National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel oil jet

  1. Conversion of crop seed oils to jet fuel and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Thompson, David N.

    2010-05-18

    Aspects of the invention include methods to produce jet fuel from biological oil sources. The method may be comprised of two steps: hydrocracking and reforming. The process may be self-sufficient in heat and hydrogen.

  2. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  3. Coal liquefaction process wherein jet fuel, diesel fuel and/or ASTM No. 2 fuel oil is recovered

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Richard F.; Ryan, Daniel F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for the liquefaction of coal and similar solid carbonaceous materials wherein a hydrogen donor solvent or diluent derived from the solid carbonaceous material is used to form a slurry of the solid carbonaceous material and wherein the naphthenic components from the solvent or diluent fraction are separated and used as jet fuel components. The extraction increases the relative concentration of hydroaromatic (hydrogen donor) components and as a result reduces the gas yield during liquefaction and decreases hydrogen consumption during said liquefaction. The hydrogenation severity can be controlled to increase the yield of naphthenic components and hence the yield of jet fuel and in a preferred embodiment jet fuel yield is maximized while at the same time maintaining solvent balance.

  4. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  5. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  6. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  7. Jet Fuel from Microalgal Lipids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    A fact sheet on production of jet fuel or multi-purpose military fuel from lipids produced by microalgae.

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  11. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  12. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  13. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  14. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  15. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  16. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  17. Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolysis,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 27, 2017 Title: Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil Authors: Natelson, Robert H. Search SciTech Connect for author

  18. Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo Return to: Manufacturing Home Page Fuel Oil Facts Oil Price Effect Fuel Switching Actual Fuel Switching Storage Capacity Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing Why Look at Fuel Oil?...

  19. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  1. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  2. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas–Emitting Jet Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On behalf of the Department of Defense and the U.S. Air Force, the Energy Department is seeking research projects that would lead to the commercial production of coal-derived jet fuel. Creating jet fuels from coal capitalizes on an abundant domestic energy resource and lessens our dependence on foreign oil for jet fuel production.

  4. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  5. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  6. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  7. Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

  8. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  9. Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight August 26, 2015 - 3:58pm Addthis Zia Haq Senior Analyst and Defense Production Act Coordinator, Bioenergy ...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  11. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upatnieks, Ansis (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  12. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" ...

  13. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  14. Jet Fuel from Camelina: Jet Fuel From Camelina Sativa: A Systems Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: NC State will genetically modify the oil-crop plant Camelina sativa to produce high quantities of both modified oils and terpenes. These components are optimized for thermocatalytic conversion into energy-dense drop-in transportation fuels. The genetically engineered Camelina will capture more carbon than current varieties and have higher oil yields. The Camelina will be more tolerant to drought and heat, which makes it suitable for farming in warmer and drier climate zones in the US. The increased productivity of NC State’s-enhanced Camelina and the development of energy-effective harvesting, extraction, and conversion technology could provide an alternative non-petrochemical source of fuel.

  15. Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on ...

  16. Sooting characteristics of surrogates for jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mensch, Amy; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, modeling the combustion of aviation fuels, such as JP-8 and JetA, is not feasible due to the complexity and compositional variation of these practical fuels. Surrogate fuel mixtures, composed of a few pure hydrocarbon compounds, are a key step toward modeling the combustion of practical aviation fuels. For the surrogate to simulate the practical fuel, the composition must be designed to reproduce certain pre-designated chemical parameters such as sooting tendency, H/C ratio, autoignition, as well as physical parameters such as boiling range and density. In this study, we focused only on the sooting characteristics based on the Threshold Soot Index (TSI). New measurements of TSI values derived from the smoke point along with other sooting tendency data from the literature have been combined to develop a set of recommended TSI values for pure compounds used to make surrogate mixtures. When formulating the surrogate fuel mixtures, the TSI values of the components are used to predict the TSI of the mixture. To verify the empirical mixture rule for TSI, the TSI values of several binary mixtures of candidate surrogate components were measured. Binary mixtures were also used to derive a TSI for iso-cetane, which had not previously been measured, and to verify the TSI for 1-methylnaphthalene, which had a low smoke point and large relative uncertainty as a pure compound. Lastly, surrogate mixtures containing three components were tested to see how well the measured TSI values matched the predicted values, and to demonstrate that a target value for TSI can be maintained using various components, while also holding the H/C ratio constant. (author)

  17. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  18. NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from Switchgrass -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from Switchgrass Project could spur jobs in rural America, lead to less reliance of foreign oil June 6, 2013 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is partnering with Cobalt Technologies, U.S. Navy, and Show Me Energy Cooperative to demonstrate that jet fuel can be made economically and in large quantities from a renewable biomass feedstock such as switch grass. "This can be an

  19. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  20. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

  1. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  2. A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, Stephen; Won, Sang Hee; Chaos, Marcos; Heyne, Joshua; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen; Wang, Haowei; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.

    2010-12-15

    An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated by constraining a mixture of n-decane, iso-octane and toluene to reproduce the hydrogen/carbon ratio and derived cetane number of the target fuel. The validity of the proposed surrogate is evaluated by experimental measurement of select combustion properties of POSF 4658, and the POSF 4658 surrogate. (1)A variable pressure flow reactor has been used to chart the chemical reactivity of stoichiometric mixtures of POSF 4658/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and POSF 4658 surrogate/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} at 12.5 atm and 500-1000 K, fixing the carbon content at 0.3% for both mixtures. (2)The high temperature chemical reactivity and chemical kinetic-molecular diffusion coupling of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate have been evaluated by measurement of the strained extinction limit of diffusion flames. (3)The autoignition behavior of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate has been measured with a shock tube at 674-1222 K and with a rapid compression machine at 645-714 K for stoichiometric mixtures of fuel in air at pressures close to 20 atm. The flow reactor study shows that the character and extent of chemical reactivity of both fuels at low temperature (500-675 K) and high temperature (900 K+) are extremely similar. Slight differences in the transition from the end of the negative temperature coefficient regime to hot ignition are observed. The diffusion flame strained extinction limits of the fuels are observed to be indistinguishable when compared on a molar basis. Ignition delay measurements also show that POSF 4658 exhibits NTC behavior. Moreover, the ignition delays of both fuels are also extremely similar over the temperature range studied in both shock tube and rapid compression machine experiments. A chemical kinetic model is constructed and utilized to interpret the experimental observations and provides a rationale as to why the real fuel and surrogate fuel exhibit such similar reactivity. (author)

  3. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two different co-processed fuel oils were tested: one that had been partially hydrotreated, and the other a product of fractionation before hydrotreating. Task 5 focused on examining refining methods that would utilize coal and produce thermally stable jet fuel, included delayed coking and solvent extraction. Delayed coking was done on blends of decant oil and coal, with the goal to produce a premium carbon product and liquid fuels. Coking was done on bench scale and large laboratory scale cokers. Two coals were examined for co-coking, using Pittsburgh seam coal and Marfork coal product. Reactions in the large, laboratory scaled coker were reproducible in yields of products and in quality of products. While the co-coke produced from both coals was of sponge coke quality, minerals left in the coke made it unacceptable for use as anode or graphite grade filler.

  4. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  6. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  7. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  8. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  9. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  10. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  11. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    Discusses the use of straight vegetable oil as a diesel fuel and the use of biodiesel as a transportation fuel.

  12. Brewing Jet Fuel in a One-Pot Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brewing Jet Fuel in a One-Pot Recipe Lab scientists have engineered a strain of bacteria that enables a "one-pot" method for producing advanced biofuels from a slurry of pre-treated plant material. The achievement is a critical step in making biofuels a viable competitor to fossil fuels.

  13. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    This publication contains the 1995 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the seventh year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the product supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). 24 tabs.

  14. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2007

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    national level are provided in summary tables. For Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales on the Internet, access EIA's home page at http:www.eia.doe.gov. Internet Addresses: E-Mail:...

  15. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-03

    This publication contains the 1993 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene, Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the fifth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1993 edition marks the 10th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA).

  16. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    This publication contains the 1992 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the fourth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1992 edition marks the ninth annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA).

  17. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  18. Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Reserves » Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on reviewing the potential of oil shale as a strategic resource for liquid fuels. The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on reviewing the potential of oil shale as a strategic resource for liquid fuels. It is generally agreed that worldwide petroleum supply will eventually reach its productive limit, peak, and begin a

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  20. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Mary Biddy (NREL).

  1. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Continue to work on improving yields to lower effect of biomass price volatility on final fuel product. Prolonged Depression of Crude Oil Prices Strive to be the low cost producer ...

  2. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  3. Table 4b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Fuel Oil Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Fuel Oil (thousand) Total Fuel Oil...

  4. Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Fuel Oil (thousand) Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion...

  5. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate ... Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur ...

  6. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2014 December 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2014 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States

  7. "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," ",,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," ","Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural ...

  8. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,,"Distillate" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural ...

  9. U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes ...

  10. Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Sulfur < 1% Residual F.O., Sulfur > 1% No. 4 Fuel Oil Period-Unit: Monthly - Thousand Gallons per Day Annual - Thousand Gallons per Day ...

  11. EIA Estimates of Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Supply Disruptions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Energy Information Administration estimates of crude oil and liquid fuels supply disruptions

  12. Fuel oil and kerosene sales, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    Sales data is presented for kerosene and fuel oils. This is the second year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  14. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  15. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  16. Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)","Total of Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ...",4657,67338,81552,66424,10...

  17. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  18. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Sum of Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" ,,,,"Primary","Site" "All Buildings...

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  20. HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Robert Malina, MIT. PDF icon malina_caafi_workshop.pdf More Documents & Publications February GBTL Webinar Opportunities for the Early Production of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview Application of Synthetic Diesel

  1. An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts Session 1-B: Advancing Alternative Fuels for the Military and Aviation Sector Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Nate Brown, Alternative Fuels Project Manager, Office of the Environment and Energy, Federal Aviation Administration PDF icon b13_brown_2-b.pdf More Documents & Publications Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy Webinar: Bioproducts in the Federal Bioeconomy Portfolio

  2. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  3. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  4. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Standard Errors for Table 10.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,..."Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Nat...

  5. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,..."Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total"," ","Not","Electricity","Nat...

  6. Comparing liquid fuel costs: grain alcohol versus sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reining, R.C.; Tyner, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale production of fuel grade grain alcohol with sunflower oil. Three scales of ethanol and sunflower oil production are modeled, and sensitivity analysis is conducted for various operating conditions and costs. The general conclusion is that sunflower oil costs less to produce than alcohol. Government subsidies for alcohol, but not sunflower oil, could cause adoption of more expensive alcohol in place of cheaper sunflower oil. However, neither sunflower oil nor alcohol are competitive with diesel fuel. 7 references.

  7. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  8. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of technologies that enable the processing of bio-oils in petroleum refineries. ... readily for gasoline, conventional diesel fuel, and jet fuel) brings significant ...

  9. Combined process for heavy oil, upgrading and synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polomski, R.E.

    1984-06-05

    A process for upgrading heavy oil to fuel products comprises deasphalting the heavy oil with an oxygenated solvent and simultaneously converting the oxygenated solvent and deasphalted oil over a ZSM-5 type catalyst to produce gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  10. Deliveries of fuel oil and kerosene in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-11

    This report contains numerical data on deliveries of distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and kerosene which will be helpful to federal and state agencies, industry, and trade associations in trend analysis, policy/decision making, and forecasting. The data for 1979 and 1980 are tabulated under the following headings: all uses, residential, commercial, industrial, oil companies, electric utilities, transportation, military, and farm use. The appendix contains product and end-use descriptions. (DMC)

  11. Process for Converting Algal Oil to Alternative Aviation Fuel - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Process for Converting Algal Oil to Alternative Aviation Fuel Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology The conversion process uses a Kolbe-based method of converting the fatty acids from the algal lipid triglycerides to fuel. The conversion process uses a Kolbe-based method of converting the fatty acids from the algal lipid triglycerides to fuel. Technology Marketing Summary Conversion of triglyceride oils extracted from algae-derived lipids into

  12. "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for Table 5.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End ...

