclear defense applications and a secondary goal of supplying medical isotopes for research and clinical applications. Production by FFTF of tritium for U.S. nuclear weapons would augment the dual-track strategy now under consideration for providing a long-term tritium supply in the United States (consisting of a light water reactor option and an accelerator option). A decision by the Secretary of Energy on proceeding with steps leading toward the possible reactivation of FFTF will be made before the end of 1998.

  1. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  2. Operation of N Reactor and Fuels Fabrication Facilities, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Benton County, Washington: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Environmental data, calculations and analyses show no significant adverse radiological or nonradiological impacts from current or projected future operations resulting from N Reactor, Fuels Fabrication and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities. Nonoccupational radiation exposures resulting from 1978 N Reactor operations are summarized and compared to allowable exposure limits.

  3. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 1: Optical Spectroscopic Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Peterson, James M.; Casella, Amanda J.

    2012-02-07

    Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts

  4. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, Director-Business Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute gangwal_biomass_2014.pdf (1.36

  5. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Low-Cost Natural Gas | Department of Energy 2024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record # 12024 (448.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Distributed

  6. BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for BASF battery materials plant in Elyria, Ohio | Photo Courtesy of Nat Clymer Photography, LLC | Driving Battery Production in Ohio Statement by Energy Secretary Steven Chu...

  7. Efficient Technologies and Products for Federal Facilities |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Find products and technologies covered by a specific efficiency program. ENERGY STAR EPEAT FEMP Designated FEMP Low Standby Power FEMP Promising Technologies WaterSense Advanced ...

  8. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  9. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  10. Giovanna Ghirlanda | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Associate Professor Giovanna Ghirlanda serves as a Subtask Leader of Subtask 3- Fuel Production and as a member of Subtask 2 - Water Splitting. Major research efforts are centered ...

  11. Patrick Kwan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patrick Kwan Graduate student Subtask 3 project: "Protein Film Electrochemistry for the Investigation of Redox Enzymes" Related links: Patrick Kwan explores solar fuel production

  12. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 12024 (448.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Distributed Hydrogen ...

  13. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil...

  14. Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, ...

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via ...

  16. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products Data through Quarter 4 of 2014 Genevieve Saur, Jennifer Kurtz, Chris Ainscough, Sam Sprik, Matt Post April 2015 NREL...

  17. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to ...

  18. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to ...

  19. Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

    1980-01-31

    The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

  20. Production Facility Prototype Blower Installation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-07-28

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating.  Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere.  With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig).  An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing.  This report describes this blower/motor/ppressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations.

  1. Edison is back to production in the new facility building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    back to production in the new facility building Edison is back to production in the new facility building January 4, 2016 Edison is back online after about 5 weeks of downtime to move to a new facility building, Wang Hall, at the main Berkeley campus. The following are the changes: Edison's batch system is now Slurm. All your old job scripts (for Torque/Moab) will not work anymore. Please visit our Running Jobs page to learn how to run job scripts under Slurm. If you need help with migrating

  2. City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The western Colorado town of Grand Junction is fueling city vehicles with compressed natural gas (CNG) that was produced from biogas at their water treatment facility and is then shipped to a public fueling station nearby. Similar to other wastewater treatment and manufacturing facilities, Grand Junction’s Persigo Plant uses an anaerobic digester to break down organic matter in the sewage and produces bio-methane gas as a byproduct. The bio-methane gas is then cleaned and treated to meet transportation fuel quality standards.

  3. Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strain, R.V.; Sanecki, J.E.; Osborne, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fission product release from irradiated LWR fuel is being studied by heating fuel rod segments in flowing steam and an inert carrier gas to simulate accident conditions. Fuels with a range of irradiation histories are being subjected to several steam flow rates over a wide range of temperatures. Fission product release during each test is measured by gamma spectroscopy and by detailed examination of the collection apparatus after the test has been completed. These release results are complemented by a detailed posttest examination of samples of the fuel rod segment. Results of release measurements and fuel rod characterizations for tests at 1400 through 2000/sup 0/C are presented in this paper.

  4. Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2009-09-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

  5. PRELIMINARY DATA CALL REPORT ADVANCED BURNER REACTOR START UP FUEL FABRICATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. T. Khericha

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives is to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept has been proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR is proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu will be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) is being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. This report is provided in response to Data Call for the construction of startup fuel fabrication facility. It is anticipated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and will take to 3 to 5 years to construct.

  6. A Blueprint for GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor Startup Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Khericha

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the requirements and issues associated with design of GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor Fuel Facility. The report was prepared in support of providing data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives was to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept was proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR was proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu was assumed to be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) was being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. It was estimated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and would take 3 to 5 years to construct.

  7. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and networks. The backup power supply that best meets these objectives is fuel cell technology.

  8. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and networks. The backup power supply that best meets these objectives is fuel cell technology.

  9. Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To accomplish this cost reduction, BASF developed a higher throughput coating process, ... Catalyst Licensed for Use in Fuel Cell Hybrid Advanced Vehicles Low-Cost Production of ...

  10. ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2013-06-17

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  11. TVA application of integrated onfarm fuel alcohol production system. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P C; Pile, R S

    1980-01-01

    This contract has provided for the documentation of the feasibility of fuel alcohol production with small onfarm facilities, and for the design and construction of an efficient and easily constructed production facility. A feasibility study and a preliminary design report have been prepared. A prototype facility has been designed and constructed with a design production rate of 10 gallons per hour of 190-proof ethanol. The components of the facility are readily available through normal equipment supply channels or can be primarily owner-constructed. Energy efficiency was also of prime consideration in the design, and heat recovery equipment is included where practical. A renewable fuel boiler is used for process heat. Applicable safety standards and environmental requirements were also incorporated into the design. Other project activities included modification of a pickup truck to use the hydrous alcohol produced, evaluation of vacuum distillation for onfarm units, and development of a computer program to allow detailed economic analyses of fuel alcohol production. Efforts were also initiated to evaluate nongrain feedstocks, develop a preliminary design for a low-cost wood-fired boiler, and evaluate packed distillation columns constructed of plastic pipe.

  12. Center Objective | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center Objective Solar Fuel Our objective is to adapt the fundamental principles of natural photosynthesis to the man-made production of hydrogen or other fuels from sunlight A multidisciplinary team of the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production (BISfuel) researches artificial photosynthetic antennas and reaction centers that

  13. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  14. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  15. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major quantities of a new cancer-treatment agent, actinium 225 (Ac-225). April 11, 2012 Los Alamos scientist Meiring Nortier holds a thorium foil test target for the proof-of-concept production experiments. Los Alamos scientist Meiring Nortier holds a thorium foil test target for the proof-of-concept production experiments.

  16. EA-1148: Electrometallurgical Treatment Research and Demonstration Project in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory- West

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE prepared an EA that evaluated the potential environmental impacts associated with the research and demonstration of electrometallurgical technology for treating Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West.

  17. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H.

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799, 799A, and 770C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham; Don Konoyer

    2009-11-01

    The Materials & Fuel Complex (MFC) facilities 799 Sodium Processing Facility (a single building consisting of two areas: the Sodium Process Area (SPA) and the Carbonate Process Area (CPA), 799A Caustic Storage Area, and 770C Nuclear Calibration Laboratory have been declared excess to future Department of Energy mission requirements. Transfer of these facilities from Nuclear Energy to Environmental Management, and an associated schedule for doing so, have been agreed upon by the two offices. The prerequisites for this transfer to occur are the removal of nonexcess materials and chemical inventory, deinventory of the calibration source in MFC-770C, and the rerouting and/or isolation of utility and service systems. This report provides a description of the current physical condition and any hazards (material, chemical, nuclear or occupational) that may be associated with past operations of these facilities. This information will document conditions at time of transfer of the facilities from Nuclear Energy to Environmental Management and serve as the basis for disposition planning. The process used in obtaining this information included document searches, interviews and facility walk-downs. A copy of the facility walk-down checklist is included in this report as Appendix A. MFC-799/799A/770C are all structurally sound and associated hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions are well defined and well understood. All installed equipment items (tanks, filters, etc.) used to process hazardous materials remain in place and appear to have maintained their integrity. There is no evidence of leakage and all openings are properly sealed or closed off and connections are sound. The pits appear clean with no evidence of cracking or deterioration that could lead to migration of contamination. Based upon the available information/documentation reviewed and the overall conditions observed during the facilities walk-down, it is concluded that these facilities may be disposed of

  19. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  20. U.S. Plutonium "Pit" Production: Additional Facilities, Production

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Plutonium "Pit" Production: Additional Facilities, Production Restart are Unnecessary, Costly, and Provocative Greg Mello, 1/18/10 draft A strategy that conserves production capability in existing and nearly-completed Los Alamos facilities for the foreseeable future with neither stockpile production nor expansion of capacity, neither of which are needed, is the one that best minimizes risks, maximizes opportunities, harmonizes goals, and avoids waste of all kinds. Planning for

  1. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers OCTOBER 2011 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 October 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  2. Nuclear Solid Waste Processing Design at the Idaho Spent Fuels Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dippre, M. A.

    2003-02-25

    A spent nuclear fuels (SNF) repackaging and storage facility was designed for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with nuclear solid waste processing capability. Nuclear solid waste included contaminated or potentially contaminated spent fuel containers, associated hardware, machinery parts, light bulbs, tools, PPE, rags, swabs, tarps, weld rod, and HEPA filters. Design of the nuclear solid waste processing facilities included consideration of contractual, regulatory, ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) exposure, economic, logistical, and space availability requirements. The design also included non-attended transfer methods between the fuel packaging area (FPA) (hot cell) and the waste processing area. A monitoring system was designed for use within the FPA of the facility, to pre-screen the most potentially contaminated fuel canister waste materials, according to contact- or non-contact-handled capability. Fuel canister waste materials which are not able to be contact-handled after attempted decontamination will be processed remotely and packaged within the FPA. Noncontact- handled materials processing includes size-reduction, as required to fit into INEEL permitted containers which will provide sufficient additional shielding to allow contact handling within the waste areas of the facility. The current design, which satisfied all of the requirements, employs mostly simple equipment and requires minimal use of customized components. The waste processing operation also minimizes operator exposure and operator attendance for equipment maintenance. Recently, discussions with the INEEL indicate that large canister waste materials can possibly be shipped to the burial facility without size-reduction. New waste containers would have to be designed to meet the drop tests required for transportation packages. The SNF waste processing facilities could then be highly simplified, resulting in capital equipment cost savings, operational

  3. Structural analysis of fuel assembly clads for the Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, T.F.; Wu, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade) is designed to test full-length, pre-irradiated fuel pins of the type used in large LMFBRs under accident conditions, such as severe transient overpower and loss-of-coolant accidents. In TREAT Upgrade, the central core region is to contain new fuel assemblies of higher fissile loadings to maximize the energy deposition to the test fuel. These fuel assemblies must withstand normal peak clad temperatures of 850/sup 0/C for hundreds of test transients. Due to high temperatures and gradients predicted in the clad, creep and plastic strain effects are significant, and the clad structural behavior cannot be analyzed by conventional linear techniques. Instead, the detailed elastic-plastic-creep behavior must be followed along the time-dependent load history. This paper presents details of the structural evaluations of the conceptual TREAT Upgrade fuel assembly clads.

  4. Nuclear-fuel-cycle risk assessment: descriptions of representative non-reactor facilities. Sections 1-14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program was initiated to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. This report, the first from the program, defines and describes fuel cycle elements that are being considered in the program. One type of facility (and in some cases two) is described that is representative of each element of the fuel cycle. The descriptions are based on real industrial-scale facilities that are current state-of-the-art, or on conceptual facilities where none now exist. Each representative fuel cycle facility is assumed to be located on the appropriate one of four hypothetical but representative sites described. The fuel cycles considered are for Light Water Reactors with once-through flow of spent fuel, and with plutonium and uranium recycle. Representative facilities for the following fuel cycle elements are described for uranium (or uranium plus plutonium where appropriate): mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, mixed-oxide fuel refabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, high-level waste storage, transuranic waste storage, spent fuel and high-level and transuranic waste disposal, low-level and intermediate-level waste disposal, and transportation. For each representative facility the description includes: mainline process, effluent processing and waste management, facility and hardware description, safety-related information and potential alternative concepts for that fuel cycle element. The emphasis of the descriptive material is on safety-related information. This includes: operating and maintenance requirements, input/output of major materials, identification and inventories of hazardous materials (particularly radioactive materials), unit operations involved, potential accident driving forces, containment and shielding, and degree of hands-on operation.

  5. NREL: Electricity Integration Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities NREL's electricity integration research is conducted in state-of-the-art ... reliable integration of renewable electricity, fuel production, storage, and building ...

