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1

Fabrication of high exposure nuclear fuel pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for making a fuel pellet for a nuclear reactor. A mixture is prepared of PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 powders, where the mixture contains at least about 30% PuO.sub.2, and where at least about 12% of the Pu is the Pu.sup.240 isotope. To this mixture is added about 0.3 to about 5% of a binder having a melting point of at least about 250.degree. F. The mixture is pressed to form a slug and the slug is granulated. Up to about 4.7% of a lubricant having a melting point of at least about 330.degree. F. is added to the granulated slug. Both the binder and the lubricant are selected from a group consisting of polyvinyl carboxylate, polyvinyl alcohol, naturally occurring high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, chemically modified high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is pressed to form a pellet and the pellet is sintered.

Frederickson, James R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ceramic fuel pellets for isotopic heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) will supply power for future space missions. The GPHS fuel pellets are fabricated by hot pressing a blended mixture of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ granules prepared from calcined plutonium oxalate. Results of a test program which led to the development of the production process are described.

Rankin, D.T.; Congdon, J.W.; Livingston, J.T.; Duncan, N.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Proceedings: pellet fuels conference  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conference brought together professionals from the process- engineered-fuels (PEF), utility, paper, plastics, and boiler industries. Although the last two decades have produced technical breakthroughs, efforts to advance PEF must now focus on increasing commercial breakthroughs. Successful commercialization will depend on increasing supplier, consumer, and regulator confidence and support by demonstrating the performance and value of PEF products. Speakers provided updates on how PEF technology is evolving with respect to technical, economic, and regulatory challenges. Actions critical toward full commercialization of PEF were then considered. Discussion groups addressed materials sourcing, fuel processing and transportation, combustion, and ash handling.

Not Available

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Economics of producing fuel pellets from biomass  

SciTech Connect

An engineering economic analysis of a biomass pelleting process was performed for conditions in North America. The pelletization of biomass consists of a series of unit operations: drying, size reduction, densifying, cooling, screening, and warehousing. Capital and operating cost of the pelleting plant was estimated at several plant capacities. Pellet production cost for a base case plant capacity of 6 t/h was about $51/t of pellets. Raw material cost was the largest cost element of the total pellet production cost followed by personnel cost, drying cost, and pelleting mill cost. An increase in raw material cost substantially increased the pellet production cost. Pellet plants with a capacity of more than 10 t/h decreased the costs to roughly $40/t of pellets. Five different burner fuels - wet sawdust, dry sawdust, biomass pellets, natural gas, and coal were tested for their effect on the cost of pellet production. Wet sawdust and coal, the cheapest burner fuels, produced the lowest pellet production cost. The environmental impacts due to the potential emissions of these fuels during the combustion process require further investigation.

Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S.; Bi, X.; Turhollow, A. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology & Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Fuel Fabrication Facility  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Construction of the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility Construction of the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility November 2005 May 2007 June 2008 May 2012...

6

Camelina composite pellet fuels feasibility for residential and commercial applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of wood pellet fuels for heating homes and buildings has been a mainstay in Montana since the first energy crisis of the 1970's.… (more)

Taasevigen, Danny Jovin.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fabrication of thorium bearing carbide fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thorium-uranium carbide and thorium-plutonium carbide fuel pellets have been fabricated by the carbothermic reduction process. Temperatures of 1750.degree. C. and 2000.degree. C. were used during the reduction cycle. Sintering temperatures of 1800.degree. C. and 2000.degree. C. were used to prepare fuel pellet densities of 87% and >94% of theoretical, respectively. The process allows the fabrication of kilogram quantities of fuel with good reproducibility of chemicals and phase composition. Methods employing liquid techniques that form carbide microspheres or alloying-techniques which form alloys of thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium suffer from limitation on the quantities processed of because of criticality concerns and lack of precise control of process conditions, respectively.

Gutierrez, Rueben L. (Los Alamos, NM); Herbst, Richard J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Karl W. R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Pellet Fueling Technology Development S. K. Combs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injectors ¥ Light gas gun (single-stage pneumatic device); speeds up to 2 km/s ¥ Centrifuge (mechanical techniques ¥ Selected R&D topics ¥ Three-barrel repeating pneumatic injector ¥ Centrifuge injector ¥ Two-stage light gas gun ¥ Long-pulse/steady-state pellet feed system ¥ High-field-side (HFS)/inside launch pellet

10

Composite Nuclear Fuel Pellet - Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

ORNL 2010-G0613-jcn UT-B ID 200902238 Composite Nuclear Fuel Pellet Technology Summary To improve rates of nuclear power generation, ORNL has patented a way to increase

11

Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

12

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Process evaluation, fuel pellet GF-47  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general-purpose heat source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions has documented the response of the GPHS heat source to a variety of fragment-impact, aging, atmospheric reentry, and Earth-impact conditions. Although heat sources for previous missions were fabricated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), GPHS fueled-clads required for the Cassini mission to Saturn will be fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This evaluation is part of an ongoing program to determine the similarity of GPHS fueled clads and fuel pellets fabricated at LANL to those fabricated at WSRC. Pellet GF-47, which was fabricated at LANL in late 1994, was submitted for chemical and ceramographic analysis. The results indicated that the pellet had a chemical makeup and microstructure within the range of material fabricated at WSRC in the early 1980s.

Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fuel Reliability Program: Assessment of Nuclear Fuel Pellets Using X-Ray Tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This EPRI technical report describes a feasibility study involving the application of X-ray tomography as an inspection technique to detect flaws on the surface of uranium pellets in nuclear fuel rods. The objective was to develop and evaluate a system for tomographic imaging of fuel pellets inside fuel rods that uses fast algorithms for analysis of each slice of the reconstructed image for detection of abnormalities in the pellet. The report describes the fundamentals of X-ray tomography and ...

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fuel Reliability Guidelines: Pellet-Cladding Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These Guidelines will assist utilities in making informed decisions to prevent PCI of fuel duty failures.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

15

Mechanical modeling of porous oxide fuel pellet A Test Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A poro-elasto-plastic material model has been developed to capture the response of oxide fuels inside the nuclear reactors under operating conditions. Behavior of the oxide fuel and variation in void volume fraction under mechanical loading as predicted by the developed model has been reported in this article. The significant effect of void volume fraction on the overall stress distribution of the fuel pellet has also been described. An important oxide fuel issue that can have significant impact on the fuel performance is the mechanical response of oxide fuel pellet and clad system. Specifically, modeling the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel pellet in terms of its thermal expansion, mechanical deformation, swelling due to void formation and evolution, and the eventual contact of the fuel with the clad is of significant interest in understanding the fuel-clad mechanical interaction (FCMI). These phenomena are nonlinear and coupled since reduction in the fuel-clad gap affects thermal conductivity of the gap, which in turn affects temperature distribution within the fuel and the material properties of the fuel. Consequently, in order to accurately capture fuel-clad gap closure, we need to account for fuel swelling due to generation, retention, and evolution of fission gas in addition to the usual thermal expansion and mechanical deformation. Both fuel chemistry and microstructure also have a significant effect on the nucleation and growth of fission gas bubbles. Fuel-clad gap closure leading to eventual contact of the fuel with the clad introduces significant stresses in the clad, which makes thermo-mechanical response of the clad even more relevant. The overall aim of this test problem is to incorporate the above features in order to accurately capture fuel-clad mechanical interaction. Because of the complex nature of the problem, a series of test problems with increasing multi-physics coupling features, modeling accuracy, and complexity are defined with the objective of accurate simulation of fuel-clad mechanical interaction subjected to a wide-range of thermomechanical stimuli.

Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Barai, Pallab [ORNL; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Apparatus and method for classifying fuel pellets for nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Control for the operation of a mechanical handling and gauging system for nuclear fuel pellets. The pellets are inspected for diameters, lengths, surface flaws and weights in successive stations. The control includes, a computer for commanding the operation of the system and its electronics and for storing and processing the complex data derived at the required high rate. In measuring the diameter, the computer enables the measurement of a calibration pellet, stores that calibration data and computes and stores diameter-correction factors and their addresses along a pellet. To each diameter measurement a correction factor is applied at the appropriate address. The computer commands verification that all critical parts of the system and control are set for inspection and that each pellet is positioned for inspection. During each cycle of inspection, the measurement operation proceeds normally irrespective of whether or not a pellet is present in each station. If a pellet is not positioned in a station, a measurement is recorded, but the recorded measurement indicates maloperation. In measuring diameter and length a light pattern including successive shadows of slices transverse for diameter or longitudinal for length are projected on a photodiode array. The light pattern is scanned electronically by a train of pulses. The pulses are counted during the scan of the lighted diodes. For evaluation of diameter the maximum diameter count and the number of slices for which the diameter exceeds a predetermined minimum is determined. For acceptance, the maximum must be less than a maximum level and the minimum must exceed a set number. For evaluation of length, the maximum length is determined. For acceptance, the length must be within maximum and minimum limits.

Wilks, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA); Sternheim, Eliezer (Pittsburgh, PA); Breakey, Gerald A. (Penn Township, Allegheny County, PA); Sturges, Jr., Robert H. (Plum Borough, PA); Taleff, Alexander (Churchill Borough, PA); Castner, Raymond P. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Fabrication of granule and pellet heat sources from oxalate-based $sup 238$PuO$sub 2$  

SciTech Connect

Suitable fuel forms for radioisotopic thermoelectric generators are granules of high internal density (greater than 95 percent of theoretical) or geometric shapes (80 to 90 percent dense) such as pellets or spheres. Both forms can be made from calcined $sup 238$Pu(III) oxalate. The conditions for processing PuO$sub 2$ are controlled during fuel form fabrication to ensure pellet integrity; to control density, grain size, and porosity distribution; and to minimize the fraction of potentially respirable fines. The competing phenomena of expansion caused by radiation damage (including helium generation from radioactive decay of plutonium) and shrinkage caused by sintering must be controlled to assure dimensional stability. The variation of microstructure and related physical properties with process parameters is discussed. (auth)

Bickford, D.F.; Rankin, D.T.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Neutronic fuel element fabrication  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure by encompassing the sides of the fuel element between the header plates.

Korton, George (Cincinnati, OH)

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

19

Automatic inspection system for nuclear fuel pellets or rods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic inspection system is provided for determining surface defects on cylindrical objects such as nuclear fuel pellets or rods. The active element of the system is a compound ring having a plurality of pneumatic jet units directed into a central bore. These jet units are connected to provide multiple circuits, each circuit being provided with a pressure sensor. The outputs of the sensors are fed to a comparator circuit whereby a signal is generated when the difference of pressure between pneumatic circuits, caused by a defect, exceeds a pre-set amount. This signal may be used to divert the piece being inspected into a "reject" storage bin or the like.

Miller, Jr., William H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN); Hamel, William R. (Concord, TN); Bradley, Ronnie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Synthesis and Analysis of Alpha Silicon Carbide Components for Encapsulation of Fuel Rods and Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of silicon carbide (SiC) along with its low neutron activation and stability in a radiation field make it an attractive material for encapsulating fuel rods and fuel pellets. The alpha phase (6H) is particularly stable. Unfortunately, it requires very high temperature processing and is not readily available in fibers or near-net shapes. This paper describes an investigation to fabricate a-SiC as thin films, fibers and near-net-shape products by direct conversion of carbon using silicon monoxide vapor at temperatures less than 1700 C. In addition, experiments to nucleate the alpha phase during pyrolysis of polysilazane, are also described. Structure and composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Preliminary tensile property analysis of fibers was also performed.

Kevin M. McHugh; John E. Garnier; George W. Griffith

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

ON INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY CODES FOR FUEL PELLETS IN FISSILE SOLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reference calculations, based on the APOLLO-Pic method implemented in the framework of this study, demonstrated that the actual reactivity variation (benchmark no 20) is a monotonic decrease with pellet "dissolution". At the opposite of the contributor's results, based on the international criticality code SCALE, the reactivity loss with dissolution is weak: bfref =- 3000 pcm compared to hpde =- 25 000 pcm (50 %; P.F = 0.6) The discrepancy is mainly due to 238v resonant absorption which can induce, in this fuel double heterogenity problem no 20, as much as- 30 000 pcm KQ underestimation. It was pointed out that design-oriented transport codes must be improved by accurate deterministic formalisms: PIC equivalence method, subgroup theory (WIMSE), ultrafine slowing-down calculation (ROWDS). Ultimate confirmation of the reference results presented in this paper should be provided by a set of critical experiments which mock-up hypothetical dissolver geometries.

A. Santamarina; H. J. Smith; Cea Drn/der/sprc Cadarache; A. Santamarina; H. J. Smith; Cea Drn/der/sprc Cadarache; Hj. Smith

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Q-profile measurement in tokamaks using fueling pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel pellets ablating in a hot, magnetically confined plasma generate cold, self-luminous filaments which seem to orient themselves along the local magnetic field direction. This distinctive ablation pattern has been used for local measurements of the q profile. In the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT), this technique was investigated experimentally, and the results were compared to other q-profile measurements to examine limits of applicability. It is found that the technique may be applied only to limited regions of the plasma. Although the mechanism which causes the filaments to align along the magnetic field lines is not completely understood, comparisons between this technique and other techniques tend to support its use. Inclination angle profiles for the local magnetic field and q profiles obtained on TEXT by this technique are presented. The q profiles are compared with predictions based on various resistivity models, specifically classical, neoclassical, and q-clamped.

Durst, R.D.; Phillips, P.E.; Rowan, W.L.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Pelleting and characterization of dry distillers' grain with solubles pellets as bio-fuel .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Bio fuels are made from an extensive selection of fuels derived from biomass, including wood waste, agricultural wastes, and alcohol fuels. As a result of… (more)

Saha, Suparna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fluidized bed combustion of pelletized biomass and waste-derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

The fluidized bed combustion of three pelletized biogenic fuels (sewage sludge, wood, and straw) has been investigated with a combination of experimental techniques. The fuels have been characterized from the standpoints of patterns and rates of fuel devolatilization and char burnout, extent of attrition and fragmentation, and their relevance to the fuel particle size distribution and the amount and size distribution of primary ash particles. Results highlight differences and similarities among the three fuels tested. The fuels were all characterized by limited primary fragmentation and relatively long devolatilization times, as compared with the time scale of particle dispersion away from the fuel feeding ports in practical FBC. Both features are favorable to effective lateral distribution of volatile matter across the combustor cross section. The three fuels exhibited distinctively different char conversion patterns. The high-ash pelletized sludge burned according to the shrinking core conversion pattern with negligible occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The low-ash pelletized wood burned according to the shrinking particle conversion pattern with extensive occurrence of secondary fragmentation. The medium-ash pelletized straw yielded char particles with a hollow structure, resembling big cenospheres, characterized by a coherent inorganic outer layer strong enough to prevent particle fragmentation. Inert bed particles were permanently attached to the hollow pellets as they were incorporated into ash melts. Carbon elutriation rates were very small for all the fuels tested. For pelletized sludge and straw, this was mostly due to the shielding effect of the coherent ash skeleton. For the wood pellet, carbon attrition was extensive, but was largely counterbalanced by effective afterburning due to the large intrinsic reactivity of attrited char fines. The impact of carbon attrition on combustion efficiency was negligible for all the fuels tested. The size distribution of primary ash particles liberated upon complete carbon burnoff largely reflected the combustion pattern of each fuel. Primary ash particles of size nearly equal to that of the parent fuel were generated upon complete burnoff of the pelletized sludge. Nonetheless, secondary attrition of primary ash from pelletized sludge is large, to the point where generation of fine ash would be extensive over the typical residence time of bed ash in fluidized bed combustors. Very few and relatively fine primary ash particles were released after complete burnoff of wood pellets. Primary ash particles remaining after complete burnoff of pelletized straw had sizes and shapes that were largely controlled by the occurrence of ash agglomeration phenomena. (author)

Chirone, R.; Scala, F.; Solimene, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - C.N.R., Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Salatino, P.; Urciuolo, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica - Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fuel fabrication acceptance report FSV: initial core  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of the Fort St. Vrain initial core is described. Detailed summaries of the final fuel element metal loadings and other properties are given. Problems that occurred during fabrication and their resolutions have been given special attention, including the results of analyses made prior to their adoption. A final substantiation for the Fort St. Vrain initial core was provided by a full-core, three-dimensional analysis considering control rod insertion and fuel depletion and with explicit representation of the as-built fuel elements. The calculated power distributions from the three dimensional analysis are well within the limits specified for the reference design. During fabrication of the initial core fuel elements, some difficulties with assayed quantities of uranium and thorium were encountered. These difficulties resulted from changes in the fuel rod standards used in assay equipment calibration and in the techniques employed for assaying fuel particles and fuel rods. As a result the apparent values for the average metal loadings for some fuel rods and fuel elements changed. For certain blends some already-assembled fuel elements were outside the tolerances given in the fuel specification. A study was undertaken to make recommendations on the disposition of already-fabricated fuel and adjustments for the remainder of fuel fabrication. This study focused on utilizing, as much as possible, already-fabricated fuel without compromising the performance of the core. A variety of adjustments were considered and used in some instances, but the most successful method was the imposition of a layer location on fuel elements. By use of this additional core assembly requirement, a distribution of high metal load and low metal load fuel elements was obtained that assured that power perturbations would be small and localized and that temperature perturbations would be small and confined to axial layers where temperatures are nominally low. (auth)

Kapernick, R.J.; Nirschl, R.J.

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the local defect to be coupled with the global fuel rod model. This approach for modeling fuel with MPS defects is demonstrated and compared with alternative techniques. The effects of varying parameters of the MPS defect are studied using this technique and presented here.

B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Improvements in fabrication of metallic fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is currently developing a new liquid- metal cooled breeder reactor known as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). IFR fuels represent the state-of-the-art in metal-fueled reactor technology. Improvements in the fabrication of metal fuel, to be discussed below, will support the fully remote fuel cycle facility that as an integral part of the IFR concept will be demonstrated at the EBR-II site. 3 refs.

Tracy, D.B.; Henslee, S.P.; Dodds, N.E.; Longua, K.J.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Modifying Ceramic Fuel Pellets to Improve UO2 Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... UO2 fuel will provide manufacturers with tools to optimize fuel performance. ... Electronic Structure Calculations of Structure and Chemistry of the Y2O3/Fe Interface ... Impacts of Hydrogen in Unirradiated Zircaloy Nuclear Cladding under Dry ...

30

Reflections on Fuel Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Radiation Effects in Oxide Ceramics and Novel LWR Fuels. Presentation Title ...

31

Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Miniaturizations · Fabrication of TiN Nanoparticle Dispersed Si3N4 Ceramics by Wet Jet ...

33

Actual Scale MOX Powder Mixing Test for MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (hereafter, JNFL) promotes a program of constructing a MOX fuel fabrication plant (hereafter, J-MOX) to fabricate MOX fuels to be loaded in domestic light water reactors. Since Japanese fiscal year (hereafter, JFY) 1999, JNFL, to establish the technology for a smooth start-up and the stable operation of J-MOX, has executed an evaluation test for technology to be adopted at J-MOX. JNFL, based on a consideration that J-MOX fuel fabrication comes commercial scale production, decided an introduction of MIMAS technology into J-MOX main process, from powder mixing through pellet sintering, well recognized as mostly important to achieve good quality product of MOX fuel, since it achieves good results in both fuel production and actual reactor irradiation in Europe, but there is one difference that JNFL is going to use Japanese typical plutonium and uranium mixed oxide powder converted with the micro-wave heating direct de-nitration technology (hereafter, MH-MOX) but normal PuO{sub 2} of European MOX fuel fabricators. Therefore, in order to evaluate the suitability of the MH-MOX powder for the MIMAS process, JNFL manufactured small scale test equipment, and implemented a powder mixing evaluation test up until JFY 2003. As a result, the suitability of the MH-MOX powder for the MIMAS process was positively evaluated and confirmed It was followed by a five-years test named an 'actual test' from JFY 2003 to JFY 2007, which aims at demonstrating good operation and maintenance of process equipment as well as obtaining good quality of MOX fuel pellets. (authors)

Osaka, Shuichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Deguchi, Morimoto [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108, Aza okitsuke, oaza obuchi rokkasyo-mura, kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ito, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Goto, Masakazu [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., 14-10, Mita 3-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Update on US High Density Fuel Fabrication Development  

SciTech Connect

Second generation uranium molybdenum fuel has shown excellent in-reactor irradiation performance. This metallic fuel type is capable of being fabricated at much higher loadings than any presently used research reactor fuel. Due to the broad range of fuel types this alloy system encompasses—fuel powder to monolithic foil and binary fuel systems to multiple element additions—significant amounts of research and development have been conducted on the fabrication of these fuels. This paper presents an update of the US RERTR effort to develop fabrication techniques and the fabrication methods used for the RERTR-9A miniplate test.

C.R. Clark; G.A. Moore; J.F. Jue; B.H. Park; N.P. Hallinan; D.M. Wachs; D.E. Burkes

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. Previously it has been decided that corn starch would be used as binder and a roller-and-die mill would be used for pellet manufacture. A quality starch binder has been identified and tested. To potentially lower binder costs, a starch that costs about 50% of the high quality starch was tested. Results indicate that the lower cost starch will not lower binder cost because more is required to produce a comparable quality pellet. Also, a petroleum in water emulsion was evaluated as a potential binder. The compound seemed to have adhesive properties but was found to be a poor binder. Arrangements have been made to collect a waste slurry from the mine previously described.

Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and interactions occurring within the plasma, such as collisional energy transfer, that might be a factor in the reduction in neptunium emission lines. Neptunium has to be analyzed alone using LIBS to further understand the dynamics that may be occurring in the plasma of the mixed actinide fuel pellet sample. The LIBS data suggests that the emission spectrum for the mixed actinide fuel pellet is not simply the sum of the emission spectra of the pure samples but is dependent on the species present in the plasma and the interactions and reactions that occur within the plasma. Finally, many of the neptunium lines are in the near infrared region which is drastically reduced in intensity by the current optical setup and possibly the sensitivity of the emission detector in the spectral region. Once the optics are replaced and the optical collection system is modified and optimized, the probability of observing emission lines for neptunium might be increased significantly. The mixed actinide fuel pellet was analyzed under the experimental conditions listed in Table 1. The LIBS spectra of the fuel pellet are shown in Figures 1-49. The spectra are labeled with the observed wavelength and atomic species (both neutral (I) and ionic (II)). Table 2 is a complete list of the observed and literature based emission wavelengths. The literature wavelengths have references including NIST Atomic Spectra Database (NIST), B.A. Palmer et al. 'An Atlas of Uranium Emission Intensities in a Hollow Cathode Discharge' taken at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), R.L. Kurucz 1995 Atomic Line Data from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), J. Blaise et al. 'The Atomic Spectrum of Plutonium' from Argonne National Laboratory (BFG), and M. Fred and F.S. Tomkins, 'Preliminary Term Analysis of Am I and Am II Spectra' (FT). The dash (-) shown under Ionic State indicates that the ionic state of the transition was not available. In the spectra, the dash (-) is replaced with a question mark (?). Peaks that are not assigned are most likely real features and not noise but cannot be confidently assi

Judge, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, 4: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at an existing facility at U.S. Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Finding of No Significant Impact Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication July 19, 1991 EA-0534: Final Environmental Assessment Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication

38

The Fuel Fabrication Capability and Uranium-molybdenum Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global ...