  13. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  15. PLIF measurement of fuel concentration distribution in transient hydrogen jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomita, Eiji; Hamamoto, Yoshisuke; Yoshiyama, Sadami; Toda, Hitoshi

    1999-07-01

    To know the concentration field of fuel spray or jet is very important because the following combustion process strongly depends on it. Recently, planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurement is often used to clarify two-dimensional concentration field of fuel and other species. In this study, PLIF measurement was applied to investigate the concentration distribution of a transient hydrogen jet with combustion. The jet penetrates with entraining ambient air and hydrogen is mixed with the air. Each experimental run of the jet shows different configuration and concentration distribution although averaged jet shows axisymmetric ones. Normalized concentration in radial direction presents Gaussian distribution and normalized concentration in axial direction is expressed by the relation inverse to the axial direction. The mixture was ignited near the nozzle exit after some delay time (t = 3.6ms) during injection ({approximately}11ms). For example, the fuel concentration in the transient jet at t = 1.0 and 1.4ms after the spark ignition (t = 4.6 and 5.0 ms respectively) was obtained as shown in a figure. The behavior of the flame development was measured in the transient flame jet by analyzing these images. The velocities of the jet and flame tips were also determined.

  16. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Adj SalesDeliveries to Oil Company Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Adj SalesDeliveries to Elect. ...

  17. ,"U.S. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Oil Company Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to Electric Utility Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil SalesDeliveries to...

  18. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  19. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Dentz, Jordan; Doty, Chris

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  20. Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery to Fuel Future Oil Demands | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the fascinating things of my job is contemplating questions like: What will the future energy mix look like? This is difficult to predict but it is fair to argue that oil will...

  2. ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.7;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG ...

  3. ,,,,"Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... storage of usable alternative fuels is not available due to the potential" "environmental impact of storage tanks." " NFNo applicable RSE rowcolumn factor." " * Estimate less ...

  4. ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... storage of usable alternative fuels is not available due to the potential" "environmental impact of storage tanks." " NFNo applicable RSE rowcolumn factor." " * Estimate less ...

  5. Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ‹ See All Petrolem Reports Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales With Data for 2014 | Release Date: December 22, 2015 | Next Release Date: November 2016 Previous Issues Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go EIA is considering changes to the survey Form EIA-821, "Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report," such as deleting kerosene and adding propane. If you would like to participate in a discussion on these proposed changes

  6. Miscible, multi-component, diesel fuels and methods of bio-oil transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Thomas; Garcia, Manuel; Geller, Dan; Goodrum, John W.; Pendergrass, Joshua T.

    2010-10-26

    Briefly described, embodiments of this disclosure include methods of recovering bio-oil products, fuels, diesel fuels, and the like are disclosed.

  7. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis ...

  8. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis...

  9. RECS Fuel Oil Usage Form_v1 (Draft).xps

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel oil usage for this delivery address between September 2008 and April 2010. Delivery ... Form EIA 457G OMB No. 1905-0092 Expires 13113 2009 RECS Fuel Oil and Kerosene Usage Form ...

  10. EERE Success Story-Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award EERE Success Story-Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - ...

  11. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  12. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet engine fuels has five components: development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer-sized and micrometer particles suspended in fuels during thermal stresses; characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics by direct coal liquefaction. Progress is described.

  13. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  14. Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development PDF icon Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development More Documents & Publications Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States National Strategic Unconventional Resource Model Oil Shale

  15. Distillate Fuel Oil Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Randall Luthi, President www.noia.org National Ocean Industries Association The Future of OCS After Macondo 2011 EIA Conference Washington, DC April 26, 2011 NOIA represents the full spectrum of U.S. businesses that produce energy offshore Last year's view through the crystal ball was far different than today's * A year ago, the off shore oil and gas industry was poised to come out of the economic doldrums * Spurred by earlier deep water discoveries, the future looked promising * The Obama

  16. AltAir Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Product: Seattle-based developer of projects for the production of jet fuel from renewable and sustainable oils. References: AltAir Fuels1 This article is a...

  17. ?Aceite Vegetal Puro Como Combustible Diesel? (Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? Spanish Version) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Discusses the use of straight vegetable oil as a diesel fuel and the use of biodiesel as a transportation fuel.

  18. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  19. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 7,835,436 8,203,062 7,068,306 5,668,530 4,883,466 3,942,750 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,339,162 3,359,265 2,667,576 1,906,700 1,699,418 1,393,068 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 318,184

  20. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  1. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 6,908,028 7,233,765 6,358,120 6,022,115 5,283,350 4,919,255 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2,972,575 2,994,245 2,397,932 2,019,294 1,839,237 1,724,167 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 281,895

  2. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product Guide Category Prices Volumes Crude oil Refiner acqusistion cost 1,1A - Domestic first purchases 1 - from selected states 18 - by API gravity 20 - for selected crude streams 19 - Imports F.O.B. cost 1 - from selected states 21 - by API gravity 23 - for selected crude streams 26 - Landed costs 1 - from selected states 22 - by API gravity 24 - for selected crude streams 27 - Percentage by gravity band 25 - - Motor gasoline all sellers 28 - refiners 2,4,6,31 3,5,7,39,40 prime suppliers - 45

  3. Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable Distillate Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  4. Table 10.25 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable ResiduaCapable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmental Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  5. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation: (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods: (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and (5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  6. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developed jointly by Da Vinci Emissions Services Ltd., Cummins Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil (DAFIO) technology uses a fiber optic probe to obtain real-time measurements of oil in an operating engine to quantify the fuel dissolved in the lubricant oil.

  7. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Penn State program in advancd thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding them formation of vcarbonaceous solids; and, (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal.

  8. Experimental plan for the fuel-oil study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy WAP Division and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Five studies form the evaluation. Major goals of the Fuel-Oil Study are to estimate the fuel oil saved by the WAP in the Northeast during the 1990 and 1991 program years, identify and quantify non-energy impacts of the WAP, assess the cost effectiveness of the WAP within this submarket, and assess factors which may cause savings and cost effectiveness to vary. The study will only analyze single-family houses in the nine states in the Northeast census region and will be carried out over two heating seasons (1990 and 1991 WAP program years). A split-winter, pre- and post-weatherization experimental design with a control group will be used. Houses will be monitored over one winter. Energy conservation measures will be installed in the weatherized houses in January of each winter by the local WAP subgrantee. One hundred twenty five weatherized houses and 75 control houses will be monitored over the 1990--1991 winter; a different set of 200 houses will be monitored over the 1991--1992 winter. The houses will be evenly distributed among 25 subgrantees. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature data will be collected for all houses. Fuel-oil delivery data will be collected for each house monitored over the 1990--1991 winter for at least a year before weatherization. The delivery data will be analyzed to determine if the accuracy of the study can be improved by collecting fuel-oil delivery data on a larger sample of houses over the 1991--1992 winter. Detailed survey information will be obtained on all the houses. This information includes descriptive details of the house and its mechanical systems, details on household size and other demographics, and occupant answers to questions regarding comfort, safety, and operation of their space-heating system and house.

  9. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel ...

  10. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  11. On-farm production of soybean oil and its properties as a fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents the design of a system for on-farm production of soybean oil for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. The soybean oil production system consists of a heat exchanger to heat the beans with the exhaust gas of an engine, a screw press and a system for water degumming and drying the expressed crude oil. Optimum parameters of the oil production system were found. The rheological properties of soybean oil, ester of soybean oil and blends of the above with diesel fuel and diesel fuel additives are given. Data on soybean temperature, outlet gas temperature and thermal efficiency were obtained from a developed mathematical model of the heat exchanger. Chemical analyses show that crude oil from the press is similar to that of commercially degummed oil. The degumming process is not needed for the crude oil to be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Rheological properties of the soybean oil and soybean oil diesel fuel mixture show that the fluids have viscosities of time independent characteristics and are Newtonian fluids. Diesel fuel additives having low viscosities can be used to lower the viscosity of soybean oil and blends with diesel fuel but the effect is insignificant.

  12. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 245 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  13. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 203 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  14. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationships have been applied to study the thermal stability of pure hydrocarbons typical of jet fuel components. A simple method of chemical structure description in terms of Benson groups was tested in searching for structure-property relationships for the hydrocarbons tested experimentally in this program. Molecular connectivity as a structure-based approach to chemical structure-property relationship analysis was also tested. Further development of both the experimental data base and computational methods will be necessary. Thermal decomposition studies, using glass tube reactors, were extended to two additional model compounds: n-decane and n-dodecane. Efforts on refining the deposit growth measurement and characterization of suspended matter in stressed fuels have lead to improvements in the analysis of stressed fuels. Catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation studies utilizing a molybdenum sulfide catalyst are also described.

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence fiber optic probe measurement of oil dilution by fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parks, II, James E [Knoxville, TN; Partridge, Jr., William P [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-23

    Apparatus for detecting fuel in oil includes an excitation light source in optical communication with an oil sample for exposing the oil sample to excitation light in order to excite the oil sample from a non-excited state to an excited state and a spectrally selective device in optical communication with the oil sample for detecting light emitted from the oil sample as the oil sample returns from the excited state to a non-excited state to produce spectral indicia that can be analyzed to determine the presence of fuel in the oil sample. A method of detecting fuel in oil includes the steps of exposing a oil sample to excitation light in order to excite the oil sample from a non-excited state to an excited state, as the oil sample returns from the excited state to a non-excited state, detecting light emitted from the oil sample to produce spectral indicia; and analyzing the spectral indicia to determine the presence of fuel in the oil sample.

  16. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Volumes 4,546.1 3,741.4 4,403.1 3,994.1 4,103.1 4,101.4 1983-2016 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% W NA W W W NA 1983-2016 Sulfur Greater Than 1% W 2,878.7 W W W 3,613.7 1983-2016 No. 4 Fuel Oil W - - - W -

  17. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Walsh, P.M.; Coleman, M.M.

    1993-12-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. An exploratory study was conducted to investigate the pyrolysis of n-butylbenzene in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. A number of similarities to trends previously observed in high-pressure static reactions were identified. The product distribution from pyrolysis of n-tetradecane at 400{degrees}C and 425{degrees}C was investigated. The critical temperatures of a suite of petroleum- and coal-derived jet fuels were measured by a rapidly heating sealed tube method. Work has continued on refining the measurements of deposit growth for stressing mixtures of coal-derived JP-8C with tetradecane. Current work has given emphasis to the initial stages of fuel decomposition and the onset of deposition. Pretreatment of JPTS fuel with PX-21 activated carbon (50 mg of PX-21 in 15 mL JPTS) delayed degradation and prevented carbon deposition during thermal stressing at 425{degrees}C for 5 h in nitrogen and air atmospheres. Clear indications of initial and subsequent deposit formation on different metal surfaces have been identified for thermal stressing of dodecane. Seven additives were tested for their ability to retard decomposition of dodecane at 450{degrees}C under nitrogen. Nuclear magnetic resonance data for Dammar resin indicates that structures proposed in the literature are not entirely correct.

  18. SUBTASK 3.11 – PRODUCTION OF CBTL-BASED JET FUELS FROM BIOMASS-BASED FEEDSTOCKS AND MONTANA COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used interchangeably without any special requirements and thus provides a pathway to energy security to the U.S. military and the entire nation. This subtask was funded through the EERC–DOE Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by Accelergy Corporation.

  19. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Volumes 8,143.0 8,165.8 8,005.5 8,881.1 9,292.6 9,209.8 1983-2016 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% 899.6 1,177.6 1,165.0 557.6 977.1 1,152.2 1983-2016 Sulfur Greater Than 1% 7,243.4 6,988.2 6,840.5 8,323.5 8,315.6 8,057.6 1983-2016 No. 4 Fuel Oil 141.3 W W 128.8 166.0 W

  1. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  2. Liquid fuels from co-processing coal with bitumen or heavy oil: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Hepler, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Coal, bitumen and heavy oil (and various pitches, resids, etc.) are similar in that they require more substantial treatment than does conventional light oil to yield useful liquid fuels. The authors provide a brief and selective review of technologies for liquefying coal, followed by consideration of co-processing coal with bitumen/heavy oil. Such co-processing may be considered as use of bitumen/heavy oil as a solvent and/or hydrogen donor in liquefaction of coal, or as the use of coal to aid upgrading bitumen/heavy oil.

  3. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  4. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    55.1 47.1 W W 55.1 46.2 See footnotes at end of table. 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  5. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    45.5 49.2 W W 44.5 45.4 See footnotes at end of table. 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  6. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End ...