  6. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinton, David P; McGervey, Joseph; Curran, Scott

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  7. Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities The the WTGa1 turbine (aka DOE/SNL #1) retuns to power as part of a final series of commissioning tests. Permalink Gallery First Power for SWiFT Turbine Achieved during Recommissioning Facilities, News, Renewable Energy, SWIFT, Wind Energy, Wind News First Power for SWiFT Turbine Achieved during Recommissioning The Department of Energy's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility reached an exciting milestone with the return to power production of the WTGa1 turbine (aka DOE/SNL #1)

  8. Mimicking Photosynthesis for Production of Solar Fuels | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Mimicking Photosynthesis for Production of Solar Fuels Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 09.01.12 Mimicking

  9. Proceedings of the alcohol fuel production and utilization conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A conference was held to provide farmers, businesses, industries, and specialty groups with the best available information on current and projected activities related to the production and utilization of biomass for alcohol fuels. All aspects of the alcohol fuel production and utilization process were discussed. From biomass sources, through conversion processes to end-use products and applications were topics discussed by numerous experts. Other experts took this basic information and put it together into total systems. Speakers presented overviews on alcohol fuel related activities on state, regional, and national levels. Finally, commercialization incentives, funding sources, environmental considerations, research developments, safety considerations, and regulatory requirements were discussed as factors which must be addressed when considering the production and utilization of alcohol fuels. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  10. Subtask 3: Fuel production complex | Center for Bio-Inspired...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3: Fuel production complex All papers by year Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Trovitch, R.J. (2014) Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel...

  11. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products (SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10/sup 6/ y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products.

  12. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  13. Mission | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Mission The Mission of the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production (BISfuel) is to construct a complete system for solar-powered production of fuels such as hydrogen via water splitting. Design principles will be drawn from the fundamental concepts that underlie photosynthetic energy conversion. A major challenge Center for

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Presented by Dr. William Strauss President, FutureMetrics Director, Maine Energy

  15. Fuel Cell Product Certification/Listing Lessons Learned | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Product Certification/Listing Lessons Learned Fuel Cell Product Certification/Listing Lessons Learned Slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Component and System Qualification Workshop held November 4, 2010 in Livermore, CA. csqw_radley.pdf (832.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Component and System Qualification Workshop Proceedings The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity CSA International Certification Discussion Hydrogen

  16. Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  17. The advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF) role in the global nuclear energy partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Andrew

    2007-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), launched in February, 2006, proposes to introduce used nuclear fuel recycling in the United States with improved proliferation-resistance and a more effective waste management approach. This program is evaluating ways to close the fuel cycle in a manner that builds on recent laboratory breakthroughs in U.S. national laboratories and draws on international and industry partnerships. Central to moving this advanced fuel recycling technology from the laboratory to commercial implementation is a flexible research, development and demonstration facility, called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF was introduced as one of three projects under GNEP and will provide the U.S. with the capabilities to evaluate technologies that separate used fuel into reusable material and waste in a proliferation-resistant manner. The separations technology demonstration capability is coupled with a remote transmutation fuel fabrication demonstration capability in an integrated manner that demonstrates advanced safeguard technologies. This paper will discuss the key features of AFCF and its support of the GNEP objectives. (author)

  18. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  19. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  20. Summary of Historical Production for Nevada Binary Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Greg; Hanson, Hillary

    2014-09-01

    The analysis described was initiated to validate inputs used in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) economic modeling tool GETEM (Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model) by using publically available data to identify production trends at operating geothermal binary facilities in the state of Nevada. Data required for this analysis was obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), whom received the original operator reports from the Nevada Division of Minerals (NDOM). The data from the NBMG was inputted into Excel files that have been uploaded to the DOE’s National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). Once data was available in an Excel format, production trends for individual wells and facilities could be established for the periods data was available (thru 2009). Additionally, this analysis identified relationships existing between production (temperature and flow rates), power production and plant conversion efficiencies. The data trends showed that temperature declines have a significant impact on power production, and that in some instances operators increased production flow rate to offset power declines. The production trends with time that were identified are being used to update GETEM’s default inputs.

  1. Summary of Historical Production for Nevada Binary Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Greg; Hanson, Hillary

    2001-09-01

    The analysis described was initiated to validate inputs used in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) economic modeling tool GETEM (Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model) by using publically available data to identify production trends at operating geothermal binary facilities in the state of Nevada. Data required for this analysis was obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), whom received the original operator reports from the Nevada Division of Minerals (NDOM). The data from the NBMG was inputted into Excel files that have been uploaded to the DOE’s National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). Once data was available in an Excel format, production trends for individual wells and facilities could be established for the periods data was available (thru 2009). Additionally, this analysis identified relationships existing between production (temperature and flow rates), power production and plant conversion efficiencies. The data trends showed that temperature declines have a significant impact on power production, and that in some instances operators increased production flow rate to offset power declines. The production trends with time that were identified are being used to update GETEM’s default inputs.

  2. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  3. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S.; Delicate, W.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  4. FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2003-04-23

    This project has two primary purposes: (1) Build a small-footprint (SFP) fuel production plant to prove the feasibility of this relatively transportable technology on an intermediate scale (i.e. between laboratory-bench and commercial capacity) and produce as much as 150,000 gallons of hydrogen-saturated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel; and (2) Use the virtually sulfur-free fuel produced to demonstrate (over a period of at least six months) that it can not only be used in existing diesel engines, but that it also can enable significantly increased effectiveness and life of the next-generation exhaust-after-treatment emission control systems that are currently under development and that will be required for future diesel engines. Furthermore, a well-to-wheels economic analysis will be performed to characterize the overall costs and benefits that would be associated with the actual commercial production, distribution and use of such FT diesel fuel made by the process under consideration, from the currently underutilized (or entirely un-used) energy resources targeted, primarily natural gas that is stranded, sub-quality, off-shore, etc. During the first year of the project, which is the subject of this report, there have been two significant areas of progress: (1) Most of the preparatory work required to build the SFP fuel-production plant has been completed, and (2) Relationships have been established, and necessary project coordination has been started, with the half dozen project-partner organizations that will have a role in the fuel demonstration and evaluation phase of the project. Additional project tasks directly related to the State of Alaska have also been added to the project. These include: A study of underutilized potential Alaska energy resources that could contribute to domestic diesel and distillate fuel production by providing input energy for future commercial-size SFP fuel production plants; Demonstration of the use of the product fuel in a heavy

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2013-07-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new VAPs for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing VAPs, (3) future VAPs that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive.

  6. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, Harold T. Wight, Gregory Dreier, Ken Borland, Nicholas

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  7. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  8. BioFuel Energy Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: BioFuel Energy Corp Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80202 Product: Develops, owns and operates ethanol facilities. References: BioFuel...

  9. MOONSHINER I: personal fuel production. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloman, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the research and design of a self-controlling cellulose to liquid fuel conversion reactor. Initial research suggested the possibility of utilization of a bacterium named Clostridium thermocellum as a conversion agent due to its unique metabolism. Further research showed that work at other locations supported that possibility. Work was begun on the apparatus and techniques necessary for completion. Bad technique, design or supplies resulted in many months of ineffectual work while progress was being made on similar research elsewhere. Other projects' data was used to continue the information collection and design stages of this effort.

  10. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-12-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  11. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities (Dataset) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Dataset: Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web

  12. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement.

  15. Interim Action Determination Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS), DOE/EIS-0283-S2. DOE is evaluating, among many other things, the environmental impacts of any design and operations changes to the MFFF, which is under construction at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE evaluated the impacts of construction and operation of the

  16. Application for approval for construction of the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    The following ''Application for Approval of Construction'' is being submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.07, for three new sources of airborne radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were canceled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building and stack and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex. 2 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  18. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  19. Apex nuclear fuel cycle for production of light water reactor fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Hiroshi, T.; Powell, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed that eliminates all the radioactive fission product (FP) waste effluent and the need for geological age high-level waste storage and provides a longterm supply of fissile fuel for a light water reactor (LWR) economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 yr old) to remove the stable nonradioactive FPs (NRFPs) e.g., lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived FPs (SLFP) (e.g., half-lives of less than or equal to 1 to 2 yr) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived FPs (LLFPs) (e.g., 30-yr half-life cesium and strontium, 10-yr krypton, and 16 X 10/sup 6/-yr iodine) and the transuranics (TUs) (e.g., plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel (FF) are to be supplied through the use of the spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the chelox process, which consists of chopping and leaching with an organic chelating reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and distillation of the organometallic compounds formed for purposes of separating and partitioning the FPs. The stable NRFPs and SLFPs are allowed to decay to background in 10 to 20 yr for final disposal to the environment.

  20. Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.K.

    1996-09-01

    EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

  1. Operation of the 25 kW NASA Lewis Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell Testbed Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voecks, G.E.; Rohatgi, N.K.; Moore, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    Assembly of the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell Testbed Facility has recently been completed and system testing is in progress. This facility includes the integration of 50 kW photovoltaic solar cell arrays, a 25 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis unit, four 5 kW PEM fuel cells, high pressure hydrogen and oxygen storage vessels, high purity water storage containers, and computer monitoring, control and data acquisition. The purpose of this facility is multi-faceted, but was originally intended to serve as a testbed for evaluating a closed-loop powerplant for future NASA extended life support operations, such as a Lunar outpost, and also as a terrestrial powerplant example for remote or continuous back-up support operations. The fuel cell and electrolyzer subsystems design and assembly were conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the photovoltaic arrays and electrical interconnect to the electrolyzer were provided by the US Navy/China Lake Naval Weapons Center, and testing and operations are being carried out by JPL.

  2. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  3. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  4. Air quality/energy management review of production facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    This is the only presentation that integrates energy management and air quality. You will learn how to reduce energy operating costs while minimizing air pollution. This presentation is condensed from a full day course focusing on hands-on techniques for conducting an air quality/energy management review of your operation or plant. The stringent (Non-attainment for PM{sub 10}, Ozone and CO) South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of Southern California rules and regulations are applied to the die casting (metals) industry as well as other production processes. Examples and a case study of real energy intensive production facilities will be used. Developing options for air quality improvement with energy cost control are the key goals of the presentation. Also, the review techniques can be used to determine the {open_quotes}maximum potential to emit{close_quotes} as required for the new Federal EPA, Title V requirements. The outline of the one day course is provided to give the overall scope covered during performing an Air Quality/Energy Management Review of a Production Facility.

  5. REVIEW OF FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) FUEL EXPERIMENTS FOR STORAGE IN INTERIM STORAGE CASKS (ISC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2005-10-24

    Appendix H, Section H.3.3.10.11 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), provides the limits to be observed for fueled components authorized for storage in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel storage system. Currently, the authorization basis allows standard driver fuel assemblies (DFA), as described in the FSAR Chapter 17, Section 17.5.3.1, to be stored provided decay power per assembly is {le} 250 watts, post-irradiation time is four years minimum, average assembly burn-up is 150,000 MWD/MTHM maximum and the pre-irradiation enrichment is 29.3% maximum (per H.3.3.10.11). In addition, driver evaluation (DE), core characterizer assemblies (CCA), and run-to-cladding-breach (RTCB) assemblies are included based on their similarities to a standard DFA. Ident-69 pin containers with fuel pins from these DFAs can also be stored. Section H.3.3.10.11 states that fuel types outside the specification criteria above will be addressed on a case-by-case basis. There are many different types of fuel and blanket experiments that were irradiated in the FFTF which now require offload to the spent fuel storage system. Two reviews were completed for a portion of these special type fuel components to determine if placement into the Core Component Container (CCC)/Interim Storage Cask (ISC) would require any special considerations or changes to the authorization basis. Project mission priorities coupled with availability of resources and analysts prevented these evaluations from being completed as a single effort. Areas of review have included radiological accident release consequences, radiological shielding adequacy, criticality safety, thermal limits, confinement, and stress. The results of these reviews are available in WHC-SD-FF-RPT-005, Rev. 0 and 1, ''Review of FFTF Fuel Experiments for Storage at ISA'', (Reference I), which subsequently allowed a large portion of these components to be included in the authorization basis (Table H.3.3-21). The report also identified

  6. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, R.W.; Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R.; Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D.

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management at the New Conversion Facility of 'TVEL'{sup R} Fuel Company - 13474

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indyk, S.I.; Volodenko, A.V.; Tvilenev, K.A.; Tinin, V.V.; Fateeva, E.V.

    2013-07-01

    The project on the new conversion facility construction is being implemented by Joint Stock Company (JSC) 'Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises' (SGChE) within TVEL{sup R} Fuel Company. The objective is to construct the up-to-date facility ensuring the industrial and environmental safety with the reduced impact on the community and environment in compliance with the Russian new regulatory framework on radioactive waste (RW) management. The history of the SGChE development, as well as the concepts and approaches to RW management implemented by now are shown. The SGChE future image is outlined, together with its objectives and concept on RW management in compliance with the new act 'On radioactive waste management' adopted in Russia in 2011. Possible areas of cooperation with international companies are discussed in the field of RW management with the purpose of deploying the best Russian and world practices on RW management at the new conversion facility. (authors)

  8. Advantages of co-located spent fuel reprocessing, repository and underground reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahar, James M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Wes Myers, Carl; Loveland, Ryan

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend the discussion of potential advantages of the underground nuclear park (UNP) concept by making specific concept design and cost estimate comparisons for both present Generation III types of reactors and for some of the modular Gen IV or the GNEP modular concept. For the present Gen III types, we propose co-locating reprocessing and (re)fabrication facilities along with disposal facilities in the underground park. The goal is to determine the site costs and facility construction costs of such a complex which incorporates the advantages of a closed fuel cycle, nuclear waste repository, and ultimate decommissioning activities all within the UNP. Modular power generation units are also well-suited for placement underground and have the added advantage of construction using current and future tunnel boring machine technology. (authors)

  9. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel

  10. Green Zia Application Sandia National Laboratories' Neutron Generator Production Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAAD, MAX P.; RICHARDSON, ANASTASIA DAWN

    2003-03-01

    The Green Zia Environmental Excellence Program is a voluntary program designed to support and assist all New Mexico businesses to achieve environmental excellence through continuous improvement and effective energy management. The program encourages integration of environmental excellence into business operations and management practices through the establishment of a prevention-based environmental management system. The Neutron Generator Production Facility has participated in the Green Zia Environmental Excellence Program for two years. This document is the submittal application for inclusion in the 2003 Green Zia program year.