39

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Emissions Resulting from the Full-Scale Cofiring of Pelletized Refuse-Derived Fuel and Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Full-scale cofiring tests of binder-enhanced pellets of densified, refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur coal were conducted during June and July of 1987 in Boiler #5 at Argonne National Laboratory. These tests were conducted with industry, state, and municipality participation both in critiquing the test plan and in witnessing the actual test runs. Approximately 600 tons of dRDF containing 0%, 4%, or 8% binder were blended with high-sulfur coal at levels of up to 30%, based on the BTU content. This paper describes the dRDF/coal cofiring tests, the emissions and ash samples that were taken, the analyses that were conducted on these samples, preliminary test results, and future research plans.

Ohlsson, O. O.; Daugherty, K.; Venables, B.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Experiments in the ISX-B tokamak electron cyclotron heating, ripple studies, pellet fueling, impurity flow reversal and surface physics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The wide variety of experiments on the ISX-B tokamak includes electron cyclotron heating, ripple effects, hydrogen pellet fueling, impurity flow reversal mechanisms, plasma edge studies, and testing of limiter coatings. The most significant results in each of these areas are discussed.

Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Nuclear fuel fabrication and refabrication cost estimation methodology  

SciTech Connect

The costs for construction and operation of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities for several reactor types and fuels were estimated, and the unit costs (prices) of the fuels were determined from these estimates. The techniques used in estimating the costs of building and operating these nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are described in this report. Basically, the estimation techniques involve detailed comparisons of alternative and reference fuel fabrication plants. Increases or decreases in requirements for fabricating the alternative fuels are identified and assessed for their impact on the capital and operating costs. The impact on costs due to facility size or capacity was also assessed, and scaling factors for the various captial and operating cost categories are presented. The method and rationale by which these scaling factors were obtained are also discussed. By use of the techniques described herein, consistent cost information for a wide variety of fuel types can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. In this study, estimates for 52 fuel fabrication plants were obtained in approximately two months. These cost estimates were extensively reviewed by experts in the fabrication of the various fuels, and, in the opinion of the reviewers, the estimates were very consistent and sufficiently accurate for use in overall cycle assessments.

Judkins, R.R.; Olsen, A.R.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Wood pellet production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

Moore, J.W.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

48

PLUTONIUM FUEL PROCESSING AND FABRICATION FOR FAST CERAMIC REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

>A study was made of the processes available for fabrication of plutonium-containing fuel from a fast ceramic reacter, and for chemical reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Radiations from recycled plutonium are evaluated. Adaptation of conventional glove-box handling procedures to the fabrication of recycle plutonium appears practical. It is concluded that acceptable costs are obtainable using moderate extensions of conventional glove- box fabrication methods and wet processing techniques, provided a significant volume of production is available. The minimum economic scale for the preferred chemical reprocessing method, anion exchange, is about 500 Mw(e) of reactor capacity. The minimum scale of economic operation for the fuel refabrication facility corresponds to three 500 Mw(e) reactors, if only steady-state refueling provides the fabrication load. The minimum volume required falls to one 500 Mw(e) reactor, if the continued growth of capacity provides fabrication volume equal to that for refueling. The chemical reprocessing costs obtained range from 0.27 mills/kwh for 1500 Mw(e) of reactor capacity, to 0.10 mills/kwh for 3000 Mw(e) of capacity. The estimated fuel fabrication cost is l/kg of uranium and plutonium in the core region (excluding axial and radial blankets) or .06/ g of plutonium content, When axial blankets, fabricated in the same rods, are included; the combined average is 34/kg of uranium and plutonium. Radial blanket fabrication cost is /kg of uranium. The overall average of all fuel and blankets is /kg of uranium and plutonium. The fabrication cost is 0.29 mills/kwh for a production rate corresponding to 3000 Mw(e) of capacity (or 1500 Mw(e) of capacity plus growth equivalent to one additional reactor core per year). For one 525 Mw(e) reactor, (plus equivalent growth volume) the fabrication cost becomes 0.42 mills/ kwh. (All fuel throughputs are based on fuel life of 100,000 MWD/T.) Using the estimates developed, the total fuel cycle cost for a typical fast reactor design using PuO/sub 2/UO/sub 2/ fuel is estimated to be about 0.9 mills/kwh. (auth)

Zebroski, E.L.; Alter, H.W.; Collins, G.D.

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?  

SciTech Connect

For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

Radiological environs study at a fuel fabrication facility. [General Electric Fuel Fabrication Plant at Wilmington, NC  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted to detect environmental contamination from fuel fabrication plant effluents. The plant chosen for study was operated by the General Electric Company, Nuclear Fuel Division, at Wilmington, NC. The facility operates continuously using the ammonium diuranate (ADU) process to convert 2.0 to 2.2% enriched UF/sub 6/ to UO/sub 2/ fuel. Continuous air samplers at five sites measured the concentrations of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U in air for 36 one-week intervals. River water was sampled at nine locations above and below the plant discharge point during each of three field surveys. The atmospheric concentrations of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U appeared to vary according to a log-normal distribution. The annual facility release of approximately 2 to 3 mCi uranium to the atmosphere would add from 0.01 to 0.2 fCi/m/sup 3/ uranium in the atmospheric environs. An individual residing continuously at the nearest residence is predicted to receive a 50-year dose commitment of 0.9 mrem to the lung. The approximately 1 Ci/y of uranium liquid effluent released would increase the uranium concentration in Northeast Cape Fear estuary about 3 kilometers downstream by 0.3 pCi/liter. Although this water is not potable and is not used for any potable water supply, ingestion of water containing uranium at this concentration for a year would deliver a 3-mrem dose commitment to the bone.

Lyon, R.J.; Shearin, R.L.; Broadway, J.A.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fabrication and Preliminary Evaluation of Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for light water reactors (LWRs), consisting of coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix, is introduced. Fabrication of M3 fuels by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, or extrusion methodologies has been demonstrated over the temperature range 800-1050 C. Various types of coated fuel particles with outermost layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, ZrC, and TiN have been incorporated into the zirconium metal matrix. Mechanical particle-particle and chemical particle-matrix interactions have been observed during the preliminary characterization of as-fabricated M3 specimens. Irradiation of three M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles was carried out at mean rod temperature of 400 C to 4.6 dpa in the zirconium metal matrix. Due to absence of texture in the metal matrix no irradiation growth strain (<0.09%) was detected during the post-irradiation examination.

Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Gel-sphere-pac reactor fuel fabrication and its application to a variety of fuels  

SciTech Connect

The gel-sphere-pac fuel fabrication option was evaluated for its possible application to commercial scale fuel fabrication for 19 fuel element designs that use oxide fuel in metal clad rods. The dry gel spheres are prepared at the reprocessing plant and are then calcined, sintered, inspected, and loaded into fuel rods and packed by low-energy vibration. A fuel smear density of 83 to 88% theoretical can be obtained. All fuel fabrication process steps were defined and evaluated from fuel receiving to finished fuel element shipping. The evaluation also covers the feasibility of the process, the current status of technology, estimates of the required time and cost to develop the technology to commercial status, and the safety and licensability of commercial scale plants. The primary evaluation was for a Light-Water Reactor fuel element containing (U,Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel. The other 18 fuel element types - 3 for Light-Water Reactors, 1 for a Heavy-Water Reactor, 1 for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor, 7 for Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors, and 3 pairs for Light-Water Prebreeder and Breeder Reactors - were compared with the Light-Water Reactor. The gel-sphere-pac option was found applicable to 17 of the 19 element types; the characteristics of a commercial scale plant were defined for these for making cost estimates for such plants. The evaluation clearly shows the gel-sphere-pac process to be a viable fuel fabrication option. Estimates indicate a significant potential fabrication cost advantage for the gel-sphere-pac process if a remotely operated and remotely maintained fuel fabrication plant is required.

Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

Washington Division of URS

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

SPECIFICATIONS AND FABRICATION PROCEDURES FOR TYPE 3 FUEL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Process and product requirements to be met in the fabrication of Type 3 fuel elements are presented. The fuel elements specified consist of thin plates of a dispersion of highly enriched UO/sub 2/ and ZrB/sub 2/ in a stainless steel matrix which is clad with stainless steel on all surfaces. Quality assurance provisions are discussed. Process and material specifications and packaging and packing for shipment are described. Sample calculations and drawings are included. (M.C.G.)

Edgar, E.C.; Clayton, H.R.

1962-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

56

Process development and fabrication for sphere-pac fuel rods. [PWR; BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium fuel rods containing sphere-pac fuel have been fabricated for in-reactor tests and demonstrations. A process for the development, qualification, and fabrication of acceptable sphere-pac fuel rods is described. Special equipment to control fuel contamination with moisture or air and the equipment layout needed for rod fabrication is described and tests for assuring the uniformity of the fuel column are discussed. Fuel retainers required for sphere-pac fuel column stability and instrumentation to measure fuel column smear density are described. Results of sphere-pac fuel rod fabrication campaigns are reviewed and recommended improvements for high throughput production are noted.

Welty, R.K.; Campbell, M.H.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fabrication of Uranium Oxycarbide Kernels for HTR Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) has been producing high quality uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels for Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel tests at the Idaho National Laboratory. In 2005, 350-µm, 19.7% 235U-enriched UCO kernels were produced for the AGR-1 test fuel. Following coating of these kernels and forming the coated-particles into compacts, this fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 2006 until November 2009. B&W produced 425-µm, 14% enriched UCO kernels in 2008, and these kernels were used to produce fuel for the AGR-2 experiment that was inserted in ATR in 2010. B&W also produced 500-µm, 9.6% enriched UO2 kernels for the AGR-2 experiments. Kernels of the same size and enrichment as AGR-1 were also produced for the AGR-3/4 experiment. In addition to fabricating enriched UCO and UO2 kernels, B&W has produced more than 100 kg of natural uranium UCO kernels which are being used in coating development tests. Successive lots of kernels have demonstrated consistent high quality and also allowed for fabrication process improvements. Improvements in kernel forming were made subsequent to AGR-1 kernel production. Following fabrication of AGR-2 kernels, incremental increases in sintering furnace charge size have been demonstrated. Recently small scale sintering tests using a small development furnace equipped with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) has increased understanding of how kernel sintering parameters affect sintered kernel properties. The steps taken to increase throughput and process knowledge have reduced kernel production costs. Studies have been performed of additional modifications toward the goal of increasing capacity of the current fabrication line to use for production of first core fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and providing a basis for the design of a full scale fuel fabrication facility.

Charles Barnes; CLay Richardson; Scott Nagley; John Hunn; Eric Shaber

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF PELLET-CLADDING INTERACTION IN LIGHT WATER REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANS/ENS Topical Meeting on Reactor Safety Aspects of FuelINTERACTION IN LiaiT-WATER-REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS by D. R.PCI) in light water reactor fuel elements, the chemical

Olander, D.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Simulation of Pellet-Cladding Interaction with the PLEIADES Fuel Performance Software Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the Symposium on Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels / Fuel Cycle and Management

B. Michel; C. Nonon; J. Sercombe; F. Michel; V. Marelle

60

FUEL & TARGET FABRICATION Aiken County, South Carolina  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& TARGET FABRICATION & TARGET FABRICATION Aiken County, South Carolina 300/M AREA 300/M AREA SAVANNAH RIVER SITE COLD WAR HISTORIC PROPERTY DOCUMENTATION ii ABSTRACT This documentation was prepared in accordance with a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) signed by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) dated February 27, 2003, as well as the Consolidated MOA of August 2004. The MOA stipulated that a thematic study and photographic documentation be produced that told the story of 300/M Area's genesis, its operational history, and its closure. New South Associates prepared the narrative and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) completed the photographic documentation. M Area is the site of Savannah River Plant's fuel and target fabrication facilities operated from 1955

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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61

FEASIBILITY REPORT FOR FABRICATION OF SNAP FUEL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The general requirements for the SNAP Reactor Cores include the fabrication of fuel elements. These elements consist nominally of 90 wt% zirconium-10 wt% highly enriched uranium (93% U/sup 235/) rods hydrided to an NH of 6.0-6.5 and machined. Alloying will be accomplished by triple arc melting. Forming will be done by extrusion, massive hydriding by techniques developed at Atomics International, and cladding by conventional means. (auth)

Kirsch, T.S.

1963-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

63

Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

64

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood-...

65

FULL SIZE U-10MO MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL AND FUEL PLATE FABRICATION-TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Full-size U10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer too the foil is applied using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminum clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy.

G. A. Moore; J-F Jue; B. H. Rabin; M. J. Nilles

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Torrefied wood pellets as an alternative fuel to coal: Climate benefits and social desirability of production and use.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to study the climate impacts and the social returns and social desirability of torrefied wood pellet production and use… (more)

Happonen, Kiira

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating November 25, 2013 - 2:24pm Addthis A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie What does this mean for me? Wood or pellets may be an economical and environmentally sound heating fuel choice. If you live in an area where you can cut your own wood for heating, your fuel will be local and inexpensive. Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length. Choosing and Installing Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances

68

An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Pelletizing lignite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

Goksel, Mehmet A. (Houghton, MI)

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

PREPARATION OF UO$sub 2$ FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL PELLETS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for preparing high-density UO/sub 2/ compacts. An aqueous uranyl fluoride solution is contacted with an aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution at an ammonium to-uranium ratio of 25: 1 to 30:1 to form a precipitate. The precipitate is separated from the- mother liquor, dried, and contacted with steam at a uniform temperature within the range of 400 to 650 deg C to produce U/ sub 3/O/sub 8/. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is red uced to UO/sub 2/ with hydrogen at a uniform temperature within the range of 550 to 600 deg C. The UO/sub 2/ is then compressed into compacts and sintered. High-density compacts are fabricated to close tolerances without use of a binder and without machining or grinding. (AEC)

Googin, J.M.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Information Handling Plan For The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responses to the NRC's Request for Additional Information (RAI), and a revision to the Classified Matter Protection Plan (CMPP) for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Enclosure (1) provides the detailed responses to the Reference (A) RAIs, and indicates corresponding changes to the CMPP. Enclosure (2) provides a List of Effective Pages for the revised CMPP. Enclosure (3) is the revised CMPP itself; it is a page revision with respect to the previous revision of Reference (C). Enclosure (4) lists substantive changes in addition to those resulting from the RAIs. Changes resulting from the RAI responses, as well as other changes, are denoted by vertical lines in the right margin and revised pages have a current revision date. The enclosures herein concern protection of classified matter in accordance with 10 CFR 2.390(d), and should be withheld from public disclosure.

Shaw Areva; Mox Services

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

74

Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a significant impact on the economics of coal-sawdust briquetting since it will ultimately dictate dew

Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Production of zinc pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

76

Production of zinc pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fabrication and Irradiation of LWR Hydride Mini-Fuel Rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Materials for the Nuclear Renaissance II. Presentation Title, Fabrication and ...

78

Fabrication of carbon-aerogel electrodes for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experiment was done to determine the ability to fabricate carbon aerogel electrodes for use in a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). It was found that the use of a 25% solution of the surfactant Cetyltrimethylammonium ...

Tharp, Ronald S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Interim Action Determination Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS), DOE/EIS-0283-S2. DOE is evaluating, among many other things, the environmental impacts of any design and operations changes to the MFFF, which is under construction at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE

80

Interim Action Determination Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS), DOE/EIS-0283-S2. DOE is evaluating, among many other things, the environmental impacts of any design and operations changes to the MFFF, which is under construction at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of...

82

Wood Pellet Heating Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook of Planning, Design and Installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood Pellet Heating Systems is a comprehensive handbook covering all aspects of wood pellet heating technology. The use of wood pellets as an alternative heating fuel is already well established in several countries and is becoming widespread as fossil ...

Dilwyn Jenkins

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Fabrication of silicon nanopillar arrays and application on direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a simple method that combines self-assembled nanosphere lithography (SANL) and photo-assisted electrochemical etching (PAECE) to fabricate near-perfect and orderly arranged nanopillar arrays for the direct methanol fuel cells electrode (DMFCs) ... Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell, Nanopillar, Photo-assisted electrochemical etching, Self-assembled nanosphere lithography

Yu-Hsiang Tang; Mao-Jung Huang; Ming-Hua Shiao; Chii-Rong Yang

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Safety issues in fabricating mixed oxide fuel using surplus weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the safety issues and implications of fabricating mixed oxide (MOX) fuel using surplus weapons plutonium. The basis for this assessment is the research done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in identifying and resolving the technical issues surrounding the production of PuO{sub 2} feed, removal of gallium from the PuO{sub 2} feed, the fabrication of test fuel, and the work done at the LANL plutonium processing facility. The use of plutonium in MOX fuel has been successfully demonstrated in Europe, where the experience has been almost exclusively with plutonium separated from commercial spent nuclear fuel. This experience in safely operating MOX fuel fabrication facilities directly applies to the fabrication and irradiation of MOX fuel made from surplus weapons plutonium. Consequently, this paper focuses on the technical difference between plutonium from surplus weapons, and light-water reactor recycled plutonium. Preliminary assessments and research lead to the conclusion that no new process or product safety concerns will arise from using surplus weapons plutonium in MOX fuel.

Buksa, J.; Badwan, F.; Barr, M.; Motley, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Microstructural Examination to Aid in Understanding Friction Bonding Fabrication Technique for Monolithic Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monolithic nuclear fuel is currently being developed for use in research reactors, and friction bonding (FB) is a technique being developed to help in this fuel’s fabrication. Since both FB and monolithic fuel are new concepts, research is needed to understand the impact of varying FB fabrication parameters on fuel plate characteristics. This thesis research provides insight into the FB process and its application to the monolithic fuel design by recognizing and understanding the microstructural effects of varying fabrication parameters (a) FB tool load, and (b) FB tool face alloy. These two fabrication parameters help drive material temperature during fabrication, and thus the material properties, bond strength, and possible formation of interface reaction layers. This study analyzed temperatures and tool loads measured during those FB processes and examined microstructural characteristics of materials and bonds in samples taken from the resulting fuel plates. This study shows that higher tool load increases aluminum plasticization and forging during FB, and that the tool face alloy helps determine the tool’s heat extraction efficacy. The study concludes that successful aluminum bonds can be attained in fuel plates using a wide range of FB tool loads. The range of tool loads yielding successful uranium-aluminum bonding was not established, but it was demonstrated that such bonding can be attained with FB tool load of 48,900 N (11,000 lbf) when using a FB tool faced with a tungsten alloy. This tool successfully performed FB, and with better results than tools faced with other materials. Results of this study correlate well with results reported for similar aluminum bonding techniques. This study’s results also provide support and validation for other nuclear fuel development studies and conclusions. Recommendations are offered for further research.

Karen L. Shropshire

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Characterization of candidate DOE sites for fabricating MOX fuel for lead assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is directing the program to disposition US surplus weapons-usable plutonium. For the reactor option for disposition of this surplus plutonium, MD is seeking to contract with a consortium, which would include a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabricator and a commercial US reactor operator, to fabricate and burn MOX fuel in existing commercial nuclear reactors. This option would entail establishing a MOX fuel fabrication facility under the direction of the consortium on an existing DOE site. Because of the lead time required to establish a MOX fuel fabrication facility and the need to qualify the MOX fuel for use in a commercial reactor, MD is considering the early fabrication of lead assemblies (LAs) in existing DOE facilities under the technical direction of the consortium. The LA facility would be expected to produce a minimum of 1 metric ton heavy metal per year and must be operational by June 2003. DOE operations offices were asked to identify candidate sites and facilities to be evaluated for suitability to fabricate MOX fuel LAs. Savannah River Site, Argonne National Laboratory-West, Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were identified as final candidates to host the LA project. A Site Evaluation Team (SET) worked with each site to develop viable plans for the LA project. SET then characterized the suitability of each of the five plans for fabricating MOX LAs using 28 attributes and documented the characterization to aid DOE and the consortium in selecting the site for the LA project. SET concluded that each option has relative advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other options; however, each could meet the requirements of the LA project as outlined by MD and SET.

Holdaway, R.F.; Miller, J.W.; Sease, J.D.; Moses, R.J.; O`Connor, D.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carrell, R.D. [Technical Resources International, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Jaeger, C.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, M.L.; Strasser, A.A. [Delta-21 Resources, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

challenges and generate nonproliferation and other benefits? · If such services were to be offered, how would Bush proposed assuring nuclear fuel supply for countries meeting certain nonproliferation criteria

88

Design, fabrication, and characterization of a micro fuel processor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of portable-power systems employing hydrogen-driven solid oxide fuel cells continues to garner significant interest among applied science researchers. The technology can be applied in fields ranging from ...

Blackwell, Brandon S. (Brandon Shaw)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Summary report on fuel development and miniplate fabrication for the RERTR Program, 1978 to 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the efforts of the Fabrication Technology Section at Argonne National Laboratory in the program of Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The main objective of this program was to reduce the amount of high enriched ({approx}93% {sup 235}U) uranium (HEU) used in nonpower reactors. Conversion from low-density (0.8--1.6 g U/cm{sup 3}) HEU fuel elements to highly loaded (up to 7 g U/cm{sup 3}) low-enrichment (<20% {sup 235}U) uranium (LEU) fuel elements allows the same reactor power levels, core designs and sizes to be retained while greatly reducing the possibility of illicit diversion of HEU nuclear fuel. This document is intended as an overview of the period 1978--1990, during which the Section supported this project by fabricating mainly powder metallurgy uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates. Most of the subjects covered in detail are fabrication-related studies of uranium silicide fuels and fuel plate properties. Some data are included for out-of-pile experiments such as corrosion and compatibility tests. Also briefly covered are most other aspects of the RERTR program such as irradiation tests, full-core demonstrations, and technology transfer. References included are for further information on most aspects of the entire program. A significant portion of the report is devoted to data that were never published in their entirety. The appendices contain a list of previous RERTR reports, ANL fabrication procedures, calculations for phases present in two-phase fuels, chemical analysis of fuels, miniplate characteristics, and a summary of bonding runs made by hot isostatic pressing.