  7. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  8. EERE Success Story—Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developed jointly by Da Vinci Emissions Services Ltd., Cummins Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil (DAFIO™) technology uses a fiber optic probe to obtain real-time measurements of oil in an operating engine to quantify the fuel dissolved in the lubricant oil.

  9. New Technology for Hydroprocessing Bio-oils to Fuels Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils In A.V. Bridgwater (Ed.), Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion (p 893). Netherlands: Springer. Quad Chart Overview 3 Award: ...

  10. Microalgal Production of Jet Fuel: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-208

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, E. E.; Pienkos, P. T.

    2012-06-01

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can use CO2 and sunlight to generate the complex biomolecules necessary for their survival. These biomolecules include energy-rich lipid compounds that can be converted using existing refinery equipment into valuable bio-derived fuels, including jet fuel for military and commercial use. Through a dedicated and thorough collaborative research, development and deployment program, the team of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Chevron will identify a suitable algae strain that will surpass the per-acre biomass productivity of terrestrial plant crops.

  11. Biodegradation of jet fuel in vented columns of water-unsaturated sandy soil. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coho, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of soil water content on the rate of jet fuel (JP-4) biodegradation in air-vented, water-unsaturated columns of sandy soil was investigated. The contaminated soil was obtained from a spill site located on Tyndall AFB, Fla. The initial soil loading was 4590 mg of JP-4/kg of dry soil. Three laboratory columns were packed with the contaminated soil, saturated and drained for periods of 81-89 days. Two columns were continuously vented with air, and the third, intended to provide an anaerobic control, was vented with nitrogen. The venting gas flows were maintained between 1 and 2.5 soil pore volume changeouts per day. The total JP-4 removal in the air-vented columns averaged 44% of the mass originally present. Biodegradation and volatilization accounted for 93% and 7% of the total removal, respectively. A maximum biodegradation rate of 14.3 mg of JP-4/kg of moist soil per day was observed at a soil water content of approximately 72% saturation. Soil drainage characteristics indicated that this water content may have corresponded to 100% of the in situ field capacity water content. Theses.

  12. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  13. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  14. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  15. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  16. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  17. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  18. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  19. A RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) analysis of the proposed Tinker AFB Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility. [Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.E.; Sattison, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) at the 30% design phase of a Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility that is to be installed at the Tinker Air Force Base, Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Jet Fuel Storage Tank Facility was divided into four subsystems: Fuel Storage and Pipeline Transfer Pumps; Truck Unloading and Loading; Fire Protection (foam and water supply systems); and Electric Power. The RAM analysis was performed on four functions of these subsystems: transferring fuel from the two new 55K barrel storage tanks to the existing fuel pipeline system; transferring fuel from the two 55K barrel storage tanks to the aircraft refueler trucks; transferring fuel from the road transport trucks to the aircraft refueler trucks; and fire protection. A fault tree analysis was performed on each functional system. The quantification was performed for several mission times.

  20. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  1. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  2. ,"New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel

  3. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use",13,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Release Date:","12/22/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of November 2016" ,"Excel File

  4. Progress report Idaho on-road test with vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biodiesel is among many biofuels being considered in the US for alternative fueled vehicles. The use of this fuel can reduce US dependence on imported oil and help improve air quality by reducing gaseous and particulate emissions. Researchers at the Department of Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho have pioneered rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Although UI has conducted many laboratory and tractor tests using raw rapeseed oil and rape methyl ester (RME), these fuels have not been proven viable for on-road applications. A biodiesel demonstration project has been launched to show the use of biodiesel in on-road vehicles. Two diesel powered pickups are being tested on 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel. One is a Dodge 3/4-ton pickup powered by a Cummins 5.9 liter turbocharged and intercooled engine. This engine is direct injected and is being run on 20 percent RME and 80 percent diesel. The other pickup is a Ford, powered by a Navistar 7.3 liter, naturally aspirated engine. This engine has a precombustion chamber and is being operated on 20 percent raw rapeseed oil and 80 percent diesel. The engines themselves are unmodified, but modifications have been made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. In order to give maximum vehicle range, fuel mixing is done on-board. Two tanks are provided, one for the diesel and one for the biodiesel. Electric fuel pumps supply fuel to a combining chamber for correct proportioning. The biodiesel fuel tanks are heated with a heat exchanger which utilizes engine coolant circulation.

  5. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  6. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  7. The Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States A. Milbrandt, C. Kinchin, and R. McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-58015 December 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 *

  8. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    : Jet fuel consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2014 State Jet fuel a Consumption Prices Expenditures Thousand barrels Trillion Btu Dollars per million Btu Million ...

  9. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15

  10. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  11. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  12. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","22016","1151983" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefresdnusvwrmgalpdm.xls" ...

  13. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings*",,"Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu)" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace...

  14. Major Fuels","Site Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C1. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel, 1999" ,"All Buildings",,"Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Primary Electricity (trillion Btu)" ,"Number of Buildings...

  15. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  17. Economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

    1982-05-01

    The economics of sunflower oil as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel in US agriculture, with particular emphasis on North Dakota, is examined. A study of the spot market prices indicates that crude sunflower oil has moved closer competitively with bulk diesel prices. On the question of energy efficiency, it is estimated, that using current production and processing estimates, there is a positive net energy ratio of 5.78 to 1. Processing can take place at the commercial leveL, in intermediate sized plants or on-farm. Costs were analyzed for three sizes of farm presses. (Refs. 6).

  18. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental). Total average costs were $1819 per house ($1192 for installation labor and materials, and $627 for overhead and management), and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.48. A general trend toward higher-than-average fuel-oil savings was observed in houses with high pre-weatherization fuel-oil consumption. Program savings could likely be increased by targeting higher energy consumers for weatherization, although equity issues would have to be considered. Weatherization measures associated with higher-than-average savings were use of a blower door for air-sealing, attic and wall insulation, and replacement space-heating systems. Space-heating system tune-ups were not particularly effective at improving the steady-state efficiency of systems, although other benefits such as improved seasonal efficiency, and system safety and reliability may have resulted. The Program should investigate methods of improving the selection and/or application of space-heating system tune-ups and actively promote improved tune-up procedures that have been developed as a primary technology transfer activity. Houses were more air-tight following weatherization, but still leakier than what is achievable. Additional technology transfer effort is recommended to increase the use of blower doors considering that only half the weatherized houses used a blower door during air sealing. A guidebook developed by a committee of experts and covering a full range of blower-door topics might be a useful technology transfer and training document. Weatherization appeared to make occupants feel better about their house and house environment.

  19. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","22016","1151983" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefot...

  20. Effects of potential additives to promote seal swelling on the thermal stability of synthetic jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, D.D.; Gormley, R.G.; Zandhuis, P.H.; Baltrus, J.P.

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering of ground vehicles, aircraft and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. These additives can include oxygenates and compounds containing other heteroatoms that may adversely affect thermal stability. In order to understand what additives will be the most beneficial, a comprehensive experimental and computational study of conventional and additized fuels has been undertaken. The experimental approach includes analysis of the trace oxygenate and nitrogen-containing compounds present in conventional petroleum-derived fuels and trying to relate their presence (or absence) to changes in the desired properties of the fuels. This paper describes the results of efforts to test the thermal stability of synthetic fuels and surrogate fuels containing single-component additives that have been identified in earlier research as the best potential additives for promoting seal swelling in synthetic fuels, as well as mixtures of synthetic and petroleum-derived fuels.

  1. Louisiana Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    514,474 1,744,771 1,873,769 1,488,986 1,405,392 1,375,580 1984-2014 Residential 1,036 140 34 53 84 89 1984-2014 Commercial 59,689 38,695 39,659 36,840 17,590 21,197 1984-2014 Industrial 21,826 26,063 20,770 33,052 31,744 33,670 1984-2014 Oil Company 243,789 319,394 364,261 245,303 183,801 178,810 1984-2014 Farm 42,624 44,027 49,985 48,462 40,785 46,134 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,775 5,464 2,733 4,610 4,826 1984-2014 Railroad 18,345 25,425 32,515 28,110 39,578 45,790 1984-2014 Vessel

  2. Mississippi Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    835,855 800,065 771,577 830,756 806,396 819,763 1984-2014 Residential 5 5 4 7 7 8 1984-2014 Commercial 26,641 23,713 26,383 26,386 24,019 28,803 1984-2014 Industrial 21,853 18,362 15,450 20,153 21,186 19,595 1984-2014 Oil Company 3,955 4,262 4,058 6,226 7,450 6,419 1984-2014 Farm 41,080 57,087 52,559 81,878 84,753 79,443 1984-2014 Electric Power 3,796 3,393 2,019 1,674 2,223 1,921 1984-2014 Railroad 24,727 17,936 37,741 29,848 32,550 35,578 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 141,302 93,384 58,285 58,505

  3. New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    09,709 554,352 574,557 608,490 621,430 669,923 1984-2014 Residential 55 46 37 27 72 53 1984-2014 Commercial 11,030 9,435 9,609 9,145 9,112 12,114 1984-2014 Industrial 33,804 24,429 27,110 31,316 32,029 32,917 1984-2014 Oil Company 9,871 1,705 2,127 5,857 11,218 27,016 1984-2014 Farm 11,278 14,821 10,955 12,816 15,784 11,752 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,000 1,689 5,155 4,816 3,826 1984-2014 Railroad 245 1,780 1,707 19,123 38,543 45,446 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014

  4. Alabama Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    987,571 1,038,133 1,094,359 1,132,711 1,047,981 1,027,777 1984-2014 Residential 3,971 4,895 432 750 639 722 1984-2014 Commercial 39,802 46,009 48,475 46,654 30,536 27,874 1984-2014 Industrial 90,659 77,542 81,120 120,347 77,119 65,322 1984-2014 Oil Company 0 328 1,035 2,640 2,929 2,985 1984-2014 Farm 17,882 19,881 24,518 24,503 24,651 20,459 1984-2014 Electric Power 8,276 10,372 22,490 9,375 6,514 10,071 1984-2014 Railroad 44,546 42,465 97,177 125,439 63,570 56,873 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering

  5. Florida Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    840,100 2,027,012 1,914,621 1,918,039 2,023,650 2,038,923 1984-2014 Residential 1,551 1,820 1,085 572 451 728 1984-2014 Commercial 126,292 113,313 100,791 104,860 113,873 110,082 1984-2014 Industrial 36,512 43,088 35,652 32,087 31,458 42,894 1984-2014 Oil Company 236 2,255 4,038 4,359 4,427 3,802 1984-2014 Farm 86,642 204,866 109,177 103,325 122,563 98,418 1984-2014 Electric Power 31,161 43,675 35,577 16,137 16,244 12,182 1984-2014 Railroad 33,651 42,353 46,461 66,711 93,844 92,435 1984-2014

  6. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  7. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  8. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31%

  9. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31%

  10. Midwest (PADD 2) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur

  11. Experimental plan for the fuel-oil study. Weatherization Assistance Program: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.; Brown, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    An up-to-date assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy WAP Division and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Five studies form the evaluation. Major goals of the Fuel-Oil Study are to estimate the fuel oil saved by the WAP in the Northeast during the 1990 and 1991 program years, identify and quantify non-energy impacts of the WAP, assess the cost effectiveness of the WAP within this submarket, and assess factors which may cause savings and cost effectiveness to vary. The study will only analyze single-family houses in the nine states in the Northeast census region and will be carried out over two heating seasons (1990 and 1991 WAP program years). A split-winter, pre- and post-weatherization experimental design with a control group will be used. Houses will be monitored over one winter. Energy conservation measures will be installed in the weatherized houses in January of each winter by the local WAP subgrantee. One hundred twenty five weatherized houses and 75 control houses will be monitored over the 1990--1991 winter; a different set of 200 houses will be monitored over the 1991--1992 winter. The houses will be evenly distributed among 25 subgrantees. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature data will be collected for all houses. Fuel-oil delivery data will be collected for each house monitored over the 1990--1991 winter for at least a year before weatherization. The delivery data will be analyzed to determine if the accuracy of the study can be improved by collecting fuel-oil delivery data on a larger sample of houses over the 1991--1992 winter. Detailed survey information will be obtained on all the houses. This information includes descriptive details of the house and its mechanical systems, details on household size and other demographics, and occupant answers to questions regarding comfort, safety, and operation of their space-heating system and house.