  11. State-of-the-art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: 2015 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennfier; Dinh, Huyen; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    This publication includes 14 composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2015 for fuel cell technology status, focusing on state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability.

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: ...

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost ...

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation ... Jason Marcinkoski of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel ...

  15. Oak Ridge Isotope Production Cyclotron Facility and Target Handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, Eric Craig; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Egle, Brian; Binder, Jeffrey L; Mirzadeh, Saed; Tatum, B Alan; Burgess, Thomas W; Devore, Joe; Rennich, Mark; Saltmarsh, Michael John; Caldwell, Benjamin Cale

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Nuclear Science Advisory Committee issued in August 2009 an Isotopes Subcommittee report that recommended the construction and operation of a variable-energy, high-current, multiparticle accelerator for producing medical radioisotopes. To meet the needs identified in the report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a technical concept for a commercial 70 MeV dual-port-extraction, multiparticle cyclotron to be located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. The conceptual design of the isotope production facility as envisioned would provide two types of targets for use with this new cyclotron. One is a high-power target cooled by water circulating on both sides, and the other is a commercial target cooled only on one side. The isotope facility concept includes an isotope target vault for target irradiation and a shielded transfer station for radioactive target handling. The targets are irradiated in the isotope target vault. The irradiated targets are removed from the target vault and packaged in an adjoining shielded transfer station before being sent out for postprocessing. This paper describes the conceptual design of the target-handling capabilities required for dealing with these radioactive targets and for minimizing the contamination potential during operations.

  16. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

  17. CO{sub 2} mitigation and fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1997-07-07

    Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel appears to be an effective intermediate agent, for reducing CO{sub 2} from the utility power and the transportation sectors. On the utilization side, methanol as a liquid fuel fits in well with the current infrastructure for storage and delivery to the automotive sector with better efficiency. On the production side, CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel plants together with natural gas and biomass can be used as feedstocks for methanol synthesis with reduced CO{sub 2}. Over the past several years, processes have emerged which have varying degrees of CO{sub 2} emission reduction depending on the feedstocks used for methanol synthesis process. This paper reviews the methanol processes from the point of view of production efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. The processes include: (1) the Hydrocarb Process which primarily utilizes coal and natural gas and stores carbon, and (2) the Hynol Process which utilizes biomass (including carbonaceous wastes, municipal solid waste (MSW)) or coal and natural gas, and (3) the Carnol Process which utilizes natural gas and CO{sub 2} recovered from fossil fuel fired powered plant stacks, especially coal fired plants. The Carnol System consists of power generation, methanol production and methanol utilization as an automotive fuel. The efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions for the entire system are compared to the conventional system of petroleum derived automotive fuel (gasoline) and coal fired power generation plants. CO{sub 2} reduction by as much as 56% and 77% can be achieved when methanol is used in internal combustion and fuel cell automotive vehicles, respectively.

  18. Burnup Predictions for Metal Fuel Tests in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Nelson, Joseph V.

    2012-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to be designed, constructed, and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The FFTF operated successfully from initial startup in 1980 through the end of the last operating cycle in March, 1992. A variety of fuel tests were irradiated in FFTF to provide performance data over a range of conditions. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 tests were U10Zr metal fuel tests with HT9 cladding. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 tests were both aggressive irradiation tests of U10Zr metal fuel pins with HT9 cladding that were prototypic of full scale LMR designs. MFF-3 was irradiated for 726 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), starting from Cycle 10C1 (from November 1988 through March 1992), and MFF-5 was irradiated for 503 EFPD starting from Cycle 11B1 (from January 1990 through March 1992). A group of fuel pins from these two tests are undergoing post irradiation examination at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD). The generation of a data package of key information on the irradiation environment and current pin detailed compositions for these tests is described. This information will be used in interpreting the results of these examinations.

  19. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishofberger, Kip A.

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introduced briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.

  20. Combined process for heavy oil, upgrading and synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polomski, R.E.

    1984-06-05

    A process for upgrading heavy oil to fuel products comprises deasphalting the heavy oil with an oxygenated solvent and simultaneously converting the oxygenated solvent and deasphalted oil over a ZSM-5 type catalyst to produce gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  1. Task Descriptions | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Task Descriptions Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production Central to design of a complete system for solar water oxidation and hydrogen production is incorporation of synthetic components inspired by natural systems into one operational unit. The research effort of the Center is naturally divided into the following subtasks: Subtask 1. Total systems analysis, assembly and testing The solar water splitting device consists of four subsystems, each of which is being investigated by one of the

  2. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  3. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 2: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-02-10

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop

  4. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities with Optical and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-11-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resourceintensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify offnormal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop

  5. H2 PRODUCTION AND FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG, X.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    Oxide nanosystems play a key role as components of catalysts used for the production of H{sub 2} via the steam reforming or the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and for the water-gas shift reaction. The behavior seen for Cu-ceria and Au-ceria WGS catalysts indicates that the oxide is much more than a simple support. The special chemical properties of the oxide nanoparticles (defect rich, high mobility of oxygen) favor interactions with the reactants or other catalyst components. More in-situ characterization and mechanistic studies are necessary for the optimization of these nanocatalysts. The use of oxide nanomaterials for the fabrication of PEMFCs and SOFCs can lead to devices with a high practical impact. One objective is to build electrodes with low cost conducting oxide nanoarrays. The electron and oxygen-ion conducting capabilities of many oxides improve when going from the bulk to the nanoscale. Furthermore, one can get a more homogeneous surface morphology and an increase of the effective reaction area. Much more fundamental and practical research needs to be done in this area.

  6. Small-scale fuel alcohol production. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This report describes in substantial detail technical and economic aspects of small-scale ethanol production from on-farm units producing up to 360,000 gallons per year and community plants producing up to 2 million gallons per year. The description of feedstock materials is limited to those containing starches and sugars, not cellulosic materials. Factors influencing the introduction of small-scale ethanol production are evaluated, including the availability and technical capabilities of production equipment. Also discussed are the types and sizes of farms and community operations for which ethanol production is appropriate. The report describes the characteristics of ethanol and its use as a motor fuel, the production and use of co-products, and problems typically encountered by small-scale producers. Information on investment, operation, maintenance and feedstock costs is estimated and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis describes changes in the cost of ethanol production resulting from changes in the major cost elements.

  7. American National Standard: design requirements for light water reactor spent fuel storage facilities at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-07

    This standard presents necessary design requirements for facilities at nuclear power plants for the storage and preparation for shipment of spent fuel from light-water moderated and cooled nuclear power stations. It contains requirements for the design of fuel storage pool; fuel storage racks; pool makeup, instrumentation and cleanup systems; pool structure and integrity; radiation shielding; residual heat removal; ventilation, filtration and radiation monitoring systems; shipping cask handling and decontamination; building structure and integrity; and fire protection and communication.

  8. DECOMMISSIONING OF THE 247-F FUEL MANUFACTURING FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, J; Stephen Chostner, S

    2007-05-22

    Building 247-F at SRS was a roughly 110,000 ft{sup 2} two-story facility designed and constructed during the height of the cold war naval buildup to provide additional naval nuclear fuel manufacturing capacity in early 1980s. The building layout is shown in Fig. 1. A photograph of the facility is shown in Fig. 2. The manufacturing process employed a wide variety of acids, bases, and other hazardous materials. As the cold war wound down, the need for naval fuel declined. Consequently, the facility was shut down and underwent initial deactivation. All process systems were flushed with water and drained using the existing process drain valves. However, since these drains were not always installed at the lowest point in piping and equipment systems, a significant volume of liquid remained after initial deactivation was completed in 1990. At that time, a non-destructive assay of the process area identified approximately 17 (+/- 100%) kg of uranium held up in equipment and piping.

  9. EERE Success Story-Doosan Fuel Cell Takes Closed Plant to Full Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Doosan Fuel Cell Takes Closed Plant to Full Production EERE Success Story-Doosan Fuel Cell Takes Closed Plant to Full Production December 8, 2015 - 12:06pm Addthis Photo Courtesy | Doosan Fuel Cell America, Inc. Photo Courtesy | Doosan Fuel Cell America, Inc. Doosan Fuel Cell, a Connecticut company which designs, engineers and manufactures clean energy fuel cell systems that produce combined heat and power systems, began operations in July 2014 at its corporate

  10. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II

  11. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  12. Composite Data Products (CDPs) from the Hydrogen Secure Data Center (HSDC) at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Secure Data Center (HSDC) at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) plays a crucial role in NREL's independent, third-party analysis of hydrogen fuel cell technologies in real-world operation. NREL partners submit operational, maintenance, safety, and cost data to the HSDC on a regular basis. NREL's Technology Validation Team uses an internal network of servers, storage, computers, backup systems, and software to efficiently process raw data, complete quarterly analysis, and digest large amounts of time series data for data visualization. While the raw data are secured by NREL to protect commercially sensitive and proprietary information, individualized data analysis results are provided as detailed data products (DDPs) to the partners who supplied the data. Individual system, fleet, and site analysis results are aggregated into public results called composite data products (CDPs) that show the status and progress of the technology without identifying individual companies or revealing proprietary information. These CDPs are available from this NREL website: 1) Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Infrastructure Learning Demonstration; 2) Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations; 3) Fuel Cell Technology Status [Edited from http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/facilities_secure_data_center.html].

  13. Product evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S.; Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have placed stringent requirements on the quality of transportation fuels. Most petroleum refiners are scrambling to meet provisions of the Amendments to be implemented between 1995 and 2000. These requirements will also have significant implications for the production of alternative fuels. These have been examined for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) derived fuels. This analysis was conducted in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project, Baseline Design/Economics for Advanced Fischer-Tropsch Technology, conducted by Bechtel and Amoco. The goal of this study was to develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal using gasification, syngas conversion in slurry reactors with iron catalysts, and conventional refinery upgrading of the F-T derived hydrocarbon liquids. One alternative case using ZSM-5 upgrading technology was also considered. This study included complete capital and operating cost estimates for the processes. To perform economic analyses for the different design cases, the products from the liquefaction plant had to be valued relative to conventional transportation fuels. This task was accomplished by developing a Linear Programming (LP) model for a typical midwest refinery, and then feeding the F-T liquids to the refinery. In this way, the breakeven value determined for these materials is indicative of the price they could command if available in the marketplace. Inputs to the LP model include: refinery size, configuration, feedstocks, products, specifications, prices, and operating and capital recovery costs. The model was set up to be representative of conditions anticipated for the turn of the century. This required inclusion of fuel specifications from the CAAA of 1990 which have or will come into force by the year 2000.

  14. Cell Fabrication Facility Team Production and Research Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong ...

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  17. Contact information | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact information Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Director of the Center, Professor Devens Gust: Email: dgust@asu.edu Phone: (480) 965-4547 Fax: (480) 965-5927 Manager, Dr. Alex Melkozernov: Email: alexander.melkozernov@asu.edu Phone: (480) 965-1548 Fax: (480) 965-5927 Mailing address (US mail): Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production Arizona State University

  18. World-Class Test Facility Increases Efficiency of Solar Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features PV arrays at the SunEdison Facility at the Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC) in Aurora, Colorado. SolarTAC is an integrated, world-class test facility where...

  19. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Performance Composite Data Products: Fall 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve; Peters, Mike

    2015-11-01

    This publication includes 53 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Fall 2015 for fuel cell electric vehicle performance.

  20. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems.

  1. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  2. Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Eric Woolstenhulme; Roger McCormack

    2005-11-01

    From a handling perspective, any spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that has lost its original technical and functional design capabilities with regard to handling and confinement can be considered as damaged. Some SNF was damaged as a result of experimental activities and destructive examinations; incidents during packaging, handling, and transportation; or degradation that has occurred during storage. Some SNF was mechanically destroyed to protect proprietary SNF designs. Examples of damage to the SNF include failed cladding, failed fuel meat, sectioned test specimens, partially reprocessed SNFs, over-heated elements, dismantled assemblies, and assemblies with lifting fixtures removed. In spite of the challenges involved with handling and storage of damaged SNF, the SNF has been safely handled and stored for many years at DOE storage facilities. This report summarizes a variety of challenges encountered at DOE facilities during interim storage and handling operations along with strategies and solutions that are planned or were implemented to ameliorate those challenges. A discussion of proposed paths forward for moving damaged and nondamaged SNF from interim storage to final disposition in the geologic repository is also presented.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  4. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  5. Lab Breakthrough: ADM Leads to Petroleum-Free Glycol Production Facility |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ADM Leads to Petroleum-Free Glycol Production Facility Lab Breakthrough: ADM Leads to Petroleum-Free Glycol Production Facility May 22, 2012 - 9:38am Addthis Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered a viable way to deliver propylene glycol from feedstock, including glycerin byproducts. ADM licensed that technology and in 2010 completed construction and commissioning of its full-scale production facility for the sole purpose of commercializing the PGRS process.