Wiencek, T.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

SciTech Connect

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

Minh, Nguyen Q. (Fountain Valley, CA); Horne, Craig R. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fabrication of advanced oxide fuels containing minor actinide for use in fast reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R and D of advanced fuel containing minor actinide for use in fast reactors is described related to the composite fuel with MgO matrix. Fabrication tests of MgO composite fuels containing Am were done by a practical process that could be adapted to the presently used commercial manufacturing technology. Am-containing MgO composite fuels having good characteristics, i.e., having no defects, a high density, a homogeneous dispersion of host phase, were obtained. As related technology, burn-up characteristics of a fast reactor core loaded with the present MgO composite fuel were also analyzed, mainly in terms of core criticality. Furthermore, phase relations of MA oxide which was assumed to be contained in MgO matrix fuel were experimentally investigated. (authors)

Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Tanaka, Kosuke; Ishi, Yohei; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

PRELIMINARY DATA CALL REPORT ADVANCED BURNER REACTOR START UP FUEL FABRICATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives is to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept has been proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR is proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu will be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) is being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. This report is provided in response to ‘Data Call’ for the construction of startup fuel fabrication facility. It is anticipated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and will take to 3 to 5 years to construct.

S. T. Khericha

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sunrise Agri Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip 55310 Sector Biomass Product Manufacturer of Biomass Fuel Pellets for Pellet Burning Stoves. References Sunrise Agri Fuels1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

97

LOW COST MULTI-LAYER FABRICATION METHOD FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Under this program, Technology Management, Inc, is evaluating the economic advantages of a multi-pass printing process on the costs of fabricating planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The technique, still unproven technically, uses a ''green-field'' or build-up approach. Other more mature processes were considered to obtain some baseline assumptions. Based on this analysis, TMI has shown that multi-pass printing can offer substantial economic advantages over many existing fabrication processes and can reduce costs. By impacting overall production costs, the time is compressed to penetrate early low volume niche markets and more mature high-volume market applications.

Dr. Christopher E. Milliken; Dr. Robert C. Ruhl

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling. Progress report, August 16, 1991--September 30, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; fuel fabrication; decay; policy; economics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.

Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A Blueprint for GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor Startup Fuel Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to identify the requirements and issues associated with design of GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor Fuel Facility. The report was prepared in support of providing data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives was to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept was proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR was proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu was assumed to be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) was being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. It was estimated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and would take 3 to 5 years to construct.

S. Khericha

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Evaluation of methods for seismic analysis of mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines are needed for selecting appropriate methods of structural analyses to evaluate the seismic hazard of mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants. This study examines the different available methods and their applicability to fabrication plants. These results should provide a basis for establishing guidelines recommending methods of analysis to ensure safe design against seismic hazards. Using the Westinghouse Recycle Fuels Plant as representative of future mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, critical structures and equipment (systems, components, and piping/ducting) were identified. These included the manufacturing building and 11 different pieces of equipment. After examination of the dynamic response characteristics of the building and the different methods available to analyze equipment, appropriate methods of analyses were recommended. Because critical equipment analysis and test methods generally use floor-response spectra as their seismic input loading, several methods used to generate floor spectra were also examined. These include the time-history approach and the Kapur and Biggs approximate methods. The examination included the effect of site characteristics and both horizontal and vertical structural response. (auth)

Tokarz, F.J.; Arthur, D.F.; Murray, R.C.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Accident safety analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the accident safety analysis is to identify and analyze a range of credible events, their cause and consequences, and to provide technical justification for the conclusion that uranium billets, fuel assemblies, uranium scrap, and chips and fines drums can be safely stored in the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, the contaminated equipment, High-Efficiency Air Particulate filters, ductwork, stacks, sewers and sumps can be cleaned (decontaminated) and/or removed, the new concretion process in the 304 Building will be able to operate, without undue risk to the public, employees, or the environment, and limited fuel handling and packaging associated with removal of stored uranium is acceptable.

Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Effects of fabrication and irradiation on the dissolution of (U,Pu)O$sub 2$ reactor fuels  

SciTech Connect

From American Ceramics Society nuclear division meeting; San Francisco, California, USA (29 Oct 1973). LMFBR-type reactors will be fueled with stainless- steel-clad MFBR fuel cycle are the recovery of uranium and plutonium and the refabrication of the fuel elements in the minimum practicable time at lowest cost. Effect of fabrication method and irradiation conditions on recovery of the fuel is discussed. The Purex process is used to prepare the feed solutions. Test specimens contained fuels derived from sol-gel, coprecipitated, and mechanically blended oxides. Irradiation levels varied from unirradiated to 100,000 MWd/ton. Solubility of the fuels in terms of the fabrication method is coprecipitated> sol- gel > mechanically blended. Irradiation tends to increase the fuel solubility. (LK)

Goode, J.H.; Fitzgerald, C.L.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices. Traditional fireplaces draw in as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of heated room air for combustion, then send it straight up the chimney. Fireplaces also produce significant air pollution. Although some fireplace designs seek to address these issues with dedicated air supplies, glass doors, and heat recovery systems, fireplaces are still

105

Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany  

SciTech Connect

In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

Koenig, Werner [TUEV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG (Germany); Baumann, Roland [Siemens AG, Power Generation (Germany)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Technical specification: Mixed-oxide pellets for the light-water reactor irradiation demonstration test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical specification is a Level 2 Document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. It is patterned after the pellet specification that was prepared by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited, for use by Los Alamos National Laboratory in fabrication of the test fuel for the Parallex Project, adjusted as necessary to reflect the differences between the Canadian uranium-deuterium reactor and light-water reactor fuels. This specification and the associated engineering drawing are to be utilized only for preparation of test fuel as outlined in the accompanying Request for Quotation and for additional testing as directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory or the Department of Energy.

Cowell, B.S.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area  

SciTech Connect

This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The Use of Staff Augmentation Subcontracts at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility, IG-0887  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Use of Staff Augmentation The Use of Staff Augmentation Subcontracts at National Nuclear Security Administration's Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility DOE/IG-0887 May 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 May 15, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "The Use of Staff Augmentation Subcontracts at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility" BACKGROUND Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (MOX Services) is responsible for the design and construction of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) nearly $5 billion Mixed

110

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Energy centres in Estonia This presentation will cover Regional Energy Centres in Estonia ! Supply Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Supply of primary energy in Estonia Regional Energy Centres in Estonia of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East

111

Heating Fuel Comparision Calculator  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood, Pellet, Corn (kernel), and Coal Heaters Heating Fuel Comparison Calculator Instructions and Guidance Residential Fuel/Energy Price Links Spot Prices, Daily

112

New Pellet Injection Schemes on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

The pellet fueling system on DIII-D has been modified for injection of deuterium pellets from two vertical ports and two inner wall locations on the magnetic high-field side (HFS) of the tokamak. The HFS pellet injection technique was first employed on ASDEX-Upgrade with significant improvements reported in both pellet penetration and fueling efficiency. The new pellet injection schemes on DIII-D required the installation of new guide tubes. These lines are {approx_equal}12.5 m in total length and are made up of complex bends and turns (''roller coaster'' like) to route pellets from the injector to the plasma, including sections inside the torus. The pellet speed at which intact pellets can survive through the curved guide tubes is limited ({approx_equal}200-300 m/s for HFS injection schemes). Thus, one of the three gas guns on the injector was modified to provide pellets in a lower speed regime than the original guns (normal speed range {approx_equal}500 to 1000 m/s). The guide tube installations and gun modifications are described along with the injector operating parameters, and the latest test results are highlighted.

Anderson, P.M.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Robinson, J.I.

1999-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

Pellet stoves wood energy for all  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it`s true that specialized pellet stoves, capable of burning fuels as diverse as reprocessed paper waste and feed corn, are expensive and occasionally clunky, they also represent one of the best hopes for introducing clean burning, reliable renewable energy to those now heating with gas and oil. This article explores the benefits and operation of the stoves including discussions of the following: ecological benefits, combustion, stove venting, ashes, costs, fuels, and the future of wood heat. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Development of a Financial Model for Wood Pellet Production Costs in New England.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The wood fuel pellet industry has been growing rapidly in recent years. The conversion of a significant proportion of central home heating systems in the… (more)

Lu, Ning

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

Thomas Mason

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

116

Pelletization of fine coals  

SciTech Connect

The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

Sastry, K.V.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility  

SciTech Connect

The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

Watts, Joe A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Psaras, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Jr., Edward L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Experience making mixed oxide fuel with plutonium from dismantled weapons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed depleted UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} (MOX) pellets prototypic of fuel proposed for use in commercial power reactors were made with plutonium recovered from dismantled weapons. We characterized plutonium dioxide powders that were produced at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LANL and LLNL) using various methods to recover the plutonium from weapons parts and to convert It to oxide. The gallium content of the PUO{sub 2} prepared at LANL was the same as in the weapon alloy while the content of that prepared at LLNL was less. The MOX was prepared with a five weight percent plutonium content. We tested various MOX powders milling methods to improve homogeneity and found vibratory milling superior to ball milling. The sintering behavior of pellets made with the PuO{sub 2} from the two laboratories was similar. We evaluated the effects of gallium and of erbium and gadolinium, that are added to the MOX fuel as deplorable neutron absorbers, on the pellet fabrication process and an the sintered pellets. The gallium content of the sintered pellets was <10 ppm, suggesting that the gallium will not be an issue in the reactor, but that it will be an Issue in the operation of the fuel fabrication processing equipment unless it is removed from the PuO{sub 2} before it is blended with the UO{sub 2}.

Blair, H.T.; Ramsey, K.B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Microstructural Characterization of U-7Mo/Al-Si Alloy Matrix Dispersion Fuel Plates Fabricated at 500°C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The starting microstructure of a dispersion fuel plate will impact the overall performance of the plate during irradiation. To improve the understanding of the as-fabricated microstructures of U–Mo dispersion fuel plates, particularly the interaction layers that can form between the fuel particles and the matrix, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses have been performed on samples from depleted U–7Mo (U–7Mo) dispersion fuel plates with either Al–2 wt.% Si(Al–2Si) or AA4043 alloy matrix. It was observed that in the thick interaction layers, U(Al, Si)3 and U6Mo4Al43 were present, and in the thin interaction layers, (U, Mo) (Al, Si)3, U(Al, Si)4, U3Si3Al2, U3Si5, and possibly USi-type phases were observed. The U3Si3Al2 phase contained some Mo. Based on the results of this investigation, the time that a dispersion fuel plate is exposed to a relatively high temperature during fabrication will impact the nature of the interaction layers around the fuel particles. Uniformly thin, Si-rich layers will develop around the U–7Mo particles for shorter exposure times, and thicker, Si-depleted layers will develop for the longer exposure times.

Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Bo Yao; Emmanuel Perez; Yongho Sohn; Curtis R. Clark

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Nuclear fuel element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

Zocher, Roy W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Test Operation of Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator for Wastes From Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen-enriched combustion concept, which can minimize off-gas production, has been applied to the incineration of combustible uranium-containing wastes from a nuclear fuel fabrication facility. A simulation for oxygen combustion shows the off-gas production can be reduced by a factor of 6.7 theoretically, compared with conventional air combustion. The laboratory-scale oxygen enriched incineration (OEI) process with a thermal capacity of 350 MJ/h is composed of an oxygen feeding and control system, a combustion chamber, a quencher, a ceramic filter, an induced draft fan, a condenser, a stack, an off-gas recycle path, and a measurement and control system. Test burning with cleaning paper and office paper in this OEI process shows that the thermal capacity is about 320 MJ/h, 90 % of design value and the off-gas reduces by a factor of 3.5, compared with air combustion. The CO concentration for oxygen combustion is lower than that of air combustion, while the O2 concentration in off-gas is kept above 25 vol % for a simple incineration process without any grate. The NOx concentration in an off-gas stream does not reduce significantly due to air incoming by leakage, and the volume and weight reduction factors are not changed significantly, which suggests a need for an improvement in sealing.

Kim, J.-G.; Yang, H.cC.; Park, G.-I.; Kim, I.-T.; Kim, J.-K.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

124

Overview of Recent Developments in Pellet Injection for ITER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pellet injection is the primary fueling technique planned for core fueling of ITER burning plasmas. Also, the injection of relatively small pellets to purposely trigger rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) has been proposed as a possible solution to the heat flux damage from larger natural ELMs likely to be an issue on the ITER divertor surfaces. The ITER pellet injection system is designed to inject pellets into the plasma through both inner and outer wall guide tubes. The inner wall guide tubes will provide high throughput pellet fueling while the outerwall guide tubes will be used primarily to trigger ELMs at a high frequency (>15 Hz). The pellet fueling rate ofeach injector is to be up to 120 Pa-m3/s, which will require the formation of solid D-T at a volumetric rate of ~1500 mm3/s. Two injectors are to be provided for ITER at the startup with a provision for up to six injectorsduring the D-T phase. The required throughput of each injector is greater than that of any injector built to date, and a novel twin-screw continuous extrusion system is being developed to meet the challenging design parameters. Status of the development activities will be presented, highlighting recent progress.

Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 25 p. This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea, South Korea is striving to increase its per- centage of renewable energy, which could benefit the wood pellets industry. We found that China, the largest energy consumer in Asia, has an established wood pellet

126

Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The project uses an exothermic combustion synthesis reaction, termed self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), to produce high quality, reproducible nitride fuels and other ceramic type nuclear fuels (cercers and cermets, etc.) in conjunction with the fabrication of transmutation fuels. The major research objective of the project is determining the fundamental SHS processing parameters by first using manganese as a surrogate for americium to produce dense Zr-Mn-N ceramic compounds. These fundamental principles will then be transferred to the production of dense Zr-Am-N ceramic materials. A further research objective in the research program is generating fundamental SHS processing data to the synthesis of (i) Pu-Am-Zr-N and (ii) U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. In this case, Ce will be used as the surrogate for Pu, Mn as the surrogate for Am, and depleted uranium as the surrogate for U. Once sufficient fundamental data has been determined for these surrogate systems, the information will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for synthesis of Zr-Am-N, Pu-Am-Zr-N and U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or low–heat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS takes thermodynamic advantage of the high combustion temperatures of these exothermic SHS reactions to synthesize the required compounds, the very fast heating, reaction and cooling rates can kinetically generate extremely fast reaction rates and facilitate the retention of volatile species within the rapidly propagating SHS reaction front. The initial objective of the research program is to use Mn as the surrogate for Am to synthesize a reproducible, dense, high quality Zr-Mn-N ceramic compound. Having determined the fundamental SHS reaction parameters and optimized SHS processing steps using Mn as the surrogate for Am, the technology will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory to successfully synthesize a high quality Zr-Am-N ceramic fuel.

John J. Moore, Marissa M. Reigel, Collin D. Donohoue

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Fabrication of Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films on porous substrates for fuel cell applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-V). Stimming, U. , Singhal,on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-IV), Pennington, NJ, USA:M. Characterization of Composite SOFC Cathodes by Impedance

Leming, Andres

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or low–heat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS takes thermodynamic advantage of the high combustion temperatures of these exothermic SHS reactions to synthesize the required compounds, the very fast heating, reaction and cooling rates can kinetically generate extremely fast reaction rates and facilitate the retention of volatile species within the rapidly propagating SHS reaction front. The initial objective of the research program is to use Mn as the surrogate for Am to synthesize a reproducible, dense, high quality Zr-Mn-N ceramic compound. Having determined the fundamental SHS reaction parameters and optimized SHS processing steps using Mn as the surrogate for Am, the technology will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory to successfully synthesize a high quality Zr-Am-N ceramic fuel.

John J. Moore, Douglas E. Burkes, Collin D. Donohoue, Marissa M. Reigel, J. Rory Kennedy

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet fuel Specimens for Thermionic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration initiated a project at Battelle Memorial Institute for the purpose of fabricating clad fuel pellet containment vessel assemblies. These assemblies house clad fuel pellets containing enriched fuel. Irradiation studies of these assemblies in the NASA Plum Brook Reactor will provide data required for the desigi of thermionic converter reactors being considered by NASA. Three major objectives were defined at the initiation of this project at Battelle. These were (1) to provide containment vessel assemblies for irradiation studies, (2) to identify the best fuel dispersion/cladding combination for the fueled pellets, and (3) to identify and optimize the most promising fabrication technique to the extent necessary to provide reproducible specimens. In addition to these major objectives, other goals were defined in relation to supporting studies required for the successful conclusion of this program. The approach for accomplishing these objectives involved the cooperation of various research and research support groups at Battelle. These groups contributed to the overall program by involvement in the following areas: (1) Preparation or procurement of various types of UO{sub 2} fuel particles; (2) Application of tungsten coating to the fuel particles; (3) Development of various powder-consolidation techniques for the fuel form including use of explosive methods and hot isostatic pressing; (4) Selection and evaluation of high-temperature claddings for the fuel form; (5) Development of techniques for cladding application to the fuel form; (6) Evaluation of candidate systems by thermal cycling; (7) Fabrication of irradiation containment vessels and the associated components; and (8) Conduction of appropriate supporting studies associated with welding and brazing of the containment vessel components. The objectives of this program were accomplished to the extent that two clad fuel pellet containment vessel assemblies were completed and forwarded to NASA for irradiation testing. In conjunction with this effort, a compatible fuel-cladding system was developed for the clad fuel pellet as well as a fabrication process. In addition'to the accomplishment of these major goals, other valuable information relating to the fabrication and assembly of the containment vessel components was developed.

Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

1968-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Bioenergy Maximum Rebate $15,000 Program Info Funding Source Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund Start Date 03/2013 State Massachusetts Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Base Grant: $7,000 Automated Conveyance of Fuel Adder: $3,000 Thermal Storage Adder: $2,000 Solar Thermal Hybrid System Adder: $1,000 Moderate Income Adder or Moderate Home Value Adder: $2,000 Maximum Grant: $15,000 Provider Massachusetts Clean Energy Center The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) and the Department of Energy Resources (DOER) are offering the Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler

131

Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility Construction Authorization Request Change Pages and Revised Response to AP-03 References:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enclosed are change pages for Duke Cogema Stone & Webster's (DCS) request for authorization of construction of the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. The enclosed change pages replace pages in the Construction Authorization Request as updated through Reference 1. The enclosed change pages do not contain information which is considered to be proprietary to DCS. Enclosure 1 provides twenty-five copies of the change pages, which may be disclosed to the public. Enclosure 2 provides the page replacement instructions. The changed pages are the result of additional clarifications to Draft Safety Evaluation Report (DSER) Open Items. Also included as Enclosure 3 is the revised response for open item AP-3. IUmsso(1

Duke Cogema; Stone Webster; Duke Cogema Stone; Duke Cogema Stone; Andrew Persinko Usnrc/hq

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Guidelines for Fabrication, Examination, Testing and Oversight of Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and subsequent amendments require the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to receive and be responsible for disposal of spent commercial nuclear power plant fuel from U.S. utilities. However, because of delays in the siting of a permanent federal repository, and with no federal interim storage facilities designated, U.S. utilities have been forced to provide additional spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage capability to accommodate spent fuel discharge requirements. At...

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pellets reduces the volume of material they have to treat as waste, reducing landfill. Pellets have run on them are engineered to operate very efficiently and incorporate a range of high-tech features about 1p/kWh more than chip (around £185 per bulk tonne). This makes them close to the cost of mains gas

134

SPECIFICATIONS AND FABRICATION PROCEDURES FOR APPR-1 CORE II STATIONARY FUEL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel-base fuel components of thin plate-typs construction and containing a dispersion of enriched UO/sub 2/ have been successfully employed in powering the Army package Power Reactor. The stationary fuel compcnent proposed for operation in the second core loading of the reactor is discussed. The component is designed for radioactive service in pressurized water at 4504DEF and consists of eighteen composite fuel plates joined into an Integral unit or assembly by brazing. Design specifications covering the material and dimensional requirements as well as the operating conditions are discussed. Step-by-step procedures developed and utilized in manufacturing the component are presented in detail. (auth)

Cunningham, J.E.; Beaver, R.J.

1958-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling of pellet boilers in standard laboratory and in field conditions. This part had three main targets were identified. Pollutants emissions and efficiency of a multi- fuel boiler was compared

Glineur, François

136

Fabrication of Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films on porous substrates for fuel cell applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the cell (to drive a steam turbine for instance). For50%. Unlike gas and steam turbines, fuel cells do not suffercan be used to run steam turbines. SOFC’s are made from

Leming, Andres

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Results of hydrogen pellet injection into ISX-B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High speed pellet fueling experiments have been performed on the ISX-B device in a new regime characterized by large global density rise in both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges. Hydrogen pellets of 1 mm in diameter were injected in the plasma midplane at velocities exceeding 1 km/s. In low temperature ohmic discharges, pellets penetrate beyond the magnetic axis, and in such cases a sharp decrease in ablation is observed as the pellet passes the plasma center. Density increases of approx. 300% have been observed without degrading plasma stability or confinement. Energy confinement time increases in agreement with the empirical scaling tau/sub E/ approx. n/sub e/ and central ion temperature increases as a result of improved ion-electron coupling. Laser-Thomson scattering and radiometer measurements indicate that the pellet interaction with the plasma is adiabatic. Penetration to r/a approx. 0.15 is optimal, in which case large amplitude sawtooth oscillations are observed and the density remains elevated. Gross plasma stability is dependent roughly on the amount of pellet penetration and can be correlated with the expected temporal evolution of the current density profile.

Milora, S.L.; Foster, C.A.; Thomas, C.E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Double-shell inertial confinement fusion target fabrication  

SciTech Connect

First generation hemishells, from which spherical shells are constructed, were fabricated by micromachining coated mandrels and by molding. The remachining of coated mandrels are described in detail. Techniques were developed for coating the microsized mandrels with polymeric and metallic materials by methods including conformal coating, vapor deposition, plasma polymerization and thermoforming. Micropositioning equipment and bonding techniques have also been developed to assemble the hemishells about a fuel pellet maintaining a spherical concentricity of better than 2 ..mu..m and voids in the hemishell bonding line of a few hundred angstroms or less.

Hatcher, C.W.; Lorensen, L.E.; Weinstein, B.W.