  12. Decision guide to farm fuel production: ethanol, methanol, or vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstetter, J.D.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform farmers of the choices they have today regarding production of motor vehicle fuels. Its intent is to inform farmers of what is involved in producing an alternative fuel, its compatibility with existing engines, the costs involved, and the markets for the fuel and any by-products. This paper is not a how-to-do-it manual or a policy document. Some of the data has been developed from the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program managed by the Washington State Energy Office. Part One provides background information on Washington's fuel use patterns, highlighting the agricultural sector. In Part Two, general considerations common to all alternative fuels are covered. Part Three contains three detailed discussions of the alternative fuels most favored by Washington farmers for production and use - ethanol, vegetable oils, and methanol. The Appendix contains a brief summary of the 11 ethanol projects in Washington funded as a result of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program. 5 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for applying advanced experimental diagnostic techniques with increasing fidelity for the purposes of computational validation and model development. Numerical simulation of the reacting jet in crossflow is challenging because of the complex vortical structures in the flowfield and compounded by an unsteady crossflow. The resulting benchmark quality data set will include comprehensive, accurate measurements of mean and fluctuating components of velocity, pressure, and flame front location at high pressure and with crossflow conditions more representative of modern gas turbine engines. A proven means for producing combustion dynamics is used for the performing combustion instability experimental study on a reacting jet in crossflow configuration. The method used to provide an unsteady flowfield into which the transverse jet is injected is a unique and novel approach that permits elevated temperature and pressure conditions. A model dump combustor is used to generate and sustain an acoustically oscillating vitiated flow that serves as the crossflow for transverse jet injection studies. A fully optically accessible combustor test section affords full access surrounding the point of jet injection. High speed 10 kHz planar measurements OH PLIF and high frequency 180 kHz wall pressure measurements are performed on the injected reacting transverse jet and surrounding flowfield, respectively, under simulated unstable conditions. The overlay of the jet velocity flowfield and the flame front will be investigated using simultaneous 10 kHz OH PLIF and PIV in experiments to be performed in the near future.

  15. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  16. West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed.

  17. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  18. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  19. ,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data

  20. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 2","Commercial",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1984" ,"Data

  1. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","5/2/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","6/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  2. Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha

  3. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  4. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31

  5. West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas

  6. Effect of fuel composition and differential diffusion on flame stabilization in reacting syngas jets in turbulent cross-flow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Minamoto, Yuki; Kolla, Hemanth; Grout, Ray W.; Gruber, Andrea; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-07-24

    Here, three-dimensional direct numerical simulation results of a transverse syngas fuel jet in turbulent cross-flow of air are analyzed to study the influence of varying volume fractions of CO relative to H2 in the fuel composition on the near field flame stabilization. The mean flame stabilizes at a similar location for CO-lean and CO-rich cases despite the trend suggested by their laminar flame speed, which is higher for the CO-lean condition. To identify local mixtures having favorable mixture conditions for flame stabilization, explosive zones are defined using a chemical explosive mode timescale. The explosive zones related to flame stabilization aremore » located in relatively low velocity regions. The explosive zones are characterized by excess hydrogen transported solely by differential diffusion, in the absence of intense turbulent mixing or scalar dissipation rate. The conditional averages show that differential diffusion is negatively correlated with turbulent mixing. Moreover, the local turbulent Reynolds number is insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the differential diffusion effect. Alternatively, the Karlovitz number provides a better indicator of the importance of differential diffusion. A comparison of the variations of differential diffusion, turbulent mixing, heat release rate and probability of encountering explosive zones demonstrates that differential diffusion predominantly plays an important role for mixture preparation and initiation of chemical reactions, closely followed by intense chemical reactions sustained by sufficient downstream turbulent mixing. The mechanism by which differential diffusion contributes to mixture preparation is investigated using the Takeno Flame Index. The mean Flame Index, based on the combined fuel species, shows that the overall extent of premixing is not intense in the upstream regions. However, the Flame Index computed based on individual contribution of H2 or CO species reveals that hydrogen contributes significantly to premixing, particularly in explosive zones in the upstream leeward region, i.e. at the preferred flame stabilization location. Therefore, a small amount of H2 diffuses much faster than CO, creating relatively homogeneous mixture pockets depending on the competition with turbulent mixing. These pockets, together with high H2 reactivity, contribute to stabilizing the flame at a consistent location regardless of the CO concentration in the fuel for the present range of DNS conditions.« less

  7. Effect of fuel composition and differential diffusion on flame stabilization in reacting syngas jets in turbulent cross-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minamoto, Yuki; Kolla, Hemanth; Grout, Ray W.; Gruber, Andrea; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-07-24

    Here, three-dimensional direct numerical simulation results of a transverse syngas fuel jet in turbulent cross-flow of air are analyzed to study the influence of varying volume fractions of CO relative to H2 in the fuel composition on the near field flame stabilization. The mean flame stabilizes at a similar location for CO-lean and CO-rich cases despite the trend suggested by their laminar flame speed, which is higher for the CO-lean condition. To identify local mixtures having favorable mixture conditions for flame stabilization, explosive zones are defined using a chemical explosive mode timescale. The explosive zones related to flame stabilization are located in relatively low velocity regions. The explosive zones are characterized by excess hydrogen transported solely by differential diffusion, in the absence of intense turbulent mixing or scalar dissipation rate. The conditional averages show that differential diffusion is negatively correlated with turbulent mixing. Moreover, the local turbulent Reynolds number is insufficient to estimate the magnitude of the differential diffusion effect. Alternatively, the Karlovitz number provides a better indicator of the importance of differential diffusion. A comparison of the variations of differential diffusion, turbulent mixing, heat release rate and probability of encountering explosive zones demonstrates that differential diffusion predominantly plays an important role for mixture preparation and initiation of chemical reactions, closely followed by intense chemical reactions sustained by sufficient downstream turbulent mixing. The mechanism by which differential diffusion contributes to mixture preparation is investigated using the Takeno Flame Index. The mean Flame Index, based on the combined fuel species, shows that the overall extent of premixing is not intense in the upstream regions. However, the Flame Index computed based on individual contribution of H2 or CO species reveals that hydrogen contributes significantly to premixing, particularly in explosive zones in the upstream leeward region, i.e. at the preferred flame stabilization location. Therefore, a small amount of H2 diffuses much faster than CO, creating relatively homogeneous mixture pockets depending on the competition with turbulent mixing. These pockets, together with high H2 reactivity, contribute to stabilizing the flame at a consistent location regardless of the CO concentration in the fuel for the present range of DNS conditions.

  8. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  9. EIA-821, Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report Page 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-821, Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report Page 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION Washington, DC 20585 OMB No. 1905-0174 Expiration Date: 09/30/2017 Version No.: 2015.01 FORM EIA-821 ANNUAL FUEL OIL AND KEROSENE SALES REPORT INSTRUCTIONS 1. QUESTIONS? If you have any questions about Form EIA-821 after reading the instructions, please call our toll-free number 1-800-638- 8812. 2. PURPOSE The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA- 821,

  10. Mechanisms of particulate matter formation in spark-ignition engines. 2: Effect of fuel, oil, and catalyst parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayes, D.; Hochgreb, S.

    1999-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling effort was performed in order to understand how particulate matter (PM) is formed in spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. Fuel type and fuel/air ratio strongly affect particle concentrations. PM emissions vary by up to 6 orders of magnitude between fuels at the same fuel/air ratio. Minimum PM concentrations are emitted at a global fuel/air ratio within 10% of stoichiometric, with the exact value depending on the particular fuel. Concentrations can increase by more than 3 orders of magnitude when the fuel/air ratio is either increased or decreased 30% from stoichiometric. Particles derived from oil consumption were found to be between 0 and 40% of the PM concentration for the oils used in the present experiments. Differences in PM emissions with and without the catalytic converter are not statistically significant. Particulate number and mass concentrations plus particle sizes are addressed in this paper, as is the correlation between PM and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions.

  11. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report summarizes the results of an information exchange sponsored by the DOE/EERE Bioenergy Technologies Office in Manchester, New Hampshire, on May 9-10, 2012. The participand identifies top challenges regarding feedstocks and production, logistics and compatibility, and operational issues, then prioritized next steps for expanding use of pyrolysis oil as a replacement for home heating oil in the Northeast

  12. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F8: Distillate Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures ... Where shown, (s) Expenditure value less than 0.05. Notes: Distillate fuel oil estimates ...

  13. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F7: Distillate Fuel Oil Consumption Estimates, 2014 State Residential Commercial ... value less than 0.05. Notes: Distillate fuel oil estimates include biodiesel blended ...

  14. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nate Brown, Federal Aviation Administration, presentation at the Industry Roundtable on Update on ASTM Approval.

  15. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jim Hileman, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, presentation at the Industry Roundtable on Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Modeling

  16. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  17. PADD 1 and PADD 3 Transportation Fuels Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes states from Maine to Florida along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast region comprises states between New Mexico in the west to Alabama in the east along the Gulf of Mexico. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. Residual fuel oil supply is also analyzed where applicable.

  18. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  19. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY OF THE FUEL OIL TANK AREA HUMBOLDT BAY POWER PLANT EUREKA, CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WADE C. ADAMS

    2012-04-09

    During the period of February 14 to 15, 2012, ORISE performed radiological confirmatory survey activities for the former Fuel Oil Tank Area (FOTA) and additional radiological surveys of portions of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant site in Eureka, California. The radiological survey results demonstrate that residual surface soil contamination was not present significantly above background levels within the FOTA. Therefore, it is ORISE’s opinion that the radiological conditions for the FOTA surveyed by ORISE are commensurate with the site release criteria for final status surveys as specified in PG&E’s Characterization Survey Planning Worksheet. In addition, the confirmatory results indicated that the ORISE FOTA survey unit Cs-137 mean concentrations results compared favorably with the PG&E FOTA Cs-137 mean concentration results, as determined by ORISE from the PG&E characterization data. The interlaboratory comparison analyses of the three soil samples analyzed by PG&E’s onsite laboratory and the ORISE laboratory indicated good agreement for the sample results and provided confidence in the PG&E analytical procedures and final status survey soil sample data reporting.

  20. BioJet Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    93940 Sector: Carbon Product: Monterey-based carbon credit developer and producer of bio-jet fuel derived from jatropha. References: BioJet Corporation1 This article is a...

  1. Study of trajectories and combustion of fuel-oil droplets in the combustion chamber of a power-plant boiler with the use of a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enyakin, Yu.P.; Usman, Yu.M.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model was developed to permit study of the behavior of fuel-oil droplets in a combustion chamber, and results are presented from a computer calculation performed for the 300-MW model TGMP-314P boiler of a power plant. The program written to perform the calculations was organized so that the first stage would entail calculation of the combustion (vaporization) of a droplet of liquid fuel. The program then provided for a sudden decrease in the mass of the fuel particle, simulating rupture of the coke shell and ejection of some of the liquid. The program then considered the combustion of a hollow coke particle. Physicochemical parameters characteristic of fuel oil M-100 were introduced in the program in the first stage of computations, while parameters characteristic of the coke particle associated with an unburned fuel-oil droplet were included in the second stage.

  2. The examination of pretreatment and end use technologies for dirty fuels produced from coal gasification, coal pyrolysis, oil shale processing, and heavy oil recovery: Final technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raden, D.P.; Page, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify pretreatment (upgrading) and end use technologies which: (1) reduce environmental, health and safety impacts, (2) reduce pollution control costs, or (3) reduce upgrading costs of ''dirty fuels'' while producing higher value energy products. A comprehensive list of technologies was developed for upgrading the various dirty fuels to higher value and products. Fifty-two process flow concepts were examined and from these four process flow concepts were chosen for further development. These are: heavy oil recovery and in situ hydrotreating; wet air oxidation in a downhole reactor; total raw gas shift; and high density fuels via vacuum devolatilization. Each of these four process flow concepts described exhibit the potential for reducing environmental, health and safety impacts and/or pollution control costs. In addition these concepts utilize dirty fuels to produce an upgraded or higher value energy product. These concepts should be developed and evaluated in greater detail to assess their technical and economical viability. Therefore, it is recommended that a program plan be formulated and a proof-of-concept research program be performed for each process concept. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  4. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  5. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  6. Crude Oil | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil fields to fuel distribution terminals. Different components of this system (e.g., crude oil import terminals, refineries, transmission pipelines, and tank farms) can be ...