  6. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-10-01

    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10-4 to 10-5) of as manufactured and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application is considered. To test the feasibility, the response of the PGS system to idealized fission product distributions has been simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Previous work that applied similar techniques during the AGR-1 experiment will also be discussed as well as planned uses for the GECT technique during the post irradiation examination of the AGR-2 experiment. The GECT technique has also been applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems that were currently available in the HFEF hot cell including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel.

  7. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  8. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  9. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  10. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most ofmore » which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.« less

  11. Property Tax Abatement for Production and Manufacturing Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying renewable energy manufacturing facilities are those that (1) produce materials, components or systems to convert solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, biogas or waste heat resources into...

  12. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility. ... approved, (4) other work that leads to a VAP, and (5) top requested VAPs from the archive. ...

  13. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  14. NREL SBV Pilot Fuel Cells Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientists, engineers, and analysts, as well as world-class facilities in fuel cells; hydrogen production, delivery, and infrastructure technology; hydrogen storage; safety,...

  15. Sandia Develops Stochastic Production Cost Model Simulator for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & ... Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ... DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Facilities, ...

  16. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model

  17. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  18. Fuel age impacts on gaseous fission product capture during separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Ilas, G.

    2012-09-21

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides will be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129 Rosnick 2007 I. The question we attempt to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examine the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012), and they apply to the total radonuclide release and to the dose to a particular organ – the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, several cases are studied. These cases consider for the four analyzed radionuclides inventories produced for three fuel types—pressurized water reactor uranium oxide (PWR UOX), pressurized water reactor mixed oxide (PWR MOX), and advanced high-temperature gascooled reactor (AHTGR)—several burnup values and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. Doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) are calculated with the EPA code CAP-88 ( , 1992). Two dose cases are considered. The first case, perhaps unrealistic, assumes that all of the allowable dose is assigned to the volatile radionuclides. In lieu of this, for the second case a value of 10% of the allowable dose is arbitrarily selected to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. The required decontamination factors (DFs) are calculated for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I are the main contributors. However, for completeness, for one fuel type and burnup, additional cases are provided, allowing 25% and 50% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. Because 3H and 85Kr have

  19. Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts for selective transportation fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, W.E.; Cilen, N.; Withers, H.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The future use of coal as a source of conventional transportation fuel will depend on the development of an economical and energy efficient liquefaction process. Technologies that have been commercially proven or that are close to commercialization include the fixed- and fluidized-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol synthesis (fixed-bed and slurry-phase) and the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. Of these technologies, the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis produces the widest slate of products and has been in operation for the longest period.

  20. Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities Facilities LANL's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Operator Los Alamos National Laboratory (505) 667-5061 Some LANL facilities are available to researchers at other laboratories, universities, and industry. Unique facilities foster experimental science, support the Lab's security mission

  1. Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secure and Sustainable Energy Future Mission/Facilities Facilities Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-04-06T18:06:13+00:00 National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) facility_nsttf_slide NSTTF's primary goal is to provide experimental engineering data for the design, construction, and operation of unique components and systems in proposed solar thermal electrical plants, which have three generic system architectures: line-focus (trough and continuous linear Fresnel reflector systems), point-focus central

  2. Energy-efficient alcohol-fuel production. Technical final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The proposed utilization schedule for the alcohol fuel plant and methane generator is to produce 180 proof ethanol during the spring, summer, and fall (April to October). The ethanol will be used in the farm tractors and trucks during the planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. Some alcohol can be stored for use during the winter. The still will not be operated during the winter (November to March) when the methane from the digester will be used to replace fuel oil for heating a swine farrowing building. There are tentative plans to develop a larger methane generator, which will utilize all of the manure (dairy, beef, horses, and swine) produced on the ISU farm. If this project is completed, there will be enough methane to produce all of the alcohol fuel needed to operate all of the farm equipment, heat the buildings, and possibly generate electricity for the farm. The methane generating system developed is working so well that there is a great deal of interest in expanding the project to where it could utilize all of the livestock waste on the farm for methane production.

  3. Jeff Edlund of the NNSA Production Office Y12 Site Named 2015 Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representative of the Year | Department of Energy Jeff Edlund of the NNSA Production Office Y12 Site Named 2015 Facility Representative of the Year Jeff Edlund of the NNSA Production Office Y12 Site Named 2015 Facility Representative of the Year May 24, 2016 - 10:30am Addthis Jeff Edlund of the NNSA Production Office Y12 Site Named 2015 Facility Representative of the Year About 200 Department of Energy (DOE) federal employees are Facility Representatives (FR) who provide day-to-day oversight

  4. Construction of a Post-Irradiated Fuel Examination Shielded Enclosure Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to provide funding to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for new post-irradiation examination (PIE) equipment in support of advanced fuels development. This equipment will allow researchers at the INL to accurately characterize the behavior of experimental test fuels after they are removed from an experimental reactor also located at the INL. The accurate and detailed characterization of the fuel from the reactor, when used in conjunction with computer modeling, will allow DOE to more quickly understand the behavior of the fuel and to guide further development activities consistent with the missions of the INL and DOE. Due to the highly radioactive nature of the specimen samples that will be prepared and analyzed by the PIE equipment, shielded enclosures are required. The shielded cells will be located in the existing Analytical Laboratory (AL) basement (Rooms B-50 and B-51) at the INL Material and Fuels Complex (MFC). AL Rooms B-50 and B-51 will be modified to establish an area where sample containment and shielding will be provided for the analysis of radioactive fuels and materials while providing adequate protection for personnel and the environment. The area is comprised of three separate shielded cells for PIE instrumentation. Each cell contains an atmosphere interface enclosure (AIE) for contamination containment. The shielding will provide a work area consistent with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) concept, assuming a source term of 10 samples in each of the three shielded areas. Source strength is assumed to be a maximum of 3 Ci at 0.75 MeV gamma for each sample. Each instrument listed below will be installed in an individual shielded enclosure: Shielded electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) Focused ion beam instrument (FIB) Micro-scale x-ray diffractometer (MXRD). The project is designed and expected to be built incrementally as funds are allocated. The initial phase will be to fund the

  5. Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S. Production of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Key Manufacturing Material | Department of Energy North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S. Production of a Key Manufacturing Material Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S. Production of a Key Manufacturing Material June 29, 2012 - 12:28pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Today, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu recognized the opening of Rockwood Lithium's expanded manufacturing facility in Kings Mountain, North Carolina. Rockwood is

  6. Fuzzy linear programming based optimal fuel scheduling incorporating blending/transloading facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djukanovic, M.; Babic, B.; Milosevic, B.; Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.H. |

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the blending/transloading facilities are modeled using an interactive fuzzy linear programming (FLP), in order to allow the decision-maker to solve the problem of uncertainty of input information within the fuel scheduling optimization. An interactive decision-making process is formulated in which decision-maker can learn to recognize good solutions by considering all possibilities of fuzziness. The application of the fuzzy formulation is accompanied by a careful examination of the definition of fuzziness, appropriateness of the membership function and interpretation of results. The proposed concept provides a decision support system with integration-oriented features, whereby the decision-maker can learn to recognize the relative importance of factors in the specific domain of optimal fuel scheduling (OFS) problem. The formulation of a fuzzy linear programming problem to obtain a reasonable nonfuzzy solution under consideration of the ambiguity of parameters, represented by fuzzy numbers, is introduced. An additional advantage of the FLP formulation is its ability to deal with multi-objective problems.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  8. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the ... Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  10. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2007 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update (3.19

  14. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  15. RELAP5 Model of a Two-phase ThermoSyphon Experimental Facility for Fuels and Materials Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, Juan J; McDuffee, Joel Lee

    2013-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) does not have a separate materials-irradiation flow loop and requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed inside a containment. This is necessary to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. As part of the safety basis justification, HFIR also requires that all experiments be able to withstand various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. As with any parallel flow system, HFIR is vulnerable to flow excursion events when vapor is generated in one of those flow paths. The effects of these requirements are to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant and to reduce experiment heat loads to ensure boiling doesn t occur. A new experimental facility for materials irradiation and testing in the HFIR is currently being developed to overcome these limitations. The new facility is unique in that it will have its own internal cooling flow totally independent of the reactor primary coolant and boiling is permitted. The reactor primary coolant will cool the outside of this facility without contacting the materials inside. The ThermoSyphon Test Loop (TSTL), a full scale prototype of the proposed irradiation facility to be tested outside the reactor, is being designed and fabricated (Ref. 1). The TSTL is a closed system working as a two-phase thermosyphon. A schematic is shown in Fig. 1. The bottom central part is the boiler/evaporator and contains three electric heaters. The vapor generated by the heaters will rise and be condensed in the upper condenser, the condensate will drain down the side walls and be circulated via a downcomer back into the bottom of the boiler. An external flow system provides coolant that simulates the HFIR primary coolant

  16. Cleaning residual NaK in the fast flux test facility fuel storage cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, T.M.; Church, W.R.; Hodgson, K.M.

    2008-01-15

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation, is a liquid metal-cooled test reactor. The FFTF was constructed to support the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The bulk of the alkali metal (sodium and NaK) has been drained and will be stored onsite prior to final disposition. Residual NaK needed to be removed from the pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, and vessels in the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) cooling system. The cooling system was drained in 2004 leaving residual NaK in the pipes and equipment. The estimated residual NaK volume was 76 liters in the storage tank, 1.9 liters in the expansion tank, and 19-39 liters in the heat transfer loop. The residual NaK volume in the remainder of the system was expected to be very small, consisting of films, droplets, and very small pools. The NaK in the FSF Cooling System was not radiologically contaminated. The portions of the cooling system to be cleaned were divided into four groups: 1. The storage tank, filter, pump, and associated piping; 2. The heat exchanger, expansion tank, and associated piping; 3. Argon supply piping; 4. In-vessel heat transfer loop. The cleaning was contracted to Creative Engineers, Inc. (CEI) and they used their superheated steam process to clean the cooling system. It has been concluded that during the modification activities (prior to CEI coming onsite) to prepare the NaK Cooling System for cleaning, tank T-914 was pressurized relative to the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and NaK was pushed from the tank back into the Cooler and that on November 6, 2005, when the gas purge through the In-Vessel NaK Cooler was increased from 141.6 slm to 283.2 slm, NaK was forced from the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and it contacted water in the vent line and/or scrubber. The gases from the reaction then traveled back through the vent line coating the internal surface of the vent line with NaK and NaK reaction products. The hot gases also exited the

  17. Nevada Production and Injection Well Data for Facilities with Flash Steam

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plants (Dataset) | SciTech Connect Dataset: Nevada Production and Injection Well Data for Facilities with Flash Steam Plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nevada Production and Injection Well Data for Facilities with Flash Steam Plants Files contain a summary of the production and injection data submitted by the geothermal operators to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology over the period from 1985 thru 2009 Authors: Mines, Greg Publication Date: 2014-03-26 OSTI Identifier:

  18. Use of the fast flux test facility for tritium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drell, S.; Hammer, D.; Cornwall, J.M.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.

    1996-10-25

    This report provides the results of a JASON review of the technical feasibility of using the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to generate tritium needed for the enduring United States nuclear weapons stockpile.

  19. Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Raymond Wissinger, Manager, Renewable Energy & Chemicals, Research & Development, UOP wissinger_biomass_2014.pdf (735 KB) More Documents

  20. Moving bed reactor for solar thermochemical fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2013-04-16

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. Embodiments of reactors include at least two distinct reactor chambers between which there is at least a pressure differential. In embodiments, reactive particles are exchanged between chambers during a reaction cycle to thermally reduce the particles at first conditions and oxidize the particles at second conditions to produce chemical work from heat. In embodiments, chambers of a reactor are coupled to a heat exchanger to pre-heat the reactive particles prior to direct exposure to thermal energy with heat transferred from reduced reactive particles as the particles are oppositely conveyed between the thermal reduction chamber and the fuel production chamber. In an embodiment, particle conveyance is in part provided by an elevator which may further function as a heat exchanger.

  1. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. About the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production Center Objective The Science Center ... drawn from the fundamental concepts that underlie photosynthetic energy conversion. ...

  3. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of ... Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

  4. Accelerator spallation reactors for breeding of fissile fuel and transmuting fission products. Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    This report constitutes a summary review of the status and prospects of the development of accelerator spallation reactors for breeding fissile fuel and for transmuting fission products.