1980-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Roasting and dissolution studies on nonirradiated thorium dioxide/uranium dioxide pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bench scale roasting and dissolution of ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ ractor-grade ceramic pellets were studied at the Savannah River Laboratory to define the key parameters affecting dissolution. Pellet breakup, and subsequent dissolution rates, were determined for ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ pellets roasted in air or in oxygen. Roasting ThO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ pellets in air at temperatures from 400 to 900/sup 0/C caused the pellets to crack but not fragment. Roasting whole pellets or fine powdered materials decreased the rate of dissolution in a nitric acid solution containing a fluoride catalyst. Roasting 100% ThO/sub 2/ pellets did not cause cracking or affect the subsequent dissolution rate. Mixed ThO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ ceramic pellets dissolved at a faster rate than the 100% ThO/sub 2/ pellets. The effect of MgO and CaO on dissolution rate was determined. MgO (approx. 1.0 wt %) increased the dissolution rate of ThO/sub 2/ pellets, an effect which was similar to that obtained by the addition of 20% UO/sub 2/ to the ThO/sub 2/ pellets. The combination of 1% MgO and 20% UO/sub 2/ did not result in an additional increase in dissolution rate. However, the addition of 0.25 to 0.50 wt % CaO did increase the dissolution rate of 80% ThO/sub 2//UO/sub 2/ ceramic pellets. High temperatures (and pressure) were ineffective in dissolving thoria-based fuels in HNO/sub 3/ in the absence of a fluoride catalyst. A process flowsheet outlining the required head end steps for the reprocessing of thoria-based fuels was developed.

Pickett, J.B.; Fowler, J.R.; Mosley, W.C. Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

CONVERSION OF RUSSIAN WEAPON-GRADE PLUTONIUM INTO OXIDE FOR MIXED OXIDE (MOX) FUEL FABRICATION.  

SciTech Connect

Progress has been made in the Russian Federation towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program is funded both by French Commissariat x 1'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the US National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The French program was started as a way to make available their expertise gained from manufacturing MOX fuel. The US program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease available w-Pu. Russia has selected both the conversion process and the manufacturing site. This paper discusses the present state of development towards fulfilling this mission: the demonstration plant designed to process small amounts of Pu and validate all process stages and the industrial plant that will process up to 5 metric tons of Pu per year.

Glagovski, E.; Kolotilov, Y.; Glagolenko, Y.; Zygmunt, Stanley J.; Mason, C. F. V. (Caroline F. V.); Hahn, W. K. (Wendy K.); Durrer, R. E. (Russell E.); Thomas, S.; Sicard, B.; Herlet, N.; Fraize, G.; Villa, A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Fabrication of Yttria stabilized zirconia thin films on poroussubstrates for fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for the deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films, on porous substrates, has been developed. These films have possible applications as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. The films were deposited from colloidal suspensions through the vacuum infiltration technique. Films were deposited on both fully sintered and partially sintered substrates. A critical cracking thickness for the films was identified and strategies are presented to overcome this barrier. Green film density was also examined, and a method for improving green density by changing suspension pH and surfactant was developed. A dependence of film density on film thickness was observed, and materials interactions are suggested as a possible cause. Non-shorted YSZ films were obtained on co-fired substrates, and a cathode supported solid oxide fuel cell was constructed and characterized.

Leming, Andres

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

144

CERAMIC FUEL ELEMENT MATERIAL FOR A NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND METHOD OF FABRICATING SAME  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to ceramic composition, and to neutronic reactor fuel elements formed therefrom. These ceramic elements have high density and excellent strength characteristics and are formed by conventional ceramic casting and sintering at a temperature of about 2700 deg F in a nitrogen atmosphere. The composition consists of silicon carbide, silicon, uranium oxide and a very small percentage of molybdenum. Compositions containing molybdenum are markedly stronger than those lacking this ingredient.

Duckworth, W.H.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

50 kW PEM Fuel Cell System Design, Fabrication, and Test: System Design -- Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes the results of a development program funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, Arthur D. Little, and EPRIsolutions. The effort was aimed at the conceptual design and optimization of a 50 kW commercial power system, using advanced proton exchange (or polymer electrolyte) membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and the verification of key design parameters. (Note: This design effort addresses some of the key technical issues faced by the developers of commercial-scale PEMFC...

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

146

Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates  

SciTech Connect

We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bonding interface.

Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katz, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

147

Method of fabricating a monolithic core for a solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for forming a core for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that electrochemically combines fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support consisting instead only of the active anode, cathode, electrolyte and interconnect materials. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte and interconnect walls define a plurality of substantially parallel core passageways alternately having respectively the inside faces thereof with only the anode material or with only the cathode material exposed. In the wall structure, the electrolyte and interconnect materials are only 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and the cathode and anode materials are only 0.002-0.05 cm thick. The method consists of building up the electrolyte and interconnect walls by depositing each material on individually and endwise of the wall itself, where each material deposit is sequentially applied for one cycle; and where the depositing cycle is repeated many times until the material buildup is sufficient to formulate the core. The core is heat cured to become dimensionally and structurally stable.

Zwick, Stanley A. (Woodridge, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

Integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

Dettling, Charles J. (E. Hanover, NJ); Terry, Peter L. (Chatham Township, Morris County, NJ)

1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

150

Method of fabricating an integral gas seal for fuel cell gas distribution assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous gas distribution plate assembly for a fuel cell, such as a bipolar assembly, includes an inner impervious region wherein the bipolar assembly has good surface porosity but no through-plane porosity and wherein electrical conductivity through the impervious region is maintained. A hot-pressing process for forming the bipolar assembly includes placing a layer of thermoplastic sealant material between a pair of porous, electrically conductive plates, applying pressure to the assembly at elevated temperature, and allowing the assembly to cool before removing the pressure whereby the layer of sealant material is melted and diffused into the porous plates to form an impervious bond along a common interface between the plates holding the porous plates together. The distribution of sealant within the pores along the surface of the plates provides an effective barrier at their common interface against through-plane transmission of gas.

Dettling, Charles J. (E. Hanover, NJ); Terry, Peter L. (Chathum, NJ)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

151

SPS Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Alloys in Support of NTR Fuels Development  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Tungsten metal slugs were fabricated via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of powdered metals at temperatures ranging from 1575 K to 1975 K and hold times of 5 minutes to 30 minutes, using powders with an average diameter of 7.8 ?m. Sintered tungsten specimens were found to have relative densities ranging from 83 % to 94 % of the theoretical density for tungsten. Consolidated specimens were also tested for their Vickers Hardness Number (VHN), which was fitted as a function of relative density; the fully consolidated VHN was extrapolated to be 381.45 kg/mm2. Concurrently, tungsten and rhenium powders with average respective diameters of 0.5 ?m and 13.3 ?m were pre-processed either by High-Energy-Ball-Milling (HEBM) or by homogeneous mixing to yield W-25at.%Re mixtures. The powder batches were sintered at temperatures of 1975 K and 2175 K for hold times ranging from 0 minutes to 60 minutes yielding relative densities ranging from 94% to 97%. The combination of HEBM and sintering showed a significant decrease in the inter-metallic phases compared to that of the homogenous mixing and sintering.

Jonathan A. Webb; Indrajit Charit; Cory Sparks; Darryl P. Butt; Megan Frary; Mark Carroll

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

AFIP-6 Fabrication Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-6 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

Glenn A. Moore; M. Craig Marshall

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Light water reactor mixed-oxide fuel irradiation experiment  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is sponsoring and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading an irradiation experiment to test mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium. In this multiyear program, sealed capsules containing MOX fuel pellets fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The planned experiments will investigate the utilization of dry-processed plutonium, the effects of WG plutonium isotopics on MOX performance, and any material interactions of gallium with Zircaloy cladding.

Hodge, S.A.; Cowell, B.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Development and transfer of fuel fabrication and utilization technology for research reactors  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 300 research reactors supplied with US-enriched uranium are currently in operation in about 40 countries, with a variety of types, sizes, experiment capabilities and applications. Despite the usefulness and popularity of research reactors, relatively few innovations in their core design have been made in the last fifteen years. The main reason can be better understood by reviewing briefly the history of research reactor fuel technology and enrichment levels. Stringent requirements on the enrichment of the uranium to be used in research reactors were considered and a program was launched to assist research reactors in continuing their operation with the new requirements and with minimum penalties. The goal of the new program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is to develop the technical means to utilize LEU instead of HEU in research reactors without significant penalties in experiment performance, operating costs, reactor modifications, and safety characteristics. This paper reviews briefly the RERTR Program activities with special emphasis on the technology transfer aspects of interest to this conference.

Travelli, A.; Domagala, R.F.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fabrication Laboratory The Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) manufactures components for fuel cells and...

157

U.S. Pellet Industry Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a survey of the U.S. Pellet Industry, its current capacity, economic drivers, and projected demand for biomass pellets to meet future energy consumption needs. Energy consumption in the US is projected to require an ever increasing portion of renewable energy sources including biofuels, among which are wood, and agrictulrual biomass. Goals set by federal agencies will drive an ever increasing demand for biomass. The EIA projections estimate that renewable energy produced by 2035 will be roughly 10% of all US energy consumption. Further analysis of the biofuels consumption in the US shows that of the renewable energy sources excluding biofuels, nearly 30% are wood or biomass waste. This equates to roughly 2% of the total energy consumption in the US coming from biomass in 2009, and the projections for 2035 show a strong increase in this amount. As of 2009, biomass energy production equates to roughly 2-2.5 quadrillion Btu. The EIA projections also show coal as providing 21% of energy consumed. If biomass is blended at 20% to co-fire coal plants, this will result in an additional 4 quadrillion Btu of biomass consumption. The EISA goals aim to produce 16 billion gal/year of cellulosic biofuels, and the US military has set goals for biofuels production. The Air Force has proposed to replace 50% of its domestic fuel requirements with alternative fuels from renewable sources by 2016. The Navy has likewise set a goal to provide 50% of its energy requirements from alternative sources. The Department of Energy has set similarly ambitious goals. The DOE goal is to replace 40% of 2004 gasoline use with biofuels. This equates to roughly 60 billion gal/year, of which, 45 billion gal/year would be produced from lignocellulosic resources. This would require 530 million dry tons of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic biomass per year.

Corrie I. Nichol; Jacob J. Jacobsen; Richard D. Boardman

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

Bassett, C.H.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Program on Technology Innovation: Small-Scale Testing of Woody and Herbaceous Biomass -Torrefaction and Pelleting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In fall 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a project to conduct small-scale testing of biomass torrefaction in order to investigate the feasibility of torrefying and pelleting different woody and herbaceous biomass feedstocks. Testing was done by Integro Earth Fuels, LLC, using a Wyssmont directly heated torrefaction reactor. The results of this research serve as a first step in determining the feasibility of using torrefaction and pelleting to improve the value of different bio...

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

162

Balance of heating fuels varies regionally  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... announced a plan to expand natural gas distribution networks Consumers are also supplementing liquid heating fuels with wood and electricity –wood pellet use ...

163

Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

Tuohig, W. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B. [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding  

SciTech Connect

Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local in Estonia in 1995 - 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia http://www.managenergy.net/conference/biomass

168

Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Pellet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary purpose of this project is to assess the environmental impacts associated with the wood pellet production. The study has extended to the entire… (more)

Chen, Siyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Emory S. De Castro BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. 39 Veronica Avenue Somerset, NJ 08873 Phone: (732) 545-5100 ext 4114 Email: Emory.DeCastro@BASF.com DOE Managers HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000384 Subcontractor: Dr. Vladimir Gurau Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Project Start Date: July 1, 2009 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Reduce cost in fabricating gas diffusion electrodes * through the introduction of high speed coating technology, with a focus on materials used for the high- temperature membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs)

170

Twin-Screw Extruder Development for the ITER Pellet Injection System  

SciTech Connect

The ITER pellet injection system is comprised of devices to form and accelerate pellets, and will be connected to inner wall guide tubes for fueling, and outer wall guide tubes for ELM pacing. An extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with a gas gun into the plasma. The ITER pellet injection system is required to provide a plasma fueling rate of 120 Pa-m3/s (900 mbar-L/s) and durations of up to 3000 s. The fueling pellets will be injected at a rate up to 10 Hz and pellets used to trigger ELMs will be injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype has been built and has demonstrated the production of a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. The 27 mm diameter, intermeshed, counter-rotating extruder screws are rotated at a rate up to ?5 rpm. Deuterium gas is pre-cooled and liquefied and solidified in separate extruder barrels. The precooler consists of a deuterium gas filled copper coil suspended in a separate stainless steel vessel containing liquid nitrogen. The liquefier is comprised of a copper barrel connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which has a machined helical groove surrounded by a copper jacket, through which the pre-cooled deuterium condenses. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at ?15 K) before it is forced through the extruder die. The die forms the extrusion to a 3 mm x 4 mm rectangular cross section. Design improvements have been made to improve the pre-cooler and liquefier heat exchangers, to limit the loss of extrusion through gaps in the screws. This paper will describe the design improvements for the next iteration of the extruder prototype.

Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Leachman, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Review of monitoring instruments for transuranics in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. A progress report to the physical and technological programs, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive review of the monitoring instruments for transuranic elements released from nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants has been compiled. The extent of routine operational releases has been reviewed for the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle (including plutonium recycle), the breeder reactor fuel cycle, and the high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle. The stack monitoring instrumentation presently in use at the various fabrication and reprocessing plants around the country is discussed. Sampling difficulties and the effectiveness of the entire sampling system are reviewed, as are the measurement problems for alpha-emitting, long-lived, transuranic aerosols, /sup 129/I, /sup 106/Ru, and tritium oxide. The potential problems in the HTGR fuel cycle such as the measurement of releases of alpha-emitting aerosols and of gaseous releases of /sup 220/Rn and /sup 14/C are also considered.

Kordas, J.F.; Phelps, P.L.

1976-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Fuel performance improvement program: description and characterization of HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 test rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fabrication process and as-built characteristics of the HBWR Series H-2 and H-3 test rods, as well as the three packed-particle (sphere-pac) rods in HBWR Series H-4 are described. The HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 tests are part of the irradiation test program of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Fifteen rods were fabricated for the three test series. Rod designs include: (1) a reference dished pellet design incorporating chamfered edges, (2) a chamfered, annular pellet design combined with graphite-coated cladding, and (3) a sphere-pac design. Both the annular-coated and sphere-pac designs include internal pressurization using helium.

Guenther, R.J.; Barner, J.O.; Welty, R.K.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Argonaut BioFuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Argonaut BioFuels Jump to: navigation, search Name Argonaut BioFuels Place Virginia Product Manufacturer of wood pellets that has a plant in Virginia, US. References Argonaut...

174

D/sub 2/ - pellet injection system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For density build-up of a target plasma for neutral injection in the stellarator ''Wendelstein W VIIA''and for refuelling of the divertor tokamak ASSDEX, pellet light gas guns have been developed. In a continuous flow cryostat cooled by liquid helium with a comsumption of 2 - 3 liter liquid helium per hour deuterium was condensed and solidified. To prevent the propeller gas entering the torus was used. In one system a 3.6 mm guiding tube following the barrel was applied successfully. By optical diagnostics pellet velocity, pellet size and pellet trajectory is measured. For a pellet centrifuge system investigations of carbon fiber rotors were made up to surface velocities of 1500 m/s.

Buechl, K.; Andelfinger, C.; Kollotzek, H.; Lang, R.; Ulrich, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Self-oscillations on a partially wetted catalyst pellet in ? ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and the vapor–gas phases on wetted and dry catalyst pellets, respectively. ... perature and flooding states of the catalyst pellet was first observed, which were ...

177

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary This...

178

An improved structural mechanics model for the FRAPCON nuclear fuel performance code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to provide improved predictions of Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction (PCMI) for the FRAPCON nuclear fuel performance code, a new model, the FRAPCON Radial-Axial Soft Pellet (FRASP) model, was developed. This ...

Mieloszyk, Alexander James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03 7 Co-combustion of Biosolids with Wood Pellets in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- Co-combustion of biosolids with coal or other biomass fuel can play a significant role in combustion facilities for energy production and waste management policy context. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the use of biosolids for cocombustion with wood pellets in a wood pellet stove. Fuel property, gas emissions and stove efficiency are compared. In regard to fuel properties, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and heating values are determined and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are measured and compared. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that cocombustion of 10 % biosolids with 90% wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were found to be proportional with the N2 content in the fuel. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions were negligible. Index Terms- Biosolids, co-combustion, wood pellet stove, performance and emissions.

Wood Pellet Stove; Murari Mohon Roy; Animesh Dutta; Kenny Corscadden; Peter Havard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Report of an investigation into deterioration of the Plutonium Fuel Form Fabrication Facility (PuFF) at the DOE Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This investigations of the Savannah River Site's Plutonium Fuel Form fabrication facility located in Building 235-F was initiated in April 1991. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, as has been alleged, operation of the facility's argon inert gas system was terminated with the knowledge that continued inoperability of the argon system would cause accelerated corrosion damage to the equipment in the plutonium 238 processing cells. The investigation quickly established that the decision to discontinue operation of the argon system, by not repairing it, was merely one of the measures, and not the most important one, which led to the current deteriorated state of the facility. As a result, the scope of the investigation was broadened to more identify and assess those factors which contributed to the facility's current condition. This document discusses the backgrounds, results, and recommendations of this investigation.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Report of an investigation into deterioration of the Plutonium Fuel Form Fabrication Facility (PuFF) at the DOE Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This investigations of the Savannah River Site's Plutonium Fuel Form fabrication facility located in Building 235-F was initiated in April 1991. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, as has been alleged, operation of the facility's argon inert gas system was terminated with the knowledge that continued inoperability of the argon system would cause accelerated corrosion damage to the equipment in the plutonium 238 processing cells. The investigation quickly established that the decision to discontinue operation of the argon system, by not repairing it, was merely one of the measures, and not the most important one, which led to the current deteriorated state of the facility. As a result, the scope of the investigation was broadened to more identify and assess those factors which contributed to the facility's current condition. This document discusses the backgrounds, results, and recommendations of this investigation.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

183

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Place Kincardineshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip AB30 1PA Product Wood pellet producer. Coordinates 56.932781°, -2.42531° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.932781,"lon":-2.42531,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

184

Hydrogen Uptake of DPB Getter Pellets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The physical and chemical properties of 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne (DPB) blended with carbon-supported Pd (DPB-Pd/C) in the form of pellets during hydrogenation were investigated. A thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) was employed to measure the kinetics of the hydrogen uptake by the DPB getter pellets. The kinetics obtained were then used to develop a semi-empirical model, based on gas diffusion into solids, to predict the performance of the getter pellets under various conditions. The accuracy of the prediction model was established by comparing the prediction models with independent experimental data on hydrogen pressure buildup in sealed systems containing DPB getter pellets and subjected to known rates of hydrogen input. The volatility of the hydrogenated DPB products and its effects on the hydrogen uptake kinetics were also analyzed.

Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Herberg, J L; Saab, A P; Weigle, J; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; McLean II, W

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Appling County Pellets | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Appling County Pellets Appling County Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name Appling County Pellets Place Graham, Georgia Zip 31513 Sector Biomass Product Producer of wood pellets and other biomass products located in Georgia. Coordinates 47.055765°, -122.294774° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.055765,"lon":-122.294774,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

186

An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

HEU Measurements of Holdup and Recovered Residue in the Deactivation and Decommissioning Activities of the 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains a summary of the holdup and material control and accountability (MC&A) assays conducted for the determination of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 321-M at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The 321-M facility was the Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at SRS and was used to fabricate HEU fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the SRS production reactors. The facility operated for more than 35 years. During this time thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) production reactor fuel tubes were produced. After the facility ceased operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The bulk of this residue was located in the equipment that generated and handled small U-Al particles and in the exhaust systems for this equipment (e.g., Chip compactor, casting furnaces, log saw, lathes A & B, cyclone separator, Freon{trademark} cart, riser crusher, ...etc). The D&D project is likely to represent an important example for D&D activities across SRS and across the Department of Energy weapons complex. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked to conduct holdup assays to quantify the amount of HEU on all components removed from the facility prior to placing in solid waste containers. The U-235 holdup in any single component of process equipment must not exceed 50 g in order to meet the container limit. This limit was imposed to meet criticality requirements of the low level solid waste storage vaults. Thus the holdup measurements were used as guidance to determine if further decontamination of equipment was needed to ensure that the quantity of U-235 did not exceed the 50 g limit and to ensure that the waste met the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the solid waste storage vaults. Since HEU is an accountable nuclear material, the holdup assays and assays of recovered residue were also important for material control and accountability purposes. In summary, the results of the holdup assays were essential for determining compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control & Accountability, and to ensure that administrative criticality safety controls were not exceeded. This paper discusses the {gamma}-ray assay measurements conducted and the modeling of the acquired data to obtain measured holdup in process equipment, exhaust components, and fixed geometry scrap cans. It also presents development work required to model new acquisition configurations and to adapt available instrumentation to perform the assays.

DEWBERRY, RAYMOND; SALAYMEH, SALEEM R.; CASELLA, VITO R.; MOORE, FRANK S.

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

189

Framatome-ANP France UO{sub 2} fuel fabrication - criticality safety analysis in the light of the 1999' Tokay Mura accident  

SciTech Connect

In France the 1999' Tokai Mura criticality accident in Japan had a big impact on the nuclear fuel manufacturing facility community. Moreover this accident led to a large public discussion about all the nuclear facilities. The French Safety Authorities made strong requirements to the industrials to revisit completely their safety analysis files mainly those concerning nuclear fuels treatments. The Framatome-ANP production of its French low enriched (5 w/o) UO{sub 2} fuel fabrication plant (FBFC/Romans) exceeds 1000 metric tons a year. Special attention was given to the emergency evacuation plan that should be followed in case of a criticality accident. If a criticality accident happens, site internal and external radioprotection requirements need to have an emergency evacuation plan showing the different routes where the absorbed doses will be as low as possible for people. The French Safety Authorities require also an update of the old based neutron source term accounting for state of the art methodology. UO{sub 2} blenders units contain a large amount of dry powder strictly controlled by moderation; a hypothetical water leakage inside one of these apparatus is simulated by increasing the water content of the powder. The resulted reactivity insertion is performed by several static calculations. The French IRSN/CEA CRISTAL codes are used to perform these static calculations. The kinetic criticality code POWDER simulates the power excursion versus time and determines the consequent total energy source term. MNCP4B performs the source term propagation (including neutrons and gamma) used to determine the isodose curves needed to define the emergency evacuation plant. This paper deals with the approach Framatome-ANP has taken to assess Safety Authorities demands using the more up to date calculation tools and methodology. (authors)

Doucet, M.; Zheng, S. [Framatome-ANP Fuel Technology Service (France); Mouton, J.; Porte, R. [Framatome-ANP Fuel Fabrication Plant - FBFC (France)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Fueling of magnetic confinement devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general overview of the fueling of magnetic confinement devices is presented, with particular emphasis on recent experimental results. Various practical fueling mechanisms are considered, such as cold gas inlet (or plasma edge fueling), neutral beam injection, and injection of high speed cryogenic hydrogen pellets. The central role played by charged particle transport and recycle of plasma particles from material surfaces in contact with the plasma is discussed briefly. The various aspects of hydrogen pellet injection are treated in detail, including applications to the production of high purity start-up plasmas for stellarators and other devices, refueling of tokamak plasmas, pellet ablation theory, and the technology and performance characteristics of low and high speed pellet injectors.