  7. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  8. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  9. Temperature, Oxygen, and Soot-Volume-Fraction Measurements in a Turbulent C2H4-Fueled Jet Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Winters, Caroline; Farias, Paul Abraham; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed set of measurements from a piloted, sooting, turbulent C 2 H 4 - fueled diffusion flame. Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to monitor temperature and oxygen, while laser-induced incandescence (LII) is applied for imaging of the soot volume fraction in the challenging jet-flame environment at Reynolds number, Re = 20,000. Single-laser shot results are used to map the mean and rms statistics, as well as probability densities. LII data from the soot-growth region of the flame are used to benchmark the soot source term for one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) modeling of this turbulent flame. The ODT code is then used to predict temperature and oxygen fluctuations higher in the soot oxidation region higher in the flame.

  10. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

  11. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  12. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","22016","1151983" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefresdnusvtrmgalpdm.xls" ...

  13. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  14. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  15. Thermal upgrading of residual oil to light product and heavy residual fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y.; Shu, P.

    1986-08-05

    The method is described of upgrading residual oil boiling in the range of 1050/sup 0/F+ comprising: thermally cracking the residual oil at a temperature of 650/sup 0/-900/sup 0/F, a pressure of 0-100 psig, and a residence time of 0.1 to 5 hours at the highest severity in the range between about 1,000-18,000 seconds, as expressed in equivalent reaction time at 800/sup 0/F, sufficient to convert at least about 50 wt% of the residual oil to light products, substantially without the formation of solid coke; recovering separate fractions of light product and emulsifiable heavy bottom product which has a fusion temperature below about 150/sup 0/C and a quinoline-insoluble content between about 10 wt% and 30 wt% and wherein the highest severity is determined by a functional relationship between the asphaltene content of the residual oil feedstock and the heavy bottom product yield and quinoline-insoluble content.

  16. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  18. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stocks by Type Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils,

  19. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology February 6, 2013 - 11:20am Addthis Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate Director and Chief Technology Officer of the National Fuel Cell Research Center, points out the tri-generation facility that uses biogas from Orange County Sanitation District’s wastewater treatment plant to produce hydrogen, heat and power. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate

  20. Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases.

  1. Explaining EIA Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Price Data and Comparing with Other U.S. Government Data Sources, 2001 to 2010

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the sampling frames and basic data collection methods for petroleum price data reported by Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other Government agencies. In addition, it compares and contrasts annual average prices reported by EIA with comparable prices from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) CPI (Consumer Price Indexes) for the retail prices of residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel and motor gasoline (all grades.) Further, it compares refiner wholesale/resale prices for No. 2 fuel oil, No. 2 diesel fuel, motor gasoline (all grades,) kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil reported by EIA with comparable prices from the BLS PPI (Producer Price Index.) A discussion of the various crude oil prices and spot/futures prices published by EIA and other Government agencies is also included in the article.

  2. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maps of states participating in Winter Fuels Survey Residential propane PADD map Residential heating oil PADD map...

  3. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Tan, Eric; Dutta, Abhijit; Jacobson, Jacob; Cafferty, Kara

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Meyer, P.; Snowden-Swan, L.; Padmaperuma, A.; Tan, E.; Dutta, A.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a proposed thermochemical process for converting biomass into liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis followed by hydroprocessing of the condensed pyrolysis oil. As such, the analysis does not reflect the current state of commercially-available technology but includes advancements that are likely, and targeted to be achieved by 2017. The purpose of this study is to quantify the economic impact of individual conversion targets to allow a focused effort towards achieving cost reductions.

  5. Turbine fuels from tar sands bitumen and heavy oil. Phase I. Preliminary process analysis. Interim report, 8 July 1983-9 April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Elanchenny, V.; Macris, A.; Schwedock, J.P.

    1985-04-09

    The strategic potential of domestic bitumens and heavy crude oils as substitutes for imported crude rests with their efficient conversion into aviation turbine fuels. In this Phase I study, preliminary analyses of several processing schemes were performed. The comparison included both hydrogen-addition and carbon-rejection upgrading processes. Projected JP-4 yields, costs, and thermal efficiencies suggest further exploration of the hydrovisbreaking process. For Phase II, laboratory-scale demonstration of the recommended process is proposed.

  6. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  7. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Fuel Oil - A Commercial Perspective Steve Lupton Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewable Heating Oil Substitution Fuel in New ...

  8. Mixing enhancement by use of swirling jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, D.K.; Cutler, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that the mixing of fuel with air in the combustor of scramjet engines might be enhanced by the addition of swirl to the fuel jet prior to injection. This study investigated the effects of swirl on the mixing of a 30 deg wall jet into a Mach 2 flow. Cases with swirl and without swirl were investigated, with both helium and air simulating the fuel. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the flow, and seeding the fuel with water allowed it to be traced through the main flow. The results show that the addition of swirl to the fuel jet causes the fuel to mix more rapidly with the main flow, that larger amounts of swirl increase this effect, and that helium spreads better into the main flow than air. 12 refs.

  9. Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Alternative Fuels Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79922 Product: Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm,...

  10. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources in an environmentally safe manner requires the development and application of new technologies that address the ...

  11. Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil (Patent) | SciTech Connect Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil An improved fuel composition is provided comprising in minor proportion a non-dewatered sewage sludge and in major proportion an organic fuel comprised of a hydrocarbon fuel oil. A method is also provided for the incineration of sewage sludge comprised of providing

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Even when crude oil prices are stable... read more in Gasoline Explained What causes fluctuations in diesel fuel oil prices? The retail price of a gallon of diesel fuel reflects ...

  13. ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ClearFuels-Rentech pilot-scale biorefinery will use Fisher-Tropsch gas-to-liquids technology to create diesel and jet fuel.

  14. MECS Fuel Oil Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    202-586-0018 URL: http:www.eia.govemeuconsumptionbriefsmecsmecsfueloiltables.html For questions about content, please contact the National Energy Information Center:...

  15. MECS Fuel Oil Figures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Survey (MECS): Consumption of Energy; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM): Statistics for Industry...

  16. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (toll free) at 1-888-861-0464. For general information about the survey, visit our Web site at http:www.eia.doe.govemeucbecs. 6. Please use the enclosed self-addre ssed, ...

  17. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England This ...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    for a pilot program to operate Type II school buses that are retrofitted with an auxiliary fuel tank to enable the use of biodiesel, waste vegetable oil, or straight vegetable oil. ...

  19. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elander, Rick

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  20. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution fuel in New England.

  1. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  2. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.

  3. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore » for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  4. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F9: Residual Fuel Oil Consumption Estimates, 2014 State Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Thousand ...

  5. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0: Residual Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Commercial Industrial Transportation ...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which assigns a RIN to each gallon of renewable fuel. Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners, blenders, and gasoline and diesel importers. The volumes required of each...

  7. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STANDARD AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-10-10

    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.

  8. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  11. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virent 2014 Virent is Replacing Crude Oil. Biomass 2014 July 30, 2014 Randy D. Cortright, ... Plants Partners & Investors Converting plant-based feedstocks to fuels and chemicals 75 ...

  12. Biomass Feedstocks for Renewable Fuel Production: A review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Carpenter; Stefan Czernik; Whitney Jablonski; Tyler L. Westover

    2014-02-01

    Renewable transportation fuels from biomass have the potential to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify global fuel supplies. Thermal conversion by fast pyrolysis converts up to 75% of the starting plant material (and its energy content) to a bio-oil intermediate suitable for upgrading to motor fuel. Woody biomass, by far the most widely-used and researched material, is generally preferred in thermochemical processes due to its low ash content and high quality bio-oil produced. However, the availability and cost of biomass resources, e.g. forest residues, agricultural residues, or dedicated energy crops, vary greatly by region and will be key determinates in the overall economic feasibility of a pyrolysis-to-fuel process. Formulation or blending of various feedstocks, combined with thermal and/or chemical pretreatment, could facilitate a consistent, high-volume, lower-cost biomass supply to an emerging biofuels industry. However, the impact of biomass type and pretreatment conditions on bio-oil yield and quality, and the potential process implications, are not well understood. This literature review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the effect of feedstock and pretreatments on the yield, product distribution, and upgradability of bio-oil.

  13. Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    national concerns about dependence on foreign oil and the deleterious effect on the environment of fossil fuel combustion, residential vehicle fleet fuel consumption was...

  14. AgriFuel Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: AgriFuel Company Place: Cranford, New Jersey Sector: Biofuels Product: AgriFuel produces and markets biofuels refined from waste vegetable oil,...

  15. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Vehicle Fuel? (Fact Sheet), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Performance of SVO Research has shown that there are sev- eral technical barriers to widespread use of SVO as a vehicle fuel. The published engineering literature strongly indicates that the use of SVO leads to reduced engine life, 1 caused by the buildup of carbon deposits inside the engine and the buildup of SVO in the engine lubricant. These issues are attributable to SVO's high viscosity and high boiling point relative to the required boiling range for diesel fuel. The carbon buildup doesn't

  16. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  17. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  18. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  19. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  20. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Two-day agenda from the workshop: Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a renewable heating oil substitution fuel in New England. PDF icon ...

  1. Providential Energy Corp formerly Providential Oil Gas Inc |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (formerly Providential Oil & Gas Inc) Place: California Sector: Hydro Product: Focused on natural gas and crude oil; expanding into hydropower, fuel cells, and ethanol. References:...

  2. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  3. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  4. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  5. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel derived from used cooking oil are exempt from the $0.30 per gallon state fuel excise tax. The exemption does not apply to fuel used in vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more, fuel not sold in retail operations, or fuel sold in operations involving fleet fueling or bulk sales. The exemption expires after December 31, 2019. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  7. Qualification of Alternative Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualification of Alternative Fuels May 8, 2012 Pyrolysis Oil Workshop Thomas Butcher Sustainable Energy Technologies Department Applications Baseline - Residential and Light Commercial Pressure-atomized burners with 100-150 psi fuel pressure, no fuel heating; Cyclic operation - to 12,000 cycles per year; Fuel filtration to 90 microns or finer; Storage for periods of 1 year, possibly longer; Storage temperature varied; Visible range flame detection for safety; Nitrile seal materials common; Fuels

  8. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan; Ma, Xiaoliang; Sprague, Michael J.; Subramani, Velu

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  9. Qualification of Alternative Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualification of Alternative Fuels Qualification of Alternative Fuels Thomas Butcher presentation on May 8, 2012 at the Pyrolysis Oil Workshop on the qualification of alternative fuels. PDF icon pyrolysis_butcher.pdf More Documents & Publications Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England Biodiesel_Fuel_Management_Best_Practices_Report.pdf Known Challenges Associated with the Production, Transportation, Storage and

  10. Turbine fuels from tar sands bitumen and heavy oil. Volume 1. Phase 3. Pilot plant testing, final design, and economics. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Carson, T.C.; Magill, L.G.; Swesey, J.R.

    1987-08-01

    Pilot-plant-scale demonstration of an upgrading/refining scheme to convert bitumen or heavy crude oil into high yields of specification-quality aviation turbine fuel was performed. An atmospheric residue from San Ardo (California) crude was converted under hydrovisbreaking conditions to synthetic crude for further refining. Naphtha cuts from the straight run and synthetic crude were combined, catalytically hydrotreated, then hydrocracked. Products from these operations were combined to produce two prototype specification fuels (JP-4 and JP-8) as well as two heavier, variable-quality fuels. An engineering design (Volume II) was developed for a 50,000 BPSD grass-roots refinery, from the pilot-plant operations. Capital investment and operating costs were estimated, and fuel manufacturing costs projected. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  11. Rheology and stability of SRC residual fuel oils - storage evaluation. SRC-1 quarterly technical report, October-December 1982. Supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-06-01

    In Air Products ongoing study to characterize the rheology and stability of various SRC residual oils, single-phase blends of 50 wt % HSRC and TSL SRC in 1:1 mixtures of 1st- and 2nd-stage process solvents were subjected to storage stability tests at 150/sup 0/F in nitrogen and air atmospheres. Using viscosity as an indicator, it was observed that the blends studied increased in viscosity with storage time in an air atmosphere; the viscosity increase began after a 4-week storage period. The increase in HSRC blend viscosity was significantly greater than that of the TSL SRC blend. A 60-day air-stored blend will require a pumping temperature about 10/sup 0/F higher than that specified for an unaged blend in order to have the same viscosity. The viscosity increase under nitrogen storage was relatively insignificant. Nitrogen blanketing appears to be important in maintaining the specified viscosity characteristics of the blends during storage in the 150/sup 0/F storage condition tested. A loss of volatiles undoubtedly occurs during high-temperature storage under laboratory conditions. Such losses contribute to an increase in the viscosity of the blend. In commercial practice, volatile losses are expected to be significantly lower. Solvent extraction data and analysis of separated fractions suggest that during storage under the above conditions, some oxidative polymerization of pentane-soluble oil components forms higher molecular weight pentane insolubles (asphaltenes and benzene insolubles). Asphaltenes are also involved in the increase in viscosity and do chemically change. 1 reference, 8 figures, 27 tables.