  5. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Peters, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report includes 25 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the fourth quarter of 2013.

  6. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

    2013-11-01

    This report includes 24 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the second quarter of 2013.

  7. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Loans The Oregon Department of Energy administers the State Energy Loan Program (SELP) which offers low-interest loans for qualified projects. Eligible alternative fuel projects include fuel production facilities, dedicated feedstock production, fueling infrastructure, and fleet vehicles. Loan recipients must complete a loan application and pay a loan application fee. For more information, including application forms and interest rate and fee information, see the SELP website. (Reference Oregon

  9. Bisfuel Logo | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BISfuel is abbreviation of Bio-Inspired Solar Fuels BIS is a prefix or suffix designating the second instance of a thing, which symbolizes bio-inspired solar fuels as an artificial ...

  10. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The effects of blends of base fuel (n-heptane) and fuel-reformed products on the low-temperature combustion process were investigated.

  11. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  12. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Stubbins

    2012-12-19

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  13. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  14. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Salmon Production Facility; 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, James M.; Olson, Todd

    1989-05-01

    This fiscal year 1988 study sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration evaluates an existing, small-scale salmon production facility operated and maintained by the Clatsop County Economic Development Committee's Fisheries Project.

  15. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  16. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  17. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference with the planets climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  18. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  19. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  20. Chapter 7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels | Hydrogen Production and Delivery Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production and Delivery Chapter 7: Technology Assessments Introduction to the Technology/System Hydrogen Production and Delivery: Opportunities and Challenges Hydrogen and hydrogen-rich fuels such as natural gas and biogas can be used in fuel cells to provide power and heat cleanly and efficiently in a wide range of transportation, stationary, and portable-power applications. Widespread deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offers a broad range of benefits for the

  1. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications: 2010 Update | Department of Energy Applications: 2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles. Mass Production Cost

  2. Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continues Strong Growth | Department of Energy Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth Energy Dept. Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth December 19, 2013 - 11:36am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department released three new reports today showcasing strong growth across the U.S. fuel cell and hydrogen technologies market - continuing America's leadership in clean energy innovation and

  3. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  4. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  5. EERE Success Story-BASF Catalysts Opens Cathode Production Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 5, 2015 - 6:27pm Addthis BASF Catalysts, a battery component manufacturer, is ... forward; in 2012, they lowered the production costs of battery cathodes by more than 15%. ...

  6. Search for Efficient Technologies and Products for Federal Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program provides information and resources about energy- and water-efficient technologies and products that are well suited for federal applications and can help agencies meet federal laws and requirements.

  7. A RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) analysis of the proposed Tinker AFB Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility. [Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.E.; Sattison, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) at the 30% design phase of a Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility that is to be installed at the Tinker Air Force Base, Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility was divided into four subsystems: Fuel Storage and Pipeline Transfer Pumps; Truck Unloading and Loading; Fire Protection (foam and water supply systems); and Electric Power. The RAM analysis was performed on four functions of these subsystems: transferring fuel from the two new 55K barrel storage tanks to the existing fuel pipeline system; transferring fuel from the two 55K barrel storage tanks to the aircraft refueler trucks; transferring fuel from the road transport trucks to the aircraft refueler trucks; and fire protection. A fault tree analysis was performed on each functional system. The quantification was performed for several mission times.

  8. Wheeling for cogeneration and small power-production facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiano, J.R.; Zimmer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    New problems have arisen over the ability to wheel power from decentralized cogeneration and small generation sources between electric utilities or between industrial facilities within a common geographical area. This article explores the historical and current positions of the Federal Power Commission, now the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) as it has interpreted its authority under Part II of the Federal Power Act to order the wheeling of electric power. The authors also outline and discuss related antitrust issues which often arise within the context of wheeling and the possibilities of recognizing potential antitrust violations as a factor in promoting wheeling arrangements. Concluding that Congress will not address the issue, they recommend the negotiation of wheeling rates by project sponsors to introduce flexibility and avoid more regulation and costly antitrust litigation. 21 references.

  9. UNC EFRC - Center for Solar Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FACILITIES & CAPABILITIES The mission of the UNC EFRC Center for Solar Fuels is to conduct research on dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells, DSPECs, for water splitting and tandem cells for the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon-based solar fuels. In support of this mission the UNC EFRC established world-class user facilities in Spectroscopy, Device Fabrication & Characterization, Photolysis & Solar Fuels Product Analysis, and Synthesis. Dr. Kyle Brennaman These facilities

  10. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This step-by-step manual guides readers through the process of implementing a fuel cell stationary power project. The guide outlines the basics of fuel cell technology and describes how fuel cell projects can meet on-site energy service needs as well as support strategic agency objectives and sustainability requirements. This guide will help agencies decide whether a fuel cell project may be feasible and economically viable at their site. The guide then presents a four-part process for implementing a fuel cell project.

  11. Mild, Nontoxic Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil fuel resources supply almost 90 percent of the world's energy and the vast majority of its organic chemicals. This dependency is insupportable in light of rising emissions, ...

  12. No Fossil Fuel - Kingston | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fossil Fuel - Kingston Jump to: navigation, search Name No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Facility No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility...

  13. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  14. U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth January 8, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department released three new reports on December 19 showcasing strong growth across the U.S. fuel cell and hydrogen technologies market. According to these reports, the United States continues to be one of the world's largest and fastest growing markets for fuel cell and hydrogen

  15. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors

  16. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial

  18. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  19. Rupture of Model 48Y UF/sub 6/ cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride, Sequoyah Fuels Facility, Gore, Oklahoma, January 4, 1986. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    At 11:30 a.m. on January 4, 1986, a Model 48Y UF/sub 6/ cylinder filled with uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) ruptured while it was being heated in a steam chest at the Sequoyah Fuels Conversion Facility near Gore, Oklahoma. One worker died because he inhaled hydrogen fluoride fumes, a reaction product of UF/sub 6/ and airborne moisture. Several other workers were injured by the fumes, but none seriously. Much of the facility complex and some offsite areas to the south were contaminated with hydrogen fluoride and a second reaction product, uranyl fluoride. The interval of release was approximately 40 minutes. The cylinder, which had been overfilled, ruptured while it was being heated because of the expansion of UF/sub 6/ as it changed from the solid to the liquid phase. The maximum safe capacity for the cylinder is 27,560 pounds of product. Evidence indicates that it was filled with an amount exceeding this limit. 18 figs.

  20. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  1. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2003-10-17

    The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

  2. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  3. Dry-vault storage of spent fuel at the CASCAD facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillif, L.; Guay, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new modular dry storage vault concept using vertical metallic wells cooled by natural convection has been developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles to accommodate special fuels for high-level wastes. Basic specifications and design criteria have been followed to guarantee a double containment system and cooling to maintain the fuel below an acceptable temperature. The double containment is provided by two static barriers: At the reactor, fuels are placed in containers playing the role of the first barrier; the storage wells constitute the second barrier. Spent fuel placed in wells is cooled by natural convection: a boundary layer is created along the outer side of the well. The heated air rises along the well leading to a thermosiphon flow that extracts the heat released. For heat transfer, studies, computations, and experimental tests have been carried out to calculate and determine the temperature of the containers and the fuel rod temperatures in various situations. The CASCAD vault storage can be applied to light water reactor (LWR) fuels without any difficulties if two requirements are satisfied: (1) Spend fuels have to be inserted in tight canisters. (2) Spent fuels have to be received only after a minimum decay time of 5 yr.

  4. U.S. Demonstrates Production of Fuel for Missions to the Solar System and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Beyond | Department of Energy Demonstrates Production of Fuel for Missions to the Solar System and Beyond U.S. Demonstrates Production of Fuel for Missions to the Solar System and Beyond December 22, 2015 - 10:09am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov The first U.S. production in nearly 30 years of a specialized fuel to power future deep space missions has been completed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee.

  5. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  6. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  7. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  8. Note: Radiochemical measurement of fuel and ablator areal densities in cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagmann, C. Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Grant, P. M.; Gharibyan, N.; Gostic, J. M.; Wooddy, P. T.; Torretto, P. C.; Bandong, B. B.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Bernstein, L. A.; Caggiano, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Henry, E. A.; Fortner, R. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Knauer, J. P.

    2015-07-15

    A new radiochemical method for determining deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel and plastic ablator (CH) areal densities (ρR) in high-convergence, cryogenic inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility is described. It is based on measuring the {sup 198}Au/{sup 196}Au activation ratio using the collected post-shot debris of the Au hohlraum. The Au ratio combined with the independently measured neutron down scatter ratio uniquely determines the areal densities ρR(DT) and ρR(CH) during burn in the context of a simple 1-dimensional capsule model. The results show larger than expected ρR(CH) values, hinting at the presence of cold fuel-ablator mix.

  9. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  10. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  11. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... "Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: ...

  12. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  13. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes stationary fuel cell system composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  14. State-of-the-Art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: Spring 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.; Post, M.; Ainscough, C.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2013 for state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability status.

  15. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell T

  16. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell T

  17. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2011

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell

  18. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell T

  19. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  1. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. Analyzing Losses: Transuranics into Waste and Fission Products into Recycled Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert E. Cherry; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros; Candido Pereira; Denia Djokic

    2010-11-01

    All mass streams from separations and fuel fabrication are products that must meet criteria. Those headed for disposal must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the eventual disposal sites corresponding to their waste classification. Those headed for reuse must meet fuel or target impurity limits. A loss is any material that ends up where it is undesired. The various types of losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of transuranic (TRU) material into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. We have analyzed four separation options and two fuel fabrication options in a generic fuel cycle. The separation options are aqueous uranium extraction plus (UREX+1), electrochemical, Atomics International reduction oxidation separation (AIROX), and melt refining. UREX+1 and electrochemical are traditional, full separation techniques. AIROX and melt refining are taken as examples of limited separations, also known as minimum fuel treatment. The fuels are oxide and metal. To define a generic fuel cycle, a fuel recycling loop is fed from used light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel (UOX) at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup. The recycling loop uses a fast reactor with TRU conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50. Excess recovered uranium is put into storage. Only waste, not used fuel, is disposed unless the impurities accumulate to a level so that it is impossible to make new fuel for the fast reactor. Impurities accumulate as dictated by separation removal and fission product generation. Our model approximates adjustment to fast reactor fuel stream blending of TRU and U products from incoming LWR UOX and recycling FR fuel to compensate for impurity accumulation by adjusting TRU:U ratios. Our mass flow model ignores postulated fuel impurity limits; we compare the calculated impurity values with those limits to identify elements of concern. AIROX and melt refining cannot be used to separate used LWR UOX-51 because they cannot

  3. Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

    2011-10-25

    For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  4. End State Condition Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities MFC-799, 799A, and 770C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) facilities MFC-799, “Sodium Processing Facility” (a single building consisting of two areas: the Sodium Process Area and the Carbonate Process Area); MFC-799A, “Caustic Storage Area;” and MFC-770C, “Nuclear Calibration Laboratory,” have been declared excess to future Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy(NE) mission requirements. Transfer of these facilities from NE to the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), and an associated schedule for doing so, have been agreed upon by the two offices. This report documents the completion of pre-transfer stabilization actions, as identified in DOE Guide 430.1-5, “Transition Implementation Guide,” for buildings MFC-799/799A and 770C, and indicates that these facilities are ready for transfer from NE to EM. The facilities are in a known, safe condition and information is provided to support efficient decommissioning and demolition (D&D) planning while minimizing the possibility of encountering unforeseen circumstances during the D&D activities.

  5. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  6. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  7. Center for Bio-inspired Solar Fuel Production Personnel | Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production Center for Bio-inspired Solar Fuel Production Personnel Principal Investigators Postdoctoral Fellows Center researchers Graduate Students Undergraduate Students All Bisfuel Center Personnel Alex Volosin Graduate student Ana Moore Principal Investigator Subtask 4 Leader Anindya Roy Graduate student Anne Jones Principal Investigator Antaeres' Antoniuk-Pablant Graduate Student Arnab Dutta Graduate student Barun Das Postdoctoral Fellow Ben Sherman Graduate

  8. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Bo-Ching; Rosenbaum, Herman S.; Armijo, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method for producing nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction having components providing therein a barrier system for resisting destructive action by volatile fission products or impurities and also interdiffusion of metal constituents, and the product thereof. The composite nuclear fuel containers of the method comprise a casing of zirconium or alloy thereof with a layer of copper overlying an oxidized surface portion of the zirconium or alloy thereof.

  9. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  11. Opportunities for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the U.S. -- An Overview | Department of Energy for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview Opportunities for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: U.S. Department of Energy 2002_deer_shen.pdf (79.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology Advanced Fuels in HDV Applications

  12. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prev next Bisfuel Graduate Students during a student-focused conference exploring renewable energy research activities at Arizona State University and University of Arizona, April 19-20, 2012. The conference featured student talks and poster presentations on the broad range of activities in solar fuels, solar electric, and energy policy.

  13. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report, Fourth Quarter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72 ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report C Sivaraman October 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  14. Scoping assessment on medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, S.W.

    1997-08-29

    The Scoping Assessment addresses the need for medical isotope production and the capability of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide such isotopes. Included in the discussion are types of isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals, which types of cancers are targets, and in what way isotopes provide treatment and/or pain relief for patients.

  15. Radiocesium Discharges and Subsequent Environmental Transport at the Major U.S. Weapons Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten, Jr. C.T.; Hamby, D.M.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1999-11-14

    Radiocesium is one of the more prevalent radionuclides in the environment as a result of weapons production related atomic projects in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Radiocesium discharges during the 1950's account for a large fraction of the historical releases from U.S. weapons production facilities. Releases of radiocesium to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during the early ,years of nuclear weapons production provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on the transport mechanisms of this potentially hazardous radionuclide. The major U.S. Department of Energy facilities (Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina) are located in regions of the country that have different geographical characteristics. The facility siting provided diverse backgrounds for the development of an understanding of environmental factors contributing to the fate and transport of radiocesium. In this paper, we summarize the significant environmental releases of radiocesium in the early -years of weapons production and then discuss the historically significant transport mechanisms for r37Cs at the three facilities that were part of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex.

  16. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2014-10-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  17. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  18. On-farm production of fuel-alcohol in Mid-America technical and economic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohmann, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol fuel production is suggested as an alternative to high energy costs for the Mid-American farmer. The steps involved in producing alcohol from biomass are reviewed. Fermentation equipment and procedures are readily available. The utilization of by-products for animal feeds is discussed. Combustion characteristics and chemical properties of ethanol are reviewed. Estimates are made of costs involved in alcohol production in the mid-west region. Regional agricultural consumption of gasoline is estimated and 3 scenarios are developed. Benefits of on-farm fuel production are outlined. (DMC)

  19. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  20. An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Zeman; Marco Castaldi

    2008-04-15

    Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The thermal load can be provided by methane, coal or carbon neutral (biogas). The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO{sub 2} into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center News 24 Jan 2014 SOFI-funded collaborative project The Solar Fuel Institute has funded a collaborative project between the group of Vincent Artero (CEA, Grenoble, France) and the BISfuel Center. Graduate student from Artero Lab Nicolas Kaeffer has been visiting the Gust Lab to work on application of H2-evolving cathodes designed in Artero group to photoanodes developed at BISFuel. 12 Apr 2013 Bisfuel students win AzSEC 2013 Distinguished Poster Awards Bisfuel Graduate students Ben

  2. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media about Center 5 Jun 2014 Solar energy: Springtime for the artificial leaf by Jessica Marshall: June 6 issue of Nature Magazine in a News Feature article highlights research progress in a field of artificial photosynthesis and presents a broad spectrum of alternative approaches of turning photons into fuel. Devens Gust, Director of the Bisfuel Center comments: "The bottom line is that nobody really knows yet what's going to win out, what's going to be practical." 30 Apr 2014

  3. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery 9 Jul 2014 Taking snapshots of different redox states of the water oxidation catalyst in Photosystem II BISfuel, July 9, 2014 - Deciphering the puzzles of the natural photosynthetic water oxidation mechanism empowers designers of artificial photosynthesis with knowledge to construct better water oxidation catalysts for solar fuel

  4. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production and Delivery Learn how NREL is developing and advancing a number of pathways to renewable hydrogen production. Text Version Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen

  5. On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

  6. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUNACEK, G.S.

    2000-08-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-EP-0438-1, ''A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans'', and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the third revision to the original annual report. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it is updated as necessary.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. Proof of Concept Simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near-Real-Time Safeguards Monitor for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing plants. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  9. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  10. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  11. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  12. Location of Natural Gas Production Facilities in the Gulf of Mexico

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Location of Natural Gas Production Facilities in the Gulf of Mexico 2014 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Annual 102 1,179,714 4.6 Gulf of Mexico - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Dry Production: Table S12. Summary statistics for natural gas - Gulf of Mexico, 2010-2014 Gulf of Mexico - Table S12 Federal Offshore Production trillion cubic feet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

  13. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tanks 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U, and 2075-U at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohrman, D.E.; Ingram, E.M. )

    1992-06-01

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tanks 0439-U, 0440-U, 2073-U, 2074-U,and 2075-U, previously located at the East End Fuel Station, Buildings 9754 and 9754-2, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the East End Fuel Station and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the facility.

  15. SEP Success Story: City in Colorado Fueling Vehicles with Gas Produced from Wastewater Treatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Grand Junction built a 5-mile underground pipeline to transport compressed natural gas (CNG) from a local wastewater treatment facility to a CNG station using a grant from the Colorado Department of Local Affairs and seed funding from the Energy Department's State Energy Program.

  16. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  17. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  18. Small-scale production of alcohol fuel: not feasible for the farmer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    On-farm alcohol fuel production is not too promising at this time because of the present state of small-scale technology and marketing and some problems with utilization. Small-scale production shows a significant decrease in yield and unacceptable water levels, which makes the cost uncompetitive with large producers. The advantages of on-farm production are that farmers can produce homegrown feedstocks and provide a reliable source of fuel for their own needs as well as an alternative market for surplus grain. Engine modifications must be made, however, in order to use either straight alcohol or combinations of alcohol with gasoline or diesel fuel. Production problems include the need for constant monitoring and temperature control, the high cost of intermittent operation, variations in grain prices, and the difficulty for many farmers of selecting appropriate equipment and complying with regulations. Cooperatives may be the answer to some of these problems. 2 tables. (DCK)

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  20. Kiwan Jeon | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Kitchen Appliances Kitchen Appliances ENERGY STAR<sup>&reg;</sup> Refrigerators Are Cool! ENERGY STAR-qualified refrigerators use 15% less energy than non-qualified models. Models with top-mounted freezers use 10%-25% less energy than side-by-side or bottom-mount units. ENERGY STAR® Refrigerators Are Cool! ENERGY STAR-qualified refrigerators use 15% less energy than non-qualified models. Models with top-mounted freezers

  1. Dalvin Mendez | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dalvin Mendez Graduate student Subtask 4 project: "Synthesis and characterization of dyes for use as photosensitizers to drive water oxidation and hydrogen production

  2. Thomas Moore | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links: T. A. Moore "Artificial Photosynthesis and Bio-inspired Catalysis: Paradigms For Sustainable Energy Production" Subtask 1 * Subtask 2 * Subtask 3 * Subtask 4 * ...

  3. A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaganas, G.; Rest, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Florida International Univ.

    2007-10-18

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO{sub 2} power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the {alpha}-, intermediate- and {gamma}-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified.

  4. Facility Floorplan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facility floorplan Facility Floorplan

  5. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  6. Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

  7. Environmental Radiation Dose Reconstruction for U.S. and Russian Weapons Production Facilities: Hanford and Mayak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansbaugh, Lynn R.; Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Napier, Bruce A.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.

    2003-05-01

    Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States, such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries, such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions, which are used to estimate environmental releases, transport, and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling, when conducted, is used to organize and validate the measurements. Past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons has resulted in major releases of radionuclides into the environment. Reconstruction of the historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals in the public living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States; several are also underway in other countries. The types of activity performed, the operating histories, and the radionuclide releases vary widely across the different facilities. The U.S. Hanford Site and the Russian Mayak Production Association are used here to illustrate the nature of the assessed problems and the range of approaches developed to solve them.

  8. System Design Description and Requirements for Modeling the Off-Gas Systems for Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Jack D. Law; Troy J. Tranter

    2010-08-01

    This document provides descriptions of the off-gases evolved during spent nuclear fuel processing and the systems used to capture the gases of concern. Two reprocessing techniques are discussed, namely aqueous separations and electrochemical (pyrochemical) processing. The unit operations associated with each process are described in enough detail so that computer models to mimic their behavior can be developed. The document also lists the general requirements for the desired computer models.

  9. Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) enables researchers and industry partners to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate processes and technologies for the production of bio-based products and fuels. Interior of industrial, two-story building with high-bay, piping, and large processing equipment. Three workers in hard hats. In addition to the facility itself, NREL's world-renowned expert staff works with IBRF partners at every stage of

  10. Isotopic noble gas signatures released from medical isotope production facilities - Simulations and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saey, Paul R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Ringbom, Anders

    2010-09-09

    Journal article on the role that radioxenon isotopes play in confirming whether or not an underground explosion was nuclear in nature. Radioxenon isotopes play a major role in confirming whether or not an underground explosion was nuclear in nature. It is then of key importance to understand the sources of environmental radioxenon to be able to distinguish civil sources from those of a nuclear explosion. Based on several years of measurements, combined with advanced atmospheric transport model results, it was recently shown that the main source of radioxenon observations are strong and regular batch releases from a very limited number of medical isotope production facilities. This paper reviews production processes in different medical isotope facilities during which radioxenon is produced. Radioxenon activity concentrations and isotopic compositions are calculated for six large facilities. The results are compared with calculated signals from nuclear explosions. Further, the outcome is compared and found to be consistent with radioxenon measurements recently performed in and around three of these facilities. Some anomalies in measurements in which {sup 131m}Xe was detected were found and a possible explanation is proposed. It was also calculated that the dose rate of the releases is well below regulatory values. Based on these results, it should be possible to better understand, interpret and verify signals measured in the noble gas measurement systems in the International Monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  11. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update October 18, 2012 Prepared By: Brian D. James Andrew B. Spisak Revision 4 2 Sponsorship and Acknowledgements This research was conducted under Award Number DE-EE0005236 to the US Department of Energy. The authors wish to thank Dr. Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos and Mr. Jason Marcinkoski of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program

  14. Composition of high fission product wastes resulting from future reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, J.L

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies, aimed at defining appropriate glass compositions for future disposal of high-level wastes, have developed composition ranges for the waste that will likely result during reprocessing of Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuels. The purpose of these studies was to provide baseline waste characterizations for possible future commercial high-level waste so that waste immobilization technologies (e.g., vitrification) can be studied. Ranges in waste composition are emphasized because the waste will vary with time as different fuels are reprocesses, because choice of process chemicals is nuclear, and because fuel burnups will vary. Consequently, composition ranges are based on trends in fuel reprocessing procedures and on achievable burnups in operating reactors. In addition to the fission product and actinide elements, which are the primary hazardous materials in the waste, likely composition ranges are given for inert elements that may be present in the waste. These other elements may be present because of being present in the fuel, because of being added as process chemical during reprocessing, because of being added during equipment decontamination, or because of corrosion of plant equipment and/or fuel element cladding. This report includes a discussion of the chemicals added in variation of the PUREX process, which is likely to remain the favored reprocessing technique for commercial nuclear fuels. Consideration is also given to a pyrochemical process proposed for the reprocessing of some LMR fuels.

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities At NREL's state-of-the-art biomass research facilities, researchers design and optimize processes to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels and...

  16. Decision guide to farm fuel production: ethanol, methanol, or vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstetter, J.D.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform farmers of the choices they have today regarding production of motor vehicle fuels. Its intent is to inform farmers of what is involved in producing an alternative fuel, its compatibility with existing engines, the costs involved, and the markets for the fuel and any by-products. This paper is not a how-to-do-it manual or a policy document. Some of the data has been developed from the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program managed by the Washington State Energy Office. Part One provides background information on Washington's fuel use patterns, highlighting the agricultural sector. In Part Two, general considerations common to all alternative fuels are covered. Part Three contains three detailed discussions of the alternative fuels most favored by Washington farmers for production and use - ethanol, vegetable oils, and methanol. The Appendix contains a brief summary of the 11 ethanol projects in Washington funded as a result of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program. 5 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  18. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis NREL analyzed the cost of hydrogen production via wind-based water electrolysis at 42 potential sites in 11 states across the nation. This analysis included centralized plants producing the Department of Energy (DOE) target of 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day, using both wind and grid electricity. The use of wind and grid electricity can be balanced either by power or cost, including or excluding the purchase of peak summer electricity. Current wind incentives-such

  19. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  20. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  1. Emergency planning lessons learned from TMI-2: Potential applications for fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knief, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed American National Standard on Nuclear Criticality Accident Emergency PLanning and Response, ANSI/ANS-8.23, is being prepared to provide guidance on the important subject area indicated by it`s title. The accident at Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor provided many valuable lessons to be learned in emergency preparedness. A workshop conducted by GPU Nuclear Corporation, the company operating TMI-2, identified a number of lessons, several of which provide insights for nuclear facilities as described in this paper.

  2. Public involvement in the regulatory activities regarding nuclear fuel cycle facilities: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of a community-based organization in the activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding a uranium conversion facility that operated near Gore, Oklahoma from 1970 until 1992. Effective participation requires access to decision making. Access is a complex phenomenon that includes: (1) opportunity, both procedural and physical, (2) a common language, and (3) time and resources. The paper describes how both the community organization and the NRC responded to these requirements for access, the strategies that were most effective in securing meaningful public involvement in the decision making, and the impacts of that involvement on the organization.

  3. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cell Manufacturing Photo of scientific equipment in laboratory setting. NREL's in-line diagnostics help industry identify defects in fuel cell components. This small-scale manufacturing line at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility can convey fuel cell component materials at speeds of 100 feet per minute. NREL's fuel cell manufacturing R&D focuses on improving quality-inspection practices for high-volume manufacturing processes to enable higher production volumes, increased reliability,

  4. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Corinne Valkenburg, Staff Engineer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory biomass13_male_2-d.pdf (891.45 KB) More Documents & Publications FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds 2013

  5. Victory Renewable Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Victory Renewable Fuels LLC Place: Iowa Zip: 51242 Product: Plans to develop a 113.7m litre biodiesel and multiple feedstock facility in Iowa....

  6. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); Quarter 1 2012 Composite Data Products - Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation is about the Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA). Quarter 1 2012 Composite Data Products - Deployment March 8, 2012.

  7. Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA); November 2011 Composite Data Products - Deployment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation is about the Early Fuel Cell Market Deployments: ARRA and Combined (IAA, DLA, ARRA). November 2011 Composite Data Products - Deployment November 30, 2011.

  8. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2014; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Sprik, S.; Post, M.

    2015-04-01

    This publication includes 33 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the fourth quarter of 2014.

  9. FOAM FORMATION IN THE SALTSTONE PRODUCTION FACILITY: EVALUATION OF SOURCES AND MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.

    2011-01-18

    The Saltstone Production Facility receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. Influents into Tank 50H include the Effluent Treatment Project waste concentrate, H-Canyon low activity waste and General Purpose Evaporator bottoms, Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit decontaminated salt solution, and salt solution from the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjust campaign. Using the Waste Characterization System (WCS), this study tracks the relative amounts of each influent into Tank 50H, as well as the total content of Tank 50H, in an attempt to identify the source of foaming observed in the Saltstone Production Facility hopper. Saltstone has been using antifoam as part of routine processing with the restart of the facility in December 2006. It was determined that the maximum admix usage in the Saltstone Production Facility, both antifoam and set retarder, corresponded with the maximum concentration of H-Canyon low activity waste in Tank 50H. This paper also evaluates archived salt solutions from Waste Acceptance Criteria analysis for propensity to foam and the antifoam dosage required to mitigate foaming. It was determined that Effluent Treatment Project contributed to the expansion factor (foam formation) and General Purpose Evaporator contributed to foaminess (persistence). It was also determined that undissolved solids contribute to foam persistence. It was shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced both the expansion factor and foaminess of salt solutions. The evaluation of foaming in the grout hopper during the transition from water to salt solution indicated that higher water-to-premix ratios tended to produce increased foaming. It was also shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced foam formation and persistence.

  10. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels via Catalytic Conversion of Microalgae: Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Ping; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-08-02

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize food versus fuel concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  11. Process for making a martensitic steel alloy fuel cladding product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Gerald D.; Lobsinger, Ralph J.; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Gelles, David S.

    1990-01-01

    This is a very narrowly defined martensitic steel alloy fuel cladding material for liquid metal cooled reactors, and a process for making such a martensitic steel alloy material. The alloy contains about 10.6 wt. % chromium, about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, about 0.85 wt. % manganese, about 0.2 wt. % niobium, about 0.37 wt. % silicon, about 0.2 wt. % carbon, about 0.2 wt. % vanadium, 0.05 maximum wt. % nickel, about 0.015 wt. % nitrogen, about 0.015 wt. % sulfur, about 0.05 wt. % copper, about 0.007 wt. % boron, about 0.007 wt. % phosphorous, and with the remainder being essentially iron. The process utilizes preparing such an alloy and homogenizing said alloy at about 1000.degree. C. for 16 hours; annealing said homogenized alloy at 1150.degree. C. for 15 minutes; and tempering said annealed alloy at 700.degree. C. for 2 hours. The material exhibits good high temperature strength (especially long stress rupture life) at elevated temperature (500.degree.-760.degree. C.).

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K Area Spent Fuel. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    The scope of this document includes program plans for monitoring and characterizing radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials discharged in the K Area effluents. This FEMP includes complete documentation for both airborne and liquid effluent monitoring systems that monitor radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous pollutants that could be discharged to the environment under routine and/or upset conditions. This documentation is provided for each K Area facility that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials that could impact public and employee safety and the environment. This FEW describes the airborne and liquid effluent paths and the associated sampling and monitoring systems of the K Area facilities. Sufficient information is provided on the effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against requirements may be performed. Adequate details are supplied such that radioactive and hazardous material source terms may be related to specific effluent streams which are, in turn, related to discharge points and finally compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  13. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-08-23

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE`s waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance.

  14. International technology exchange in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility wasteform production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchen, B.G.

    1989-08-23

    The nearly completed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Savannah River Site that is designed to immobilize defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification in borosilicate glass and containment in stainless steel canisters suitable for storage in the future DOE HLW repository. The DWPF is expected to start cold operation later this year (1990), and will be the first full scale vitrification facility operating in the United States, and the largest in the world. The DOE has been coordinating technology transfer and exchange on issues relating to HLW treatment and disposal through bi-lateral agreements with several nations. For the nearly fifteen years of the vitrification program at Savannah River Laboratory, over two hundred exchanges have been conducted with a dozen international agencies involving about five-hundred foreign national specialists. These international exchanges have been beneficial to the DOE's waste management efforts through confirmation of the choice of the waste form, enhanced understanding of melter operating phenomena, support for paths forward in political/regulatory arenas, confirmation of costs for waste form compliance programs, and establishing the need for enhancements of melter facility designs. This paper will compare designs and schedules of the international vitrification programs, and will discuss technical areas where the exchanges have provided data that have confirmed and aided US research and development efforts, impacted the design of the DWPF and guided the planning for regulatory interaction and product acceptance.

  15. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  16. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  17. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Praga, A.N.

    1998-01-08

    Revisions 0 and 0A of this document provided estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of spent nuclear fuel and sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site`s 105-K Basins. This Revision (Rev. 1) incorporates the following changes into Revision 0A: (1) updates the tables to reflect: improved cross section data, a decision to use accountability data as the basis for total Pu, a corrected methodology for selection of the heat generation basis fee, and a revised decay date; (2) adds section 3.3.3.1 to expand the description of the approach used to calculate the inventory values and explain why that approach yields conservative results; (3) changes the pre-irradiation braze beryllium value.

  18. Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

  19. MINING PROCESS AND PRODUCT INFORMATION FROM PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN A FUEL PARTICLE COATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall; Charles M. Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Fuel Development and Qualification Program included the design, installation, and testing of a 6-inch diameter nuclear fuel particle coater to demonstrate quality TRISO fuel production on a small industrial scale. Scale-up from the laboratory-scale coater faced challenges associated with an increase in the kernel charge mass, kernel diameter, and a redesign of the gas distributor to achieve adequate fluidization throughout the deposition of the four TRISO coating layers. TRISO coatings are applied at very high temperatures in atmospheres of dense particulate clouds, corrosive gases, and hydrogen concentrations over 45% by volume. The severe environment, stringent product and process requirements, and the fragility of partially-formed coatings limit the insertion of probes or instruments into the coater vessel during operation. Pressure instrumentation were installed on the gas inlet line and exhaust line of the 6-inch coater to monitor the bed differential pressure and internal pressure fluctuations emanating from the fuel bed as a result of bed and gas bubble movement. These instruments are external to the particle bed and provide a glimpse into the dynamics of fuel particle bed during the coating process and data that could be used to help ascertain the adequacy of fluidization and, potentially, the dominant fluidization regimes. Pressure fluctuation and differential pressure data are not presently useful as process control instruments, but data suggest a link between the pressure signal structure and some measurable product attributes that could be exploited to get an early estimate of the attribute values.

  20. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Video Library 31 Mar 2014 EFRC Creative Potential: Thinking Out of the Box Professor Petra Fromme is one of the Bisfuel Principal Investigators. "...Real advantage of the Center is that we have so many creative people working on different aspects of the process, on the hydrogen production catalysts, water splitting catalysts, on developing artificial antennas and reaction centers ... 17 Mar 2014 Rational Design of Artificial Metal-Based Enzymes Giovanna Ghirlanda is one of the EFRC

  1. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  2. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John b. Walter

    2010-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/Bs) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  3. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-12

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  4. DECOMMISSIONING OF SHIELDED FACILITIES AT WINFRITH USED FOR POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF NUCLEAR FUELS & OTHER ACTIVE ITEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.D.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the approaches used in the clearing, cleaning, decontamination and decommissioning of a very large suite of seven concrete shielded caves and other facilities used by UKAEA at Winfrith Technology Centre, England over a period of about 30 years for the postirradiation examination (PIE) of a wide range of nuclear fuels and other very active components. The basic construction of the facilities will first be described, setting the scene for the major challenges that 1970s' thinking posed for decommissioning engineers. The tendency then to use large and heavy items of equipment supported upon massive steel bench structures produced a series of major problems that had to be overcome. The means of solving these problems by utilization of relatively simple and inexpensive equipment will be described. Later, a further set of challenges was experienced to decontaminate the interior surfaces to allow man entries to be undertaken at acceptable dose rates. The paper will describe the types of tooling used and the range of complementary techniques that were employed to steadily reduce the dose rates down to acceptable levels. Some explanations will also be given for the creation of realistic dose budgets and the methods of recording and continuously assessing the progress against these budgets throughout the project. Some final considerations are given to the commercial approaches to be adopted throughout this major project by the decommissioning engineers. Particular emphasis will be given to the selection of equipment and techniques that are effective so that the whole process can be carried out in a cost-effective and timely manner. The paper also provides brief complementary information obtained during the decommissioning of a plutonium-contaminated facility used for a range of semi-experimental purposes in the late 1970s. The main objective here was to remove the alpha contamination in such a manner that the volume of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (P

  5. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B.; Hegarty, William P.; Studer, David W.; Tirados, Edward J.

    1995-01-01

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  6. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  7. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-04-30

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  8. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  9. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) product development test. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress that has occurred in conjunction with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-92MC28065, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Development Test (PDT) during the period of October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. Information is presented on stack design, manufacturing, stack assembly, procurement, site preparation, and test plan.

  11. The Research Team | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Team Director: Professor Devens Gust Program Manager: Alexander Melkozernov Faculty research teams: Artificial Oxygen Evolving Complex for Water Oxidation Professor James Allen - team leader Professor Petra Fromme Professor Giovanna Ghirlanda Professor Yan Liu Professor Kevin Redding Professor Hao Yan Fuel Production Complex Professor Giovanna Ghirlanda - team leader Professor Anne Jones Professor Kevin Redding Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Center - Antenna Complex Professor Ana

  12. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2015-02-01

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  13. Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuel and Feeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Large-Scale Production of Marine Microalgae for Fuel and Feeds March 24, 2015 Algae Platform Review Mark Huntley Cornell Marine Algal Biofuels Consortium This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement  BETO MYPP Goals (3) Demonstrate 1. Performance against clear cost goals and technical targets (Q4 2013) 2. Productivity of 1,500 gal/acre/yr algal oil (Q4 2014)

  14. Maximum Reasonable Radioxenon Releases from Medical Isotope Production Facilities and Their Effect on Monitoring Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Saey, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Fission gases such as 133Xe are used extensively for monitoring the world for signs of nuclear testing in systems such as the International Monitoring System (IMS). These gases are also produced by nuclear reactors and by fission production of 99Mo for medical use. Recently, medical isotope production facilities have been identified as the major contributor to the background of radioactive xenon isotopes (radioxenon) in the atmosphere (Saey, et al., 2009). These releases pose a potential future problem for monitoring nuclear explosions if not addressed. As a starting point, a maximum acceptable daily xenon emission rate was calculated, that is both scientifically defendable as not adversely affecting the IMS, but also consistent with what is possible to achieve in an operational environment. This study concludes that an emission of 5×109 Bq/day from a medical isotope production facility would be both an acceptable upper limit from the perspective of minimal impact to monitoring stations, but also appears to be an achievable limit for large isotope producers.

  15. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  16. Hydrogen Production in Radioactive Solutions in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD, CHARLES L.

    2004-05-26

    In the radioactive slurries and solutions to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), hydrogen will be produced continuously by radiolysis. This production results from alpha, beta, and gamma rays from decay of radionuclides in the slurries and solutions interacting with the water. More than 1000 research reports have published data concerning this radiolytic production. The results of these studies have been reviewed in a comprehensive monograph. Information about radiolytic hydrogen production from the different process tanks is necessary to determine air purge rates necessary to prevent flammable mixtures from accumulating in the vapor spaces above these tanks. Radiolytic hydrogen production rates are usually presented in terms of G values or molecules of hydrogen produced per 100ev of radioactive decay energy absorbed by the slurry or solution. With the G value for hydrogen production, G(H2), for a particular slurry and the concentrations of radioactive species in that slurry, the rate of H2 production for that slurry can be calculated. An earlier investigation estimated that the maximum rate that hydrogen could be produced from the sludge slurry stream to the DWPF is with a G value of 0.45 molecules per 100ev of radioactive decay energy sorbed by the slurry.

  17. Physics of sup 238 Pu production in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.A.; Schmittroth, F.A.; Mann, F.M.; Schenter, R.E.; Lu, A.H.; Carter, L.L.; Wootan, D.W.; Schwarz, R.A.; Brager, H.R.; Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1989-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company conducted an assessment of producing {sup 238}Pu in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reactor located near Richland, Washington. The goal of the assessment was to determine whether the FFTF can produce at least 15 kg/yr of {sup 238}Pu to support the needs of the U.S. space program. Plutonium-238, with its 87.7-yr half-life and relatively pure alpha-particle decay mode, is an ideal power source for deep-space missions. The DOE is evaluating options for future {sup 238}Pu production, and the FFTF is a preferred candidate. The key technical issue for FFTF production is the isotopic purity of the product plutonium. FFTF production of at least 15 kg/yr of {sup 238}Pu is feasible. An FFTF physics test was completed and will reduce the large calculational uncertainties in {sup 236}Pu content, and the final test results will allow final production assembly design optimization. Use of the FFTF for {sup 238}Pu production can satisfy the needs of the U.S. space program for many years with a modern reactor that has an outstanding operational record.

  18. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  19. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  20. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels. Part I. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement. Quarterly report, December 1994--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Primary objective is to establish the commercial readiness of MW- class IMHEX {reg_sign} MCFC power plants for distributed generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. The following tasks are reported: product definition/planning, system design/analysis, manufacturing process development, packaging/assembly, test facilities, and technology development/improvement/verification.

  2. Maximizing Efficiency in Two-step Solar-thermochemical Fuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermanoski, I.

    2015-05-01

    Widespread solar fuel production depends on its economic viability, largely driven by the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. Herein, the material and energy requirements in two-step solar-thermochemical cyclesare considered.The need for advanced redox active materials is demonstrated, by considering the oxide mass flow requirements at a large scale. Two approaches are also identified for maximizing the efficiency: optimizing reaction temperatures, and minimizing the pressure in the thermal reduction step by staged thermal reduction. The results show that each approach individually, and especially the two in conjunction, result in significant efficiency gains.

  3. EFRC 501 - Fall 2012 | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 This year, the Center for Bio-inspired Solar Fuel Production has instituted a special section of CHM-501 for the graduate students affiliated with the EFRC. This class will give all of the students a chance to get to know their colleagues better, and to learn about the wide variety of research going on in the Center. The class will help each of the students to see how their research fits into the big picture, and learn how their work can benefit from the efforts of others. The BisFuel Center

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for

  5. Demonstration of two-beam acceleration and 30 GHz power production in the CLIC Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossart, R.; Braun, H. H.; Carron, G.; Chanudet, M.; Chautard, F.; Delahaye, J. P.; Godot, J. C.; Hutchins, S.; Martinez, C.; Suberlucq, G.; Tenenbaum, P.; Thorndahl, L.; Trautner, H.; Valentini, M.; Wilson, I.; Wuensch, W. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    1999-05-07

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Test Facility (CTF II) at CERN has recently demonstrated Two-Beam power production and acceleration at 30 GHz. With 41 MW of 30 GHz power produced in 14 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 5 Hz, the main beam has been accelerated by 28 MeV. The 30 GHz RF power is extracted in low impedance decelerating structures from a low-energy, high-current 'drive beam' which runs parallel to the main beam. The average current in the drive-beam train is 25 A, while the peak current exceeds 2 kA. Crosschecks between measured drive-beam charge, 30 GHz power and main-beam energy gain are in good agreement. In this paper, some relevant experimental and technical issues on drive-beam generation, two-beam power production and acceleration are presented.

  6. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  7. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  8. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  9. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  10. A review of recent advances of numerical simulations of microscale fuel processors for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Microscale (<5W) reformers for hydrogen production have been investigated for over a decade. These devices are intended to provide hydrogen for small fuel cells. Due to the reformer’s small size, numerical simulations are critical to understand heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring in the systems. This paper reviews the development of the numerical codes and details the reaction equations used. The majority of the devices utilized methanol as the fuel due to methanol’s low reforming temperature and high conversion, although, there are several methane fueled systems. As computational power has decreased in cost and increased in availability, the codes increased in complexity and accuracy. Initial models focused on the reformer, while more recently, the simulations began including other unit operations such as vaporizers, inlet manifolds, and combustors. These codes are critical for developing the next generation systems. The systems reviewed included, plate reactors, microchannel reactors, annulus reactors, wash-coated, packed bed systems.

  11. Increasing the power density when using inert matrix fuels to reduce production of transuranics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Deinert, M.R.

    2013-07-01

    Reducing the production of transuranics is a goal of most advanced nuclear fuel cycles. One way to do this is to recycle the transuranics into the same reactors that are currently producing them using an inert matrix fuel. In previous work we have modeled such a reactor where 72%, of the core is comprised of standard enriched uranium fuel pins, with the remaining 28% fuel made from Yttria stabilized zirconium, in which transuranics are loaded. A key feature of this core is that all of the transuranics produced by the uranium fuel assemblies are later burned in inert matrix fuel assemblies. It has been shown that this system can achieve reductions in transuranic waste of more than 86%. The disadvantage of such a system is that the core power rating must be significantly lower than a standard pressurized water reactor. One reason for the lower power is that high burnup of the uranium fuel precludes a critical level of reactivity at the end of the campaign. Increasing the uranium enrichment and changing the pin pitch are two ways to increase burnup while maintaining criticality. In this paper we use MCNPX and a linear reactivity model to quantify the effect of these two parameters on the end of campaign reactivity. Importantly, we show that in the region of our proposed reactor, enrichment increases core reactivity by 0.02 per percent uranium 235 and pin pitch increases reactivity by 0.02 per mm. Reactivity is lost at a rate of 0.005 per MWd/kgIHM uranium burnup. (authors)

  12. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Council identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews

  13. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  14. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-09-28

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify patents related to hydrogen and fuel cells that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents’ current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs that are related to hydrogen and fuel cells.

  15. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, Steven A.; Brown, Scott A.

    2011-09-29

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). To do this, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related patents that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs, and within the FCT portfolio.

  16. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuels Production Incentive Renewable fuels produced from renewable feedstocks, such as ethanol, hydrogen, biodiesel, and biofuel, may qualify for an income tax credit equal to $0.20 per 76,000 British thermal units (BTUs) of renewable fuels sold for distribution in Hawaii. The facility must produce at least 15 billion BTUs of its nameplate capacity annually to receive the tax credit and may claim the tax credit for up to five years, not to exceed $3,000,000 annually. Qualifying

  18. Exploring the energy/beam current parameter space for the isotope production facility (IPF) at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulley, Mark S; Bach, Hong; Nortier, Francis M; Pillai, Chandra; Bitteker, Leo J; John, Kevin D; Valdez, Frank O; Seifter, Achim

    2010-09-07

    IPF has recently investigated isotope production with proton beams at energies other than the 100-MeV currently available to the IPF beam line. To maximize the yield of a particular isotope, it is necessary to measure the production rate and cross section versus proton beam energy. Studies were conducted at 800 MeV and 197 MeV to determine the cross section of Tb-159. Also, the ability to irradiate targets at different proton beam energies opens up the possibility of producing other radioisotopes. A proof-of-principle test was conducted to develop a 40-MeV tune in the 100-MeV beam line. Another parameter explored was the beam current, which was raised from the normal limit of 250 {mu}A up to 356 {mu}A via both power and repetition rate increase. This proof-of-principle test demonstrated the capability of the IPF beam line for high current operation with potential for higher isotope yields. For the full production mode, system upgrades will need to be in place to operate at high current and high duty factor. These activities are expected to provide the data needed for the development of a new and unique isotope production capability complementing the existing 100-MeV IPF facility.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  20. Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messenger, S. J.; Forsberg, C.; Massie, M.

    2012-07-01

    Fission gas disposal is one of the unresolved difficulties for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) and advanced reactors with vented fuel systems. As these systems operate, they produce many radioactive isotopes of xenon and krypton (e.g. {sup 135}Xe t{sub 1/2} = 9.14 hours and {sup 85}Kr t{sub 1/2}= 10.73 years). Removing these gases proves vital to the success of such reactor designs for two reasons. First, the gases act as large neutron sinks which decrease reactivity and must be counterbalanced by increasing fuel loading. Second, for MSRs, inert fission product gases naturally separate quickly from high temperature salts, thus creating high vapor pressure which poses safety concerns. For advanced reactors with solid vented fuel, the gases are allowed to escape into an off-gas system and thus must be managed. Because of time delays in transport of fission product gases in vented fuel systems, some of the shorter-lived radionuclides will decay away thereby reducing the fission gas source term relative to an MSR. To calculate the fission gas source term of a typical molten salt reactor, we modeled a 1000 MWe graphite moderated thorium MSR similar to that detailed in Mathieu et al. [1]. The fuel salt used in these calculations was LiF (78 mole percent) - (HN)F 4 (22 mole percent) with a heavy nuclide composition of 3.86% {sup 233}U and 96.14% {sup 232}Th by mass. Before we can remove the fission product gases produced by this reactor configuration, we must first develop an appropriate storage mechanism. The gases could be stored in pressurized containers but then one must be concerned about bottle failure. Methods to trap noble gases in matrices are expensive and complex. Alternatively, there are direct storage/disposal options: direct injection into the Earth or injecting a grout-based product into the Earth. Advances in drilling technologies, hydro fracture technologies, and methods for the sequestration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants are creating new options

  1. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An analysis of the current base cases has been undertaken to determine if the economic status of the proposed alcohol fuels may benefit from economies of scale. This analysis was based on a literature review which suggested that plants of capacities substantially below 5000 metric tons/day are unlikely to be competitive for the bulk production of alcohols for fuel consumption or chemicals manufacture. The preliminary results of this scale up procedure would indicate that the capacity of the current base cases be increased by a factor of eight. This would yield annual production of 4.1 million metric tons and essentially reduce the plant gate cost by approximately 41 percent in both cases. A facility of this size would be the equivalent of a medium sized oil refinery and would be capable of sustaining local market demands for fuel oxygenates. The actual competitiveness of this product with current oxygenates such as MTBE remains to be determined. The alcohol synthesis loop is being used to evaluate optimization procedures which will eventually be used to optimize the entire process. A more detailed design of the synthesis reactor is required, and a preliminary design of this reactor has been completed.

  2. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  3. Release of UF/sub 6/ from a ruptured model 48Y cylinder at Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility: lessons-learned report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) release of January 4, 1986, at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility has been reviewed by a NRC Lessons-Learned Group. A Model 48Y cylinder containing UF/sub 6/ ruptured upon being heated after it was grossly overfilled. The UF/sub 6/ released upon rupture of the cylinder reacted with airborne moisture to produce hydrofluoric acid (HF) and uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/). One individual died from exposure to airborne HF and several others were injured. There were no significant immediate effects from exposure to uranyl fluoride. This supplement report contains NRC's response to the recommendations made in NUREG-1198 by the Lessons Learned Group. In developing a response to each of the recommendations, the staff considered actions that should be taken: (1) for the restart of the Sequoyah Fuels Facility; (2) to make near-term improvement; and (3) to improve the regulatory framework.

  4. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion exchange

  5. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Elias P.

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  6. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  7. Remote-controlled NDA (nondestructive assay) systems for feed and product storage at an automated MOX (mixed oxide) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Augustson, R.H.; Ohtani, T.; Seya, M.; Takahashi, S.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Hassan, B.; Napoli, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been developed for use in an automated mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility. Unique features have been developed for the NDA systems to accommodate robotic sample handling and remote operation. In addition, the systems have been designed to obtain International Atomic Energy Agency inspection data without the need for an inspector at the facility at the time of the measurements. The equipment is being designed to operate continuously in an unattended mode with data storage for periods of up to one month. The two systems described in this paper include a canister counter for the assay of MOX powder at the input to the facility and a capsule counter for the assay of complete liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies at the output of the plant. The design, performance characteristics, and authentication of the two systems will be described. The data related to reliability, precision, and stability will be presented. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  9. Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic

  10. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell product development test environmental assessment/protection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunton, Jack; Furukawa, Vance; Frost, Grant; Danna, Mike; Figueroa, Al; Scroppo, Joseph

    1992-11-01

    Objective of proposed action is to conduct a 250-kW product development test of M-C Power Corporation's molten carbonate fuel cell concept, at the Kaiser Permanente San Diego Medical Center. Review of environmental impacts of this test indicate the following: no impact on solid waste disposal, water quality, noise levels, floodplains, wetlands, ecology, historic areas, or socioeconomic resources. Impact on air quality are expected to be positive.

  12. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  13. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  14. Development of a multi-resource alternate energy facility (addition of dual-fuel). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keel, J.S.

    1982-11-03

    This report describes the use of compressed natural gas (methane) in a dual fuel 1979 Jeep pick-up truck. Descriptions of the compressor and the dual-fuel conversion equipment are attached. (DMC)

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  16. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Facility and Transportation Regulations The New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) is responsible for LNG fueling facility siting,...

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish, by 1998, the commercial readiness of MW-class molten carbonate fuel cell power plants for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. Tasks include system design and analysis, manufacturing, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  20. Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.