Milora, S.L.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbideuranium oxide (UCO) fuel compacts fabricated by ORNL for the DOE-NE Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program have exceeding historical burnup levels...

192

Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heavy-water-moderated, light-water-moderated and liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors fueled with natural or low-enriched uranium and containing thorium mixed with the uranium or in separate target channels. U-232 decays with a 69-year half-life through 1.9-year half-life Th-228 to Tl-208, which emits a 2.6 MeV gamma ray upon decay. We find that pressurized light-water-reactors fueled with LEU-thorium fuel at high burnup (70 MWd/kg) produce U-233 with U-232 contamination levels of about 0.4 percent. At this contamination level, a 5 kg sphere of U-233 would produce a gammaray dose rate of 13 and 38 rem/hr at 1 meter one and ten years after chemical purification respectively. The associated plutonium contains 7.5 percent of the undesirable heat-generating 88-year half-life isotope Pu-238. However, just as it is possible to produce weapon-grade plutonium in low-burnup fuel, it is also practical to use heavy-water reactors to produce U-233 containing only a few ppm of U-232 if the thorium is segregated in “target ” channels and discharged a few times more frequently than the natural-uranium “driver ” fuel. The dose rate from a 5-kg solid sphere of U-233 containing 5 ppm U-232 could be reduced by a further factor of 30, to about 2 mrem/hr, with a close-fitting lead sphere weighing about 100 kg. Thus the proliferation resistance of thorium fuel cycles depends very much upon how they are implemented. The original version of this manuscript was received by Science & Global Security on

Jungmin Kang A

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fabrication of gas impervious edge seal for a bipolar gas distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bipolar gas reactant distribution assembly for use in a fuel cell is disclosed, the assembly having a solid edge seal to prevent leakage of gaseous reactants wherein a pair of porous plates are provided with peripheral slits generally parallel to, and spaced apart from two edges of the plate, the slit being filled with a solid, fusible, gas impervious edge sealing compound. The plates are assembled with opposite faces adjacent one another with a layer of a fusible sealant material therebetween the slits in the individual plates being approximately perpendicular to one another. The plates are bonded to each other by the simultaneous application of heat and pressure to cause a redistribution of the sealant into the pores of the adjacent plate surfaces and to cause the edge sealing compound to flow and impregnate the region of the plates adjacent the slits and comingle with the sealant layer material to form a continuous layer of sealant along the edges of the assembled plates.

Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Werth, John (Princeton, NJ)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

Archibald, K.E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

Hermann, O.W.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Numerical simulation of fueling in tokamaks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We describe the numerical simulation of fueling and particle transport in both present and future tokamak plasmas. Models for pellet ablation and plasma density behavior after pellet injection are compared with experimental results in ISX and PDX plasmas and then extended to fusion reactor conditions. The role of fast ion ablation due to intense neutral beam injection and fusion alphas is examined along with pellet size and velocity considerations. In plasmas with high pumping efficiency (which may be obtained with divertor operation), pellet injection can significantly reduce fueling rates while maintaining more flexibility in control of the density profile than afforded by gas puffing. When fueling is dominated by gas puffing or high recycle from the walls or limiter, control of the fueling and density profiles is reduced and particle fluxes to the wall increase.

Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Technology and fabrication of plutonium-238 radionuclide heat sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper outlines a brief technical description of the facility for production of plutonium-238 and fabrication of Radionuclide Heat Sources (RHS) containing Pu-238. Technical capabilities of the RHS fabrication facility are presented. The results of development of the RHS design for sea application are discussed. RHS fuel pellet comprises the tantalum shell with an annular slot intended for release of radiogenic helium and the Pu-238 dioxide core with reinforcing elements inside which contact with the shell. RHS is a double encapsulation consisting of the inner {open_quote}{open_quote}power{close_quote}{close_quote} capsule and the outer corrosion-resistant capsule. The chromium-nickel-molybdenum XH65MB alloy which is equivalent to Hastelloy-C alloy has been selected as a material for both capsules. Upon expiration of working life, RHS design is capable of withstanding the internal pressure of radiogenic helium at 1073 K within 30 minutes and the external hydrostatic pressure of 100 MPa at normal temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Malikh, Y.A.; Aldoshin, A.I. [Production Association Mayak, 31 Lenin Street, Ozyorsk, 456780 (Russia); Danilkin, E.A. [The State Scientific Center of Russia, 5 Rogov Street, Moscow (Russia)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fueling Program Review May 2000 LRB 1 Fueling Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fueling? Fusion power is a strong function of density ­ Pf = nDnTWDT Gas puffing has limited ability at high density e ne-1 (Alcator C, DIII, TFTR) Density Limits Exceeded ­ Gas fueled density limits proposed as improvement mechanism. · Similar scaling seen on DIII with multiple centrifuge pellet injection

200

Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs  

SciTech Connect

Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be superior to the conventional oxide fuel since PCMI and rod burst, respectively, have been mitigated. Under beyond design basis accident scenarios where the fuel is exposed to high temperature steam for prolonged periods, larger inventory of zirconium metal in the core could negatively affect the accident progression. A thin steam resistant layer (e.g. alumina forming alloy steel), integrated into the solid rod during fabrication by co-extrusion or hot-isostatic-pressing, offers the potential to provide additional fuel protection from steam interaction: blanketing under a range of boiling regimes and under severe accident conditions up to high temperatures well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional fuel. A crucial aspect to the viability of M3 fuel in light water reactors is the reduced heavy metal load compared to standard pellet fuel. This study evaluated the design requirements to operate a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with M3 fuel in order to obtain fuel cycle length, reactivity coefficients, and power peaking factors comparable to that of standard fuel.

Fratoni, Massimiliano [Pennsylvania State University; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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201

Fueling ITER - Pellet Launch From the Transformer Core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 49, 131 (2004)46th American Physical Society Annual Meeting of Division of Plasma Physics Savannah Georgia, US, 2004999611820

Perkins, F.W.

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

202

Characterization of MOX Fuel Pellets by Photothermal Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frequency dependence of such expansion provides information on the thermal ... Scanning the beams allows the retrieval of a map of thermal diffusivity.

203

Mixed oxide fuels testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intense worldwide effort is now under way to find means of reducing the stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium. One of the most attractive solutions would be to use WGPu as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PUO{sub 2}) mixed with urania (UO{sub 2}). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification, (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania, (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition, (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight, (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu, (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu, (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure, (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity, (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products, (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies, and (11) Fuel performance code validation. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified.

Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Chang, G.S. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Nuclear fuel element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross (Deep River, CA); Bain, Alastair Stewart (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Multidimensional Multiphysics Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Important aspects of fuel rod behavior, for example pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI), fuel fracture, oxide formation, non- axisymmetric cooling, and response to fuel manufacturing defects, are inherently multidimensional in addition to being complicated multiphysics problems. Many current modeling tools are strictly 2D axisymmetric or even 1.5D. This paper outlines the capabilities of a new fuel modeling tool able to analyze either 2D axisymmetric or fully 3D models. These capabilities include temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of fuel; swelling and densification; fuel creep; pellet fracture; fission gas release; cladding creep; irradiation growth; and gap mechanics (contact and gap heat transfer). The need for multiphysics, multidimensional modeling is then demonstrated through a discussion of results for a set of example problems. The first, a 10-pellet rodlet, demonstrates the viability of the solution method employed. This example highlights the effect of our smeared cracking model and also shows the multidimensional nature of discrete fuel pellet modeling. The second example relies on our multidimensional, multiphysics approach to analyze a missing pellet surface problem. The next example is the analysis of cesium diffusion in a TRISO fuel particle with defects. As a final example, we show a lower-length-scale simulation coupled to a continuum-scale simulation.

R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; M. R. Tonks; D. R. Gaston; C. J. Permann; D. Andrs; R. C. Martineau

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

NEPA REVIE\ry LASO-10-001 CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FUELS RESEARCH LAB AT TA-35.455  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REVIE\ry REVIE\ry LASO-10-001 CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FUELS RESEARCH LAB AT TA-35.455 I. DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION: Los Alamos National Laboratory proposes to modify an existing laboratory for a Fuels Research Lab (455-FRL). The laboratory would be used to fabricate and characterize fuel pellets. The proposed activities would take place at the former location of the Polymers & Coating Lab (PCL) located at TA-35, Building 455, in room 104. Authorization would need to be obtained for the processing of radioactive materials in this location. The current laboratory configuration of chilled water supply and return, gas, compressed air, and vacuum supply, electrical supply, HEPA filtration, and ventilation would be assessed and modified to suit 455- TPCL facility needs. Analytical and process equipment would be required for this facility. Glovebox

207

Simulations of plasma behavior during pellet injection in ITER  

SciTech Connect

Plasma behavior during pellet injection in ITER is investigated using a 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the pellet ablation is described using the neutral gas shielding (NGS) model developed by Parks and Turnbull [Phys. Fluids 21, 1735 (1978)]. The NGS pellet ablation model that includes the {nabla}B drift effect is coupled with a plasma core transport model, which is a combination of an MMM95 anomalous transport model and an NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The combination of core transport models, together with pellet model, is used to simulate the time evolution of plasma current, ion and electron temperatures, and density profiles for ITER standard type-I ELMy H-mode discharges during the pellet injection. It is found that the injection of pellet can result in either enhancement or degradation of plasma performance. The {nabla}B drift effect on the pellet deposition is very strong in ITER. The plasma density with high field side pellets, which favorable with the {nabla}B drift effect, is much higher and pellet can penetrate much deeper than that with low field side pellets.

Klaywittaphat, P., E-mail: thawatchai@siit.tu.ac.th; Onjun, T. [Thammasat University, School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (Thailand)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage  

SciTech Connect

Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Kuang, Xingya [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Shankar, T.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Nuclear Fuels | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Fuels Nuclear Fuels Nuclear Fuels A reactor's ability to produce power efficiently is significantly affected by the composition and configuration of its fuel system. A nuclear fuel assembly consists of hundreds of thousands of uranium pellets, stacked and encapsulated within tubes called fuel rods or fuel pins which are then bundled together in various geometric arrangements. There are many design considerations for the material composition and geometric configuration of the various components comprising a nuclear fuel system. Future designs for the fuel and the assembly or packaging of fuel will contribute to cleaner, cheaper and safer nuclear energy. Today's process for developing and testing new fuel systems is resource and time intensive. The process to manufacture the fuel, build an assembly,

210

HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR EMPLOYING SMALL UNCLAD BODIES OF FISSIONABLE MATERIAL AS FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor in which fuel pellets are continuously dissolved in a moderator liquid is described. The fuel pellets are fed into the top of elongated baskets which are submerged in moderator liquid, and a portion of the moderator liquid is continuously withdrawn and processed to recove r reaction products.

Hyman, H.H.; Katz, J.J.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Performance Assessment of ZIRLO-Clad Fuel from North Anna  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the results from the poolside and hot cell examination of Westinghouse ZIRLO fuel from North Anna relative to Westinghouse experience base and fuel performance code predictions. Key properties measured include fuel rod growth, corrosion, hydrogen pickup, mechanical properties, fuel pellet performance, and fission gas release.

2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

212

Manufacture of bonded-particle nuclear fuel composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A preselected volume of nuclear fuel particles are placed in a cylindrical mold cavity followed by a solid pellet of resin--carbon matrix material of preselected volume. The mold is heated to liquefy the pellet and the liquefied matrix forced throughout the interstices of the fuel particles by advancing a piston into the mold cavity. Excess matrix is permitted to escape through a vent hole in the end of the mold opposite to that end where the pellet was originally disposed. After the matrix is resolidified by cooling, the resultant fuel composite is removed from the mold and the resin component of the matrix carbonized. (Official Gazette)

Stradley, J.G.; Sease, J.D.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Pellet injectors for the tokamak fusion test reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The repeating pneumatic injector is a device from the ORNL development program. A new eight-shot deuterium pellet injector has been designed and constructed specifically for the TFTR application and is scheduled to replace the repeating injector this year. The new device combines a cryogenic extruder and a cold wheel rotary mechanism to form and chamber eight pellets in a batch operation; the eight pellets can then be delivered in any time sequence. Another unique feature of the device is the variable pellet size with three pellets each of 3.0 and 3.5 mm diam and two each of 4.0 mm diam. The experience and technology that have been developed on previous injectors at ORNL have been utilized in the design of this latest pellet injection system.

Combs, S.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program.

Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

Bassett, C.H.

1961-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

216

Coal-based Direct Reduction of Iron Concentrate Pellets by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Coal-based Direct Reduction of Iron Concentrate Pellets by Microwave Heating. Author(s), Wang Xia, Huang Zhucheng. On-Site Speaker ...

217

Study on the Pelletizing of Pyrite Cinder with Magnetite Concentrate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on the feasibility of pelletizing with magnetite concentrate and the wasted pyrite ... Correlating Long Term Production Life-Cycles in the Materials and Energy ...

218

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This executive summary provides an overview of an NREL assessment to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region around Greensburg, Kansas.

Haase, S.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The development and fabrication of miniaturized direct methanol fuel cells and thin-film lithium ion battery hybrid system for portable applications .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, a hybrid power module comprising of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and a Li-ion battery has been proposed for low power… (more)

Prakash, Shruti

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Quantitative Changes in Hydrocarbons over Time in Fecal Pellets of Incisitermes minor May Predict Whether Colonies Are Alive or Dead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a new TCU. All wood debris, pellets, dead termites, andinhabiting the wood, we postulated that these pellets couldtermites from the wood. When fecal pellets appear after

Lewis, Vernard R.; Nelson, Lori J.; Haverty, Michael I.; Baldwin, James A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Development of British Columbia wood pellet life cycle inventory and its utilization in the evaluation of domestic pellet applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An in-house life cycle inventory (LCI) database for British Columbia (BC) wood pellets is established. The LCI database is used to compare the performance of… (more)

Pa, Ann An

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fabrication and Pre-irradiation Characterization of a Minor Actinide and Rare Earth Containing Fast Reactor Fuel Experiment for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy, seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter lived fission products, thereby decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and reducing the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. This transmutation of the long lived actinides plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium can be accomplished by first separating them from spent Light Water Reactor fuel using a pyro-metalurgical process, then reprocessing them into new fuel with fresh uranium additions, and then transmuted to short lived nuclides in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. An important component of the technology is developing actinide-bearing fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium isotopes that meet the stringent requirements of reactor fuels and materials.

Timothy A. Hyde

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R. [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (<0.14 wt%) is also present in these samples. The isotopic composition of the uranium varied widely but was consistent among each category of material. The primary water-soluble anions in these samples were Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43-. The only major anion observed in the Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Pneumatic Transport of Pulverized Wood Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of biomass fuels poses new issues for utilities seeking to employ these resources to augment their contributions to renewable energy. The direct combustion of biomass in a conventional utility boiler will almost always involve pneumatic transport and injection as is currently done with pulverized coal. However, differences in physical properties between biomass fuels and coal are evident. For instance, the large particle size range of a typical biomass fuel (13 mm) is far greater than that of pul...

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary This executive summary provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. 45843.pdf More Documents & Publications Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009 Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009; Appendices

228

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report. 48073.pdf More Documents & Publications Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009 Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas, as a Model Green Community: A Case Study; NREL's Technical Assistance to Greensburg, June 2007-May 2009; Appendices

229

Surface Modification of Fuel Cladding Materials with Integral Fuel BUrnable Absorber Boron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integral fuel burnable absorgers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly to counteract excessive reactivity. These IFBA elements (usually boron or gadolinium) are presently incorporated in the U)2 pellets either by mixing in the pellets or as coatings on the pellet surface. In either case, the incorporation of ifba into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be costly and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. The goal of this NEER research project was to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of IFBA element boron at the surface of the fuel cladding material.

Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Todd Allen; Jesse Gudmundson; Benjamin Maier

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

230

Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood. The use of cord wood and wood pellets as the primary residential space heating fuel has increased by 39% since 2004, to about 2.5 million households in 2012.

231

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, D.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

IAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium fuel cycle --Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1985 - 1989 Lingen, Germany BWR Irradiation-testing 60 MW(e) Test Fuel (Th,Pu)O2 pellets Terminated achieved a maximum burnup of 60 000 MWd/t without any fuel failure. In India, there has always beenIAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium fuel cycle -- Potential benefits and challenges May 2005 #12;IAEA

Laughlin, Robert B.

234

ECCENTRIC ROLLING OF POWDER AND BONDING AGENT INTO SPHERICAL PELLETS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A machine is described for pelletizing powder and bonding agent into spherical pellets of high density and uniform size. In this device, the material to be compacted is added to a flat circular pan which is moved in a circular orbit in a horizontal plane about an axis displaced from that of the pan's central axis without rotating the pan about its central axis. This movement causes the material contained therein to roll around the outside wall of the container and build up pellets of uniform shape, size, and density.

Patton, G. Jr.; Zirinsky, S.

1961-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Sublimation of Dry Ice Pellets Used for Cloud Seeding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the sublimation rate of cylindrical dry ice pellets in clear and cloudy air. Experiments conducted in the University of Alberta FROST icing-wind tunnel were used to make comparisons with the ...

B. Kochtubajda; E. P. Lozowski

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Pellet industry spurs economy in small New Mexico community  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the development of the wood pellet industry for home heating in an economically depressed area of New Mexico. The project is exploring the possibility of using thinnings from national forests instead of the usual wood wastes.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

Böse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Post Irradiation Evaluation of BWR Fuel From Hope Creek Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Occasionally, in some BWRs, fuel pellet washout from a single degraded fuel rod has resulted in high offgas levels that were sufficient to impede the reactor operation. In addition, certain sound fuel rods have exhibited high eddy-current liftoff values during routine poolside measurements. Investigators pursued these two recent BWR fuel issues by performing detailed hotcell examinations on selected fuel rods from the Hope Creek reactor. The results provided insights into the mechanisms involved and poss...

1997-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

239

Advanced turbine/CO{sub 2} pellet accelerator  

SciTech Connect

An advanced turbine/CO{sub 2} pellet accelerator is being evaluated as a depaint technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program, sponsored by Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, has developed a robot-compatible apparatus that efficiently accelerates pellets of dry ice with a high-speed rotating wheel. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air sandblast pellet accelerators, the turbine system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as efficient. A preliminary study of the apparatus as a depaint technology has been undertaken. Depaint rates of military epoxy/urethane paint systems on 2024 and 7075 aluminum panels as a function of pellet speed and throughput have been measured. In addition, methods of enhancing the strip rate by combining infra-red heat lamps with pellet blasting have also been studied. The design and operation of the apparatus will be discussed along with data obtained from the depaint studies. Applications include removal of epoxy-based points from aircraft and the cleaning of surfaces contaminated with toxic, hazardous, or radioactive substances. The lack of a secondary contaminated waste stream is of great benefit.

Foster, C.A.; Fisher, P.W.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Evaluating the ignition sensitivity of thermal battery heat pellets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal batteries are activated by the ignition of heat pellets. If the heat pellets are not sensitive enough to the ignition stimulus, the thermal battery will not activate, resulting in a dud. Thus, to assure reliable thermal batteries, it is important to demonstrate that the pellets have satisfactory ignition sensitivity by testing a number of specimens. There are a number of statistical methods for evaluating the sensitivity of a device to some stimulus. Generally, these methods are applicable to the situation in which a single test is destructive to the specimen being tested, independent of the outcome of the test. In the case of thermal battery heat pellets, however, tests that result in a nonresponse do not totally degrade the specimen. This peculiarity provides opportunities to efficiently evaluate the ignition sensitivity of heat pellets. In this paper, a simple strategy for evaluating heat pellet ignition sensitivity (including experimental design and data analysis) is described. The relatively good asymptotic and small-sample efficiencies of this strategy are demonstrated.

Thomas, E.V.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Vessel Design and Fabrication Technology for Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Zhili Feng (Primary Contact), Wei Zhang, John Wang and Fei Ren Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 1 Bethel Valley Rd, PO Box 2008, MS 6095 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone: (865) 576-3797 Email: fengz@ornl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov Subcontractors: * Global Engineering and Technology LLC, Camas, WA * Ben C. Gerwick Inc., Oakland, CA * MegaStir Technologies LLC, Provo, UT * University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction

242

Fabrication Technology  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

Blaedel, K.L.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Solid hydrogen pellet injection into the ORMAK Tokamak  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid hydrogen spheres were injected into the ORMAK tokamak as a test of pellet refueling for tokamak fusion reactors. Pellets 70 ..mu..m and 210 ..mu..m in diameter were injected with speeds of 91 m/sec and 100 m/sec, respectively. Each of the 210-..mu..m pellets added about 1% to the number of particles contained in the plasma. Excited neutrals, ablated from these hydrogen spheres, emitted light which was monitored either by a photomultiplier or by a high speed framing camera. From these light signals it was possible to measure pellet lifetimes, ablation rates, and the spatial distribution of hydrogen atoms in the ablation clouds. The average measured lifetime of the 70-..mu..m pellets was 422 ..mu..sec, and the 210-..mu..m spheres lasted 880 ..mu..sec under bombardment by the plasma. These lifetimes and measured ablation rates are in good agreement with a theoretical model which takes into account shielding of plasma electrons by hydrogen atoms ablated from spherical hydrogen ice.

Foster, C. A.; Colchin, R. J.; Milora, S. L.; Kim, K.; Turnbull, R. J.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

Bin Ye; Jilang Miao; Jiaolong Li; Zichen Zhao; Zhenqi Chang; Christophe A. Serra

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

Ye, Bin; Li, Jiaolong; Zhao, Zichen; Chang, Zhenqi; Serra, Christophe A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fuel cycles for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.(DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fuel Reliability Program: EPRI PCI Guidelines Support Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) issued a series of fuel reliability guideline reports in support of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPOs) Zero by 2010 initiative. For the development of Fuel Reliability Guidelines: Pellet-Cladding Interaction (1015453), the fuel vendorsAREVA, GNF, and Westinghouseprovided considerable proprietary information. This report serves as a reference that supplements report 1015453 and provides details on AREVA PWR and BWR fuel.