  12. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion ...

  13. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. PDF icon ctab_webinar_bio_oils_upgrading.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil

  14. AEO Early Release 2013 - oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of

  15. Proposed methodology for combustion toxicology testing of combined halon replacement agent/jet fuel interaction. Final report, June-September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibert, C.J.

    1993-04-01

    An international consensus to remove Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds from production and U.S. national policy to implement the resulting protocols has motivated the U.S. Air Force to embark on a program to find a suitable replacement for Halon 1211, currently used to extinguish flight line fires. This research addressed the feasibility of conducting a combustion toxicology (CT) program to assess the toxic products of the combustion interaction of JP-8 and the Group 1 or so-called Near Term candidate replacement agents for Halon 1211: HCFCs -123, -124, and -142b. A laboratory scale experiment benchmarked on large scale testing of a 150 sq ft pool fire was developed on the basis of Froude scaling of the full scale fire to a 15 x 15 cm pan fire. A prototype apparatus was developed and investigation into the use of animal behavior methods as an indicator of human incapacitation was conducted. The result is a new method which may potentially be utilized for future toxicity studies of the combustion interaction of current and future U.S. Air Force fuels with various fire extinguishants. Extinguishing agents, Halon 1211, Halon replacement, Combustion.

  16. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  17. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils 2003 DEER Conference ...

  18. Production and Upgrading of Infrastructure Compatible Bio-Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production and Upgrading of Infrastructure Compatible Bio-Oil with VTT March 25, 2015 ... Major Project Objectives: Low-severity hydrotreating (HT) Stabilize bio-oil for fuel oil ...

  19. Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Winter Heating Fuels Click on the map to view state specific heating fuels data below | click to reset to U.S. values Click on map above to view state-specific heating fuel data Propane Heating oil Natural gas Electricity For more data on: Heating oil and propane prices - Heating Oil and Propane Update Propane stocks - Weekly Petroleum Status Report Heating oil/distillate stocks - Weekly Petroleum Status Report Natural gas storage - Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Natural gas prices - Natural

  20. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

  1. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  2. Liquid Fuels Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  3. Liquid Fuels Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  4. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * Fuel costs vary widely based on feedstock, location, and technology option * Retail pellet costs are based on current prices in NE (~$243/ton) * Densifying biomass for heating (e.g. pyrolysis oil or pellets) can be a cost- competitive feedstock for residential heating system * These are not "drop-in" fuels

  5. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  6. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    See footnotes at end of table. 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State 386 Energy Information...

  7. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  8. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1995 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  9. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  10. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utility, which runs its own diesel fuel bulk storage facility for the diesel generators. However, residential heating oil and fuel for all public buildings except the...

  11. Our addiction to foreign oil and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    addiction to foreign oil and fossil fuels puts our economy, our environment, and ultimately our national security at risk. Furthermore, there is a growing recognition of the...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oil or animal fats and that meets ASTM D6751. Green diesel is ...

  13. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil ...

  14. Pulsed jet combustion generator for premixed charge engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Stewart, H. E.; Hom, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method and device for generating pulsed jets which will form plumes comprising eddie structures, which will entrain a fuel/air mixture from the head space of an internal combustion engine, and mixing this fuel/air mixture with a pre-ignited fuel/air mixture of the plumes thereby causing combustion of the reactants to occur within the interior of the eddie structures.

  15. Alvan Blanch Green Fuels joint venture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to extract oil from rape and Green Fuels provides the equipment to turn the oil into biodiesel, to allow farmers to produce their own fuel. References: Alvan Blanch - Green...

  16. Jet-wall interaction effects on diesel combustion and soot formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Lopez, J. Javier

    2004-09-01

    The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and 'confined' wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.

  17. Jets in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, M.H.

    1996-02-01

    Many analyses at the collider utilize the hadronic jets that are the footprints of QCD partons. These are used both to study the QCD processes themselves and increasingly as tools to study other physics, for example top mass reconstruction. However, jets are not fundamental degrees of freedom in the theory, so we need an {ital operational} {ital jet} {ital definition} and {ital reliable} {ital methods} {ital to} {ital calculate} {ital their} {ital properties}. This talk covers both of these important areas of jet physics. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  19. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  20. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Yield Xylose to EtOH Yield Final EtOH Concentration Solids Loading (wt.%) Fermentation vs. ... at NREL Ethanol titer 50 gL 2011: Industrial Organism 95% Glucose to Ethanol ...

  1. Bioenergy Impacts … Renewable Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and ... Biofuel is becoming an option for commercial and military airplanes BIOENERGY To learn ...

  2. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  3. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  4. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  5. Residential heating oil prices increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 2.6 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The price for heating oil in the New England ...

  6. Residential heating oil price decreases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to 2.90 per gallon, down 10.4 cents from last week. This is Marcela ...

  7. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region currently average 2.35 per gallon. This is Marcela Rourk with EIA, in ...

  8. Residential heating oil prices available

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 32.7 cents from a year ago, based on the U.S. Energy Information Administration's weekly residential heating fuel price survey. Heating oil prices in the New England ...

  9. Residential heating oil prices decline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    That's down 4.5 cents from a week ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region are ...

  10. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  11. ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings Using Any Energy Source","Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",4657,4403,4395,2670,434,117,50,451,153 "Building

  12. ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings Using Any Energy Source","Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","District Chilled Water","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,65753,65716,45525,13285,5891,2750,6290,2322

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Support for Growth of Alternative Fuel Sources The Louisiana Legislature urges the U.S. Congress to take actions to promote the growth of domestic alternative fuel sources, such as natural gas, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. (Reference House Concurrent Resolution 132, 2013

  14. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology For Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Pump Components The components for the gasoline and diesel fuel pumps are calculated in the following manner in cents per gallon and then converted into a percentage: Crude Oil - the monthly average of the composite refiner acquisition cost, which is the average price of crude oil purchased by refiners. Refining Costs & Profits - the difference between the monthly average of the spot price of gasoline or diesel fuel (used as a proxy for the value of

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  16. Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 175 90 207 126 118 1982-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 57 173 81 199 120 107 2004-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 2 2 1 2 3 2 2004-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2016 Rocky Mountain ...

  17. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PADD 1 55,591 55,881 56,335 55,188 54,662 55,940 1990-2016 New England 10,015 10,297 10,018 9,115 8,789 8,934 1990-2016 Central Atlantic 31,929 31,468 32,172 33,497 32,550 33,034 ...

  18. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  19. Aviation Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Aviation Fuels Aviation Fuels A Navy plane in flight. The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) sees the potential for biofuels produced for the aviation industry to help enable the growth of an advanced bioeconomy. Drop-in jet fuel replacements remain the only true alternative for the commercial aviation industry and the military, both facing ambitious near-term greenhouse gas reduction targets. BETO has been working with national labs, industry stakeholders, and

  20. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  1. 1985 fuel supply seminar: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.

    1986-09-01

    The major topics were utility fuel demand uncertainty (featuring uncertainty in electricity demand growth prospects), fuel forecasts and assumptions, residual fuel oil and natural gas markets, coal in environmental planning, coal market conditions and implications for procurement, and Canadian energy purchases. Individual papers are processed separately for the data bases. (PSB)

  2. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  3. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  4. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a ...

  5. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  6. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  7. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  8. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  9. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  10. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs. PDF icon pyrolysis_levine.pdf More Documents & Publications Challenge # 1. Feedstock & Production Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels A Review of DOE Biofuels Program

  11. Impulsively started incompressible turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witze, P O

    1980-10-01

    Hot-film anemometer measurements are presented for the centerline velocity of a suddenly started jet of air. The tip penetration of the jet is shown to be proportional to the square-root of time. A theoretical model is developed that assumes the transient jet can be characterized as a spherical vortex interacting with a steady-state jet. The model demonstrates that the ratio of nozzle radius to jet velocity defines a time constant that uniquely characterizes the behavior and similarity of impulsively started incompressible turbulent jets.

  12. Biological Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading Presentation for BETO 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading WBS 2.3.2.301 2015 DOE BioEnergy Technologies Office (BETO) ... * Tt-J Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil Intermediates to Fuels and Chemicals ...

  13. Proceedings of the 1995 SAE alternative fuels conference. P-294

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This volume contains 32 papers and five panel discussions related to the fuel substitution of trucks, automobiles, buses, cargo handling equipment, diesel passenger cars, and pickup trucks. Fuels discussed include liquefied natural gas, natural gas, ethanol fuels, methanol fuels, dimethyl ether, methyl esters from various sources (rape oil, used cooking oils, soya, and canola oils), hydrogen fuels, and biodiesel. Other topics include fuel cell powered vehicles, infrastructure requirements for fuel substitution, and economics. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-03

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  15. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  16. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  17. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  18. EIS-0083: Final Northeast Regional Environmental Impact Statement; The Potential Conversion of Forty-Two Powerplants From Oil to Coal or Alternate Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Economic Regulatory Administration statement assesses the potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts resulting from conversion of up to 42 northeastern power plants from oil to coal and from an alternative “Voluntary Conversion” scenario for 27 power plants.

  19. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chemistry and particulate size measurements. Fuels obtained in late 2011, which will be evaluated in 2012, include a series of oil shale derived fuels from PNNL, green diesel ...

  20. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  1. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  2. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  3. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  4. S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Power f Fuel Ethanol g Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel ... as it is consumed; includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. e Includes ...

  5. Vortex diode jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  6. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  7. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  8. Flow cytometer jet monitor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

  9. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  10. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of the program is the determination of the minimal processing requirements to produce High Energy Density Fuels (HEDF), meeting a minimal energy density of 130,000 Btu/gal (conventional jet fuels have energy densities in the vicinity of 115,000--120,000 Btu/gal) and having acceptable advanced fuel specifications in accordance with the three defined categories of HEDF. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. A task breakdown structure was developed containing eight key tasks. This report summarizes the work that Amoco Oil Company (AOC), as key subcontractor, performed in the execution of Task 4, Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel. The intent of the Task 4 study was to represent all the candidate processing options, that were either studied in the experimental efforts of Task 3 or were available from the prior art in the open literature, in a linear program (LP) model. The LP model would allow scaling of the bench-scale Task 3 results to commercial scale and would perform economic evaluations on any combination of the processes which might be used to make HEDF. Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the process and economic bases used. Sections 3.0 and 4.0 details the economics and processing sensitivities for HEDF production. 1 ref., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  12. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves To ensure sufficient fuel for the fleet, the Government began withdrawing probable oil-bearing lands from the public domain. Between 1909 and 1924, tracts in California, Utah, and Wyoming were set aside that became the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves - the oldest component of today's Fossil Energy organization. PDF icon Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves - 90 Years of Ensuring the Nation's Security

  13. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel

  14. Proceedings: 1987 fuel supply seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.

    1988-08-01

    The seventh annual EPRI Fuel Supply Seminar was held in Baltimore, Maryland, from October 6 to 8, 1987. The major emphasis of the meeting was on identifying fuel market risks and planning concerns in order to cope with inherent uncertainties and make informed fuel supply decisions. Sessions dealt with the natural gas markets including the prospects for continued availability of gas as a boiler fuel, the relationship of gas and oil prices and the relevance of different regulatory issues. Other sessions addressed the political dimensions of world oil supply and the role of oil inventories in price dynamics, the interaction of world trade cycles, interest rates and currency fluctuations on utility fuel planning, and the role of strategic fuel planning in various utilities. The changing coal transportation market was the subject of several presentations, concluding with a review of utility experiences in integrating coal transportation and coal supply procurement. Presentations were made by various specialists including EPRI research contractors reporting on the results of ongoing research, speakers drawn from the utility, coal and natural gas industries, and independent consultants. The principal purpose of the seminar continues to be to provide utility fuel planners and fuel procurement managers with data and insights into the structure, operations and uncertainties of the fuel markets, thereby supporting their development of flexible fuel strategies and contributing to integrated utility decision making. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the energy data base.

  15. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad; Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric; Wang, Mr. Michael; Ruth, Mr. Mark; Andress, Mr. David; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Nguyen, Tien; Das, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  16. BIPOLAR JETS LAUNCHED FROM ACCRETION DISKS. II. THE FORMATION OF ASYMMETRIC JETS AND COUNTER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: nezami@mpia.de

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the jet launching from accretion disks, in particular the formation of intrinsically asymmetric jet/counter jet systems. We perform axisymmetric MHD simulations of the disk-jet structure on a bipolar computational domain covering both hemispheres. We apply various models such as asymmetric disks with (initially) different scale heights in each hemisphere, symmetric disks into which a local disturbance is injected, and jets launched into an asymmetric disk corona. We consider both a standard global magnetic diffusivity distribution and a novel local diffusivity model. Typical disk evolution first shows substantial disk warping and then results in asymmetric outflows with a 10%-30% mass flux difference. We find that the magnetic diffusivity profile is essential for establishing a long-term outflow asymmetry. We conclude that bipolar asymmetry in protostellar and extragalactic jets can indeed be generated intrinsically and maintained over a long time by disk asymmetries and the standard jet launching mechanism.

  17. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  18. Net Imports of Total Crude Oil and Products into the U.S. by Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Conventional Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 500

  19. Ram jet engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crispin, B.; Pohl, W.D.; Thomaier, D.; Voss, N.

    1983-11-29

    In a ram jet engine, a tubular combustion chamber is divided into a flame chamber followed by a mixing chamber. The ram air is supplied through intake diffusers located on the exterior of the combustion chamber. The intake diffusers supply combustion air directly into the flame chamber and secondary air is conveyed along the exterior of the combustion chambers and then supplied directly into the mixing chamber.

  20. Sustainable Oils Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    producer and marketer of renewable, environmentally clean, and high-value Camelina-based biodiesel fuel. References: Sustainable Oils Inc.1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  1. LPG fuel shutoff system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

    1988-01-26

    An LPG fuel shutoff system for use with a vehicle having an LPG fuel engine and having a solenoid valve to supply and shut off LPG fuel is described including: a relay having a relay contact which is closed when an electric current is fed to a coil of the relay; a pressure switch having a first position and a second position and adapted to be in the first position when engine oil pressure rises above a predetermined level; and an oil lamp adapted to light when the engine oil pressure is below the predetermined level, and wherein a solenoid coil of the solenoid valve is connected at one side to a battery through an ignition switch and a fuel switch. The solenoid coil also is connected, at another side of the solenoid coil, in series to the relay contact and the pressure switch in the second position respectively, the coil of the relay is connected to the solenoid valve side of the ignition switch through a starting switch, the oil lamp is connected between the ignition switch and the pressure switch.

  2. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAfee, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  4. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  5. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  6. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.

    1996-05-01

    Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  8. Energy Information Administration - Table 2. End Uses of Fuel...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -- -- -- Net Electricity 74 79 76 Residual Fuel Oil 19 * 11 Natural Gas 369 329 272 Machine Drive -- -- -- Net Electricity 68 86 77 Notes 1. The North American Industry...

  9. Designer Catalysts for Next Generation Fuel Synthesis - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feed stocks and removing ... Bio-fuel production Hydrogen generation Direct coal liquefaction Oil refining ...

  10. Energy Department to Loan Emergency Fuel to Department of Defense...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) will begin drawing down stocks from the heating oil reserve terminal in Groton, Connecticut as early as tomorrow. The fuel, which will be ...

  11. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil...

  12. advanced-fuels-synthesis-index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future work in this area may include direct coal conversion to higher value products such as aromatics needed for high altitude jet fuel, and solid carbon product by-products. ...

  13. Method for cold stable biojet fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seames, Wayne S.; Aulich, Ted

    2015-12-08

    Plant or animal oils are processed to produce a fuel that operates at very cold temperatures and is suitable as an aviation turbine fuel, a diesel fuel, a fuel blendstock, or any fuel having a low cloud point, pour point or freeze point. The process is based on the cracking of plant or animal oils or their associated esters, known as biodiesel, to generate lighter chemical compounds that have substantially lower cloud, pour, and/or freeze points than the original oil or biodiesel. Cracked oil is processed using separation steps together with analysis to collect fractions with desired low temperature properties by removing undesirable compounds that do not possess the desired temperature properties.

  14. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: (1) distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; (2) propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; (3) natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; (4) residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; (5) crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and (6) US total heating degree-days by city.

  15. D1 Williamson Magor Bio Fuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magor Bio Fuel Jump to: navigation, search Name: D1 Williamson Magor Bio Fuel Place: Kolkata, West Bengal, India Zip: 700 001 Product: Joint venture between D1 Oils and Williamson...

  16. D1 Fuel Crops Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 2RE Product: London-based JV between BP and D1 oils focusing on the...

  17. Houston BioFuels Consultants | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioFuels Consultants Jump to: navigation, search Name: Houston BioFuels Consultants Place: Kingwood, Texas Zip: 77345 Product: A Houston-based consultancy run by oil industry...

  18. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  19. Major Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption Major Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption April 1, 2011 - 1:07pm Addthis President Obama announces the National Clean Fleets Partnership to help companies reduce fuel usage by incorporating electric vehicles, alternative fuels, and conservation techniques. Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities What does this project do? Cuts oil imports and consumption Helps businesses save money Increases the efficiency of

  20. Filamentous Carbon Particles for Cleaning Oil Spills - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Filamentous Carbon Particles for Cleaning Oil Spills DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The invention provides methods and apparatus for the creation of carbon filaments used for cleaning oil spills. Crude oil and other petroleum products can cause severe damage to the environment and wildlife when spilled

  1. Shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwab, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    A shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle is described which separates the jet from surrounding fluid environment and enhances the cutting effect.

  2. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  3. Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Haws, R.; Wright, B.; Reese, D.; Moeller, G.; Peterson, C.

    1995-12-31

    Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO{sub 2} evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO{sub 2} evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO{sub 2} evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO{sub 2}. The test substances were examined for BOD{sub 5} and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD{sub 5} and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD{sub 5} and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p << 0.01. RME was also significantly lower than REE (p < 0.05) and MS (p < 0.01) for BOD{sub 5} value.

  4. TRUPACT-I Unit 0 test data analysis. [Puncture bar impacts; free fall of package 12 inches onto unyielding surface; 30-foot free fall drop onto unyielding target; 40-inch drops onto 6-inch diagmeter puncture bar; engulfment in jet fuel fire for 35 minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesberg, L.E.; Hudson, M.L.; Osborne, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    TRUPACT-I was tested to evaluate the response of the design to the normal and hypothetical accident conditions specified in applicable regulations. The governing regulations are contained in DOE Order No. 5480.1, Chapter 3 and 10 CFR, Part 71, Refs. 1 and 2. Tests were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Normal condition tests included three 13-pound (1.25 in. diameter) puncture bar impacts onto the exterior surface and free fall of the package 12 inches onto an essentially unyielding surface. Hypothetical accident conditions included in the test sequence were two 30-foot free fall drops of the package onto an essentially unyielding target, four 40-inch drops onto a 6-inch-diameter puncture bar, and engulfment in a JP-4 jet fuel fire for 35 minutes. Instrumentation data traces will be published in Ref. 3 and are not reproduced herein. This report presents an analysis of the available data and an interpretation of the results. The results of the tests are compared to results from numerical analyses and scale model tests which are incorporated in the TRUPACT-I SARP, Ref. 4. 9 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies E. Thomas (Tom) Habib, Jr., Director, Customer Research Partnerships, W.R. Grace & Co. PDF icon biomass13_habib_2-d.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products

  6. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks: An Integrated Study of the Fast Pyrolysis/Hydrotreating Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Westover, Tyler; Carpenter, Daniel; Santosa, Daniel M.; Emerson, Rachel; Deutch, Steve; Starace, Anne; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Lukins, Craig D.

    2015-05-21

    Feedstock composition can affect final fuel yields and quality for the fast pyrolysis and hydrotreatment upgrading pathway. However, previous studies have focused on individual unit operations rather than the integrated system. In this study, a suite of six pure lignocellulosic feedstocks (clean pine, whole pine, tulip poplar, hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover) and two blends (equal weight percentages whole pine/tulip poplar/switchgrass and whole pine/clean pine/hybrid poplar) were prepared and characterized at Idaho National Laboratory. These blends then underwent fast pyrolysis at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and hydrotreatment at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Although some feedstocks showed a high fast pyrolysis bio-oil yield such as tulip poplar at 57%, high yields in the hydrotreater were not always observed. Results showed overall fuel yields of 15% (switchgrass), 18% (corn stover), 23% (tulip poplar, Blend 1, Blend 2), 24% (whole pine, hybrid poplar) and 27% (clean pine). Simulated distillation of the upgraded oils indicated that the gasoline fraction varied from 39% (clean pine) to 51% (corn stover), while the diesel fraction ranged from 40% (corn stover) to 46% (tulip poplar). Little variation was seen in the jet fuel fraction at 11 to 12%. Hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating, a major factor in the economic feasibility of the integrated process, ranged from 0.051 g/g dry feed (tulip poplar) to 0.070 g/g dry feed (clean pine).

  7. Diesel Engine Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Perrformance of API CJ-4 diesel engine lubricating oil and emerging lubricant technologiy are examined with respect to protection and fuel economy benefits. PDF icon deer08_arcy.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion

  8. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  9. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  10. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  11. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  13. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Hydrogen and Fuel Cells EERE leads U.S. researchers and other partners in making transportation cleaner and more efficient through solutions that put electric drive vehicles on the road and replace oil with clean domestic fuels. EERE leads U.S. researchers and other partners in making transportation cleaner and more efficient through solutions that put electric drive vehicles on the road and replace oil with clean domestic fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the

  14. Growing attraction of refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R.

    1981-09-08

    A review of Dr. Andrew Porteous' book, Refuse Derived Fuels is presented. The escalating price of fossil fuel, particularily oil, together with the high cost of handling and transporting refuse makes the idea of refuse-derived fuel production an attractive and economic proposition. Refuse-derived fuel production is discussed and the various manufacturing processes in the UK and the USA are described. The pyrolysis of refuse for the production of gas, oil or heat and the production of methane and ethyl alcohol or other possibilities for refuse conversion.

  15. Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories, and Public Agencies PDF icon Oil Shale Research in the United States More Documents & Publications Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands National Strategic Unconventional Resource Model

  16. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  17. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  18. OpenEI:Projects/Improvements Oil and Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Oil | General Classification 3 Oil | Uses 3.1 Fuels 3.2 Derivatives 3.3 Agriculture 4 Natural Gas | Energy Basics 5 Natural Gas | General Classification 5.1 Biogas 6 Natural...

  19. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  20. Process for separating water and solids from fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filho, J.H.; Bachmann, D.L.

    1987-11-17

    A process for separating water and solid particles from a fuel oil feedstock is described comprising: subjecting the feedstock to a first separation in a scroll type centrifugal separator to form a first recovered fuel stream and an oil cake; subjecting at least the first recovered fuel stream to a second separation in a centrifugal disc separator to form a clean fuel stream, an oil-bearing water stream and a sludge stream; treating the oil-bearing water stream in a separator to recover the oil; treating the oil cake removed from the first separation with a solvent in order to form a suspension; mixing the suspension with the sludge stream to form a mixture; feeding the mixture to a filter press to yield a solid reject and a filtrate; separating the filtrate into a decantate and recovered oil; mixing at least a portion of the recovered oil with first recovered fuel stream to form a semi-cleaned fuel stream; and subjecting the semi-cleaned fuel stream to the second separation in a centrifugal disc separator to form the clean fuel stream.

  1. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Alternative Fuels - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade,

  2. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  3. Fragmentation inside an identified jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Procura, Massimiliano; Stewart, Iain W.