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fuel Reliability Program: EPRI PCI Guidelines Support Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) issued a series of fuel reliability guideline reports in support of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPOs) Zero by 2010 initiative. For the development of Fuel Reliability Guidelines: Pellet-Cladding Interaction (1015453), the fuel vendorsAREVA, GNF, and Westinghouseprovided considerable proprietary information. This report serves as a reference that supplements report 1015453 and provides details on Westinghouse PWR and BWR fuel.

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

249

NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel slug for a reactor which acts as a safety device is described. The fuel slug is an aluminum tube with a foil lining the inside surface of the tube, the foil being fabricated of uranium in a lead matrix.

Horning, W.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Donahue, D.J.

1959-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

FUELING OF ITER-SCALE FUSION PLASMAS M. J. Gouge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems to handle the larger DT throughput. Gas and pellet fueling efficiency data from past tokamak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071, USA (423) 576-4467 ABSTRACT Fueling system functions for the International in the fusion reaction, to establish a density gradient for plasma particle (especially helium ash) flow

251

FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

Dickson, J.J.

1963-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

252

Integrated fuel processor development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed.

Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

253

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

254

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are presented in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (Drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Effect of steam conditioning practices on pellet quality and growing broiler nutritional value.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Feed currently incurs 60-65% of the total cost of broiler production. Pellets are the primary feed form for commercially-reared broilers. Understanding how to optimize pellet… (more)

Cutlip, Sarah Elizabeth.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method for producing pellets for use in a cryoblasting process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryoblasting process having a centrifugal accelerator for accelerating frozen pellets of argon or carbon dioxide toward a target area utilizes an accelerator throw wheel designed to induce, during operation, the creation of a low-friction gas bearing within internal passages of the wheel which would otherwise retard acceleration of the pellets as they move through the passages. An associated system and method for removing paint from a surface with cryoblasting techniques involves the treating, such as a preheating, of the painted surface to soften the paint prior to the impacting of frozen pellets thereagainst to increase the rate of paint removal. A system and method for producing large quantities of frozen pellets from a liquid material, such as liquid argon or carbon dioxide, for use in a cryoblasting process utilizes a chamber into which the liquid material is introduced in the form of a jet which disintegrates into droplets. A non-condensible gas, such as inert helium or air, is injected into the chamber at a controlled rate so that the droplets freeze into bodies of relatively high density.

Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN); Fisher, Paul W. (Heiskell, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

Haase, S.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

263

Method for producing nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel is made by contacting an aqueous solution containing an actinide salt with an aqueous solution containing ammonium hydroxide, ammonium oxalate, or oxalic acid in an amount that will react with a fraction of the actinide salt to form a precipitate consisting of the hydroxide or oxalate of the actinide. A slurry consisting of the precipitate and solution containing the unreacted actinide salt is formed into drops which are gelled, calcined, and pressed to form pellets.

Haas, P.A.

1981-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

264

Method for producing nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel is made by contacting an aqueous solution containing an actinide salt with an aqueous solution containing ammonium hydroxide, ammonium oxalate, or oxalic acid in an amount that will react with a fraction of the actinide salt to form a precipitate consisting of the hydroxide or oxalate of the actinide. A slurry consisting of the precipitate and solution containing the unreacted actinide salt is formed into drops which are gelled, calcined, and pressed to form pellets.

Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

22.351 Systems Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-depth technical and policy analysis of various options for the nuclear fuel cycle. Topics include uranium supply, enrichment fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, thorium and other fuel types, ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

266

GUIDE TO NUCLEAR POWER COST EVALUATION. VOLUME 4. FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

Information on fuel cycle cost is presented. Topics covered include: nuclear fuel, fuel management, fuel cost, fissionable material cost, use charge, conversion and fabrication costs, processing cost, and shipping cost. (M.C.G.)

1962-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Universal desktop fabrication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in digital design and fabrication technologies are leading toward single fabrication systems capable of producing almost any complete functional object. We are proposing a new paradigm for manufacturing, which we call Universal Desktop Fabrication ...

T. Vilbrandt; E. Malone; H. Lipson; A. Pasko

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In early FY2009, the DOE Office of Science - Nuclear Physics Program reinstated a program for continued production of {sup 252}Cf and other transcurium isotopes at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The FY2009 major elements of the workscope are as follows: (1) Recovery and processing of seven transuranium element targets undergoing irradiation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL; (2) Development of a plan to manufacture new targets for irradiation beginning in early- to mid-FY10 to supply irradiated targets for processing Campaign 75 (TRU75); and (3) Refurbishment of the target manufacturing equipment to allow new target manufacture in early FY10 The {sup 252}Cf product from processing Campaign 74 (recently processed and currently shipping to customers) is expected to supply the domestic demands for a period of approximately two years. Therefore it is essential that new targets be introduced for irradiation by the second quarter of FY10 (HFIR cycle 427) to maintain supply of {sup 252}Cf; the average irradiation period is {approx}10 HFIR cycles, requiring about 1.5 calendar years. The strategy for continued production of {sup 252}Cf depends upon repairing and refurbishing the existing pellet and target fabrication equipment for one additional target production campaign. This equipment dates from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s, and during the last target fabrication campaign in 2005- 2006, a number of component failures and operations difficulties were encountered. It is expected that following the target fabrication and acceptance testing of the targets that will supply material for processing Campaign 75 a comprehensive upgrade and replacement of the remote hot-cell equipment will be required prior to subsequent campaigns. Such a major refit could start in early FY 2011 and would take about 2 years to complete. Scope and cost estimates for the repairs described herein were developed, and authorization for the work was received in July 2009 under the Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Task of the Enhanced Utilization of Isotope Facilities project (Project Identification Code 2005230) funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The goal of this project is to recover the capability to produce 4-5 curium targets for the irradiation period starting with HFIR cycle 427, currently scheduled to begin 2/17/10. Assuming success, the equipment would then be used to fabricate 6-7 additional targets to hold for the next irradiation campaign specified by the program. Specific objectives are the return to functionality of the Cubicle 3 Pellet Fabrication Line; Cubicle 2 Target Assembly equipment; and Cubicle 1 Target Inspection and Final Assembly system.

Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

BATT Fabrication Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientist working in battery lab BATT Fabrication Laboratory The BATT Fab Lab (Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Fabrication Laboratory) conducts battery cell...

270

Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fabrication and Characterization of Uranium-based High Temperature Reactor Fuel June 01, 2013 The Uranium Fuel Development Laboratory is a modern R&D scale lab for the fabrication and characterization of uranium-based high temperature reactor fuel. A laboratory-scale coater manufactures tri-isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles (CFPs), state-of-the-art materials property characterization is performed, and the CFPs are then pressed into fuel compacts for irradiation testing, all under a NQA-1 compliant Quality Assurance Program. After fuel kernel size and shape are measured by optical shadow imaging, the TRISO coatings are deposited via fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition in a 50-mm diameter conical chamber within the coating furnace. Computer control of temperature and gas composition ensures reproducibility

272

Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

Moyer, M.W.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas: Executive Summary  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5843 5843 November 2009 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Executive Summary S. Haase National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-45843 November 2009 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas Executive Summary S. Haase Prepared under Task No. IDKS.1070 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

274

Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

073 073 May 2010 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas S. Haase National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-7A2-48073 May 2010 Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas S. Haase Prepared under Task No. IDKS.1070 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any

275

Deformation study of separator pellets for thermal batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deformation characteristics of pellets of electrolyte-binder (EB) mixes based on MgO were measured under simulated, thermal-battery conditions. Measurements (using a statistically designed experimental strategy) were made as a function of applied pressure, temperature, and percentage of theoretical density for four molten-salt electrolytes at two levels of MgO. The EB mixes are used as separators in Li-alloy thermal batteries. The electrolytes included LiCl-KCI eutectic, LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic, LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, and a LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte with a minimum-melting composition. The melting points ranged from 313 C to 436 C. The experimental data were used to develop statistical models that approximate the deformation behavior of pellets of the various EB mixes over the range of experimental conditions we examined. This report, discusses the importance of the deformation response surfaces to thermal-battery design.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.; Thomas, E.V.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effects of Fuel and Air Impurities on PEM Fuel Cell Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approach * Fabricate and operate fuel cells under controlled impurity gases - Multi-gas mixing manifolds and FC test stations - Pre-blend impurity gases - Measure performance...

277

Microstructural damage produced by helium in aged /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microstructural damage is produced in aged /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuels used to power radioisotopic heat sources by the generation and release of the helium arising from alpha decay of the fuel. We obtained information about the nature and extent of this damage from metallographic examination of fuel pellets ranging in density from 87 to 94% with a grain size range of 6 to 30 ..mu..m that either were stored at ambient temperature for 18 months and then heated at 900, 1150, or 1360/sup 0/C or were stored at 900, 1150, or 1350/sup 0/C for 27 months. Microstructural damage was not observed in the fuel pellets stored at ambient temperature and then heated at 900/sup 0/C, but grain boundary bubble damage was observed in the pellets stored at ambient temperature and then heated at either 1150 or 1350/sup 0/C. More extensive damage occurred in those pellets heated at 1350/sup 0/C. Four of the higher density pellets (92 and 94% dense) stored at 900/sup 0/C shattered during storage and the rest appeared to be highly strained. The pellets stored at 1150/sup 0/C were damaged only slightly but were somewhat strained and appeared to have released their helium inventory only partially. All pellets stored at 1350/sup 0/C showed swelling and extensive void agglomeration. These data suggest that the best fuel operating temperature, as far as helium damage is concerned, would be approx. 1200/sup 0/C because below this temperature the fuel becomes highly strained and above this temperature the fuel swells ad becomes somewhat friable. Both these situations could adversely affect the impact behavior of the fuel from the standpoint of strength and fines generation.

Land, C.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Highly conductive electrolyte composites and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of ionically conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800{degrees}C--1200{degrees}C), for example 1000{degrees}C, than are typically required (1400{degrees}C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250{degrees}C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} (ohm-cm){sup {minus}1}. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300{degrees}C.

Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

279

Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Energy Systems Fabrication Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) manufactures components for fuel cells and electrochemical cells using a variety of manufacturing techniques. Fabricated components include catalysts, thin-film and gas diffusion electrodes, and membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The laboratory supports NREL's fuel cell and electrochemical cell related research. The main focus of the laboratory is to provide support for fuel cell research that is performed in adjacent laboratories. The laboratory enables NREL to manufacture fuel cells in-house using, for example, experimental catalyst developed at NREL. It further enables the creation of MEAs containing artificial defects required for the systematic study of performance and lifetime effects and the evaluation of in-house and externally developed quality control diagnostics for high volume production of fuel cell. Experiments performed in the laboratory focus mainly on the development of alternative fuel cell manufacturing methods.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Fabrication of LSGMC-Based IT-SOFC Cells Using Aerosol Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Fabrication of LSGMC-Based ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Results from recent hydrogen pellet acceleration studies with a 2-m railgun  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new 3.2-mm-diameter, two-stage, fuseless, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun has been designed, constructed, and successfully operated to achieve a record velocity of 2.67 km/s({sup b}) for 3.2 mmD {times} 4 mmL solid hydrogen pellet. The first stage of this hydrogen pellet injector is a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas fun. The second stage is a 2-m-long railgun which serves as a booster accelerator. The gas fun accelerates a frozen hydrogen pellet to a medium velocity and injects it into the railgun through a perforated coupling piece, which also serves a pressure-relieving mechanism. An electrical breakdown of the propellant gas, which has followed the pellet from the gas fun into the railgun, forms a conducting plasma-arc armature immediately behind the pellet allowing for fuseless operation of the railgun. Study of the pressure profile and the behavior of the plasma-arc armature inside the railgun bore led to elimination of spurious arcing, which prevents operation of the railgun at high voltages (and, therefore, at high currents). A timing circuit that can automatically measure the pellet input velocity and allows for accurate control of arc initiation behind the pellet helps prevent pellet disintegration and mistriggering of the arc initiation circuit. Results from the recent cryogenic operation of the two-stage pellet acceleration system are reported. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kim, K.; Zhang, D.J.; King, T.; Haywood, R.; Manns, W.; Venneri, F.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

HTR Fuel Development in Europe  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

Languille, Alain [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance BP1 (France); Conrad, R. [CEC/JRC/IE Petten (Netherlands); Guillermier, P. [Framatome-ANP/ Lyon (France); Nabielek, H. [FZJ/Juelich (Germany); Bakker, K. [NRG/Petten (Netherlands); Abram, T. [BNFL UK (United Kingdom); Haas, D. [JRC/ITU/Karlsruhe (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

ElectronicFabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fabrication Fabrication Manufacturing Technologies Electronic Fabrication provides our cus- tomers solutions for the packaging design, production acceptable prototype fabrica- tion, or deliverable production fabrication. Capabilities * Final electronic product packaging from sketches and verbal instructions * Provide CAD drawing package after project completion if no formal prints are available * Complete system development and fab- rication through concurrent engineering * Concurrent engineering in prototype and production fabrication * Integrate commercial equipment into prototype system design * Implementation and modification of commercial equipment * Packaging of prototype into finalized product assembly Resources * Customer assistance from fabrication, to testing, to complete system installation

286

Hot defluorination of reducing gases with lime pellets  

SciTech Connect

In IGCC and MCFC power generation systems the coal gas has to be purified from dust and deleterious gaseous species. Hot gas cleaning processes have advantages compared to conventional wet cleaning technologies. Losses of energy occurring during cooling and reheating of the gas can be avoided, and there is no formation of a wet slurry. In the present study the defluorination of reducing gases with dry absorbers such as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) and calcium oxide (CaO) has been investigated in the temperature range 300--700 C. Two types of experiments were carried out to clarify the reaction kinetics: thermogravimetric experiments on single (or a few) pellets in which the weight change of the absorber due to its conversion to calcium fluoride was determined, and gas cleaning experiments using a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor in which the off-gas was analyzed. The results indicate that H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HF and CO-H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HF gas mixtures can be defluorinated both with CaO and with CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) forms as a shell around the unreacted core of calcium carbonate of the pellet, and the reaction rate is mainly controlled by gaseous pore diffusion. This is so also with respect to calcium oxide at high temperatures (500 C). But at low temperatures (300 C) the reaction occurs within the bulk of the pellet.

Shirai, H.; Fusch, Y.; Schwerdtfeger, K.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

DEVELOPMENT OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING FUEL MATERIALS. Progress Report for Period January 1 through March 31, 1962  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this reporting period, particular effort was of aced on powder blending and pellet sintering studies prior to irradiation sample fabrication, and, subsequently, the production and characterization of the pellets slated for irradiation. Also, PuO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 2/-PuO/sub 2/ characterization studies were continued, and new techniques are being developed. Specifically, dynamic moisture pickup determinations on PuO/sub 2/ were made in moist air, N, and CO/ sub 2/ atmospheres using a recording thermogravimetric balance; the Sharples Micromerograph was committed to Pu, and powder particle size distributions were measured and compared with previous determinations made with air-permeability equipment; and the suitability and reliability of analytical chemistry assaying procedures such as x-ray-fluorescence and gamma spectrometry are being evaluated. Prototype work on UO/sub 2/ for the direct precipitation of PuO/sub 2/ and PuO/ sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ feed materials for swaging, vibratory compaction, and dispersion fabrication was also continued. In addition, investigation of PuO/sub 2/ spherical particle formation by mechanical buildup and by plasma torch fusion was extended. Associated reactor physics studies were concentrated on the further comparison of Pu and U/sup 235/ in near-thermal converter reactors. In preparation for the fabrication of irradiation test specimens to be prepared by the mechanical blending of individuaI PuO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 2/ powders, bIending studies were initiated to develop methods required for the attainment of desired homogeneity. Sintering studies were carried out on PuOs/sub 2/ to study the effects of compaction pressure, firing temperature, firing time, and firing atmosphere. It was determined that 1400 to 1500 deg C is the best firing temperature to obtain maximum pellet density, and that sintering in air yields higher densities than sintering in a N/sub 2/--H/sub 2/ atmosphere. Further, it was noted that the degree of Pu/sub 2/O/sub 3/ formation while sintering in an N/ sub 2/--H/sub 2/ atm osphere is inversely proportional to compaction pressure, indicating that the degree of formation is determined by the exposed surface area. Two additional Iots of UO/sub 2/-5 wt% PuO/sub 2/ powder were precipitated during this period. Powder characterization data for these and two previously produced lots were obtained. Also, powder characteristics were remeasured following hammermilling in order to allow assessment of the effects of this treatment. In preparation for work with PuO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/, prototype studies are being carried out with UO/sub 2/ to assess the possibility of producing directly high density granular feed for swaging, vibratory compaction, and dispersion fuel fabrication. Effort was continued on the fabrication of spherical PuO/sub 2/ particles by mechanical buildup and by plasma torch fusion. Reactor physics studies were continued to allow assessment of Pu relative to U/ sup 235/ in near-thermal reactor sys tems. Under cost assumptions used previously, it was shown that optimum fuel cycle costs from Pu-natural U fueled systems are well below those attainable with slightly enriched U iueled systems even if it is assumed that radiation damage is not limiting and that an ideal burnable poison (or solution poison) exists to limit the reactivity. (auth)

None

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Power Ramp Testing of Additive Fuel Rods in the Halden Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additive fuel provides an effective remedy against pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failure and a means of mitigating severe secondary degradation in the form of long axial splits in the cladding after fuel failure. This report—part of EPRI's Fuel Reliability Program—summarizes five years worth of data on additive fuel properties, pre-irradiation corrosion and creep tests, microstructure characterization, and subsequent in-core power ramp tests performed on segments retrieved after two cycle...

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling of an Ablation-Free Electrothermal Plasma Pellet Accelerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plasma Engineering - Fueling and Diagnostics / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) (Part 2)

A. Leigh Winfrey; Mohamed Abd Al-Halim; John G. Gilligan; Alexei V. Saveliev; Mohamed A. Bourham

290

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Moyer, M.W. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Placr, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Building 9203, MS-8084, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Building 305-A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Plasma Fueling, Pumping, and Tritium Handling Considerations for FIRE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium pellet injection will be utilized on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) for efficient tritium fueling and to optimize the density profile for high fusion power. Conventional pneumatic pellet injectors, coupled with a guidetube system to launch pellets into the plasma from the high, field side, low field side, and vertically, will be provided for fueling along with gas puffing for plasma edge density control. About 0.1 g of tritium must be injected during each 10-s pulse. The tritium and deuterium will be exhausted into the divertor. The double null divertor will have 16 cryogenic pumps located near the divertor chamber to provide the required high pumping speed of 200 torr-L/s.

Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Gentile, C.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

1999-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sticking of Iron Ore Pellets in Direct Reduction with Coal Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A series of reduction experiments of iron ore pellets with coal gasification gas were carried out in a laboratory scale shaft furnace. The sticking

294

Energy Input and Quality of Pellets Made from Steam-Exploded Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)  

SciTech Connect

Ground softwood Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was treated with pressurized saturated steam at 200-220 C (1.6-2.4 MPa) for 5-10 min in a sealed container. The contents of the container were released to the atmosphere for a sudden decompression. The steam-exploded wood particles were dried to 10% moisture content and pelletized in a single-piston-cylinder system. The pellets were characterized for their mechanical strength, chemical composition, and moisture sorption. The steamtreated wood required 12-81% more energy to compact into pellets than the untreated wood. Pellets made from steam-treated wood had a breaking strength 1.4-3.3 times the strength of pellets made from untreated wood. Steam-treated pellets had a reduced equilibrium moisture content of 2-4% and a reduced expansion after pelletization. There was a slight increase in the high heating value from 18.94 to 20.09 MJ/kg for the treated samples. Steam-treated pellets exhibited a higher lengthwise rigidity compared to untreated pellets.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

Diesel fuel filtration system  

SciTech Connect

The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel`s hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system.

Schneider, D. [Wisconsin Fuel and Light, Wausau, WI (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Novel carbon-ion fuel cells. Second quarter 1995 technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research continued on carbon-ion fuel cells. This period, the project is proceeding with the construction of an apparatus to create a solid electrolyte in the form of castings, or highly pressed and sintered pellets of CeC{sub 2} and LaC{sub 2} and to test the castings or pellets for the ionic conduction of carbon-ions across the electrolyte.

LaViers, H.

1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

DESIGN [fabrication] BUILD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DESIGN [fabrication] BUILD proposes a new relationship among the architect, homeowner, and fabricator/assembler through the use of parametric software in order to create a truly customizable prefabricated home. This ...

Rader, Nicolas Glen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no visible impacts on neutronic characteristics compared with reference full UOX core. The fuel cycle analysis has shown that {sup 233}U mono-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel could save 13% of natural uranium resource compared with UOX once through fuel cycle, slightly more than that of Plutonium single-recycling with MOX fuel. If {sup 233}U multi-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel is implemented, more natural uranium resource would be saved. (authors)

Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S. [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Inst., No. 29, Hongcao Road, Shanghai, 200233 (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

Mark Borland; Steve Frank

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-off Study |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-off LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-off Study Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Cladding System Development Trade-off Study The LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program activities must support the timeline dictated by utility life extension decisions to demonstrate a lead test rod in a commercial reactor within 10 years. In order to maintain the demanding development schedule that must accompany this aggressive timeline, the LWRS Program focuses on advanced fuel cladding systems that retain standard UO2 fuel pellets for deployment in currently operating LWR power plants. The LWRS work scope focuses on fuel system components outside of the fuel pellet, allowing for alteration of the existing zirconium-based clad system through coatings, addition of ceramic sleeves, or complete replacement

302

Core Competencies Performing topical research in plasma boundary physics, fueling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

innovation. Experimental plasma physics Plasma theory Enabling technologies High-speed hydrogen pellet injector for fueling fusion devices Fusion Nuclear Science Facility Developing plasma heating/current drive and chamber technologies to help identify and resolve fusion reactor issues, for example, high power density

303

SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY URANIUM COMPOUNDS. Monthly Progress Report No. 8 for April 1 through April 31, 1960  

SciTech Connect

The effort on uranium silicide during the repent period was equally divided between synthesis and fabrication. The goal for the synthesizing effort was to make U/sub 3/8i/sub 2/ of higher purity than that made in the past, and the goal for the fabrication effort was to make pellets of density higher than 93%. Both goals were achieved. Experiments in simultaneous synthesis and fabrication of uranium monocarbide are reported in which mixtures of uranium powder and carbon were hot pressed. Sintering experiments on uranium monocarbide produced pellets of 91 to 91% theoretical density; however, cracking and oxidation were observed. Further experiments are planned in which oxidation will be reduced to a minimum. (J.R.D.)

Taylor, K.M.; Lenie, C.A.; Doherty, P.E.; Hailey, L.N.; Keaty, T.J.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

304

Verktyg för lönsamhetsberäkningar vid bränslekonvertering av spetslastpannor från olja till pellets; Tool for estimating the profitability of converting a peak-load oil-fired boiler to pellets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This report summarizes the development of a calculation program estimating the profitability of converting a peak-load oil-fired boiler to pellets. To convert an oil-fired… (more)

Sorby, Jonathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

306

Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is supported by the Danish Government. One of the main barriers for extension of wood pellet production is lack1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;3 · Implementation of low cost anaerobic

307

First Arkansas Mill of its kind turns sawdust into stove pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a new mill in Arkansas that converts waste sawdust into pellets for use in a new kind of stove like the ones two Resource Conservation and Development Districts placed in 20 districts as a demonstration project. A review of the wood pellet industry and of this particular project is provided.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

22.251 / 22.351 Systems Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course provides an in-depth technical and policy analysis of various options for the nuclear fuel cycle. Topics include uranium supply, enrichment fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, ...

Kazimi, Mujid S.

310

Neutron and hard x-ray measurements during pellet deposition in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of neutrons and hard x rays are made with a pair of plastic scintillators during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium TFTR plasmas. Three cases are investigated. During ohmic heating in plasmas with few runaway electrons, the neutron emission does not increase when a pellet is injected, indicating that strong acceleration of the pellet ions does not occur. In ohmic plasmas with low but detectable levels of runaway electrons, an x-ray burst is observed on a detector near the pellet injector as the pellet ablates, while a detector displaced 126/sup 0/ toroidally from the injector does not measure a synchronous burst. Reduced pellet penetration correlates with the presence of x-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the burst is bremsstrahlung from runaway electrons that strike the solid pellet. In deuterium beam-heated discharges, an increase in the d-d neutron emission is observed when the pellet ablates. In this case, the increase is due to fusion reactions between beam ions and the high density neutral and plasma cloud produced by ablation of the pellet; this localized density perturbation equilibrates in about 700 ..mu..sec. Analysis of the data indicates that the density propagates without forming a sharp shock front with a rapid initial propagation velocity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec) that subsequently decreases to around 3 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Modelling suggests that the electron heat flux into the pellet cloud is much less than the classical Spitzer value.

Heidbrink, W.W.; Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Schneider, W.; Ramsey, A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method and apparatus for making uniform pellets for fusion reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for making uniform pellets for laser driven fusion reactors which comprises selection of a quantity of glass frit which has been accurately classified as to size within a few micrometers and contains an occluded material, such as urea, which gasifies and expands when heated. The sized particles are introduced into an apparatus which includes a heated vertical tube with temperatures ranging from 800.degree. C to 1300.degree. C. The particles are heated during the drop through the tube to molten condition wherein the occluded material gasifies to form hollow microspheres which stabilize in shape and plunge into a collecting liquid at the bottom of the tube. The apparatus includes the vertical heat resistant tube, heaters for the various zones of the tube and means for introducing the frit and collecting the formed microspheres.

Budrick, Ronald G. (Ann Arbor, MI); King, Frank T. (Hillsboro, OR); Martin, Alfred J. (Ann Arbor, MI); Nolen, Jr., Robert L. (Ann Arbor, MI); Solomon, David E. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaluation of weapons-grade mixed oxide fuel performance in U.S. Light Water Reactors using COMETHE 4D release 23 computer code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The COMETHE 4D Release 23 computer code was used to evaluate the thermal, chemical and mechanical performance of weapons-grade MOX fuel irradiated under U.S. light water reactor typical conditions. Comparisons were made to and UO? fuels exhibited similar conventional UO? fuel. Weapons-grade MOX behavior. However, MOX fuel rods feature higher fuel centerline temperatures due to a lower thermal conductivity. Moreover, higher diffusion in MOX fuel results in a slightly higher fission gas release. Finally, MOX fuel shows better mechanical behavior than UO? fuel due to lower pellet-cladding mechanical interaction and rod deformation. These results indicate that the MOX fuel meets all potential licensing requirements.

Bellanger, Philippe

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

WCAP-10574  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

more than 6 tonnes of mixed oxide fuel pellets. Fabrication of these rods required handling of nearly ZOO kilo- grams of plutonium of various isotopic analyses. The...

314

Natural Fueling of a Tokamak Fusion Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A natural fueling mechanism that helps to maintain the main core deuterium and tritium (DT) density profiles in a tokamak fusion reactor is discussed. In H-mode plasmas dominated by ion- temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, cold DT ions near the edge will naturally pinch radially inward towards the core. This mechanism is due to the quasi-neutral heat flux dominated nature of ITG turbulence and still applies when trapped and passing kinetic electron effects are included. Fueling using shallow pellet injection or supersonic gas jets is augmented by an inward pinch of could DT fuel. The natural fueling mechanism is demonstrated using the three-dimensional toroidal electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence code GEM and is analyzed using quasilinear theory. Profiles similar to those used for conservative ITER transport modeling that have a completely flat density profile are examined and it is found that natural fueling actually reduces the linear growth rates and energy transport.

Wan, Weigang; Chen, Yang; Perkins, Francis W

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

EXTRUDED CERAMIC NUCLEAR FUEL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Urania rods 6-in. long and 0.475-in. in diameter were extruded and sintered to densities exceeding 94% of the theoratical urania density. The rods dropped freely through a straight metal tube 8-in. long with an internal diameter 0.004-in. greater than the diameter of the rods. All properties of the extruded and sintered rods relevant to their use as a nuclear fuel material were at least equal to the corresponding properties of pressed and sintered urania pellets. Extruded and sintered urania rods can be produced with standard ceramic-industry machinery. From preliminary estimates it appears that extrusions may be produced more cheaply than pellets. (auth)

1961-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fabrication and Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2010 ... Fabrication of Artificial Bone by the Combination of Electrospinning, Extrusion and Slurry Processes: Hiep Nguyen1; Byong-Taek Lee1; ...

317

Welding austenitic steel clads for fast reactor fuel pins  

SciTech Connect

ABS>From symposium on fuel and elements for fast reactors; Brussels. Belgium (2 Jul 1973). Developmental programs aimed at fabrication of stainless steelclad PuO/sub 2/ fuel pins are described. Information and data are included on welding fast reactor fuel cans, methods of reducing the incidence of weld cracking, effects of weld stresses, and fuel plug design. (JRD)

Papeleux, P.; Flipot, A.J.; Lafontaine, I.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Tensile Hoop Behavior of Irradiated Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding  

SciTech Connect

A method for evaluating the room temperature ductility behavior of irradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding has been developed and applied to evaluate tensile hoop strength of material irradiated to different levels. The test utilizes a polyurethane plug fitted within a tubular cladding specimen. A cylindrical punch is used to compress the plug axially, which generates a radial displacement that acts upon the inner diameter of the specimen. Position sensors track the radial displacement of the specimen outer diameter as the compression proceeds. These measurements coupled with ram force data provide a load-displacement characterization of the cladding response to internal pressurization. The development of this simple, cost-effective, highly reproducible test for evaluating tensile hoop strain as a function of internal pressure for irradiated specimens represents a significant advance in the mechanical characterization of irradiated cladding. In this project, nuclear fuel rod assemblies using Zircaloy-4 cladding and two types of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel pellets were irradiated to varying levels of burnup. Fuel pellets were manufactured with and without thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) processing. Fuel pellets manufactured by both methods were contained in fuel rod assemblies and irradiated to burnup levels of 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/MT. These levels of fuel burnup correspond to fast (E > 1 MeV) fluences of 0.27, 0.68, 0.98, 1.4 and 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2, respectively. Following irradiation, fuel rod assemblies were disassembled; fuel pellets were removed from the cladding; and the inner diameter of cladding was cleaned to remove residue materials. Tensile hoop strength of this cladding material was tested using the newly developed method. Unirradiated Zircaloy-4 cladding was also tested. With the goal of determining the effect of the two fuel types and different neutron fluences on clad ductility, tensile hoop strength tests were performed on cladding for these varying conditions. Experimental data revealed negligible performance differences for cladding containing TIGR vs non-TIGR processed fuel pellets. Irradiation hardening was observed in tensile hoop data as the strength of the cladding increased with increasing neutron dose and appeared to saturate for a fast fluence of 1.7 1021 neutrons/cm2.

Jaramillo, Roger A [ORNL; Hendrich, WILLIAM R [ORNL; Packan, Nicolas H [ORNL

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0 2.5% and 35.5 2.7%, mean bulk density as and, and classified as Class-3:Medium and Class-3&4:Medium to Low for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr s compressibility index classify wood pellets as freely flowing. The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University; Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mohammad, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

322

Improved nuclear fuel assembly grid spacer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fuel assembly grid spacer and method of retaining the basic fuel rod support elements in position within the fuel assembly containment channel. The improvement involves attachment of the grids to the hexagonal channel and of forming the basic fuel rod support element into a grid structure, which provides a design which is insensitive to potential channel distortion (ballooning) at high fluence levels. In addition the improved method eliminates problems associated with component fabrication and assembly.

Marshall, John (San Jose, CA); Kaplan, Samuel (Los Gatos, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Coprocessed nuclear fuels containing (U, Pu) values as oxides, carbides or carbonitrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for direct coprocessing of nuclear fuels derived from a product stream of fuels reprocessing facility containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values comprising nitrate stabilization of said stream vacuum concentration to remove water and nitrates, neutralization to form an acid deficient feed solution for the internal gelation mode of sol-gel technology, green spherule formation, recovery and treatment for loading into a fuel element by vibra packed or pellet formation technologies.

Lloyd, M.H.

1981-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

324

Coprocessed nuclear fuels containing (U, Pu) values as oxides, carbides or carbonitrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for direct coprocessing of nuclear fuels derived from a product stream of a fuels reprocessing facility containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values comprising nitrate stabilization of said stream vacuum concentration to remove water and nitrates, neutralization to form an acid deficient feed solution for the internal gelation mode of sol-gel technology, green spherule formation, recovery and treatment for loading into a fuel element by vibra packed or pellet formation technologies.

Lloyd, Milton H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High Burn-Up Properties of the Fuel Variants Irradiated in IFA-649  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "standard product" uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel pellet has remained unchanged for many years and provides excellent performance in all but the most extreme reactor operation. The requirement to prolong fuel residence in commercial reactors, thus increasing discharge levels of burn-up, has led to a need for detailed measurements of high burn-up properties under a variety of normal and off-normal conditions. The changes in fuel material properties, such as density and swelling, ...

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Root Cause Analysis of Failed ATRIUM-10B Fuel Rod from Forsmark-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fuel Reliability Program (FRP) is co-sponsoring numerous research projects to investigate fuel failures associated with power or sequence changes in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and thereby identify the root cause of these failures and provide guidance to avoid future failures. This subject report is complementary to Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report 1015453, Fuel Reliability Guideline: Pellet-Cladding Interaction, as well as other EPRI technical reports (1011100, 1014876, 1018037, 10...

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

328

Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction Analysis during Load-Following ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed linking module between a fuel performance code and the ... Crack Growth Rates of Irradiated Commercial Stainless Steels in BWR and PWR Environments ... Hydride Behavior in Zircaloy-4 during Thermomechanical Cycling.

329

SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF REFRACTORY URANIUM COMPOUNDS. Quarterly Report No. 4 for March 1 to April 30 and July 31, 1960  

SciTech Connect

Additional work on the synthesis and fabrication of uranium nitride produced an improved product free of oxide contamination as indicated by x-ray analysis. Further work to increase the density of the sintered pellets is needed. A stock of several pounds of stoichiometric uranium monocarbide was prepared by carbon reduction of uranium dioxide. Pellets having bulk densities ranging from 93 to 96% theoretical were obtained by cold pressing and sfntering. Initial experiments on the fabrication of bars, 3 by 1/2 by 1/4 in., by cold pressing and sintering, resulted in sound but somewhat low-density bodies. A few experiments were conducted on the production of uranium monocarbide from ammonium diuranate. The results indicate that considerable addftional work may be necessary to consistently produce a stoichiometric product. The simultaneous synthesis ard hot pressing of uranium monocarbide was funther studied and pellets with balk densities as high as 96.6% theoretical (based on 100% UC) were produced. However, metallographic examination disclosed the presence of some free uranium metal in all pellets. The synthesis of 1-lb batches of U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ of improved quality was successfully carried out by a nonquench method. Using the U/ sub 3/Si/sub 2/ so produced, sound pellets with bulk densities up to 98.5% theoretical were prepared by cold pressing and sintering. The sintering technique was also used to produce 3- by 1/2- by 1/4-in. bars for physical- property tests. (auth)

Taylor, K.M.; Lenie, C.A.; Doherty, P.E.; McMurtry, C.H.

1960-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

330

Doping d-UO 2 fuel pellets for improved hardness and fracture ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the effects of these oxide dopants on the fracture toughness of depleted uranium oxide (d-UO2) at temperatures between ...

331

Alternate Concepts for Generating High Speed DT Pellets for Fueling ITER (A26261)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proc. Of 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., Geneva, Switzerland, 2008, Paper FT/P2-23, Http://www.fec2008.ch/?page=Preprints22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference Geneva, CH, 2008999615120

Callis, R.W.

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

332

Method of mounting a fuel pellet in a laser-excited fusion reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser irradiation means for irradiating a target, wherein a single laser light beam from a source and a mirror close to the target are used with aperture means for directing laser light to interact with the target over a broad area of the surface, and for protecting the laser light source.

Hirsch, Robert L. (Potomac, MD)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Drop Test Results for the Combustion Engineering Model No. ABB-2901 Fuel Pellet Package  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) contracted with the Packaging Review Group (PRG) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a single, 30-ft shallow-angle drop test on the Combustion Engineering ABB-2901 drum-type shipping package. The purpose of the test was to determine if bolted-ring drum closures could fail during shallow-angle drops. The PRG at LLNL planned the test, and Defense Technologies Engineering Division (DTED) personnel from LLNL's Site-300 Test Group executed the plan. The test was conducted in November 2001 using the drop-tower facility at LLNL's Site 300. Two representatives from Westinghouse Electric Company in Columbia, South Carolina (WEC-SC); two USNRC staff members; and three PRG members from LLNL witnessed the preliminary test runs and the final test. The single test clearly demonstrated the vulnerability of the bolted-ring drum closure to shallow-angle drops-the test package's drum closure was easily and totally separated from the drum package. The results of the preliminary test runs and the 30-ft shallow-angle drop test offer valuable qualitative understandings of the shallow-angle impact.

Hafner, R S; Mok, G C; Hagler, L G

2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

334

Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations  

SciTech Connect

The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

Oversby, V.M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WoodFuels LLC WoodFuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name International WoodFuels LLC Place Portland, Maine Zip 4101 Product Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates 45.511795°, -122.675629° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.511795,"lon":-122.675629,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

336

Fluidic fuel feed system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the development and testing of a fluidic fuel injector for a coal-water slurry fueled diesel engine. The objective of this program was to improve the operating life of coal-water slurry fuel controls and injector components by using fluidic technology. This project addressed the application of fluidic devices to solve the problems of efficient atomization of coal-water slurry fuel and of injector component wear. The investigation of injector nozzle orifice design emphasized reducing the pressure required for efficient atomization. The effort to minimize injector wear includes the novel design of components allowing the isolation of the coal-water slurry from close-fitting injector components. Three totally different injectors were designed, fabricated, bench tested and modified to arrive at a final design which was capable of being engine tested. 6 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Badgley, P.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Method of preparation of bonded polyimide fuel cell package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan (Livermore, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA); Bettencourt, Kerry (Dublin, CA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

338

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A Physically Based, Nondimensional Parameter for Discriminating between Locations of Freezing Rain and Ice Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nondimensional parameter is presented that can he used to help distinguish between conditions favorable for the occurrence of freezing rain and ice pellets. The parameter was derived from the well-established condition that most incidents of ...

Robert R. Czys; Robert W. Scott; K. C. Tang; Ronald W. Przybylinski; Michael E. Sabones

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Influences of Mgo on Roasting Properties of Iron Ore Oxidized Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arc Plasma Smelting of Niobium Pentoxide towards Production of Nb Metal ... Phase Transformation of Andalusite-Mullite and Its Fiber Reinforcement to Refractory ... Preparation of Metallized Pellets and Recovery of Tin and Zinc from Tin, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Regional and Local Influences on Freezing Drizzle, Freezing Rain,and Ice Pellet Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional and local influences on frequency and type of freezing precipitation (freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellets) are investigated via in-depth climatologies of six continental United States (CONUS) sounding sites. For each site, ...

Ben C. Bernstein

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Standard test methods for analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the analysis of sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Section Carbon (Total) by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity Method C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion-Selective Electrode Method C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinia Content by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry C1456 Test Method for Determination of Uranium or Gadolinium, or Both, in Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Oxide Pellets or by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Hydrogen by Inert Gas Fusion C1457 Test Method for Determination of Total Hydrogen Content of Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets by Carrier Gas Extraction Isotopic Uranium Composition by Multiple-Filament Surface-Ioni...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

burning equipment SUMMARY DemoEast programme is a part of Baltic Billion Fund 2 with the overall aim and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

344

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Maximum Rebate $6,000 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (FY 2013) Start Date 04/14/2010 Expiration Date When progr State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount 30% Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum rebate is $6,000. To qualify, systems must (1) become operational on or after May 1,

345

Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Particle fueling and impurity control in PDX  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fueling requirements and impurity levels in neutral-beam-heated discharges in the PDX tokamak have been compared for plasmas formed with conventional graphite rail limiters, a particle scoop limiter, and an open or closed poloidal divertor. Gas flows necessary to obtain a given density are highest for diverted discharges and lowest for the scoop limiter. Hydrogen pellet injection provides an efficient alternate fueling technique, and a multiple pellet injector has produced high density discharges for an absorbed neutral beam power of up to 600 kW, above which higher speeds or more massive pellets are required for penetration to the plasma core. Power balance studies indicate that 30 to 40% of the total input power is radiated while approx. 15% is absorbed by the limiting surface, except in the open divertor case, where 60% flows to the neutralizer plate. In all operating configurations, Z/sub eff/ usually rises at the onset of neutral beam injection. Both open divertor plasmas and those formed on a well conditioned water-cooled limiter have Z/sub eff/ less than or equal to 2 at the end of neutral injection. A definitive comparison of divertors and limiters for impurity control purposes requires longer beam pulses or higher power levels than available on present machines.

Fonck, R.J.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.; Budny, R.; Couture, P.; Darrow, D.; Dylla, H.; Goldston, R.; Grek, B.; Hawryluk, R.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Coated Particle Fuel Development Lab (CPFDL) | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coated Particle Fuel Development Lab Coated Particle Fuel Development Lab May 30, 2013 Computer controlled fluidized bed CVD particle coating system The Coated Particle Fuel Development Laboratory is a modern, integrated facility for laboratory scale fabrication and characterization of uranium-bearing coated particle fuel (CPF). Within this facility, tri-isotropic (TRISO) coatings are deposited on various fuel kernels by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), particles are pressed into fuel compacts for irradiation, and state-of-the-art materials property characterization is performed, all under an NQA-1 compliant Quality Assurance program. Current work includes fabrication and characterization of coated particle fuels to support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Small Modular Reactors, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, and Advanced Light Water Reactor

348

PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

350

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

351

Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover  

SciTech Connect

Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

Stengel, F.G.

1963-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

353

Heat pipe fabrication  

SciTech Connect

A heat pipe is disclosed which is fabricated with an artery arranged so that the warp and weave of the wire mesh are at about a 45/sup 0/ angle with respect to the axis of the heat pipe.

Leinoff, S.; Edelstein, F.; Combs, W.

1977-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nuclear Fabrication Consortium  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) � Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : � Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. � Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. � Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. � Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. � Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. � Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. � Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. � Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium projects. Full technical reports for each of the projects have been submitted as well.

Levesque, Stephen

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

355

Fabricated torque shaft  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Incorporation of Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Boron and Gadolinium into Zirconium-Alloy Fuel Clad Material  

SciTech Connect

Long-lived fuels require the use of higher enrichments of 235U or other fissile materials. Such high levels of fissile material lead to excessive fuel activity at the beginning of life. To counteract this excessive activity, integral fuel burnable absorbers (IFBA) are added to some rods in the fuel assembly. The two commonly used IFBA elements are gadolinium, which is added as gadolinium-oxide to the UO2 powder, and boron, which is applied as a zirconium-diboride coating on the UO2 pellets using plasma spraying or chemical vapor deposition techniques. The incorporation of IFBA into the fuel has to be performed in a nuclear-regulated facility that is physically separated from the main plant. These operations tend to be very costly because of their small volume and can add from 20 to 30% to the manufacturing cost of the fuel. Other manufacturing issues that impact cost and performance are maintaining the correct levels of dosing, the reduction in fuel melting point due to gadolinium-oxide additions, and parasitic neutron absorption at fuel's end-of-life. The goal of the proposed research is to develop an alternative approach that involves incorporation of boron or gadolinium into the outer surface of the fuel cladding material rather than as an additive to the fuel pellets. This paradigm shift will allow for the introduction of the IFBA in a non-nuclear regulated environment and will obviate the necessity of additional handling and processing of the fuel pellets. This could represent significant cost savings and potentially lead to greater reproducibility and control of the burnable fuel in the early stages of the reactor operation. The surface alloying is being performed using the IBEST (Ion Beam Surface Treatment) process developed at Sandia National Laboratories. IBEST involves the delivery of energetic ion beam pulses onto the surface of a material, near-surface melting, and rapid solidification. The non-equilibrium nature of such processing allows for surface alloying well in excess of the thermodynamically dictated solubility limits, an effect that is particularly relevant to this research due to the negligible solubility of boron and gadolinium in zirconium. University of Wisconsin is performing the near surface materials characterization and analysis, aiding Sandia in process optimization, and promoting educational activities. Westinghouse is performing process manufacturability and scale-up analysis and is performing autoclave testing of the surface treated samples. The duration of this NERI project is 2 years, from 9/2002 to 9/2004.

Sridharan, K.; Renk, T.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Corradini, M.L

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

Technical Project Plan for The Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Oxide Fuels Through the Addition of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and Microstructural Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The commercial nuclear power industry is investing heavily in advanced fuels that can produce higher power levels with a higher safety margin and be produced at low cost. Although chemically stable and inexpensive to manufacture, the in-core performance of UO{sub 2} fuel is limited by its low thermal conductivity. There will be enormous financial benefits to any utility that can exploit a new type of fuel that is chemically stable, has a high thermal conductivity, and is inexpensive to manufacture. At reactor operating temperatures, UO{sub 2} has a very low thermal conductivity (<5 W/m {center_dot}K), which decreases with temperature and fuel burnup. This low thermal conductivity limits the rate at which energy can be removed from the fuel, thus limiting the total integrated reactor power. If the fuel thermal conductivity could be increased, nuclear reactors would be able to operate at higher powers and larger safety margins thus decreasing the overall cost of electricity by increasing the power output from existing reactors and decreasing the number of new electrical generating plants needed to meet base load demand. The objective of the work defined herein is to produce an advanced nuclear fuel based on the current UO{sub 2} fuel with superior thermal conductivity and structural integrity that is suitable for current and future nuclear reactors, using the existing fuel fabrication infrastructure with minimal modifications. There are two separate components to the research: (1) Enhanced Thermal Conductivity (ETC) - adding high conductivity fibers to the UO{sub 2} prior to sintering, which act as conduits for moving the heat energy generated within the pellet to the outer surface, (2) Microstructural Engineering (ME) - adding second phase particulates to UO{sub 2} bodies to retard grain growth and to increase thermal conductivity, as well as improve fracture and creep resistance. Different groups will perform the laboratory work for each of these research components with some overlap in personnel. The overlapping areas primarily involve computer simulations and final testing of the fuel in a reactor. The estimated cost and duration of this project is $5,000,000 over three years.

Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Becher, Paul F [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Use Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

359

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

360

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Fuel Cycle Integrated System Analysis Abdellatif M. Yacout Argonne National Laboratory Nuclear Engineering Division The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex system with multiple components and activities that are combined to provide nuclear energy to a variety of end users. The end uses of nuclear energy are diverse and include electricity, process heat, water desalination, district heating, and possibly future hydrogen production for transportation and energy storage uses. Components of the nuclear fuel cycle include front end components such as uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, and the reactor component. Back end of the fuel cycle include used fuel coming out the reactor, used fuel temporary and permanent storage, and fuel reprocessing. Combined with those components there

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

363

Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Program's TRISO Particle Fuel Sets A New World  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Program's TRISO Particle Fuel Sets A New Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Program's TRISO Particle Fuel Sets A New World Record For Irradiation Performance Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Program's TRISO Particle Fuel Sets A New World Record For Irradiation Performance November 16, 2009 - 1:12pm Addthis As part of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program has achieved a new international record for irradiation testing of next-generation particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). The AGR Fuel Development Program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 2002 to develop the advanced fabrication and characterization technologies, and provide irradiation and safety performance data required to license TRISO particle fuel for the NGNP and future HTGRs. The AGR

364

PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

365

High loading uranium fuel plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

367

Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Novel Anode Materials For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Dissertation committee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fabrication of alternative anodes for direct methane oxidation in SOFC". Publisher: Twente University Press, P cells (SOFC). The principles and materials employed for SOFC are described. Emphasis is on the anode (PAFC), · the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), · the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Each type of fuel

Verweij, Henk

369

High uranium density dispersion fuel for the reduced enrichment of research and test reactors program.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work describes the fabrication of a high uranium density fuel for the Reduced Enrichment of Research and Test Reactors Program. In an effort to… (more)

[No author

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fabrication development of full-sized components for GCFR core assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the status of the development of full-sized components for gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core assemblies. Methods for ribbing of the fuel rod cladding, fabrication of grid spacers of two different designs, drawing of assembly flow ducts, and fabrication of fission gas collection manifolds by several methods are discussed.

Lindgren, J.R.; Flynn, P.W.; Foster, L.C.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Digg

372

Lithographic fabrication of nanoapertures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of silicon-based lithographically defined nanoapertures and processes for their fabrication using conventional silicon microprocessing technology have been invented. The new ability to create and control such structures should significantly extend our ability to design and implement chemically selective devices and processes.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

High Purity Americium-241 for Fuel Cycle R&D Program  

SciTech Connect

Previously the U.S. Department of Energy released Am-241 for various applications such as smoke detectors and Am-Be neutron sources for oil wells. At this date there is a shortage of usable, higher purity Am-241 in metal and oxide form available in the United States. Recently, the limited source of Am-241 has been from Russia with production being contracted to existing customers. The shortage has resulted in the price per gram rising dramatically over the last few years. DOE-NE currently has need for high purity Am-241 metal and oxide to fabricate fuel pellets for reactor testing in the Fuel Cycle R&D program. All the available high purity americium has been gathered from within the DOE system of laboratories. However, this is only a fraction of the projected needs of FCRD over the next 10 years. Therefore, FCR&D has proposed extraction and purification concepts to extract Am-241 from a mixed AmO2-PuO2 feedstock stored at the Savannah River Site. The most simple extraction system is based upon high temperature reduction using lanthanum metal with concurrent evaporation and condensation to produce high purity Am metal. Metallic americium has over a four order of magnitude higher vapor pressure than plutonium. Results from small-scale reduction experiments are presented. These results confirm thermodynamic predictions that at 1000 deg C metallic lanthanum reduces both PuO2 and AmO2. Faster kinetics are expected for temperatures up to about 1500 deg C.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1978  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle work included hydraulic performance and extraction efficiency of eight-stage centrifugal contactors, flowsheet for the Aralex process, Ru and Zr extraction in a miniature centrifugal contactor, study of Zr aging in the organic phase and its effect on Zr extraction and hydraulic testing of the 9-cm-ID contactor. Work for predicting accident consequences in LWR fuel processing covered the relation between energy input (to subdivide a solid) and the modes of particle size frequency distribution. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program corrosion-testing materials for containment vessels and equipment for studying carbide reactions in bismuth is under way. Analytical studies have been made of salt-transport processes; efforts to spin tungsten crucibles 13 cm dia continue, and other information on tungsten fabrication is being assembled; the process steps of the chloride volatility process have been demonstrated and the thoria powder product used to produce oxide pellets; solubility of UO/sub 2/, PuO/sub 2/, and fission products in molten alkali nitrates is being investigated; work was continued on reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting the actinides into ammonium chloroaluminate from bismuth; the preparation of thorium-uranium carbide from the oxide is being studied as a means of improving the oxide reactivity; studies are in progress on producing uranium metal and decontaminated ThO/sub 2/ by the reaction of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in molten salts containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium metal chips. In the molten tin process, no basic thermodynamic or kinetic factors have been found that may limit process development.

Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Section H: FUELS USED  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

WDPELLET Wood pellets?..... 1..... 0 WDOTHER Any other kind of wood?..... 1 ..... 0 H-8a [If WOODUSE=Yes] WOODAMT INTERVIEWER ...

377

Fuels Technology - Capabilities - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Capabilities Fuels Technology Advanced petroleum-based fuels Fuel-borne reductants On-board reforming Alternative fuels...

378

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions

379

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Motor Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle

380

Plant for the production of chips and pellet: technical and economic aspects of an case study in the central Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is the result of a technical and economic analysis about the process of transformation of forest wood in biofuels, pellets and wood chips. The experimental pilot plant is managed by a forest consortium located in the province of Terni, Umbria ... Keywords: biomass, chips and pellet, costs, wood materials

Danilo Monarca; Massimo Cecchini; Andrea Colantoni

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

Gordon, Gerald M. (Fremont, CA); Cowan, II, Robert L. (Fremont, CA); Davies, John H. (San Jose, CA)

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

382

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Promotion The Missouri Alternative Fuels Commission (Commission) promotes the continued production and use of alternative transportation fuels in

383

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The definition of an alternative fuel includes natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, hydrogen, fuel mixtures containing not less

384

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fueling Stations Photo of an ethanol fueling station. Thousands of ethanol fueling stations are available in the United States.

385

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Fueling Stations Photo of a hydrogen fueling station. A handful of hydrogen fueling stations are available in the United States

386

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a biodiesel fueling station. Hundreds of biodiesel fueling stations are available in the United States.

387

PML Develops Graphene Fabrication Capability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PML Develops Graphene Fabrication Capability. October 3, 2011. ... That further limits the growth of the graphene, we think. ...

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

388

Process for preparing and using sweet sorghum in a fuel product  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of storing sweet sorghum preparatory to pelletizing it for use as a combustible fuel product comprising: removing a majority of sugar-containing fluid from the sorghum to leave a residue of ligno-cellulosic bagasse; piling the bagasse on a hard surface; compressing the piled bagasse to form a compacted mass, whereby the compressing frees air trapped within the bagasse to inhibit microbial and fungal oxidative degradation thereof; and storing the compacted mass preparatory to pelletizing the same.

Gunnerman, R.W.; Farone, W.A.

1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Ceramic fabrication R D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is separated into three tasks. The first task is a design and modeling effort to be carried out by MSE, Inc. The purpose of this task is to develop and analyze designs for various cohesive ceramic fabrication (CCF) components, including an MHD electrode for strategic defense initiative (SDI) applications and a high stress, low cost, reinforced ceramic component for armor applications. The MHD electrode design is substantially completed. A layered structure composed of molybdenum disilicide graded with quartz glass has been designed and analyzed using finite element methods. The design demonstrates the fabrication capabilities of the CCF process. The high stress, armor application component will be silicon carbide reinforced alumina in thick plates. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

DEVELOPMENT OF CLAD CERAMIC FUEL PLATES BY SPRAY-COATING TECHNIQUES. Quarterly Technical Progress Report, April-June 1961  

SciTech Connect

Studies were made on the effects of spray-coating variables on coating characteristics in the development of plasma-jet spraying techniques for making clad UO/sub 2/ fuel plates. UO/sub 2/ coatings of up to 90% theoretical density and - O/U ratios of nearly 2.00 were deposited at efficiencies of 40%. Adherent UO/sub 2/ coatings up to 0.100 inch thick can be deposited on 0.030-inch thick stainless steel and Zircaloy-2 substrates. Studies of coated composite bends and coating adherence at room temperature indicate that, for best results, the coating temperature should be maintained below 870 deg C and the substrate below 450 deg C during deposition. A plasma spray torch was tested for spraying UO/sub 2/ at 40 kw and found to be equivalent to operation at 25 kw. A preliminary cost analysis indicated considerably lower fabrication costs using plasma jet sprayingn ~ 0/kg U as compared to ~ 0/kg U for oxide pellet-in-tube elements. (D.L.C.)

Weare, N.E.; Buchanan, E.; Marchandise, H.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel Development for LWR Applications  

SciTech Connect

The concept, fabrication, and key feasibility issues of a new fuel form based on the microencapsulated (TRISO-type) fuel which has been specifically engineered for LWR application and compacted within a SiC matrix will be presented. This fuel, the so-called fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel is currently undergoing development as an accident tolerant fuel for potential UO2 replacement in commercial LWRs. While the ability of this fuel to facilitate normal LWR cycle performance is an ongoing effort within the program, this will not be a focus of this paper. Rather, key feasibility and performance aspects of the fuel will be presented including the ability to fabricate a LWR-specific TRISO, the need for and route to a high thermal conductivity and fully dense matrix that contains neutron poisons, and the performance of that matrix under irradiation and the interaction of the fuel with commercial zircaloy clad.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Final assessment of MOX fuel performance experiment with Japanese PWR specification fuel in the HBWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to obtain high burn-up MOX fuel irradiation performance data, SBR and MIMAS MOX fuel rods with Pu-fissile enrichment of about 6 wt% had been irradiated in the HBWR from 1995 to 2006. The peak burn-up of MOX pellet achieved 72 GWd/tM. In this test, fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length and cladding length were measured for MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel as reference. MOX fuel temperature is confirmed to have no significant difference in comparison with UO{sub 2}, taking into account of adequate thermal conductivity degradation due to PuO{sub 2} addition and burn-up development. And the measured fuel temperature agrees well with FINE code calculation up to high burn-up region. Fission gas release of MOX is possibly greater than UO{sub 2} based on temperature and pressure assessment. No significant difference is confirmed between SBR and MIMAS MOX on FGR behavior. MOX fuel swelling rate agrees well with solid swelling rate in the literature. Cladding elongation data shows onset of PCMI in high power region. (authors)

Fujii, Hajime; Teshima, Hideyuki; Kanasugi, Katsumasa [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1, Wadasaki-cho 1-chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Kosaka, Yuji [Nuclear Development Corporation, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1111 (Japan); Arakawa, Yasushi [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., 8 Yokota, 13 Goichi, Mihama-cho, Mikata-gun, Fukui, 919-1141 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrPellets | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrPellets SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrPellets Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pellets Pages using the property "Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrPellets" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0016 + 0.0 +

395

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Pellets | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pellets Pellets Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pellets Pages using the property "Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Pellets" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0016 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0017 + 0.0 +

396

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pellets Pages using the property "Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrPellets" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0016 + 0.0 +

397

The Mesoscale and Microscale Structure of a Severe Ice Pellet Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 1–2 February 1992 a major storm produced a prolonged period (6 h) of ice pellets over St. John's, Newfoundland. At least two key features contributed to the prolonged duration. First, a subsaturated region within an inversion led to a ...

John M. Hanesiak; Ronald E. Stewart

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Development of laboratory studies on the off-gassing of wood pellets  

SciTech Connect

In the present study three sealed containers (304.8 mm inside diameter and 609.6 mm height) were developed to investigate the concentration of off-gases accumulated in the headspace as well as changes in some of the physical properties of wood pellets during storage. Pellets occupied 75% of the container volume leaving 25% headspace. The outside wall of the steel containers was wrapped with electric heating tapes and fiber glass insulation. The storage studies were carried out at room temperature of about 22 degrees C and at elevated temperatures of 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. The off-gases were collected and analyzed using micro gas chromatography. The accumulations of CO (5000 ppmv) and CO2 (10000 ppmv) were relatively high at room temperature of about 22 degrees C for a storage period of 24 days. These accumulations increased sharply at storage temperatures greather than 30 degrees C. At 50 degrees C, the maximum measured concentration of CO, CO2 and CH4 was about17,000, 70,000 and 3,000 ppmv, respectively. Storage temperature had a significanteffect (PB0.01) on all of the pellet properties, including pellet durability, which dropped by about 20% at the end of 60 days of storage.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Xingya Kuang; Shahab Sokhansanj; C. Jim Lim; Tony Bi; Staffan Melin

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Experimental investigation of the dynamics of pellet ablation on the Texas Experimental Tokamak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid fluctuations in the ablation of hydrogen pellets in the Texas Experimental Tokamak were studied using fast photographic techniques. It is proposed that the fluctuations are a type of relaxation oscillation driven by the motion of the particle across the magnetic field. This is shown to be consistent with a time-dependent model of plasma shielding due to Kaufmann et al. A technique to include this effect in calculations of pellet ablation is discussed. Spatially resolved measurements of the temperature and density in the pellet-ablation cloud were obtained by line-to-continuum ratios and Stark broadening, respectively. Typical parameters in the pellet-ablation cloud are 5-6 eV and 1.0-1.5 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}. The flow along the magnetic field is found to be isobaric. The heating of the expanding ablatant is strongly asymmetric, being stronger on the side facing the electron-drift direction. This may be due to suprathermal electrons.

Durst, R.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Porous iron and ferric oxide pellets for hydrogen storage: texture and transport characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials for hydrogen storage based on the recovery reduction of Fe3O4 to iron and back iron oxidation to Fe3O4 by water vapor were studied. The preparation conditions for cylindrical pellets from ferric oxide/aluminium ... Keywords: hydrogen storage, inverse gas chromatography, steam iron process, transport parameters

Karel Soukup; Jan Rogut; Jacek Grabowski; Marian Wiatowski; Magdalena Ludwik-Parda?a; Petr Schneider; Olga Šolcová

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Parametric Study of Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of front-end fuel cost components for nuclear plants, specifically uranium concentrates, uranium conversion services, uranium enrichment services, and nuclear fuel fabrication services. A parametric analysis of light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle costs is also included in order to quantify the impacts that result from changes in the cost of one or more front-end components on overall fuel cycle costs.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells...

403

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

404

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

405

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com...

406

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on AddThis.com... More in this section...

407

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on AddThis.com...

408

SNAP PROGRAMS TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 2, February 1, 1961 through April 30, 1961  

SciTech Connect

Work in the processing of Sr/sup 90/ into heat sources for 4 radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric power generation systems is described. The design and engineering analysis of these thermoelectric generators are discussed. Fuel process flow and associated equipment requirements for remote conversion of Sr/sup 90/ feed material to strontium titanate pellets are covered. Previously evolved technical standards concerning raw fuel material specification were coordinated. (M.C.G.)

West, W.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.

Geddes, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Spiker, D.L.; Poon, A.P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan  

SciTech Connect

In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a report detailing very-high density fuel behavior will be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Assuming acceptable fuel behavior, it is anticipated that NRC will issue a Safety Evaluation Report granting generic approval of the developed fuels based on the qualification report. It is anticipated that Phase I of fuel qualification will be completed prior to the end of FY10. Phase II of the fuel qualification requires development of fuels with density greater than 8.5 g-U/cm3. This fuel is required to convert the remaining few reactors that have been identified for conversion. The second phase of the fuel qualification effort includes both dispersion fuels with fuel particle volume loading on the order of 65 percent, and monolithic fuels. Phase II presents a larger set of technical unknowns and schedule uncertainties than phase I. The final step in the fuel qualification process involves insertion of lead test elements into the converting reactors. Each reactor that plans to convert using the developed high-density fuels will develop a reactor specific conversion plan based upon the reactor safety basis and operating requirements. For some reactors (FRM-II, High-Flux Isotope Reactor [HFIR], and RHF) conversion will be a one-step process. In addition to the U.S. fuel development effort, a Russian fuel development strategy has been developed. Contracts with Russian Federation institutes in support of fuel development for Russian are in place.

Dan Wachs

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Economic analysis of fuel recycle  

SciTech Connect

Economic analysis was performed at KAERI with the assistance of US DOE to compare single reactor fuel cycle costs for a once-through option and a thermal recycle option to operate 1 GWe of a PWR plant for its lifetime. A reference fuel cycle cost was first calculated for each option with best estimated reference input data. Then a sensitivity analysis was performed changing each single value of such fuel cycle component costs as yellow cake price, enrichment charges, spent fuel storage cost, reprocessing cost, spent fuel disposal cost and reprocessing waste disposal cost. Savings due to thermal recycle in requirements of uranium, conversion, and enrichment were examined using formulas suggested by US DOE, while MOX fabrication penalty was accounted for. As a result of the reference fuel cycle cost analysis, it is calculated that the thermal recycle option is marginally more economical than the once-through option. The major factors affecting the comparative costs between thermal recycle and once-through are the costs of reprocessing, spent fuel storage and the difference between spent fuel disposal and reprocessing waste disposal. However, considering the uncertainty in these cost parameters there seems no immediate economic incentive for thermal recycle at the present time.

Juhn, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

414

Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

Ellingson, W.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles. It can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines (ICEs). It is an environmentally...

416

Quantitative Changes in Hydrocarbons over Time in Fecal Pellets of Incisitermes minor May Predict Whether Colonies Are Alive or Dead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

# The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from fecal pellets of drywood termites are species-specific and can be characterized to identify the termites responsible for damage, even when termites are no longer present or are unable to be recovered easily. In structures infested by drywood termites, it is common to find fecal pellets, but difficult to sample termites from the wood. When fecal pellets appear after remedial treatment of a structure, it is difficult to determine whether this indicates that termites in the structure are still alive and active or not. We examined the hydrocarbon composition of workers, alates, and soldiers of Incisitermes minor (Hagen) (family Kalotermitidae) and of fecal pellets of workers. Hydrocarbons were qualitatively similar among castes and pellets. Fecal pellets that were aged for periods of 0, 30, 90, and 365 days after collection were qualitatively similar across all time periods, however, the relative quantities of certain individual hydrocarbons changed over time, with 19 of the 73 hydrocarbon peaks relatively increasing or decreasing. When the sums of the positive and negative slopes of these 19 hydrocarbons were indexed, they produced a highly significant linear correlation (R 2 =0.89). Consequently, the quantitative differences of these hydrocarbons peaks can be used to determine the age of worker fecal pellets, and thus help determine whether the colony that produced them is alive or dead.

Vernard R. Lewis; Lori J. Nelson; Michael I. Haverty; James A. Baldwin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Ceramic fabrication R D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is separated into three tasks. The first task is a design and modeling effort to be carried out by MSE, Inc. The purpose of this task is to develop and analyze designs for various cohesive ceramic fabrication (CCF) components. This quarter, the advanced molybdenum disicilide MHD electrode design was essentially completed. Final refinements will be made after molybdenum disilicide processing results are available and the final layer compositions are established. Work involving whisker incorporation was initiated on the high stress component. It is unlikely that whiskers will become low cost, so particulate reinforcement will be pursued. Modeling work will resume once a suitable aluminum oxide/silicon carbide composition is selected that can be fired to acceptable densities by pressureless sintering. Task 2, subcontracted to Applied Technology Laboratories (ATL), is principally directed at establishing a property data base for monolithic and laminated alumina fabricated using the CCF process. This quarter, ATL demonstrated that the CCF process does not compromise the flexure strength of alumina. Task 3, subcontracted to Ceramics Binder Systems, Inc., focused on CCF silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina and on the development of processing procedures for nonoxide molybdenum disilicide. Preliminary results indicate that achieving high densities in silicon carbide particulate reinforced aluminum oxide will be difficult. Molybdenum disilicide results are encouraging, and it is clear that the CCF process will work with this nonoxide material. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Market study for the import of wood pellets from Russia to Finland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Traditional fuels - oil, gas and coal - are non-renewable energy sources, thus the world is looking for alternative fuels. Bioenergy is coming with a… (more)

Ratkovskaya, Irina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fueling Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

420

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Animation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel pellet fabrication" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emerging Fuels Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Emerging Alternative Fuels Several emerging alternative fuels are under development or already developed and may be available in the United States. These fuels may

422

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

423

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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Lithium pellet production (LiPP): A device for the production of small spheres of lithium  

SciTech Connect

With lithium as a fusion material gaining popularity, a method for producing lithium pellets relatively quickly has been developed for NSTX. The Lithium Pellet Production device is based on an injector with a sub-millimeter diameter orifice and relies on a jet of liquid lithium breaking apart into small spheres via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A prototype device is presented in this paper and for a pressure difference of {Delta}P= 5 Torr, spheres with diameters between 0.91 < D < 1.37 mm have been produced with an average diameter of D= 1.14 mm, which agrees with the developed theory. Successive tests performed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Wood's metal have confirmed the dependence of sphere diameter on pressure difference as predicted.

Fiflis, P.; Andrucyzk, D.; McGuire, M.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

425