    2011-05-23

    Using Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive factorization formulae for semi-inclusive processes where a light hadron h fragments from a jet whose invariant mass is measured. Our analysis yields a novel 'fragmenting jet function' G{sub i}{sup h}(s,z) that depends on the jet invariant mass {radical}(s), and on the fraction z of the large light-cone momentum components of the hadron and the parent parton i. We show that G{sub i}{sup h}(s,z) can be computed in terms of perturbatively calculable coefficients, J{sub ij}(s,z/x), integrated against standard non-perturbative fragmentation functions, D{sub j}{sup h}(x). Our analysis yields a simple replacement rule that allows any factorization theorem depending on a jet function J{sub i} to be converted to a semi-inclusive process with a fragmenting hadron h.

  4. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Proceedings: fuel-supply seminars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    The objectives of the seminars were to provide an up-to-date assessment of critical issues affecting fuel-supply and utility-fuel planning. The chief topics were coal, oil and gas, uranium, and utility coal conversion. Presentations were made by EPRI research contractors on the results of ongoing research within the Energy Resources Program and by speakers from the utility and coal industries, government, academia, and the consulting and legal professions. A supplementary paper compiling recent oil and gas supply-and-demand forecast is included in these proceedings. The message emerging from the seminars, and illustrated in numerous ways, is of continuing uncertainty in fuel markets and the necessity for utilities to pursue flexible fuel strategies. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 presentations.

  6. OIl Speculation

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of investor flows and financial market conditions on returns in crude-oil futures markets. ... for returns in US and emerging-economy stock markets, a measure of the balance-sheet ...

  7. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  8. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-27

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  9. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  10. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  11. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  12. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  13. CHP/Cogeneration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas turbines also have very low emissions compared to other fossil-fuel based systems. Fuel Cell - these plants primarily produce power using Oil, Distillate Fuel Oil, Jet Fuel,...

  14. Shock waves generated by high-pressure fuel sprays directly imaged by x-radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; MacPhee, A.; Powell, C. F.; Yue, Y.; Narayanan, S.; Tate, M. W.; Renzi, M. J.; Ercan, A.; Fontes, E.; Gruner, S. M.; Walther, J.; Schaller, J.

    2001-12-20

    Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.

  15. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS A protostellar jet and outflow...

  16. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  17. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  18. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  19. Evaluation of the Ram-Jet device, a PCV air bleed. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency receives information about many systems which appear to offer potential for emission reduction or fuel economy improvement compared to conventional engines and vehicles. This report discusses EPA's evaluation of the Ram-Jet, a retrofit device marketed by Ed Almquist. It is designed to bleed in extra air to the engine by allowing ambient air to bypass the carburetor under high engine load conditions. The manufacturer claims the device reduces emission pollutants and improves fuel economy.

  20. DECELERATING RELATIVISTIC TWO-COMPONENT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R. E-mail: Rony.Keppens@wis.kuleuven.b

    2009-11-10

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin and launching mechanism, making their effective inertia, magnetization, associated energy flux, and angular momentum content different as well. Their interface will develop differential rotation, where disruptions may occur. Here we investigate the stability of rotating, two-component relativistic outflows typical for jets in radio galaxies. For this purpose, we parametrically explore the long-term evolution of a transverse cross section of radially stratified jets numerically, extending our previous study where a single, purely hydrodynamic evolution was considered. We include cases with poloidally magnetized jet components, covering hydro and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. With grid-adaptive relativistic MHD simulations, augmented with approximate linear stability analysis, we revisit the interaction between the two jet components. We study the influence of dynamically important poloidal magnetic fields, with varying contributions of the inner component jet to the total kinetic energy flux of the jet, on their non-linear azimuthal stability. We demonstrate that two-component jets with high kinetic energy flux and inner jet effective inertia which is higher than the outer jet effective inertia are subject to the development of a relativistically enhanced, rotation-induced Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability. This instability plays a major role in decelerating the inner jet and the overall jet decollimation. This novel deceleration scenario can partly explain the radio source dichotomy, relating it directly to the efficiency of the central engine in launching the inner jet component. The FRII/FRI transition could then occur when the relative kinetic energy flux of the inner to the outer jet grows beyond a certain threshold.

  1. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  2. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  3. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit

  4. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25,166 20,783 19,759 17,031 14,702 13,929 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 5,726 3,827 2,793 2,205 1,769 0 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 413 953 36 0 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut 413...

  5. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    760,877 951,322 1,381,127 1,710,513 1,751,162 2,105,058 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 58,098 27,778 44,556 101,246 161,426 188,010 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 12 2,369 1,203...

  6. Chapter 7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels September 2015 Quadrennial Technology Review 7 Advancing Systems and Technologies to Produce Cleaner Fuels Issues and RDD&D Opportunities  Fossil fuels account for 82% of total U.S. primary energy use.  Each fuel has strengths and weaknesses in relation to energy security, economic competitiveness, and environmental responsibility identified in Chapter 1.  Low-cost fuels can contribute to economic prosperity. Oil and gas

  7. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Michael; Marker, Terry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Wangerow, Jim; Swanson, Dan; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Urade, Vikrant; Rao, Madhusudhan; Narasimhan, Laxmi; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John; Stover, Daniel; Parrish, Martin; Maxey, Carl; Shonnard, David; Handler, Robert; Fan, Jiquig

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the hydropyrolysis oils had low acidity and caused almost no corrosion in comparison to pyrolysis oils, which had high acidity and caused significant levels of corrosion.

  8. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  9. Fuel and Lubricant Effects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ft001_bunting_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion APBF Effects on Combustion Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel

  11. Crude oil as refinery feed stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boduszynski, M.M.; Farrell, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives a brief overview of the integrated oil refinery. It illustrates that crude oil refining involves {open_quotes}molecular tailoring,{close_quotes} where feed stock molecules are {open_quotes}tailored{close_quotes} through catalytic processing to make products with the most desirable composition. Chemical composition of crude oil as refinery feed stock is discussed. The emphasis is on the understanding of molecular transformations which occur in refinery processes to manufacture light transportation fuels. Diesel fuel manufacturing is used as an example. Recent environmental legislation in the United States has necessitated a significant upgrade in the quality of diesel fuel used for highway transportation. Examples are given to illustrate the impact that petroleum chemistry may have on the industry`s response to government regulations.

  12. Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takasumi, D.S.

    1995-09-28

    The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

  13. Antioxidants and stabilizers for lubricants and fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of antioxidants and stabilizers used in lubricants and fuels. The synthesis, stability, degradation, and storage life of lubricant and fuel additives are discussed. Additives used in jet engine, turbine, natural-gas, and coal-water fuels are examined. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. EIS-0068: Development Policy Options for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves prepared this programmatic statement to examine the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of development projects on the Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1, and examine select alternatives, such as encouraging production from other liquid fuel resources (coal liquefaction, biomass, offshore oil and enhanced oil recovery) or conserving petroleum in lieu of shale oil production.

  15. Transportation Fuel Market Stood at 2,332.57 MTOE in 2013 and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gas (GHG) emissions from vehicles powered by crude oil-based fuels and depleting oil reserves have compelled governments of different countries to switch to eco-friendly and...

  16. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

  17. NREL: Learning - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. And we can help to reduce our nation's growing reliance on imported oil by running our vehicles on renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicles and fuels can also put the brakes on air pollution and improve our environment. At least 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States today. They include all kinds of passenger

  18. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  19. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  20. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  1. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  2. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  3. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  4. Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop WHEN: Jan 11, 2016 8:30 AM - Jan 13, 2016 5:30 PM WHERE: Inn and Spa at Loretto 211 Old Santa Fe...

  5. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14,609 9,851 14,653 10,324 8,436 2,400 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 14,049 9,344 14,362 9,408 8,434 2,400 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 767 693 574 174 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut...

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,103,881 3,930,517 3,625,747 3,473,310 3,536,111 3,802,848 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,670,994 3,545,676 3,274,963 3,183,878 3,240,215 3,501,957 1984-2014 New England (PADD...

  7. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Farm Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    660,024 2,928,175 2,942,436 3,031,878 3,026,611 3,209,391 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 333,748 454,160 375,262 382,639 404,799 401,686 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 13,909...

  8. Residual Fuel Oil for All Other Uses

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,503 5,860 2,664 1,418 26 50 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1,857 5,230 2,151 1,418 0 50 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 385 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Connecticut 7 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014...

  9. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Railroad Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,759,140 2,974,641 3,121,150 3,118,150 3,369,781 3,670,338 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 459,324 482,929 514,418 492,156 460,066 480,024 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 43,763...

  10. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,159,428 2,045,164 2,179,953 2,325,503 2,271,056 2,417,898 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 597,048 560,403 568,024 568,997 559,886 600,949 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 60,994...

  11. Residual Fuel Oil for Commercial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    415,107 356,343 316,713 226,150 177,196 68,438 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 404,122 343,935 303,217 220,543 175,260 65,966 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 64,826 47,270 33,350...

  12. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    43,728 243,242 246,243 142,696 146,356 220,601 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 71,878 63,847 74,030 44,821 42,646 50,277 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 5,915 5,174 6,420 3,359 2,775...

  13. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Commercial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    785,246 2,738,304 2,715,335 2,557,543 2,471,897 2,543,778 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1,565,353 1,528,778 1,433,828 1,286,053 1,295,125 1,348,704 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A)...

  14. Residual Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    726,210 667,672 772,676 484,957 335,465 335,845 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 407,008 313,472 302,737 204,311 141,776 123,794 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 110,026 68,700 61,487...

  15. ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",19.4,28.7,19.1,"X",32.8,53,"X",53.4,"X",92.3 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",21.1,29.6,15.1,"X",29.6,"X","X","X...

  16. Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to stronger growth in world oil demand, with ... In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information ... will be led by stronger fuel consumption in China and India. ...

  17. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on

  5. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions | Department of Energy Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

  6. "Characteristic(a)","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " 50-99",5.2,8.9,10.2,26.4,6.5,54,4.3,"X",4.2 " 100-249",12.1,17.2,4,20.2,16,40.3,8.1... 50",13.2,8.7,43.2,22.9,16.9,40.6,27.1,"X",66.4 " 50-99",6.1,6.8,29.8,15.2,9.5,12.2,3....

  7. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  9. Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases April 10, 2007 - 12:34pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - In step with the Bush Administration's call to increase the supply of alternative and renewable fuels nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today established the nation's first comprehensive Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.

  10. Transitioning Kentucky Off Oil: An Interview with Clean Cities Coordinator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Melissa Howell | Department of Energy Transitioning Kentucky Off Oil: An Interview with Clean Cities Coordinator Melissa Howell Transitioning Kentucky Off Oil: An Interview with Clean Cities Coordinator Melissa Howell June 18, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis With the help of Kentucky Clean Fuels Coalition, Mammoth Cave National Park was the first National Park fleet to use 100 percent alternative fuel. The Global Electric Motorcar (pictured above) is used by park rangers who need to travel between the

  11. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace046_lawson_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report

  12. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion Engines Bunting, Bruce G ORNL; Bunce, Michael ORNL 02 PETROLEUM; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; BIOFUELS;...

  13. Top 9 Things You Didn't Know about Alternative Fuel Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fuels in production or under development with the goal of helping to cut our domestic oil consumption and potentially reduce vehicle emissions. 8. Thinking about buying an...

  14. Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Renewable Fuels from Biomass by FCC Co-processing Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and ...

  15. Viscosity stabilization of SRC residual oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-05-01

    The use of SRC residual oils for No. 6 Fuel Oil substitutes has been proposed. The oils exhibit viscosity characteristics at elevated temperatures that allow this substitution with only minor modifications to the existing fuel oil infrastructure. However, loss of low-boiling materials causes an increase in the viscosity of the residual oils that is greater than expected from concentration changes. A process has been developed that minimizes the loss of volatiles and thus maintains the viscosity of these materials. The use of an additive (water, phenol, or an SRC light oil cut rich in low-boiling phenols in amounts up to 2.0 wt %) accomplishes this and hence stabilizes the pumping and atomizing characteristics for an extended period. During the course of the work, the components of the volatiles lost were identified and the viscosity change due to this loss was quantified. 3 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  16. fuel cells | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    fuel cells

  17. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine programs goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  18. Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Thomas Foust, Director, National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory PDF icon biomass13_foust_2-d.pdf More Documents & Publications NABC Webinar Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and

  19. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions. PDF icon deer08_lawson.pdf More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) The FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Health

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg