National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel na na

  1. 20Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1969MAZT: 20Na; measured T12, -spectrum; deduced -branching. 20Ne deduced ... E, I, -coin; deduced neutrino spectrum. 2004MI51: 20Na(+), (EC); measured ...

  2. 18Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 18Na Adopted value: < 200 keV (2012MU05) Measured Mass Excess for 18Na Adopted value: 25040 ± 110 keV (2012WA38) Measurements 2004ZE05: 9Be(20Mg, 18NaX), E = 43 MeV/nucleon; measured particle spectra, angular correlations, invariant mass following fragment proton decay. 18Na; deduced excited states proton decay features. 2011AS07: 1H(17Ne, 17Ne), 1H(17Ne, X)18Na, E = 4 MeV/nucleon; measured reaction products, proton

  3. 19Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Na Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 19Na Adopted value: < 40 ns (2003AU02) Measured Mass Excess for 19Na Adopted value: 12927 ± 12 keV (2003AU02) Measurements 1969CE01: 24Mg(p, 6He), E = 54.7 MeV; measured σ(E(6He)); deduced Q. 19Na deduced nuclear mass. 1975BE38: 24Mg(3He, 8Li), E = 76.8 MeV; measured σ(E(8Li)); deduced Q. 19Na deduced mass excess. 19Na deduced level. 1975BEZD: 24Mg(3He, 8Li), E = 76.3 MeV; measured σ(E(8Li)). 19Na deduced mass

  4. Cleaning residual NaK in the fast flux test facility fuel storage cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, T.M.; Church, W.R.; Hodgson, K.M.

    2008-01-15

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation, is a liquid metal-cooled test reactor. The FFTF was constructed to support the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The bulk of the alkali metal (sodium and NaK) has been drained and will be stored onsite prior to final disposition. Residual NaK needed to be removed from the pipes, pumps, heat exchangers, tanks, and vessels in the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) cooling system. The cooling system was drained in 2004 leaving residual NaK in the pipes and equipment. The estimated residual NaK volume was 76 liters in the storage tank, 1.9 liters in the expansion tank, and 19-39 liters in the heat transfer loop. The residual NaK volume in the remainder of the system was expected to be very small, consisting of films, droplets, and very small pools. The NaK in the FSF Cooling System was not radiologically contaminated. The portions of the cooling system to be cleaned were divided into four groups: 1. The storage tank, filter, pump, and associated piping; 2. The heat exchanger, expansion tank, and associated piping; 3. Argon supply piping; 4. In-vessel heat transfer loop. The cleaning was contracted to Creative Engineers, Inc. (CEI) and they used their superheated steam process to clean the cooling system. It has been concluded that during the modification activities (prior to CEI coming onsite) to prepare the NaK Cooling System for cleaning, tank T-914 was pressurized relative to the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and NaK was pushed from the tank back into the Cooler and that on November 6, 2005, when the gas purge through the In-Vessel NaK Cooler was increased from 141.6 slm to 283.2 slm, NaK was forced from the In-Vessel NaK Cooler and it contacted water in the vent line and/or scrubber. The gases from the reaction then traveled back through the vent line coating the internal surface of the vent line with NaK and NaK reaction products. The hot gases also exited the scrubber through the stack and due to the temperature of the gas, the hydrogen auto ignited when it mixed with the oxygen in the air. There was no damage to equipment, no injuries, and no significant release of hazardous material. Even though the FSF Cooling System is the only system at FFTF that contains residual NaK, there are lessons to be learned from this event that can be applied to future residual sodium removal activities. The lessons learned are: - Before cleaning equipment containing residual alkali metal the volume of alkali metal in the equipment should be minimized to the extent practical. As much as possible, reconfirm the amount and location of the alkali metal immediately prior to cleaning, especially if additional evolutions have been performed or significant time has passed. This is especially true for small diameter pipe (<20.3 centimeters diameter) that is being cleaned in place since gas flow is more likely to move the alkali metal. Potential confirmation methods could include visual inspection (difficult in all-metal systems), nondestructive examination (e.g., ultrasonic measurements) and repeating previous evolutions used to drain the system. Also, expect to find alkali metal in places it would not reasonably be expected to be. - Staff with an intimate knowledge of the plant equipment and the bulk alkali metal draining activities is critical to being able to confirm the amount and locations of the alkali metal residuals and to safely clean the residuals. - Minimize the potential for movement of alkali metal during cleaning or limit the distance and locations into which alkali metal can move. - Recognize that when working with alkali metal reactions, occasional pops and bangs are to be anticipated. - Pre-plan emergency responses to unplanned events to assure responses planned for an operating reactor are appropriate for the deactivation phase.

  5. Na onal Security Site?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mul ple Choice (circle the correct answer) 1. How many diff erent animal species can be found at the Nevada Na onal Security Site? a. Less than 500 b. Exactly 1,325 c. More than 1,500 d. Exactly 2,303 2. Nuclear research, development and tes ng caused radioac ve contamina on of: a. Buildings b. Clothes and tools c. Soil and water d. All of the above 3. One method used to check soil for the presence of radioac ve contamina on is: a. Use a black light to see if the soil glows b. Send soil samples

  6. Final Report: Si and Na-SG Powder Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melack, John

    2013-07-15

    The primary project objective is to develop and demonstrate a controllable hydrogen generation system based on sodium silicide powder for portable fuel cell applications. This includes the development and demonstration of all balance of plant and reaction control components, which encompass water feeding, thermal management, and reaction site maximization. The appropriate manufacturing methods to readily scale production of sodium silicide will also be investigated.

  7. Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73 Over 420 Government & Commercial Nuclear Entities currently report to NMMSS Mission U.S. Government's Official Database to Track Transactions, Movements and Inventories of Nuclear Materials throughout the U.S. as well as Imports and Exports Jointly funded by the NRC & NNSA - Managed by NA-73 Fuel Cycle Facilities  Conversion  Enrichment  Fuel Fabrication  Power Reactors, etc. DOE/NNSA  Defense Programs  Naval

  8. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Ya; Yu, Xiqian; You, Ya; Yin, Yaxia; Nam, Kyung -Wan

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. The Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  9. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  10. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  11. NaWoTec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NaWoTec Jump to: navigation, search Name: NaWoTec Place: Rossdorf, Germany Zip: 64380 Product: Germany-based company developing 3-dimensional additive lithography using...

  12. A=14Na (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    86AJ01) (Not illustrated) 14Ne, 14Na and 14Mg have not been observed. See (1983ANZQ

  13. A=14Na (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (Not illustrated) 14Ne, 14Na and 14Mg have not been observed. See (1986AN07

  14. Threshold electron excitation of Na

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, B.; Wang, P.; Gallagher, A. )

    1992-09-01

    Electron collisional excitation of the 4{ital D}, 5{ital D}, 4{ital P}, and 6{ital S} states of Na has been measured with about 30-meV energy resolution. Very rapid, unresolved threshold onsets are seen for all but the 4{ital P} state, and a near-threshold resonance is suggested by the 5{ital D} data. However, only weak undulations in the cross sections are observed above threshold.

  15. A=20Na (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table 20.35 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Mass of 20Na: From the threshold energy of the 20Ne(p, n)20Na...

  16. A=19Na (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) A study of the reaction 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na at Ep 54.7 MeV reveals a group of 6He particles corresponding to a state in 19Na with M - A ...

  17. New Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Improved Equations For Na-K, Na-Li And Sio2 Geothermometers By Outlier Detection And Rejection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  18. A=18Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (Not illustrated) A calculation using an isobaric mass formula predicts that the mass excess of 18Na is 25.4 ± 0.4 MeV (1966KE16): 18Na is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV. See also (1965JA1C

  19. A=20Na (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -)20Na Qm -140.611 Angular distributions and analyzing powers have been studied at Ep 199.6 MeV to 20Na*(0.74, 1.85, 3.01, 4.11) probably unresolved: it is suggested that...

  20. NA 80 - Associate Administrator for Counterterrorism andCounterprolif...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 80 - Associate Administrator for Counterterrorism ... NA 80 - Associate...

  1. NA 70 - Associate Administrator for Defense Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 70 - Associate Administrator for Defense ... NA 70 - Associate Administrator...

  2. NA 50 - Associate Administrator for Safety, Infrastructure and...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 50 - Associate Administrator for Safety, ... NA 50 - Associate Administrator...

  3. NA 1 - Immediate Office of the Administrator | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 1 - Immediate Office of the Administrator NA 1 - Immediate Office of the...

  4. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for...

  5. NA EA - Associate Administrator for External Affairs | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA EA - Associate Administrator for External Affairs NA EA - Associate...

  6. NA 20 - Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 20 - Deputy Administrator for Defense ... NA 20 - Deputy Administrator for...

  7. NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for ... NA 15 - Assistant Deputy...

  8. NA 10 - Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 10 - Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs NA 10 - Deputy Administrator for...

  9. NA GC - Office of General Counsel | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home About Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA GC - Office of General Counsel NA GC - Office of General Counsel...

  10. A=20Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    87AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.27 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1981WA1Q, 1983ANZQ, 1983BR29, 1985AN28, 1985HA1N, 1985RO1N, 1986AN07, 1986GA1I). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.26 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 53 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9 ± 2.3 msec [weighted mean of values quoted in (1978AJ03) and in (1983CL01)];

  11. FEiNA SCP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Sant Marta de Torruella, Spain Product: Manufacturer of tracking systems for PV plants, and looking for STEG partners. References: FEiNA SCP1 This article is a stub. You...

  12. NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration NA 15 - Assistant Deputy Administrator for Secure Transportation

  13. A=20Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20Na) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 20.36 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). (1977SI1D, 1978WO1E, 1979BE1H, 1980OK01, 1981AY01). J 2 (1975SC20); 0.3694 ...

  14. A=19Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass excess of 12.928 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 320 13 keV. An excited state at Ex 120 10 keV is also...

  15. A=19Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assuming the atomic mass excess listed above, 19Na(0) is unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 320 13 keV. See also (1972CE1A, 1976BE1L, 1976JA23), (1975BE31,...

  16. A=19Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass excess of 12.929 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 13 keV. An excited state at Ex 120 10 keV is also...

  17. A=19Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass excess of 12.929 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 13 keV. An excited state at Ex 120 10 keV is also...

  18. A=20Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    78AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.39 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). (1973HA77, 1973SU1B, 1974HA17, 1976CH1T,...

  19. A=18Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (Not illustrated) 18Na has not been observed: its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV: it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.55 MeV (1977WA08). See also (1976JA23, 1976WA1E

  20. A=18Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3AJ01) (Not illustrated) 18Na has not been observed: its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV: it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.55 MeV (1977WA08). See also (1978GU10

  1. A=18Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV; it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  2. A=18Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV (1993AU05); it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  3. OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NA L S I GNE D B Y OR I GI NA L S I GNE D B Y

  4. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20).

  5. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 New England (PADD 1A) NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Connecticut NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Maine NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Massachusetts NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 New Hampshire NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Rhode Island NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Vermont NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Delaware NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 District of Columbia NA NA NA NA NA NA

  6. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, D. William; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Bunting, Bruce G; Howe, Janet E

    2012-01-01

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  7. NNSA reorganizes Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40), Office of

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation (NA-80) | National Nuclear Security Administration reorganizes Office of Emergency Operations (NA-40), Office of Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation (NA-80) Wednesday, December 9, 2015 - 11:00am Colleagues: The Department of Energy has adopted an enterprise-wide approach to strengthening its preparedness for and its capability to respond to a broad spectrum of potential emergencies, including those resulting from natural phenomena (e.g.,

  8. Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Office of Nuclear Material Integration (ONMI), NA-73 Over 420 Government & Commercial Nuclear Entities currently report to NMMSS Mission U.S. Government's Official Database to ...

  9. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS NaCl SOLUTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This report covers a critical evaluation of the available literature on the thermal conductivity of aqueous NaCl solutions for regions of geo- thermal interest: temperatures to ...

  10. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drabińska, Aneta Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  11. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate formore » CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.« less

  12. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate for CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.

  13. EA-372 GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. EA-372 GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. Order authorizing GDF Suez Energy Marketing NA, Inc. to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon ...

  14. NNSA Corporate CPEP Process NNSA Honeywell FM&T PER NNSA/NA-00...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... and ship all NA-242 International Non-proliferation Export Control Program (INECP) ... and ship all NA-242 International Non-proliferation Export Control Program (INECP) ...

  15. Analysis of NaOH releases for Hanford tank farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-12

    The information contained in the canceled document is now located in the document: Consequence Analysis of a NaOH Solution Spray Release During Addition to Waste Tank, WHC-SD-WM-CN-065.

  16. NaIrO3A Pentavalent Post-perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Bremholm; S Dutton; P Stephens; R Cava

    2011-12-31

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO{sub 3}, was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO{sub 3}, the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO{sub 3}. Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO{sub 3} is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO{sub 6} octahedra separated by layers of NaO{sub 8} bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO{sub 3} shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides.

  17. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors NA 30 - Naval Reactors FY15 Year End Report Semi Annual Report FY14 Year End Report Semi Annual Report NX 3 - Naval Reactors Laboratory Field Office FY15 Year End

  18. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  19. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. We investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material nearmore » an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.« less

  20. Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    She, C.Y.; Latifi, H.; Yu, J.R.; Alvarez, R.J. II ); Bills, R.E.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors describe a new two-frequency lidar for measuring Na temperature profiles that uses a stabilized cw single-mode dye laser oscillator (rms frequency jitter < 1 MHz) followed by a pulsed-dye power amplifier (140 MHz FWHM linewidth) which is pumped by an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser. The laser oscillator is tuned to the two operating frequencies by observing the Doppler-free structure of the Na D{sub 2} fluorescence spectrum in a vapor cells. The lidar technique and the initial observations of the temperature profile between 82 and 102 km at Ft. Collins, CO (40.6{degree}N,105{degree}W) are described. Absolute temperature accuracies at the Na layer peak of better than {plus minus}3 K with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an integration period of approximately 5 min were achieved.

  1. A new low-voltage plateau of Na3V2(PO4)(3) as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian, ZL; Sun, Y; Ji, XL

    2015-01-01

    A low-voltage plateau at similar to 0.3 V is discovered for the deep sodiation of Na3V2(PO4)(3) by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na3V2(PO4)(3), thus turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  2. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Anthony H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  3. Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Biodiesel-based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3 Over Cu-zeolite Catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of Biodiesel-based Na on the ...

  4. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using ...

  5. Thermal conductivity of aqueous NaCl solutions from 20°C to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal conductivity of aqueous NaCl solutions from 20C to 330C Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal conductivity of aqueous NaCl solutions from 20C to 330C ...

  6. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 ...

  7. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of NaOsO3 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of NaOsO3 Title: Electronic structure and magnetic properties of NaOsO3 Authors: Du, Yongping ; Wan, Xiangang ; Sheng, Li ; Dong, ...

  8. Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power Title Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat...

  9. Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Design of Fissile Pu and HEU LIFE Engine - NA22 You ...

  10. APPENDIXN DE-NA0000622 LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    .I APPENDIXN DE-NA0000622 LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES 09/17/2014 Directive Directive Title 10 CFR 824, Current Rule Procedural Rules for the Assessment of Civil Penalties for Classified Information Security Violations 1 O CFR 830 - Current Rule Nuclear Safety Management 1 O CFR 851 - Current Rule Worker Safety and Health Program ANSI B30.11 Monorails and Underhung Hoists ANSI N323A Radiation Protection Instrumentation Test and Calibration Portable Survey Instrumentation, 1997 ANSI N43.2

  11. Characterization of H, Na-Y using amine desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biaglow, A.I.; Parrillo, D.J.; Gorte, R.J. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have examined series of partially ion-exchanged H, Na-Y zeolites using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of isopropylamine and n-propylamine in order to examine the acid sites in H-Y zeolites as a function of Na poisoning. Both amines desorbed from Na-Y, unreacted, below 500 K; however, samples containing protonic sites exhibited two additional desorption features. First, unreacted amine molecules were observed leaving the samples between [approximately] 500 and 600 K. Second, reaction features appeared which were observed as the simultaneous desorption of propene and ammonia between 575 and 650 K for isopropylamine and between 625 and 700 K for n-propylamine. For a given sample, the number of both isopropylene and n-propylamine molecules which desorbed in both features was identical. Furthermore, the number of molecules desorbing from the two high-temperature features was found to be equal to the number of protonic sites for the entire series, which indicates that both desorption features are associated with protonic sites. This finding was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which also demonstrated that the unreacting desorption feature was associated with the low-frequency, hydroxyl stretch at 3540 cm[sup [minus]1] and that the reacting amine molecules was adsorbed at the high-frequency, hydroxyl stretch near 3640 cm[sup [minus]1]. The implications of these results for understanding the use of TPD-TGA of amines for the characterization of acidity is discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Standard Model Tests at the NA62 CERN Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bifani, Simone

    2010-02-10

    The physics program of the NA62 experiment aims to search for phenomena beyond the Standard Model by measuring the ratio R{sub K} (GammaK->ev{sub e}(gamma))/GAMMA(K->muv{sub mu}{sub (gamma)}) and studying the ultra rare decay K{sup +}->pi{sup +}vv-bar. The status of the R{sub K} analysis based on approx40% of the data collected during 2007 and 2008 is summarized and the proposed detector layout to measure the branching ratio of the K{sup +}->pi{sup +}vv-bar decay is described.

  13. Formation of titanate nanostructures under different NaOH concentration and their application in wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Jiquan; Cao Yongge; Deng Zhonghua; Tong Hao

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the concentration of NaOH on the formation and transformation of various titanate nanostructures were studied. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. Nanotubes can only be obtained under moderate NaOH conditions, and should transform into nanowires with prolonged hydrothermal treatment, and their formation rate is accelerated by increasing NaOH concentration. Low concentration of NaOH results in the direct formation of nanowires, while extra high concentration of NaOH leads to the formation of amorphous nanoparticles. Adsorption and photocatalysis studies show that titanate nanowires and nanotubes might be potential adsorbents for the removal of both heavy metal ions and dyes and photocatalysts for the removal of dyes from wastewater. -- Graphical abstract: The morphologies of the titanates depend deeply on the concentration of NaOH. With increasing NaOH concentration, three different formation mechanisms were proposed. The application of these titanate nanostructures in the wastewater treatment was studied. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Effect of NaOH concentration on the structures of various titanates was reported. {yields} Three different formation mechanisms were presented with increasing NaOH concentration. {yields} Various titanates were used as adsorbents/photocatalysts in wastewater treatment.

  14. MINOS Calibration and NA49 Hadronic Production Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Robert James

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is presented. MINOS is a long-baseline experiment with two detectors situated in North America. The near detector is based at the emission point of the NuMI beam at Fermilab, Chicago, the far detector is 735 km downstream in a disused iron mine in Soudan, Minnesota. A third detector, the calibration detector, is used to cross-calibrate these detectors by sampling different particle beams at CERN. A detailed description of the design and construction of the light-injection calibration system is included. Also presented are experimental investigations into proton-carbon collisions at 158 GeV/c carried out with the NA49 experiment at CERN. The NA49 experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based experiment situated at CERN's North Area. It is a well established experiment with well known characteristics. The data gained from this investigation are to be used to parameterize various hadronic production processes in accelerator and atmospheric neutrino production. These hadronic production parameters will be used to improve the neutrino generation models used in calculating the neutrino oscillation parameters in MINOS.

  15. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  16. 2011 Annual Planning Summary for NNSA, Infrastructure and Environment (NA-50)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2011 and 2012 within NNSA, Infrastructure and Environment (NA-50).

  17. Catalytic Effect of Ti for Hydrogen Cycling in NaAlH4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation about how hydrogen can be reversibly absorbed and desorbed from NaAlH4 under moderate conditions by the addition of catalysts.

  18. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

  19. NaRec New and Renewable Energy Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New and Renewable Energy Centre Jump to: navigation, search Name: NaRec New and Renewable Energy Centre Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This...

  20. The (111) Surface of NaAu2. Structure, Composition, and Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwolek, Emma J.; Widmer, Roland; Gröning, Oliver; Deniz, Okan; Walen, Holly; Yuen, Chad D.; Huang, Wenyu; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Wallingford, Mark; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2014-12-17

    The (111) surface of single-crystal NaAu2 is a model for catalytically active, powdered NaAu2. We prepare and characterize this surface with a broad suite of techniques. Preparation in ultrahigh vacuum consists of the traditional approach of ion bombardment (to remove impurities) and thermal annealing (to restore surface order). Both of these steps cause loss of sodium (Na), and repeated treatments eventually trigger conversion of the surface and near-surface regions to crystalline gold. The bulk has a limited ability to repopulate the surface Na. Under conditions where Na depletion is minimized, electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the bulk-terminated structure, and scanning tunneling microscopy reveals mesa-like features with lateral dimensions of a few tens of nanometers. The tops of the mesas do not possess fine structure characteristic of a periodic lattice, suggesting that the surface layer is disordered under the conditions of these experiments.

  1. NaIrO{sub 3}-A pentavalent post-perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremholm, M.; Dutton, S.E.; Stephens, P.W.; Cava, R.J.

    2011-03-15

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO{sub 3,} was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO{sub 3}, the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO{sub 3}. Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO{sub 3} is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO{sub 6} octahedra separated by layers of NaO{sub 8} bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO{sub 3} shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides. -- Graphical abstract: Sodium iridium(V) oxide, NaIrO{sub 3}, synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions is found to crystallize as the post-perovskite structure and is the first example of a pentavalent ABO{sub 3} post-perovskite. Research highlights: {yields} NaIrO{sub 3} post-perovskite stabilized by pressure. {yields} First example of a pentavalent oxide post-perovskite. {yields} Non-metallic and non-magnetic behavior of NaIrO{sub 3}.

  2. Is Tritium over-regulated by DOE? Should the TFG support NA-1 SD G 1027

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    tritium values? | Department of Energy over-regulated by DOE? Should the TFG support NA-1 SD G 1027 tritium values? Is Tritium over-regulated by DOE? Should the TFG support NA-1 SD G 1027 tritium values? Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland on April 23-25, 2013. PDF icon Is Tritium over-regulated by DOE? Should the TFG support NA-1 SD G 1027 tritium values? More Documents & Publications Is Tritium Over-Regulated, Part 2 Should The TFG

  3. Recent results from NA44 and a review of HBT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacak, B.V.

    1995-04-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions provide the opportunity to create hadronic matter at high energy density and study its properties. In order to do this, one must characterize the collisions, ascertain the size and density of the hot system in the central region of the nucleus-nucleus system, and determine the energy density achieved. Furthermore, one needs to determine whether or not the system approaches equilibrium so thermodynamic descriptions may be used. One of the experimental tools available is the study of two-particle correlations to map the space-time extent of the system when the hadrons decouple. Other observables include the flow of energy and charged particles transverse to the beam and the rapidity distribution of protons to indicate the amount of stopping and randomization of the incoming energy. The transverse mass distributions of hadrons reflect the temperature of the system at freezeout and effects of radial expansion. The production ratios of different particles are related to the extent of chemical equilibrium reached in the collision and subsequent evolution of the hadron gas. The NA44 Experiment at CERN can address all of these observables, though here the author focus mainly on correlation measurements. Kaons and pions are emitted rather late in the evolution of a heavy ion collision, at the time of {open_quotes}freezeout{close_quotes} when the hadrons cease to interact. Their correlations reflect the space-time evolution of the later part of the collision. In addition to characterizing the collision, correlations can signal a phase transition as they measure the duration of hadronization and particle emission, which should be long in both a first- or second-order phase transition. Furthermore, correlation measurements offer an important tool to help disentangle effects of expansion from the freezeout temperature reflected in the single particle spectra.

  4. " East North Central",9.3,"NA",10.1,10.7,11.6,11.85822

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Thousands) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",9.4,9.9,10.2,10.6,11.4,12 "Household Characteristics" "Census Region and Division" " Northeast",9.5,"NA",10.3...

  5. New and Renewable Energy Centre NaREC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NE24 3AG Product: NaREC is a Centre of Excellence, fast-tracking concept evaluation, feasibility studies and prototype evaluation and testing through to early commercialisation....

  6. Europium (Z=63) n=3-3 lines in the extreme ultraviolet: Na- through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Europium (Z63) n3-3 lines in the extreme ultraviolet: Na- through Si-like ions Authors: Trabert, E ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Hell, N ; Brown, G V Publication Date: 2014-08-22 ...

  7. Thermoelectric Enhancement in PbTe with K or Na codoping from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoelectric Enhancement in PbTe with K or Na codoping from tuning the interaction of the light- and heavy-hole valence bands Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  8. Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation showing that point defects play an important role in the kinetics of NaAlH4 including vacancies and interstitials consistent with observed effects of Ti.

  9. MHK Projects/University of Manchester Phase 1 and 2 NaREC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    University of Manchester Phase 1 and 2 NaREC < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"goo...

  10. NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for Coulomb Sum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Simulation for Coulomb Sum Rule Experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for ...

  11. Antiferromagnetism in the spin-gap system NaV2O5: Muon spin rotation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurements (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Antiferromagnetism in the spin-gap system NaV2O5: Muon spin rotation measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Antiferromagnetism in the spin-gap system NaV2O5: Muon spin rotation measurements Authors: Storchak, Vyacheslav G. ; Parfenov, Oleg E. ; Eshchenko, Dmitry G. ; Lichti, Roger L. ; Mengyan, Patrick W. ; Isobe, Masahiko ; Ueda, Yutaka Publication Date: 2012-03-05 OSTI Identifier: 1099289 Type: Publisher's

  12. Phase transitions and compressibility of NaMgF[subscript 3] (Neighborite)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in perovskite- and post perovskite-related structures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect transitions and compressibility of NaMgF[subscript 3] (Neighborite) in perovskite- and post perovskite-related structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase transitions and compressibility of NaMgF[subscript 3] (Neighborite) in perovskite- and post perovskite-related structures Authors: Martin, C. David ; Crichton, Wilson A. ; Liu, Haozhe ; Prakapenka, Vitali ; Chen, Jiuhua ; Parise, John

  13. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, S. J.; Lee, P. R.; Kim, J. G.; Ryu, M. T.; Park, H. M.; Chung, J. W.

    2014-08-25

    Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E{sub g}) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na{sup +} ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na{sup +} ions is found to deplete the ?* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E{sub g}. The band gap increases with increasing Na{sup +} coverage with a maximum E{sub g}?0.70?eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na{sup +} ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na{sup +} ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.

  14. Ordered and disordered polymorphs of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂: Honeycomb-ordered cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jeffrey; Wu, Lijun; Bo, Shou -Hang; Khalifah, Peter G.; Grey, Clare P.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-04-14

    Na-ion batteries are appealing alternatives to Li-ion battery systems for large-scale energy storage applications in which elemental cost and abundance are important. Although it is difficult to find Na-ion batteries which achieve substantial specific capacities at voltages above 3 V (vs Na⁺/Na), the honeycomb-layered compound Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ can deliver up to 130 mAh/g of capacity at voltages above 3 V with this capacity concentrated in plateaus at 3.27 and 3.64 V. Comprehensive crystallographic studies have been carried out in order to understand the role of disorder in this system which can be prepared in both “disordered” and “ordered” forms, depending onmore » the synthesis conditions. The average structure of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is always found to adopt an O3-type stacking sequence, though different structures for the disordered (R3¯m, #166, a = b = 3.06253(3) Å and c = 16.05192(7) Å) and ordered variants (C2/m, #12, a = 5.30458(1) Å, b = 9.18432(1) Å, c = 5.62742(1) Å and β = 108.2797(2)°) are demonstrated through the combined Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. However, pair distribution function studies find that the local structure of disordered Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is more correctly described using the honeycomb-ordered structural model, and solid state NMR studies confirm that the well-developed honeycomb ordering of Ni and Sb cations within the transition metal layers is indistinguishable from that of the ordered phase. The disorder is instead found to mainly occur perpendicular to the honeycomb layers with an observed coherence length of not much more than 1 nm seen in electron diffraction studies. When the Na environment is probed through ²³Na solid state NMR, no evidence is found for prismatic Na environments, and a bulk diffraction analysis finds no evidence of conventional stacking faults. The lack of long range coherence is instead attributed to disorder among the three possible choices for distributing Ni and Sb cations into a honeycomb lattice in each transition metal layer. It is observed that the full theoretical discharge capacity expected for a Ni³⁺/²⁺ redox couple (133 mAh/g) can be achieved for the ordered variant but not for the disordered variant (~110 mAh/g). The first 3.27 V plateau during charging is found to be associated with a two-phase O3 ↔ P3 structural transition, with the P3 stacking sequence persisting throughout all further stages of desodiation.« less

  15. The (111) Surface of NaAu2. Structure, Composition, and Stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kwolek, Emma J.; Widmer, Roland; Gröning, Oliver; Deniz, Okan; Walen, Holly; Yuen, Chad D.; Huang, Wenyu; Schlagel, Deborah L.; Wallingford, Mark; Thiel, Patricia A.

    2014-12-17

    The (111) surface of single-crystal NaAu2 is a model for catalytically active, powdered NaAu2. We prepare and characterize this surface with a broad suite of techniques. Preparation in ultrahigh vacuum consists of the traditional approach of ion bombardment (to remove impurities) and thermal annealing (to restore surface order). Both of these steps cause loss of sodium (Na), and repeated treatments eventually trigger conversion of the surface and near-surface regions to crystalline gold. The bulk has a limited ability to repopulate the surface Na. Under conditions where Na depletion is minimized, electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the bulk-terminated structure, andmore » scanning tunneling microscopy reveals mesa-like features with lateral dimensions of a few tens of nanometers. The tops of the mesas do not possess fine structure characteristic of a periodic lattice, suggesting that the surface layer is disordered under the conditions of these experiments.« less

  16. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  19. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses the impact of Na in biodiesel on three emission control devices: the diesel particulate filter, diesel oxidation catalyst, and zeolyte-based SCR catalyst

  20. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a layer of NaHCO{sub 3}. From a safety standpoint, the inventory of residual sodium in these systems was greatly reduced by using the carbonation process. From a regulatory standpoint, the process was not able to achieve deactivation of all residual sodium, and other more aggressive measures will be needed if the remaining residual sodium must also be deactivated to meet the requirements of the existing environmental permit. This chapter provides a project history and technical summary of the carbonation of EBR-II residual sodium. Options for future treatment are also discussed.

  1. Erratum: Coulomb excitation of the proton-dripline nucleus {sup 20}Na

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    [Phys. Rev. C 80, 044325 (2009)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Erratum: Coulomb excitation of the proton-dripline nucleus {sup 20}Na [Phys. Rev. C 80, 044325 (2009)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Erratum: Coulomb excitation of the proton-dripline nucleus {sup 20}Na [Phys. Rev. C 80, 044325 (2009)] No abstract prepared. Authors: Schumaker, M. A. ; Cline, D. ; Hackman, G. ; Pearson, C. J. ; Svensson, C. E. ; Wu, C. Y. ; Andreyev, A. ; Austin, R. A. E. ; Ball, G. C. ;

  2. New tetragonal derivatives of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structure: RNi{sub

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    6}Si{sub 6} compounds, crystal structure and magnetic ordering (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd-Yb) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New tetragonal derivatives of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structure: RNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds, crystal structure and magnetic ordering (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd-Yb) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New tetragonal derivatives of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structure: RNi{sub 6}Si{sub 6} compounds, crystal structure and magnetic ordering (R=Y, La, Ce, Sm, Gd-Yb) Novel

  3. NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for Coulomb Sum Rule

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for Coulomb Sum Rule Experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NaI (Tl) Calorimeter Calibration and Simulation for Coulomb Sum Rule Experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab A precision measurement of inclusive electron scattering cross sections was carried out at Jefferson Lab in the

  4. Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power | Argonne National Laboratory Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power Title Analysis of a graphite foam-NaCl latent heat storage system for supercritical CO2 power cycles for concentrated solar power Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors Singh, D, Zhao, W, Yu, W, France, DM, Kim, T Journal Solar Energy Volume 118 Start

  5. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  6. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas; Gehrig, Jeffrey C.; Züttel, Andreas

    2014-12-15

    The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH{sub 4} doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl{sub 3}-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH{sub 4} to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr…)

  7. Consequence analysis of an unmitigated NaOH solution spray release during addition to waste tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-21

    Toxicological consequences were calculated for a postulated maximum caustic soda (NaOH) solution spray leak during addition to a waste tank to adjust tank pH. Although onsite risk guidelines were exceeded for the unmitigated release, site boundary consequences were below the level of concern. Means of mitigating the release so as to greatly reduce the onsite consequences were recommended.

  8. Consequence analysis of a postulated NaOH release from the 2727-W sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A.

    1996-09-27

    Toxicological and radiological consequences were calculated for a maximum sodium fire in the 2727-W Sodium Storage Facility. The sodium is solid and cannot leak out of the tanks. The maximum fire therefore corresponded to the maximum cross-sectional area of one tank. It was shown that release of the entire facility inventory of 22 Na is insufficient to produce an appreciable effect.

  9. LANL surveillance requirements management and surveillance requirements from NA-12 tasking memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hills, Charles R

    2011-01-25

    Surveillance briefing to NNSA to support a tasking memo from NA-12 on Surveillance requirements. This talk presents the process for developing surveillance requirements, discusses the LANL requirements that were issued as part of that tasking memo, and presents recommendations on Component Evaluation and Planning Committee activities for FY11.

  10. Viscosity of NaCl and other solutions up to 350{sup 0}C and 50...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selected tables of data are included for KCl up to 150sup 0C, CaClsub 2 solutions up to 100sup 0C, and for mixtures of NaCl with KCl and CaClsub 2. Recommendations are given ...

  11. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Bo; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Brown, I. W. M.

    2009-07-23

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q{sup 2}(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1}, Q{sup 2}(1Al) and Q{sup 2}(where Q{sup n}(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO{sub 4}] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO{sub 4}]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO{sub 4}] species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  12. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6 Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.

    2000-04-01

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of -11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  13. Prototype Tests for the Recovery and Conversion of UF6Chemisorbed in NaF Traps for the Molten Salt Reactor Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-06-07

    The remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site includes the removal of about 37 kg of uranium. Of that inventory, about 23 kg have already been removed from the piping system and chemisorbed in 25 NaF traps. This material is being stored in Building 3019. The planned recovery of {approx}11 kg of uranium from the fuel salt will generate another 15 to 19 NaF traps. The remaining 2 to 3 kg of uranium are present in activated charcoal beds, which are also scheduled to be removed from the reactor site. Since all of these materials (NaF traps and the uranium-laden charcoal) are not suitable for long-term storage, they will be converted to a chemical form [uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8})], which is suitable for long-term storage. This document describes the process that will be used to recover and convert the uranium in the NaF traps into a stable oxide for long-term storage. Included are a description of the process, equipment, test results, and lessons learned. The process was developed for remote operation in a hot cell. Lessons learned from the prototype testing were incorporated into the process design.

  14. Hydrothermal crystallization of Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}, Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa: The structural mechanism of self-assembly of titanates from suprapolyhedral clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyushin, G. D.

    2006-07-15

    An increase in the NaOH concentration in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2} (rutile)-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa leads to the crystallization R-TiO{sub 2} + Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. Crystals of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} titanate (space group C2/m) have the three-dimensional framework structure Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}. The structure of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} titanate (space group P2{sub 1}/m) contains the two-dimensional layers Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The structure of the Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} titanate (space group P-1) is composed of the isolated ten-polyhedron cluster precursors Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. In all the structures, the titanium atoms have an octahedral coordination (MTiO{sub 6}). The matrix self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} and Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Na{sub 4}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14}) crystal structures from Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} invariant precursors is modeled. These precursors are clusters consisting of twelve M polyhedra linked through the edges. It is demonstrated that the structurally rigid precursors Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} control all processes of the subsequent evolution of the crystal-forming titanate clusters. The specific features of the self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} structure that result from the additional incorporation of twice the number of sodium atoms into the composition of the high-level clusters are considered.

  15. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9}: The first osmium perovskites containing alkali cations at the 'A' site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mogare, Kailash M.; Klein, Wilhelm; Jansen, Martin

    2012-07-15

    K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} and K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} were obtained from solid-state reactions of potassium superoxide, sodium peroxide and osmium metal at elevated oxygen pressures. K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} crystallizes as an oxygen-deficient cubic double perovskite in space group Fm3{sup Macron }m with a=8.4184(5) A and contains isolated OsO{sub 6} octahedra. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallizes hexagonally in P6{sub 3}/mmc with a=5.9998(4) A and c=14.3053(14) A. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} consists of face sharing Os{sub 2}O{sub 9} pairs of octahedra. According to magnetic measurements K{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 5.5} is diamagnetic, whereas K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays strong antiferromagnetic coupling (T{sub N}=140 K), indicating enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair. - Graphical abstract: High oxidation states of Os, obtained by high oxygen pressure synthesis, are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New osmates containing highly oxidized Os were obtained by high O{sub 2} pressure synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High oxidation states of Os are accommodated in double and triple perovskite matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both compounds represent the first Os perovskites with an alkali metal at the A site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}NaOs{sub 2}O{sub 9} displays enhanced magnetic interactions within the octahedral pair.

  16. The use Na, Li, K cations for modification of ZSM-5 zewolite to control hydrocarbon cold-start emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubeva V.; Rohatgi U.; Korableva, A.; Anischenko, O.; Kustov, L.; Nissenbaum, V; Viola, M.B.

    2012-08-29

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling hydrocarbon emissions from cold-start of engines by investigating the adsorbents which could adsorb the hydrocarbons at cold temperatures and hold them to 250-300 ?. The materials, that has been studied, are based on the modification of ZSM-5 (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 35) zeolite with Li, K, Na cations. It has been shown that the introduction of Li, Na and K in an amount that is equivalent to the content of Al in zeolite results in occurrence of toluene temperature desorption peaks at high-temperatures. The toluene temperature desorption curves for 5%Li-ZSM-5 and 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolites are identical and have peak toluene desorption rate between 200 to 400 ?. Upon analysis of toluene adsorption isotherms for 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 and 5%Li-ZSM-5, it was concluded that the toluene diffusion inside of the modified zeolites channels is extremely slow and the sorption capacity of 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 is higher than with 5%Li-ZSM-5. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 didn't change toluene temperature programmed desorption (TPD) rate of curve after the treatment in environment with 10% ?{sub 2}? at 750-800 ? for about 28 h. The 2.3%Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is very promising as adsorbent to control the cold-start hydrocarbon emissions.

  17. Groundwater quality assessment plan for the 1324-N/NA Site: Phase 1 (first determination)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1998-05-01

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond (1324-N/NA Site) are treatment/storage/disposal sites regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). They are located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, and were used to treat and dispose of corrosive waste from a water treatment plant. Groundwater monitoring under an interim-status detection program compared indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from an upgradient well. One of the indicator parameters, total organic carbon (TOC), exceeded its background value in one downgradient well, triggering an upgrade from a detection program to an assessment program. This plan presents the first phase of the assessment program.

  18. Photoresponsive Release from Azobenzene-Modified Single Cubic Crystal NaCl/Silica Particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Nanguo; Assink, Roger A.; Jiang, Yingbing; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Azobenzene ligands were uniformly anchored to the pore surfaces of nanoporous silica particles with single crystal NaCl using 4-(3-triethoxysilylpropylureido)azobenzene (TSUA). The functionalization delayed the release of NaCl significantly. The modified particles demonstrated a photocontrolled release by trans/cis isomerization of azobenzene moieties. The addition of amphiphilic solvents, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol propyl ether (PGPE), and dipropylene glycol propyl ether (DPGPE) delayed the release in water, although the wetting behavior was improved and the delay is the most for the block molecules with the longest carbon chain. The speedup by UV irradiation suggests a strong dependence of diffusion on the switchablemore » pore size. TGA, XRD, FTIR, and NMR techniques were used to characterize the structures.« less

  19. Consequence analysis of a postulated NaOH release from the 2727-W sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-02

    Toxicological and radiological consequences were calculated for a maximum sodium fire in the 2727-W Sodium Storage Facility. The sodium is solid and cannot leak out of the tanks. The maximum fire therefore corresponded to the maximum cross-sectional area of one tank. It was shown that release of the entire facility inventory of {sup 22}Na is insufficient to produce an appreciable effect.

  20. APM-16-009-SC-Emergency-Management-DE-NA0002976.pdf

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6-009 National Nuclear Security Administration Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Proposed Action Title: South Carolina Emergency Management Division Support Program or Field Office: APM Grant No.: DE-NA0002976 Location(s) (City/County/State): South Carolina Proposed Action Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) proposes to provide financial and technical assistance South Carolina Emergency Management Division (SCEMD), Aiken,

  1. {alpha}-particle optical potentials for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2012-11-20

    The high precision of recent measurements for low-energy {alpha}-particle elastic-scattering as well as induced-reaction data makes possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the global optical model potentials parameters. Involvement of recent optical potentials for reliable description of both the elastic scattering and emission of {alpha}-particles, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT) for fusion devices, is discussed in the present work.

  2. Climate Feedbacks from Permafrost Charlie Koven Lawrence Berkeley Na?onal Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding and Modeling of Climate Feedbacks from Permafrost Charlie Koven Lawrence Berkeley Na?onal Lab With many others: Bill Riley, Dave Lawrence, Jen Harden, Gustaf Hugelius, the CESM Land Model Working Group, and the Permafrost Carbon Network Thanks to DOE-BER support from Regional and Global Climate Modeling Program (BGC Feedbacks SFA), Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program (NGEE Arc?c), and Earth System Modeling Program (IMPACTS SFA) IPCC-AR5 (Ciais et al., 2013) Figure 6.22 | The

  3. Technical Qualification Program Self-Assessment Report- NA-SH- 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of the Associate Administrator for Safety and Health (NA-SH) TQP applies to those personnel who oversee defense nuclear facilities, to support the mission of NNSA. The requirement for this SA comes from DOE O 426.1A that states "Headquarters and Field Elements must conduct self-assessment of TQP and FTCP implementation within their organization at least every 4 years."

  4. Computational observation of enhanced solvation of the hydroxyl radical with increased NaCl concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2006-05-11

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials were carried out to quantitatively determine the effect of NaCl salt concentration on the aqueous solvation and surface concentration of hydroxyl radicals. The potential of mean force technique was used to track the incremental free energy of the hydroxyl radical from the vapor, crossing the air-water interface into the aqueous bulk. Results showed increased NaCl salt concentration significantly enhanced hydroxyl radical solvation, which should significantly increase its accommodation on water droplets. This has been experimentally observed for ozone aqueous accommodation with increased NaI concentration, but to our knowledge, no experimental study has probed this for hydroxyl radicals. The origin for this effect was found to be very favorable hydroxyl radical-chloride ion interactions, being stronger than for water-chloride. This work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. Battelle operates PNNL for the Department of Energy.

  5. Synthesis and crystal structure of NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, W.T.A.; Liang, C.S.; Stucky, G.D.; Nenoff, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The high-temperature/high-pressure hydrothermal synthesis and X-ray single crystal structure of NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8} are reported. The title compound contains a three-dimensional network of NbO{sub 6}, NbO{sub 5}, and AsO{sub 4} groups, enclosing one-dimensional channels containing seven-coordinate guest sodium cations. UV/visible measurements on NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8} indicate two distinct absorption features at {approximately}285 and {approximately} 360 nm. Crystal data for NaNb{sub 2}AsO{sub 8}:M{sub r} = 410.79, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/n(No.14), a = 4.8970(6) {angstrom}, b = 8.516(2) {angstrom}, c = 15.075(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 98.971(6){degrees}, V = 620.98 {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4, R = 5.31%, R{sub w} = 5.15%, 2121 observed reflections (I > 3{sigma}(I)).

  6. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  7. 20Na

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  8. Synthesis and crystal structure of the palladium oxides NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panin, Rodion V. Khasanova, Nellie R.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Tendeloo, Gustaaf van; Schnelle, Walter

    2007-05-15

    NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been prepared by solid-state reaction of Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} or KO{sub 2} and PdO in sealed silica tubes. Crystal structures of the synthesized phases were refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction data. NaPd{sub 3}O{sub 4} (space group Pm3-barn, a=5.64979(6) A, Z=2) is isostructural to NaPt{sub 3}O{sub 4}. It consists of NaO{sub 8} cubes and PdO{sub 4} squares, corner linked into a three-dimensional framework where the planes of neighboring PdO{sub 4} squares are perpendicular to each other. Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} (space group C2/c, a=5.3857(1) A, b=9.3297(1) A, c=10.8136(2) A, {beta}=99.437(2){sup o}, Z=8) belongs to the Li{sub 2}RuO{sub 3}-structure type, being the layered variant of the NaCl structure, where the layers of octahedral interstices filled with Na{sup +} and Pd{sup 4+} cations alternate with Na{sub 3} layers along the c-axis. Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} exhibits a stacking disorder, detected by electron diffraction and Rietveld refinement. K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4}, prepared for the first time, crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (a=6.1751(6) A, b=9.1772(12) A, c=11.3402(12) A, Z=4). Its structure is composed of planar PdO{sub 4} units connected via common edges to form parallel staggered PdO{sub 2} strips, where potassium atoms are located between them. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of K{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}O{sub 4} reveal a Curie-Weiss behavior in the temperature range above 80 K. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}PdO{sub 3} (space group C2/c, a=5.3857(1) A, b=9.3297(1) A, c=10.8136(2) A, {beta}=99.437(2), Z=8) belongs to the Li{sub 2}RuO{sub 3}-structure type, being the layered variant of the NaCl structure, where the layers of octahedral interstices filled with Na{sup +} and Pd{sup 4+} cations (NaPd{sub 2}O{sub 6} slabs) alternate with Na{sub 3} layers along the c-axis.

  9. Dave\tTurner NOAA\t/\tNa.onal\tSevere\tStorms\tLaboratory ARM\tSummer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dave Turner NOAA Na.onal Severe Storms Laboratory ARM Summer Workshop University of Oklahoma 15-24 July 2015 My Goal I don't want passive remote sensing be this Important for ...

  10. FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing Accurate Simulations of Correlated Data in Fission Events" Authors: Talou, Patrick 1 ; Vogt, Ramona ...

  11. FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing Accurate Simulations ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  12. In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Borondics, Ferenc; Glans, Per-Anders; West, Mark W.; Chang, Ching-Lin; Salmeron, Miquel; Guo, Jinghua

    2010-03-31

    A novel electrochemical setup has been developed for soft x-ray absorption studies of the electronic structure of electrode materials during electrochemical cycling. In this communication we illustrate the operation of the cell with a study of the corrosion behavior of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution via the electrochemically induced changes of its electronic structure. This development opens the way for in situ investigations of electrochemical processes, photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells, water splitting, corrosion, electrodeposition, and a variety of important biological processes.

  13. The electrochemical reactions of SnO2 with Li and Na: a study using thin films and mesoporous carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have determined the room temperature electrochemical reactivity of SnO2 thin films and mesoporous carbons filled with SnO2 anodes with Na, and compare the results with those obtained during the reaction with Li. We show that SnO2 can reversibly deliver up to 6.2 Li/SnO2 whereas the reaction with Na is significantly limited. The initial discharge capacity is equivalent to less than 4 Na/SnO2, which is expected to correspond to the formation of 2 Na2O and Sn. This limited discharge capacity suggests the negative role of the formed Na2O matrix upon the reversible reaction of Sn clusters. Moreover, the reversible cycling of less than 1 Na/SnO2, despite the utilization of 6-7 nm SnO2 particles, is indicative of sluggish reaction kinetics. The origin of this significant capacity reduction is likely due to the formation of a diffusion limiting interface. Furthermore, there is a larger apparent hysteresis compared to Li. These results point to the need to design composite structures of SnO2 nanoparticles with suitable morphological and conductivity components.

  14. The electrochemical reactions of SnO2 with Li and Na: a study using thin films and mesoporous carbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; Veith, Gabriel M

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have determined the room temperature electrochemical reactivity of SnO2 thin films and mesoporous carbons filled with SnO2 anodes with Na, and compare the results with those obtained during the reaction with Li. We show that SnO2 can reversibly deliver up to 6.2 Li/SnO2 whereas the reaction with Na is significantly limited. The initial discharge capacity is equivalent to less than 4 Na/SnO2, which is expected to correspond to the formation of 2 Na2O and Sn. This limited discharge capacity suggests the negative role of the formed Na2O matrix upon the reversible reaction of Sn clusters. Moreover,more » the reversible cycling of less than 1 Na/SnO2, despite the utilization of 6-7 nm SnO2 particles, is indicative of sluggish reaction kinetics. The origin of this significant capacity reduction is likely due to the formation of a diffusion limiting interface. Furthermore, there is a larger apparent hysteresis compared to Li. These results point to the need to design composite structures of SnO2 nanoparticles with suitable morphological and conductivity components.« less

  15. NA-ASC-500-13 Issue 26 ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NA-ASC-500-13 Issue 26 ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter December 2013 2 shutdown. But the two-year budget agreement is not an appropriation, so we must await final appropriations for both FY14 and FY15. The President also signed the National Defense Authorization Act into law, which directs NNSA to develop and carry out a plan to incorporate exascale computing in the Stockpile Stewardship Program. This is not an exascale program, but recognition that stockpile stewardship requires exascale

  16. Magnetoelastic Coupling and Symmetry Breaking in the Frustrated Antiferromagnet {alpha}-NaMnO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giot, Maud; Chapon, Laurent C.; Radaelli, Paolo G.; Androulakis, John; Lappas, Alexandros; Green, Mark A.

    2007-12-14

    The magnetic and crystal structures of the {alpha}-NaMnO{sub 2} have been determined by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. The system maps out a frustrated triangular spin lattice with anisotropic interactions that displays two-dimensional spin correlations below 200 K. Magnetic frustration is lifted through magneto-elastic coupling, evidenced by strong anisotropic broadening of the diffraction profiles at high temperature and ultimately by a structural phase transition at 45 K. In this low-temperature regime a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic state is observed with a propagation vector k=((1/2),(1/2),0)

  17. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Los Alamos National Security, LLC Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 Attachment to Modification No. 150 PART III - SECTION J APPENDIX G October 5, 2010 [Modified by Modification No. A009, A015, A018, A019, A021, A027, M033, M041, M042, M046, M056, M062, M069, M078, M103, M133, 150] LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES In addition to the list of applicable directives listed below, the Contractor shall also comply with supplementary directives, (e.g., manuals) which are invoked by a Contractor Requirements

  18. OFFICE OF CIVIL RIGHTS NA-1.2 VIDEO LIBRARY Item Title

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    OFFICE OF CIVIL RIGHTS NA-1.2 VIDEO LIBRARY Item # Title # of copies DVD / CD Length Year Publisher 1 A Clear Picture - Harassment in the Public Sector- Una Imagen Clara Acosoen el Sector Publico 1 DVD 2008 Coastal Training Technologies Corp. A Dupont Company 2 Harassment Hurts: It's Personal 1 DVD 16 min 2009 ATS Media 3 Harassment Is .. (government version) 1 DVD 21 min 2005 Coastal Training Technologies Corp. A Dupont Company 4 Harassment Made Simple 1 DVD 6 min 2011 TrainingABC 5 Harassment

  19. Honeywell FM&T, LLC Contract No. DE-NA0000622

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FM&T, LLC Contract No. DE-NA0000622 Modification No. 016 Page 2 of 10 1. Part II - Contract Clauses. The following Section I clause is revised and replaced in its entirety as follows: I-11 52.204-4 PRINTED OR COPIED DOUBLE-SIDED ON POSTCONSUMER FIBER CONTENT PAPER (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause- "Postconsumer fiber" means- (1) Paper, paperboard, and fibrous materials from retail stores, office buildings, homes, and so forth, after they have passed through their

  20. Electronic Reconstruction through the Structural and Magnetic Transitions in Detwinned NaFeAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, M.; Lu, D.H.; Moore, R.G.; Kihou, K; Lee, C-H; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Yoshida, T; Fujimori, A; Shen, Z-X

    2012-05-25

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study twinned and detwinned iron pnictide compound NaFeAs. Distinct signatures of electronic reconstruction are observed to occur at the structural (T{sub S}) and magnetic (T{sub SDW}) transitions. At T{sub S}, C{sub 4} rotational symmetry is broken in the form of an anisotropic shift of the orthogonal d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} bands. The magnitude of this orbital anisotropy rapidly develops to near completion upon approaching T{sub SDW}, at which temperature band folding occurs via the antiferromagnetic ordering wave vector. Interestingly, the anisotropic band shift onsetting at T{sub S} develops in such a way to enhance the nesting conditions in the C{sub 2} symmetric state, hence is intimately correlated with the long range collinear AFM order. Furthermore, the similar behaviors of the electronic reconstruction in NaFeAs and Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} suggests that this rapid development of large orbital anisotropy between T{sub S} and T{sub SDW} is likely a general feature of the electronic nematic phase in the iron pnictides, and the associated orbital fluctuations may play an important role in determining the ground state properties.

  1. Development of high-performance Na/NiCl{sub 2} cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.: Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-07-01

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even below 200{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by a conventional galvanostatic method and by a newly developed ``powerdynamic`` method. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with already highly developed sodium/{beta} -- alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the NA/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  2. Development of high-performance Na/NiCl sub 2 cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redey, L.: Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even below 200{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by a conventional galvanostatic method and by a newly developed powerdynamic'' method. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with already highly developed sodium/{beta} -- alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the NA/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  3. Characterization of Na+- beta-Zeolite Supported Pd and Pd Ag Bimetallic Catalysts using EXAFS, TEM and Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang,W.; Lobo, R.; Chen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Flow reactor studies of the selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of ethylene have been performed on Na+ exchanged {beta}-zeolite supported Pd, Ag and PdAg catalysts, as an extension of our previous batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. Results from flow reactor studies show that the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite bimetallic catalyst has lower activity than Pd/Na+-{beta}-zeolite monometallic catalyst, while Ag/Na+-{beta}-zeolite does not show any activity for acetylene hydrogenation. However, the selectivity for the PdAg bimetallic catalyst is much higher than that for either the Pd catalyst or Ag catalyst. The selectivity to byproduct (ethane) is greatly inhibited on the PdAg bimetallic catalyst as well. The results from the current flow reactor studies confirmed the pervious results from batch reactor studies [W. Huang, J.R. McCormick, R.F. Lobo, J.G. Chen, J. Catal. 246 (2007) 40-51]. In addition, we used transmission electron microscope (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and FTIR of CO adsorption to confirm the formation of Pd-Ag bimetallic alloy in the PdAg/Na+-{beta}-zeolite catalyst.

  4. Structural investigation and luminescence of nanocrystalline lanthanide doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pin, Sonia; Piccinelli, Fabio; Upendra Kumar, Kagola; Enzo, Stefano; Ghigna, Paolo; Cannas, Carla; Musinu, Anna; Mariotto, Gino; Bettinelli, Marco; Speghini, Adolfo

    2012-12-15

    Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} nanostructured multiferroics (nanoparticles or nanorods) were prepared by a sol-gel route. X-Ray powder diffraction results evidence that the sodium and mixed sodium-potassium niobates show orthorhombic (Pmc2{sub 1} space group), and monoclinic structure (Pm space group), respectively, confirmed by the Raman spectra. The local structure around the trivalent lanthanides was investigated with Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy at the Ln-K edge and luminescence spectroscopy. The Ln{sup 3+} ions enter the structure by substituting the alkali metals, with a 12-fold oxygen coordination, and inducing a large amount of static disorder. The visible emission bands of the Eu{sup 3+} ions indicate that multiple sites exist for the lanthanide ions, in agreement with the EXAFS results showing the largest amount of static disorder in these samples. A possible indication of clustering of oxygen vacancies around the Ln{sub Na} Double-Prime defect is obtained by VBS calculations. - Graphical Abstract: Ln{sup 3+} doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} nanoparticles or nanorods can be prepared by a simple sol-gel procedure. The synergy of X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and luminescence spectroscopy gives important information on the Ln{sup 3+} local environment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} doped NaNbO{sub 3} and Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} nanoparticles or nanorods are prepared by sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS indicates that the Ln{sup 3+} ions substitutes the Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions, inducing a large amount of static disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The visible emission bands of the Eu{sup 3+} ions confirm that multiple sites exist for the lanthanide ions.

  5. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2008-10-21

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  6. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  7. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-01-24

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  8. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2011-08-16

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  9. Coupled Nd and B' spin ordering in the double perovskites Nd2NaB'O6 (B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aczel, Adam A; Bugaris, Dan; Yeon, Jeongho; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Nagler, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    We present a neutron powder diffraction study of the monoclinic double perovskite systems Nd$_2$NaB$'$O$_6$ (B$'$~$=$~Ru, Os), with magnetic atoms occupying both the A and B$'$ sites. Our measurements reveal coupled spin ordering between the Nd and B$'$ atoms with magnetic transition temperatures of 14~K for Nd$_2$NaRuO$_6$ and 16~K for Nd$_2$NaOsO$_6$. There is a Type I antiferromagnetic structure associated with the Ru and Os sublattices, with the ferromagnetic planes stacked along the c-axis and [110] direction respectively, while the Nd sublattices exhibit complex, canted antiferromagnetism with different spin arrangements in each system.

  10. Simulation of energy absorption spectrum in NaI crystal detector for multiple gamma energy using Monte Carlo method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirawan, Rahadi; Waris, Abdul; Djamal, Mitra; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-16

    The spectrum of gamma energy absorption in the NaI crystal (scintillation detector) is the interaction result of gamma photon with NaI crystal, and it’s associated with the photon gamma energy incoming to the detector. Through a simulation approach, we can perform an early observation of gamma energy absorption spectrum in a scintillator crystal detector (NaI) before the experiment conducted. In this paper, we present a simulation model result of gamma energy absorption spectrum for energy 100-700 keV (i.e. 297 keV, 400 keV and 662 keV). This simulation developed based on the concept of photon beam point source distribution and photon cross section interaction with the Monte Carlo method. Our computational code has been successfully predicting the multiple energy peaks absorption spectrum, which derived from multiple photon energy sources.

  11. FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accurate Simulations of Correlated Data in Fission Events" (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing Accurate Simulations of Correlated Data in Fission Events" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FY14 Annual Report for NA-22 Project LA14-FY14-027-PD2Jb "Developing Accurate Simulations of Correlated Data in Fission Events" Authors: Talou, Patrick [1] ; Vogt, Ramona [2] + Show

  12. Static and dynamic polarizabilities of Na{sup -} within a variationally stable coupled-channel hyperspherical method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masili, Mauro; Groote, J.J. de

    2004-11-01

    Using a model potential representation combined with a variationally stable method, we present a precise calculation of the electric dipole polarizabilities of the sodium negative ion (Na{sup -}). The effective two-electron eigensolutions for Na{sup -} are obtained from a hyperspherical coupled-channel calculation. This approach allows efficient error control and insight into the system's properties through one-dimensional potential curves. Our result of 1018.3 a.u. for the static dipole polarizability is in agreement with previous calculations and supports our results for the dynamic polarizability, which has scarcely been investigated hitherto.

  13. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-02-08

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  14. Nanocheckerboard modulations in (NaNd)(MgW)O[subscript 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licurse, Mark W.; Davies, Peter K.

    2010-10-22

    Data is presented for a complex structural and compositional modulation in the perovskite (NaNd)(MgW)O{sub 6}. This modulation creates a large 14a{sub p} x 14a{sub p} x 2a{sub p} supercell (a{sub p} {approx} 3.9 {angstrom} is the lattice parameter of the cubic perovskite aristotype) containing ordered regions with doubled (110) d-spacings in the a-b plane separated by two-dimensional periodic antiphase boundaries and accompanied by a nanocheckerboard pattern. Faint periodic modulations in Z-contrast images suggest an associated periodic variation in composition. The presence of a sodium rich impurity implies the composition of the stable perovskite is nonstoichiometric.

  15. Magnetically Driven Metal-Insulator Transition in NaOsO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calder, Stuart A [ORNL; Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; Lang, Jonathan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; McMorrow, D. F. [University College, London; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Kim, Jong-Woo [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schlueter, J. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Shi, Y. G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Yamaura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan; Sun, Y. S. [MANA; Tsujimoto, Y. [Kyoto University, Japan

    2012-01-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) is one of the most dramatic manifestations of electron correlations in materials. Various mechanisms producing MITs have been extensively considered, including the Mott (electron localization via Coulomb repulsion), Anderson (localization via disorder), and Peierls (local- ization via distortion of a periodic one-dimensional lattice) mechanisms. One additional route to a MIT proposed by Slater, in which long-range magnetic order in a three dimensional system drives the MIT, has received relatively little attention. Using neutron and x-ray scattering we show that the MIT in NaOsO3 is coincident with the onset of long-range commensurate three dimensional magnetic order. While candidate materials have been suggested, our experimental methodology allows the first definitive demonstration of the long predicted Slater MIT.

  16. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  17. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  18. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C-S-H(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-05-15

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel.

  19. Ordered and disordered polymorphs of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O?: Honeycomb-ordered cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jeffrey; Wu, Lijun; Bo, Shou -Hang; Khalifah, Peter G.; Grey, Clare P.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-04-14

    Na-ion batteries are appealing alternatives to Li-ion battery systems for large-scale energy storage applications in which elemental cost and abundance are important. Although it is difficult to find Na-ion batteries which achieve substantial specific capacities at voltages above 3 V (vs Na?/Na), the honeycomb-layered compound Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O? can deliver up to 130 mAh/g of capacity at voltages above 3 V with this capacity concentrated in plateaus at 3.27 and 3.64 V. Comprehensive crystallographic studies have been carried out in order to understand the role of disorder in this system which can be prepared in both disordered and ordered forms, depending on the synthesis conditions. The average structure of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O? is always found to adopt an O3-type stacking sequence, though different structures for the disordered (R3m, #166, a = b = 3.06253(3) and c = 16.05192(7) ) and ordered variants (C2/m, #12, a = 5.30458(1) , b = 9.18432(1) , c = 5.62742(1) and ? = 108.2797(2)) are demonstrated through the combined Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. However, pair distribution function studies find that the local structure of disordered Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O? is more correctly described using the honeycomb-ordered structural model, and solid state NMR studies confirm that the well-developed honeycomb ordering of Ni and Sb cations within the transition metal layers is indistinguishable from that of the ordered phase. The disorder is instead found to mainly occur perpendicular to the honeycomb layers with an observed coherence length of not much more than 1 nm seen in electron diffraction studies. When the Na environment is probed through Na solid state NMR, no evidence is found for prismatic Na environments, and a bulk diffraction analysis finds no evidence of conventional stacking faults. The lack of long range coherence is instead attributed to disorder among the three possible choices for distributing Ni and Sb cations into a honeycomb lattice in each transition metal layer. It is observed that the full theoretical discharge capacity expected for a Ni?/? redox couple (133 mAh/g) can be achieved for the ordered variant but not for the disordered variant (~110 mAh/g). The first 3.27 V plateau during charging is found to be associated with a two-phase O3 ? P3 structural transition, with the P3 stacking sequence persisting throughout all further stages of desodiation.

  20. Post-Closure Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 1324-N Surface Impoundment and 1324-NA Percolation Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2004-04-02

    The 1324-N Surface Impoundment and the 1324-NA Percolation Pond, located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site, are regulated under the Resource Consevation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Surface and underground features of the facilities have been removed and laboratory analyses showed that soil met the closure performance standards. These sites have been backfilled and revegetated.

  1. A new low-voltage plateau of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃ as an anode for Na-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jian, Zelang; Sun, Yang; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-04-04

    A low-voltage plateau at ~0.3 V is discovered during the deep sodiation of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃ by combined computational and experimental studies. This new low-voltage plateau doubles the sodiation capacity of Na₃V₂(PO₄)₃, turning it into a promising anode for Na-ion batteries.

  2. Quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitada, A.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamamoto, T. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Narumi, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kindo, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Aczel, A.A.; Luke, G.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Uemura, Y.J. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kiuchi, Y.; Ueda, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Yoshimura, K. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ajiro, Y. [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kageyama, H., E-mail: kage@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    We will present the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13}. Through a topotactic ion-exchange reaction with CuCl{sub 2}, the precursor RbCa{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} presumably having an incoherent octahederal tliting changes into (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} with a 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2c{sub p} superstructure (tetragonal; a=7.73232(5) A, c=39.2156(4) A). The well-defined superstructure for the ion-exchanged product should be stabilized by the inserted CuCl{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedral layers that firmly connect with neighboring perovskite layers. Magnetic studies show the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K despite strong in-plane interactions. Aleksandrov Prime s group theory and Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggest the structure to be of I4/mmm space group with in-phase tilting along the a and b axes, a two-tilt system (++0). - Graphical Abstract: We present a quadruple-layered copper oxyhalide (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} synthesized through a topotactic ion-exchange reaction of RbCa{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} with CuCl{sub 2}. The compound has a well-defined superstructure. Magnetic studies suggest the absence of magnetic order even at 2 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (CuCl)Ca{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} was prepared by ion-exchange reaction of RbCa{sub 2}NaNb{sub 4}O{sub 13} with CuCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound has a 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2a{sub p} Multiplication-Sign 2c{sub p} superstructure (tetragonal; a=7.73 A, c=39.21 A). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such a well-defined superstructure was not observed in the precursor compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aleksandrov Prime s theory and Rietveld study suggest a (++0) octahedral tilting (I4/mmm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic studies revealed the absence of magnetic order down to 2 K.

  3. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas (Million Cubic Feet) from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2015 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2016 NA NA - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  4. Ordered and disordered polymorphs of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂: Honeycomb-ordered cathodes for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jeffrey; Wu, Lijun; Bo, Shou -Hang; Khalifah, Peter G.; Grey, Clare P.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-04-14

    Na-ion batteries are appealing alternatives to Li-ion battery systems for large-scale energy storage applications in which elemental cost and abundance are important. Although it is difficult to find Na-ion batteries which achieve substantial specific capacities at voltages above 3 V (vs Na⁺/Na), the honeycomb-layered compound Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ can deliver up to 130 mAh/g of capacity at voltages above 3 V with this capacity concentrated in plateaus at 3.27 and 3.64 V. Comprehensive crystallographic studies have been carried out in order to understand the role of disorder in this system which can be prepared in both “disordered” and “ordered” forms, depending on the synthesis conditions. The average structure of Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is always found to adopt an O3-type stacking sequence, though different structures for the disordered (R3¯m, #166, a = b = 3.06253(3) Å and c = 16.05192(7) Å) and ordered variants (C2/m, #12, a = 5.30458(1) Å, b = 9.18432(1) Å, c = 5.62742(1) Å and β = 108.2797(2)°) are demonstrated through the combined Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray and time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data. However, pair distribution function studies find that the local structure of disordered Na(Ni2/3Sb1/3)O₂ is more correctly described using the honeycomb-ordered structural model, and solid state NMR studies confirm that the well-developed honeycomb ordering of Ni and Sb cations within the transition metal layers is indistinguishable from that of the ordered phase. The disorder is instead found to mainly occur perpendicular to the honeycomb layers with an observed coherence length of not much more than 1 nm seen in electron diffraction studies. When the Na environment is probed through ²³Na solid state NMR, no evidence is found for prismatic Na environments, and a bulk diffraction analysis finds no evidence of conventional stacking faults. The lack of long range coherence is instead attributed to disorder among the three possible choices for distributing Ni and Sb cations into a honeycomb lattice in each transition metal layer. It is observed that the full theoretical discharge capacity expected for a Ni³⁺/²⁺ redox couple (133 mAh/g) can be achieved for the ordered variant but not for the disordered variant (~110 mAh/g). The first 3.27 V plateau during charging is found to be associated with a two-phase O3 ↔ P3 structural transition, with the P3 stacking sequence persisting throughout all further stages of desodiation.

  5. Na9K16TI~25: A New Phase Containing Naked Icosahedral Cluster Fragments Ti99-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Corbett, John D.

    2007-12-05

    The phase Na{sub 9}K{sub 16}Tl{sub 25.25(2)} was synthesized by fusion of the elements in sealed Ta containers followed by quenching and annealing at 250 C. The structure established by single crystal X-ray diffraction means (P6{sub 3}/m, Z = 2, a = 19.376(3) {angstrom}, c = 11.480(2) {angstrom}) features Tl{sub 9}{sup 9-} clusters. These are well separated by cations that bridge between, faces, edges, and vertices of the clusters; sodium appears to be essential in this role. This is the third compound known to contain Tl{sub 9} clusters, but here two of nine sites are partially occupied, which can be interpreted as a 70:30 mixture of Tl{sub 9} and Tl{sub 7} units in the same cavity. This Tl{sub 9} example also displays lower symmetry (C{sub s}) but requires the same 2n skeletal electrons. EHTB electronic structure calculations indicate that the Fermi level intersects a finite densities-of-states (DOS), and only some bonds are optimized at E{sub F}, giving some insight regarding the site of Tl deficiency. Direct geometric relationships are found among Tl{sub 13}, Tl{sub 9}, Tl{sub 7} and Tl{sub 5} clusters through systematic removal of vertices.

  6. Spin-lozenge thermodynamics and magnetic excitations in Na3RuO4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haraldsen, Jason T; Stone, Matthew B; Lumsden, Mark D; Barnes, Ted {F E }; Jin, Rongying; Taylor, J. W.; Fernandez-Alonso, F

    2009-01-01

    We report inelastic and elastic neutron scattering, magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements of polycrystalline sodium ruthenate (Na3RuO4). Previous work suggests this material consists of isolated tetramers of S = 3/2 Ru5+ ions in a so-called lozenge configuration. Using a Heisenberg antiferromagnet Hamiltonian, we analytically determine the energy eigenstates for general spin S. From this model, the neutron scattering cross-sections for excitations associated with spin-3/2 tetramer configurations is determined. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility and inelastic neutron scattering results shows that the proposed lozenge model is not distinctly supported, but provides evidence that the system may be better described as a pair of non-interacting inequivalent dimers, i.e double dimers. However, the existence of long-range magnetic order below Tc ≈ 28 K immediately questions such a description. Although no evidence of the lozenge model is observed, future studies on single crystals may further clarify the appropriate magnetic Hamiltonian.

  7. Preparation and photocatalytic activity for water splitting of Pt-Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Jiawen; Li, Zhonghua

    2013-02-15

    Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays were prepared by hydrothermal method from Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanotube arrays, obtained by anodization of Ta foils, in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 150 Degree-Sign C. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis results show that pyrochlore structure Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays have been successfully fabricated. The diameters and lengths of Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are 50 nm and 4 {mu}m, respectively. The photocatalytic hydrogen production activities of the as-synthesized Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are highly dependent on the hydrothermal reaction time and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} concentration, optimized reaction parameters are obtained. To further improve the photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution, Pt loaded Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are prepared by photochemical reduction method. The Pt loaded samples exhibit much higher activity for hydrogen evolution than pure Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays. Moreover, the photocatalytic hydrogen properties are rather stable. - Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays were synthesized by hydrothermal method using Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanotube arrays as a precursor. The loaded Pt enhances the photocatalytic activity for water splitting of Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube array films with pyrochlore structure were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays are active for H{sub 2} evolution from aqueous CH{sub 3}OH solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of hydrothermal conditions on photocatalytic activity was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pt loading can improve the photocatalytic activities of Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} nanotube arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results.

  8. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  9. The influence of field-free orientation on the predissociation dynamics of the NaI molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ze-Yu; Han, Yong-Chang, E-mail: ychan@dlut.edu.cn; Yu, Jie; Cong, Shu-Lin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-28

    The orientation and predissociation dynamics of the NaI molecule are studied by using a time-dependent wavepacket method. The NaI molecule is first pre-oriented by a single-cycle pulse (SCP) in terahertz (THz) region and then predissociated by a femtosecond pump pulse. The influence of the molecular field-free orientation on the predissociation dynamics is studied in detail. We calculate the radial and angular distributions, the molecular orientation degrees, and the time-dependent populations for both the ground and excited electronic states. It is found that the pre-orientation affects the angular distributions significantly, and that it has weak influence on the radial distributions. By varying the delay time between the THz SCP and the pump pulse, the angular distribution of the fragments from the predissociation can be manipulated.

  10. Measurement of the tradeoff between intrinsic emittance and quantum efficiency from a NaKSb photocathode near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared Cultrera, Luca; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-06-08

    We measure the tradeoff between the quantum efficiency and intrinsic emittance from a NaKSb photocathode at three increasing wavelengths (635, 650, and 690 nm) at or below the energy of the bandgap plus the electron affinity, hν≤E{sub g}+E{sub a}. These measurements were performed using a high voltage dc gun for varied photocathode surface fields of 1.4−4.4 MV/m. Measurements of intrinsic emittance are performed using two different methods and were found to agree. At the longest wavelength available, 690 nm, the intrinsic emittance was 0.26 μm/mm-rms with a quantum efficiency of ∼10{sup −4}. The suitability of NaKSb emitting at threshold for various low emittance applications is discussed.

  11. NNSA Corporate CPEP Process NNSA Honeywell FM&T PER NNSA/NA-00.2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA Honeywell FM&T PER NNSA/NA-00.2 National Nuclear Security Administration FY 2013 PEP Honeywell FM&T Performance Evaluation Report Kansas City Field Office Kansas City Plant Performance Period: October 2012 - September 2013 December 20, 2013 Executive Summary Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) exceeded almost all FY13 performance targets during a year of significant organizational challenges including; transitioning to a new facility while simultaneously

  12. Development of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK/sub 1/)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, E.R.; Amsler, K.; Dawson, W.D.; Cook, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors were explored to analyze how they interact to yield the increasing transport capacity in differentiating cell populations. These factors include the number of functional transporters in the population, the distribution of these transporters among the individual cells, the Na/sup +/ chemical gradient, the transmembrane potential, the pathways and activities of these pathways for efflux of glucoside, and cell-cell coupling between accumulating and non-accumulating cells. 35 references, 9 figures, 2 tables. (ACR)

  13. NaREC Offshore and Drivetrain Test Facility Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-140

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Renewable Energy Centre (NaREC) in the United Kingdom (UK) have a mutual interest in collaborating in the development of full-scale offshore wind energy and drivetrain testing facilities. NREL and NaREC will work together to share resources and experiences in the development of future wind energy test facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) includes sharing of test protocols, infrastructure cost data, test plans, pro forma contracting instruments, and safe operating strategies. Furthermore, NREL and NaREC will exchange staff for training and development purposes.

  14. Management and Operating Contract for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, NNSA contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACT FOR THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 DECEMBER 21, 2005 1943 Today Blank Page Blank Page Request for Proposal No. DE-RP52-05NA25396 LANS Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.doc Section B - H, Page 2 Part I - The Schedule Sections B through H TABLE OF CONTENTS STANDARD FORM 33 SOLICITATION, OFFER AND AWARD....................................... 1 Section B - SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS

  15. Modeling the Interaction between Integrin-Binding Peptide (RGD) and Rutile Surface: The Effect of Na+ on Peptide Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chunya; Skelton, Adam; Chen, Mingjun; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of a single tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adsorbing onto negatively charged hydroxylated rutile (110) surface in aqueous solution was studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results indicate that the adsorbed Na{sup +} ions play an important role in determining the binding geometry of RGD. With an initial 'horseshoe' configuration, the charged side groups (COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}) of the peptide are able to interact with the surface through direct hydrogen bonds (H bonds) in the very early stage of adsorption. The Na{sup +} ions approach the positively charged Arg side chain, competing with the Arg side chain for adsorption to the negatively charged hydroxyl oxygen. In coordination with the structural adjustment of the peptide, the Arg residue is driven to detach from the rutile surface. In contrast, the Na+ ions in close proximity to the negatively charged Asp side chain contribute to the binding of the COO{sup -} group on the surface, helping the carboxyl oxygen not involved in COO{sup -}-surface H bonds to orientate toward the hydroxyl hydrogens. Once both carboxyl oxygens form enough H bonds with the hydroxyl hydrogens, the redundant ions move toward a more favorable adsorption site.

  16. Materials corrosion in molten LiF-NaF-KF eutectic salt under different reduction-oxidation conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellers, R. S.; Cheng, W. J.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Wang, C. J.; Allen, T. R.

    2012-07-01

    Molten fluoride salts such as FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) have been proposed for use as secondary reactor coolants, media for transfer of high temperature process heat from nuclear reactors to chemical plants, and for concentrated solar power thermal energy storage. In molten fluoride salts, passive oxide films are chemically unstable, and corrosion is driven largely by the thermodynamically driven dissolution of alloying elements into the molten salt environment. Two alloys, Hastelloy{sup R} N and 316L stainless steel were exposed to molten FLiNaK salt in a 316L stainless steel crucible under argon cover gas for 1000 hours at 850 deg. C. Graphite was present in some of the crucibles with the goal of studying corrosion behavior of relevant reactor material combinations. In addition, a technique to reduce alloy corrosion through modification of the reduction-oxidation state was tested by the inclusion of zirconium to the system. Corrosion of 316L stainless steel was noted to occur primarily through surface depletion of chromium, an effect that was enhanced by the presence of graphite. Hastelloy{sup R} N experienced weight gain through electrochemical plating of corrosion products derived from the 316L stainless steel crucible. In the presence of zirconium, both alloys gained weight through plating of zirconium and as a result formed intermetallic layers. (authors)

  17. The abnormal electrical and optical properties in Na and Ni codoped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xunling; Liu, Weifang E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Minchen; Wu, Ping; Wang, Shouyu E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com; Gao, Ju; Rao, Guanghui

    2015-05-07

    Bi{sub 0.97}Na{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015) nanoparticles are prepared via a sol-gel method. Weak ferromagnetism and exchange bias phenomenon without field cooling are observed in the samples. The oxygen vacancy concentration and leakage current density are increased with increasing the Ni content. However, with the increase of Ni content, the band gap of Bi{sub 0.97}Na{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles first decreases and then increases. To explain the abnormal phenomenon, the interplay of oxygen vacancy donor and hole acceptor is analyzed and a phenomenological qualitative model based on the electronic energy band is proposed. Additionally, the threshold switching behavior appears in Bi{sub 0.97}Na{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} samples with x = 0.01, 0.015 and the effect is qualitatively explained by introducing a conducting channel model based on the high-density mobile charges.

  18. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  19. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces at 10-50 degrees C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH2 group is more acidic than the bridging Sn2OH group, with protonation constants (log KH) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 degrees C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural alpha-TiO2 (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na+ and Rb+, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na+ between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb+ is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na+/Rb+ was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH(-0.40)) and the protonated bridging group (Sn2OH+0.36) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing negative surface charge, and at pH 10, roughly 40% of the terminal sites are predicted to form cation complexes, whereas anion complexation is minor throughout the studied pH range.

  20. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) Surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) surfaces at 10-50 C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH{sub 2} group is more acidic than the bridging Sn{sub 2}OH group, with protonation constants (log K{sub H}) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural {alpha}-TiO{sub 2} (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +}, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na{sup +} between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb{sup +} is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na{sup +}/Rb{sup +} was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH{sup -0.40}) and the protonated bridging group (Sn{sub 2}OH{sup +0.36}) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing negative surface charge, and at pH 10, roughly 40% of the terminal sites are predicted to form cation complexes, whereas anion complexation is minor throughout the studied pH range.

  1. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirako, Y.; Shi, Y.G.; Aimi, A.; Mori, D.; Kojitani, H.; Yamaura, K.; Inaguma, Y.; Akaogi, M.

    2012-07-15

    NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite was found to transform to post-perovskite at 16-18 GPa and 1273-1473 K. The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=-2.0+0.014 Multiplication-Sign T (K). Structure refinements indicated that NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite and post-perovskite have almost regular NiF{sub 6} octahedra consistent with absence of the first-order Jahn-Teller active ions. Both NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite and post-perovskite are insulators. The perovskite underwent a canted antiferromagnetic transition at 156 K, and the post-perovskite antiferromagnetic transition at 22 K. Magnetic exchange interaction of NaNiF{sub 3} post-perovskite is smaller than that of perovskite, reflecting larger distortion of Ni-F-Ni network and lower dimension of octahedral arrangement in post-perovskite than those in perovskite. - Graphical abstract: Perovskite-post-perovskite transition in NaNiF{sub 3} at high pressure Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaNiF{sub 3} perovskite (Pv) transforms to post-perovskite (pPv) at 16 GPa and 1300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=-2.0+0.014 T (K). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic transition occurs at 156 K in Pv and 22 K in pPv.

  2. " East North Central",751,"NA",539,650,639,792.21608

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Expenditures per Vehicle, Selected Survey Years (Nominal Dollars) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",736,722,550,650,668,787 "Household Characteristics"...

  3. " East North Central",627,"NA",550,553,574,585.28553

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption per Vehicle, Selected Survey Years (Gallons) " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",621,611,559,548,578,592 "Household Characteristics" "Census...

  4. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  5. The mobility of Nb in rutile-saturated NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids from 1–6.5 GPa and 300–800 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Simon, Adam; Tschauner, Oliver; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Burnley, Pamela; Cline II, Christopher J.; Hanchar, John M.; Pettke, Thomas; Shen, Guoyin; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-08-26

    Rutile (TiO₂) is an important host phase for high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb in metamorphic and subduction zone environments. The observed depletion of Nb in arc rocks is often explained by the hypothesis that rutile sequesters HFSE in the subducted slab and overlying sediment, and is chemically inert with respect to aqueous fluids evolved during prograde metamorphism in the forearc to subarc environment. However, field observations of exhumed terranes, and experimental studies, indicate that HFSE may be soluble in complex aqueous fluids at high pressure (i.e., >0.5 GPa) and moderate to high temperature (i.e., >300 °C). In this study, we investigated experimentally the mobility of Nb in NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids in equilibrium with Nb-bearing rutile at pressure-temperature conditions applicable to fluid evolution in arc environments. Niobium concentrations in aqueous fluid at rutile saturation were measured directly by using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) at 2.1 to 6.5 GPa and 300–500 °C, and indirectly by performing mass loss experiments in a piston-cylinder (PC) apparatus at ~1 GPa and 700–800 °C. The concentration of Nb in a 10 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid increases from 6 to 11 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 2.1 to 2.8 GPa, consistent with a positive temperature dependence. The concentration of Nb in a 20 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid varies from 55 to 150 μg/g at 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 1.8 to 6.4 GPa; however, there is no discernible temperature or pressure dependence. The Nb concentration in a 4 wt% NaF-bearing aqueous fluid increases from 180 to 910 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C over the pressure range 2.1 to 6.5 GPa. The data for the F-bearing fluid indicate that the Nb content of the fluid exhibits a dependence on temperature between 300 and 500 °C at ≥2 GPa, but there is no observed dependence on pressure. Together, the data demonstrate that the hydrothermal mobility of Nb is strongly controlled by the composition of the fluid, consistent with published data for Ti. At all experimental conditions, however, the concentration of Nb in the fluid is always lower than coexisting rutile, consistent with a role for rutile in moderating the Nb budget of arc rocks.

  6. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  7. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphor for white LED application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Jingshan; CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Yin, Xin; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Huang, Fuqiang; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Jiang, Weizhong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. ► Compared with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} performed better luminescence properties. ► The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6} as a suitable host for RE{sup 3+}-doping. -- Abstract: Single phase of NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} (0 < x ≤1) (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the morphology energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to characterize the samples. Under the light excitation, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Sm{sup 3+} and NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Tb{sup 3+}, phosphors showed the characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4,3,2,1}), Sm{sup 3+} ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2,7/2,9/2}), and Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6,5,4,3}), respectively. The intensity of the red emission for Na(La{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4})MgWO{sub 6} is 2.5 times higher than that of (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} under blue light irradiation. The quantum efficiencies of the entitled phosphors excited under 394 nm and 464 nm are also investigated and compared with commercial phosphors Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} and Y{sub 3}A{sub 5}G{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}. The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} phosphors as potential candidates for white light emitting diode pumped by UV or blue chip.

  8. Thermal stability, acidity, catalytic properties, and deactivation behaviour of SAPO-5 catalysts: Effect of silicon content, acid treatment, and Na exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akolekar, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Crystalline microporous SAPO-5 molecular sieves with different silicon content, acid-treated SAPO-5 and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 were investigated for their thermal stability, and acidic and catalytic properties. SAPO-5 materials with increasing SI framework content exhibited lower thermal stability. The effects of the thermal treatment and Na exchange on the N{sub 2}-sorption capacity (at 78 K) of these materials were studied. In situ IR spectroscopic investigations of pyridine chemisorbed on the aluminophosphate catalysts revealed that the concentration of Broensted and Lewis acid sites are strongly affected by the Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework, acid treatment, and Na exchange. The results of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and stepwise thermal desorption of pyridine suggest that there exists a broad site energy distribution over the aluminophosphate catalysts increases with the increasing Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework. The acid treatment and Na exchange showed a decrease in the number of strong acid sites on SAPO-5. The TPD of pyridine over SAPO-5, acid-treated SAPO-5, and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 indicated the presence of two types of acid sites. Correlation between the number of strong acid sites (measured in terms of the chemisorption of pyridine at 673 K) and framework charge on the aluminophosphate catalysts has also been obtained. The catalytic activities of SAPO-5 catalysts in the ethanol, n-hexane, isooctane, toluene, and o-xylene conversion reactions were studied. 22 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore » identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  10. Natural Gas Wellhead Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973

  11. Structure and ferroelectricity of nonstoichiometric (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Jared; Aksel, Elena; Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Jones, Jacob L.; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-17

    Stoichiometric (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3} (NBT) adopts the ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure with the A-site equally occupied by Na{sup +} and Bi{sup 3+} ions. However, non-stoichiometric compositions can be synthesized intentionally or unintentionally. To determine the effect of A-site nonstoichiometry on the crystal structure and ferroelectricity of NBT, the composition of (Na{sub 0.5?x}Bi{sub 0.5+x})TiO{sub 3+x} was varied using x?=??0.01, ?0.005, 0, 0.005, and 0.01. High resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement revealed that a shift in either direction from x = 0 results in a decrease in the spontaneous ferroelastic strain. Ferroelectric hysteresis and piezoelectric coefficients were found to be optimum in the stoichiometric composition.

  12. Exotic magnetism on the quasi-FCC lattices of the d3 double perovskites La2NaB'O6 (B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aczel, Adam A; Baker, Peter J.; Bugaris, Dan; Yeon, Jeongho; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Guidi, T.; Adroja, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We find evidence for long-range and short-range ($\\zeta$~$=$~70~\\AA~at 4~K) incommensurate magnetic order on the quasi-face-centered-cubic (FCC) lattices of the monoclinic double perovskites La$_2$NaRuO$_6$ and La$_2$NaOsO$_6$ respectively. Incommensurate magnetic order on the FCC lattice has not been predicted by mean field theory, but may arise via a delicate balance of inequivalent nearest neighbour and next nearest neighbour exchange interactions. In the Ru system with long-range order, inelastic neutron scattering also reveals a spin gap $\\Delta$~$\\sim$~2.75~meV. Magnetic anisotropy is generally minimized in the more familiar octahedrally-coordinated $3d^3$ systems, so the large gap observed for La$_2$NaRuO$_6$ may result from the significantly enhanced value of spin-orbit coupling in this $4d^3$ material.

  13. Frustration by competing interactions in the highly-distorted double perovskites La2NaB'O6 (B' = Ru, Os)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aczel, Adam A; Bugaris, Dan; Li, Ling; Yan, Jiaqiang; Dela Cruz, Clarina R; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Nagler, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The usual classical behaviour of S = 3/2, B-site ordered double perovskites generally results in simple, commensurate magnetic ground states. In contrast, heat capacity and neutron powder diffraction measurements for the S = 3/2 systems La2NaB'O6 (B = Ru, Os) reveal an incommensurate magnetic ground state for La2NaRuO6 and a drastically suppressed ordered moment for La2NaOsO6. This behaviour is attributed to the large monoclinic structural distortions of these double perovskites. The distortions have the effect of weakening the nearest neighbour superexchange interactions, presumably to an energy scale that is comparable to the next nearest neighbour superexchange. The exotic ground states in these materials can then arise from a competition between these two types of antiferromagnetic interactions, providing a novel mechanism for achieving frustration in the double perovskite family.

  14. Room temperature magnetocaloric effect, critical behavior, and magnetoresistance in Na-deficient manganite La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khlifi, M. Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2014-05-21

    The La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} oxide was prepared by the solid-state reaction and annealed in air. The X-ray diffraction data reveal that the sample is crystallized in a rhombohedral structure with R3{sup ¯}c space group. Magnetic study shows a second-order magnetic phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state at the Curie temperature T{sub C} = 295 K. In addition, the magnetizations as a function of temperature and the magnetic field is used to evaluate the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}. Then, we have deduced that the La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} oxide has a large magnetocaloric effect at room temperature. Such effect is given by the maximum of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub Mmax} = 5.56, and by the Relative cooling power (RCP) factor which is equal to 235 under a magnetic field of 5 T. Moreover, the magnetic field dependence of the magnetic entropy change is used to determine the critical exponents β, γ, and δ which are found to be β = 0.495, γ = 1.083, and δ = 3.18. These values are consistent with the prediction of the mean field theory (β = 0.5, γ = 1, and δ = 3). Above all, the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity shows a metal–insulator transition at T{sub ρ}. The electrical resistivity decrease when we apply a magnetic field giving a magnetoresistance effect in the order of 60% at room temperature.

  15. Coordinated role of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger in sustaining microglial activation during inflammation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, Muhammad M.; Sonsalla, Patricia K.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2013-12-01

    Persistent neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an integral role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. We investigated the role of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchangers (NHE) in the activation of immortalized microglial cells (BV-2) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. LPS (10 and 100 ng/ml) caused a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of intracellular sodium [(Na{sup +}){sub i}] in BV-2 cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the VGSC antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 ?M) abolished short-term Na{sup +} influx, but was unable to prevent the accumulation of (Na{sup +}){sub i} observed at 6 and 24 h after LPS exposure. The NHE inhibitor cariporide (1 ?M) significantly reduced accumulation of (Na{sup +}){sub i} 6 and 24 h after LPS exposure. Furthermore, LPS increased the mRNA expression and protein level of NHE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced after co-treatment with TTX and/or cariporide. LPS increased production of TNF-?, ROS, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression of gp91{sup phox}, an active subunit of NADPH oxidase, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced by TTX or TTX + cariporide. Collectively, these data demonstrate a closely-linked temporal relationship between VGSC and NHE-1 in regulating function in activated microglia, which may provide avenues for therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neuroinflammation. - Highlights: LPS causes immediate increase in sodium through VGSC and subsequently through the NHE-1. Inhibition of VGSC reduces increases in NHE-1 and gp91{sup phox}. Inhibition of VGSC and NHE-1 reduces NADPH oxidase-mediated Tnf-?, ROS, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. NHE-1 and Na{sub v}1.6 may be viable targets for therapeutic interventions to reduce neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disease.

  16. The reaction mechanism of SnSb and Sb thin film anodes for Na-ion batteries studied by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn and 121Sb M ssbauer spectroscopies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baggetto, Loic; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude; Johnson, Prof. Dr. Charles E.; Johnson, Jackie A.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Bridges, Craig A; Veith, Gabriel M

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical reaction of Sb and SnSb anode materials with Na results in the formation of amorphous materials. To understand the resulting phases and electrochemical capacities we studied the reaction products local order using 119Sn and 121Sb M ssbauer spectroscopies in conjunction with measurements performed on model powder compounds of Na-Sn and Na-Sb to further clarify the reactions steps. For pure Sb the discharge (sodiation) starts with the formation of an amorphous phase composed of atomic environments similar to those found in NaSb, and proceeds further by the formation of environments similar to that present in Na3Sb. The reversible reactionmore » takes place during a large portion of the charge process. At full charge the anode material still contains a substantial fraction of Na, which explains the lack of recrystallization into crystalline Sb. The reaction of SnSb yields Na3Sb crystalline phase at full discharge at higher temperatures (65 and 95 C) while the room temperature reaction yields amorphous compounds. The electrochemically-driven, solid-state amorphization reaction occurring at room temperature is governed by the simultaneous formation of Na-coordinated Sn and Sb environments, as monitored by the decrease (increase) of the 119Sn (121Sb) M ssbauer isomer shifts. Overall, the monitoring of the hyperfine parameters enables to correlate the changes in Na content to the individual Sn and Sb local chemical environments.« less

  17. The reaction mechanism of SnSb and Sb thin film anodes for Na-ion batteries studied by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn and 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baggetto, Loïc; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Johnson, Charles E.; Johnson, Jacqueline A.; Keum, Jong K.; Bridges, Craig A.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical reaction of Sb and SnSb anode materials with Na results in the formation of amorphous materials. To understand the resulting phases and electrochemical capacities we studied the reaction products local order using 119Sn and 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopies in conjunction with measurements performed on model powder compounds of Na-Sn and Na-Sb to further clarify the reactions steps. For pure Sb the discharge (sodiation) starts with the formation of an amorphous phase composed of atomic environments similar to those found in NaSb, and proceeds further by the formation of environments similar to that present in Na3Sb. The reversible reaction takesmore » place during a large portion of the charge process. At full charge the anode material still contains a substantial fraction of Na, which explains the lack of recrystallization into crystalline Sb. The reaction of SnSb yields Na3Sb crystalline phase at full discharge at higher temperatures (65 and 95°C) while the room temperature reaction yields amorphous compounds. The electrochemically-driven, solid-state amorphization reaction occurring at room temperature is governed by the simultaneous formation of Na-coordinated Sn and Sb environments, as monitored by the decrease (increase) of the 119Sn (121Sb) Mössbauer isomer shifts. Overall, the monitoring of the hyperfine parameters enables to correlate the changes in Na content to the individual Sn and Sb local chemical environments.« less

  18. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-off of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  19. Hot-stage transmission electron microscopy study of (Na, K)NbO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2014-07-28

    Hierarchical nanodomains assembled into micron-sized stripe domains, which is believed to be associated with outstanding piezoelectric properties, were observed at room temperature in a typical lead free piezoceramics, (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48−x})(Nb{sub 0.95−x}Ta{sub 0.05})-xLiSbO{sub 3}, with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (x = 0.0465) by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of domain morphology and crystal structure under heating and cooling cycles in the ceramic was investigated by in-situ hot stage study. It is found that the nanodomains are irreversibly transformed into micron-sized rectangular domains during heating and cooling cycles, which lead to the thermal instability of piezoelectric properties of the materials.

  20. The Role of FeS in Initial Activation and Performance Degradation of Na-NiCl2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-12-25

    The role of iron sulfide (FeS) in initial cell activation and degradation in the Na-NiCl2 battery was investigated in this work. The research focused on identifying the effects of the FeS level on the electrochemical performance and morphological changes in the cathode. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study along with battery tests revealed that FeS plays a critical role in initial battery activation by removing passivation layers on Ni particles. It was also found that the optimum level of FeS in the cathode resulted in minimum Ni particle growth and improved battery cycling performance. The results of electrochemical characterization indicated that sulfur species generated in situ during initial charging, such as polysulfide and sulfur, are responsible for removing the passivation layer. Consequently, the cells containing elemental sulfur in the cathode exhibited similar electrochemical behavior during initial charging compared to that of the cells containing FeS.

  1. Evidence for the onset of deconfinement and quest for the critical point by NA49 at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melkumov, G. L.; Anticic, T.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Beck, H.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Bogusz, M.; Boimska, B.; Book, J.; Botje, M.; Buncic, P.; Cetner, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J. G.; Eckardt, V.; and others

    2012-05-15

    The NA49 results on hadron production obtained in PbPb collisions at SPS energies from 20 to 158 A GeV are shown and discussed as evidence for the onset of deconfinement. The primary measures are the pion yield, the kaon-to-pion ratio and the slope parameter of transverse mass distributions. The possible indication of the QCD critical point signatures was investigated in the event-by-event fluctuations of various observables such as the mean transverse momentum, particle multiplicity and azimuthal angle distributions as well as in the particle ratio fluctuations. The energy dependence of these observables was measured in central PbPb collisions in the full SPS energy range while for analysis of the system size dependence data from pp, CC, SiSi, and PbPb collisions at the top SPS energy were used.

  2. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal photonic crystal using structural light focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I. Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-08-04

    Experimental and numerical results for second harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic crystal (PC) based on NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal matrix are presented. SHG is performed in reflection mode; thus, the direction of the SHG maximum is equal to the angle of mirror reflection. The PC was pumped with femtosecond optical pulses at different angles of incidence, allowing the dependence of the SHG efficiency on the location of the fundamental wavelength toward the PC band gap (BG) to be examined. The most efficient SHG was observed when pumping the BG of the PC. To interpret the experimental results, finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations of the light interaction with the PC were conducted. The observed effect of highly efficient SHG is associated with structural light focusing, and, as a consequence, with strong optical field localization within certain near-surface PC regions. Thus, SHG enhancement based on structural light focusing in PC was demonstrated.

  3. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-off of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  4. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-offmore » of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.« less

  5. Corrosion behavior of Ni and Ni-based alloys in concentrated NaOH solutions at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasuda, M.; Fukumoto, K.; Ogata, Y.; Hine, F.

    1988-12-01

    Corrosion behavior of SUS 310S austenitic stainless steel, Alloy 600, Monel 400, and Ni 200 and NaOH solutions in the concentration range 30-60% at high temperatures up to 166/sup 0/C was studied. In solutions containing dissolved oxygen or under oxidizing conditions, all the specimens examined were corroded seriously due to oxygen diffusion through the porous oxide layer consisting of ..beta..-Ni(OH)/sub 2/. In hydrogen-saturated solutions, on the other hand, these Ni alloys were corrosion resistant because nickel in the alloys was active to oxidation of hydrogen. The specimens were corroded by deaerated solution at high temperatures in which hydrogen evolution took place as the counterreaction. The corrosion rate controlled by the hydrogen formation reaction increased exponentially with the decrease of the Ni content in the alloy.

  6. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. )

    1994-10-01

    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  7. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates W W W W W W 1983-2016 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel 33,201.0 32,608.3 32,500.6 33,002.9 31,001.8 29,954.0 1983-2016 Propane (Consumer Grade) 5,181.2 4,202.0 5,929.0 5,678.3 8,644.8 7,412.3 1983-2016 Kerosene 2.2 W W W W W 1983-2016 No. 1 Distillate W 140.9 NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 No. 2 Distillate 13,352.4 12,748.2 12,503.0 11,795.7 12,204.5 12,694.8 1983-2016 No. 2 Diesel Fuel NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Ultra Low-Sulfur 12,625.7 12,084.4 12,016.1 11,276.9 11,756.2

  8. Luminescent properties of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} and its potential application in white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhijun; Li, Panlai; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingxuan; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor can be effectively excited by an ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light, and produce a bright blue emission centered at 436 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinations (x, y) of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(NSCE)/Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}(LSSE) vary with the molar ratio of the two constituents. When NSCE/LSSE is 1:3, the CIE chromaticity coordination is (0.332, 0.346), which is close to that of the natural sunlight (0.33, 0.33). The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a promising blue phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes. Highlights: ? Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} shows the blue emission with a peak at 436 nm and broad excitation band in the UV/n-UV range. ? White light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor with the Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} yellow phosphor. ? Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} would be a promising blue phosphor candidate for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction, and its luminescent properties are systematically studied. Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} can be effectively excited by the 354 nm radiation, and create blue emission (436 nm). The emission intensity of Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} is influenced by the Eu{sup 2+} doping content, and the optimal doping content is 1.5%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Eu{sup 2+} in Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4} can be attributed to the multipolar interaction. The white light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} with the yellow phosphor Li{sub 2}SrSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The results indicate that Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} may be a potential blue emitting phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes.

  9. Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    INTRODUCTION Metallic fuel contaminants such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) may be introduced into diesel fuel through a number of different sources. As one example, biodiesel production relies on sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to catalyze the reaction of vegetable oils with methanol to form methyl esters. In this process, residual amounts of Na or K can be left behind. In addition, small amounts of Ca or Mg can be added to the fuel from the purifcation

  10. NaNi sub 3 Mn sub 2 alloy as a tritium storage material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ide, T.; Okuno, K.; Konishi, S.; Sakai, F.; Fukui, H.; Enoeda, M.; Naruse, Y.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1989-01-01

    An all metal apparatus has been constructed and installed in the main cell of the Tritium System Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, as a separate experiment, to handle about 2600 Ci of tritium for study of metal tritides of potential application for storing tritium in fusion fuel processing. The apparatus is similar to that used for protium/deuterium gas but some modifications were made to assure safe handling of tritium. The pressure-composition isotherms for the LaNi{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}-protium (H), deuterium (D) and tritium (T) system were measured to study isotopic effects in the temperature range of 60 {degree}C to 250 {degree}C, the pressure range below 120 kPa. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe?(MoO?)?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Shi, Si -Qi; Shadike, Zulipiya; Huang, Xuan -Qi; Luo, Jun; Yang, Zhen -Zhong; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao -Qing; et al

    2015-03-06

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe?(MoO?)? electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na? and Li?, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe?(MoO?)? and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites inmorepartially sodiated Fe?(MoO?)? are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe?(MoO?)? and Na/Fe?(MoO?)? cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries.less

  12. Synthesis, structural and electrical properties of a new cobalt arsenate NaCo{sub 2}As{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Smida, Y.; Marzouki, R.; Guesmi, A.; Georges, S.; Zid, M.F.

    2015-01-15

    The title compound sodium dicobalt triarsenate NaCo{sub 2}As{sub 3}O{sub 10} has been synthesized by solid state reaction. Crystal structure and electrical properties were studied by X-ray diffraction and complex impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The obtained structural model is supported by charge-distribution (CHARDI) analysis and bond-valence-sum (BVS) validations tools. The structure (triclinic, P−1, a=6.800 (8) Å, b=7.816 (9) Å, c=8.718 (3) Å, α=108.03 (2)°, β=108.48 (3)°, γ=100.11 (2)°) can be described as a three-dimensional framework resulted from corner-connection between cobalt metallic chains running along [−110] and As{sub 3}O{sub 10} groups; the negative charge is balanced by Na{sup +} ions which house the two tunnels parallel to a and b axes. Ball milling was used as mechanical means to reduce the particles sizes of the synthesized powder. At the optimal sintering temperature of 650 °C, 85% of the relative density was obtained. The conductivity measurements show that NaCo{sub 2}As{sub 3}O{sub 10} is a cationic conductor with an activation energy of 0.48 eV and a conductivity of σ=1.2×10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 310 °C. The BVS model is extended to simulate the ionic migration pathways of alkali cations in the anionic framework. - Graphical abstract: 1D pathways link Na atoms along the a-axis with bond valence mismatch |ΔV(Na)|=0.64 v.u. - Highlights: • A new single crystal NaCo{sub 2}As{sub 3}O{sub 10} was grown by solid state reaction and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. • The purity of the powder sample was verified by Rietveld refinement. • The CIS measurements were optimized and the obtained spectra were fitted by electrical equivalent circuits. • The conduction pathways for Na{sup +} cations are simulated by means of the bond valence sum model.

  13. {gamma}-Radiolysis of NaCl Brine in the Presence of UO{sub 2}(s): Effects of Hydrogen and Bromide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, Volker; Bohnert, Elke; Kelm, Manfred; Schild, Dieter; Kienzler, Bernhard

    2007-07-01

    A concentrated NaCl solution was {gamma}-irradiated in autoclaves under a pressure of 25 MPa. A set of experiments were conducted in 6 mol (kg H{sub 2}O){sup -1} NaCl solution in the presence of UO{sub 2}(s) pellets; in a second set of experiments, {gamma}-radiolysis of the NaCl brine was studied without UO{sub 2}(s). Hydrogen, oxygen and chlorate were formed as long-lived radiolysis products. Due to the high external pressure, all radiolysis products remained dissolved. H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} reached steady state concentrations in the range of 5.10{sup -3} to 6.10{sup -2} mol (kg H{sub 2}O){sup -1} corresponding to a partial gas pressure of {approx}2 to {approx}20 MPa. Radiolytic formation of hydrogen and oxygen increased with the concentration of bromide added to solution. Both, in the presence of bromide, resulting in a relatively high radiolytic yield, and in the absence of bromide surfaces of the UO{sub 2}(s) samples were oxidized, and concentration of dissolved uranium reached the solubility limit of the schoepite / NaUO{sub 2}O(OH)(cr) transition. At the end of the experiments, the pellets were covered by a surface layer of a secondary solid phase having a composition close to Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The experimental results demonstrate that bromide counteracts an H{sub 2} inhibition effect on radiolysis gas production, even at a concentration ratio of [H{sub 2}] / [Br{sup -}] > 100. The present observations are related to the competitive reactions of OH radicals with H{sub 2}, Br{sup -} and Cl{sup -}. A similar competition of hydrogen and bromide, controlling the yield of {gamma}-radiolysis products, is expected for solutions of lower Cl{sup -} concentration. (authors)

  14. U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1981 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1982 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.97

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA...

  16. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Volumes 4,546.1 3,741.4 4,403.1 3,994.1 4,103.1 4,101.4 1983-2016 Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% W NA W W W NA 1983-2016 Sulfur Greater Than 1% W 2,878.7 W W W 3,613.7 1983-2016 No. 4 Fuel Oil W - - - W -

  17. Preparation, catalysis, and characterization of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalysts supported on a NaY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Katsuyama, Hiromoto [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The structure and dispersion of the molybdenum sulfides supported on a NaY zeolite were studied using XAFS techniques. It was found that molybdenum sulfide species prepared by sulfiding vapor deposited Mo(CO){sub 6} or by sulfiding molybdenum oxide dimer species encaged in the zeolite are highly dispersed and thermally stabilized against sintering or restructuring. These molybdenum species are formed via molybdenum sulfide dimer species as an intermediate. On the other hand, with the molybdenum sulfide catalysts prepared by an impregnation method, the sulfidation of molybdenum oxides was incomplete. The molybdenum oxide species are suggested to be mainly located in the zeolite cavities after calcination, forming isolated molybdenum oxides in tetrahedral configurations. The molybdenum sulfide species prepared from Mo(CO){sub 6} showed much higher catalytic activities for thiophene hydrodesulfurization and butadiene hydrogenation than the molybdenum sulfides prepared by the impregnation, in conformity with a higher dispersion and higher fraction of the molybdenum sulfide species. It is demonstrated that in combination with metal carbonyl techniques, zeolite supports are very suitable for the preparation of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfides at a high Mo loading.

  18. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  19. Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2011-09-01

    Mini-split heat pumps are being proposed as a new retrofit option to replace resistance heating in the Pacific Northwest. NREL has previously developed a field test protocol for mini-split systems to ensure consistent results from field tests. This report focuses on the development of detailed system performance maps for mini-split heat pumps so that the potential benefits of mini-split systems can be accurately analyzed for different climate regions and housing types. This report presents laboratory test results for two mini-split heat pumps. Steady-state heating and cooling performance for the Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA was tested under a wide range of outdoor and indoor temperatures at various compressor and fan speeds. Cycling performance for each unit was also tested under both modes of operation. Both systems performed quite well under low loads and the experimental test data aligned with manufacturer reported values. Adequate datasets were attained to promote performance modeling of these two systems in the future.

  20. Study the performance of photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: Rose Bengal-D-Xylose-NaLS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangotri, K.M.; Bhimwal, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-07-15

    The Rose Bengal is used as photosensitizer with D-Xylose as reductant and sodium lauryl sulphate (NaLS) as surfactant for the enhancement of the conversion efficiency and storage capacity of photogalvanic cell for its commercial viability. The observed value of the photogeneration of photopotential was 885.0 mV and photocurrent was 460.0 {mu}A whereas maximum power of the cell was 407.10 {mu}W. The observed power at power point was 158.72 {mu}W and the conversion efficiency was 1.52%. The fill factor 0.3151 was experimentally determined at the power point of the cell. The rate of initial generation of photocurrent was 63.88 {mu}A min{sup -1}. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 145.0 min in dark on irradiation for 165.0 min, i.e. the storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell is 87.87%. A simple mechanism for the photogeneration of photocurrent has also been proposed. (author)

  1. Using GC-FID to Quantify the Removal of 4-sec-Butylphenol from NGS Solvent by NaOH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloop, Jr., Frederick V.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    A caustic wash of the solvent used in the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process was found to remove the modifier breakdown product 4-sec-butylphenol (SBP) with varying efficiency depending on the aqueous NaOH concentration. Recent efforts at ORNL have aimed at characterizing the flowsheet chemistry and reducing the technical uncertainties of the NG-CSSX process. One technical uncertainty has been the efficacy of caustic washing of the solvent for the removal of lipophilic anions, in particular, the efficient removal of SBP, an important degradation product of the solvent modifier, Cs-7SB. In order to make this determination, it was necessary to develop a sensitive and reliable analytical technique for the detection and quantitation of SBP. This report recounts the development of a GC-FID-based (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection) technique for analyzing SBP and the utilization of the technique to subsequently confirm the ability of the caustic wash to efficiently remove SBP from the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) used in NG-CSSX. In particular, the developed technique was used to monitor the amount of SBP removed from a simple solvent and the full NGS by contact with sodium hydroxide wash solutions over a range of concentrations. The results show that caustic washing removes SBP with effectively the same efficiency as it did in the original Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process.

  2. Preparation of NaGdS{sub 2} via thermolysis of Gd[S{sub 2}CN(C{sub 4}H{sub 8})]{sub 3}-phen complexes and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Xixian; Ma, Lubin; Xing, Mingming; Fu, Yao; Zhou, Xiaolin; Sun, Min

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We adopt a new and simple thermolysis method to synthesise NaGdS{sub 2} compounds. ► The obtained NaGdS{sub 2} presents a microrod morphology with a length diameter ratio of 2.1. ► NaGdS{sub 2} has excellent transmission over a very wide range of wavelengths (>430 nm). ► The route may be used for the synthesis of other AREX{sub 2}-based materials or nanocrystals. - Abstract: A novel, simple thermolysis method is adopted to prepare alkali metal rare earth ternary sulphide NaGdS{sub 2} using Gd(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2}){sub 3-}phen complexes and NaS{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O mixtures as precursors in a nitrogen atmosphere at 600–1000 °C. The obtained NaGdS{sub 2} presents a microrod morphology with an average diameter of 112 nm, average length of 236 nm, and length diameter ratio of 2.1. Furthermore, the as-prepared NaGdS{sub 2} has excellent transmission over a very wide range of wavelengths (>430 nm) and may be an ideal IR window material.

  3. Effect of acute treatment with cadmium on ethanol anesthesia, body termperature, and synaptosomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase of rat brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magour, S.; Kristof, V.; Baumann, M.; Assmann, G.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.56, 1.12, and 1.68 mg cadmium/kg on the duration of ethanol-induced sleep was investigated in male rats. Cadmium potentiated ethanol sleeping time in a dose dependent manner up to 300% over controls. No significant difference in the elimination rate of ethanol from blood and brain and observed between control and cadmium-pretreated rats. Cadmium slightly inhibited the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase in vivo and also potentiated ethanol hypothermia but these changes did not play a significant role in the observed prolongation of ethanol sleeping time. However, cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain synaptosomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase in a noncompetitive manner. The results so far indicate that cadmium may increase brain responsiveness toward ethanol partly through inhibition of snaptosomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase.

  4. (Ca,Na)(Zn,Mn){sub 2}As{sub 2}: A new spin and charge doping decoupled diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, K.; Chen, B. J.; Deng, Z.; Zhao, G. Q.; Zhu, J. L.; Liu, Q. Q.; Wang, X. C.; Han, W.; Frandsen, B.; Liu, L.; Cheung, S.; Uemura, Y. J.; Ning, F. L.; Munsie, T. J. S.; Medina, T.; Luke, G. M.; Carlo, J. P.; Munevar, J.; Zhang, G. M.; Jin, C. Q.

    2014-10-28

    Here, we report the successful synthesis of a spin- and charge-decoupled diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) (Ca,Na)(Zn,Mn){sub 2}As{sub 2}, crystallizing into the hexagonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure. The compound shows a ferromagnetic transition with a Curie temperature up to 33?K with 10% Na doping, which gives rise to carrier density of n{sub p}???10{sup 20?}cm{sup ?3}. The new DMS is a soft magnetic material with H{sub C}?

  5. The reaction mechanism of SnSb and Sb thin film anodes for Na-ion batteries studied by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn and 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggetto, Loïc; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Johnson, Charles E.; Johnson, Jacqueline A.; Keum, Jong K.; Bridges, Craig A.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2014-06-01

    The electrochemical reaction of Sb and SnSb anode materials with Na results in the formation of amorphous materials. To understand the resulting phases and electrochemical capacities we studied the reaction products local order using 119Sn and 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopies in conjunction with measurements performed on model powder compounds of Na-Sn and Na-Sb to further clarify the reactions steps. For pure Sb the discharge (sodiation) starts with the formation of an amorphous phase composed of atomic environments similar to those found in NaSb, and proceeds further by the formation of environments similar to that present in Na3Sb. The reversible reaction takes place during a large portion of the charge process. At full charge the anode material still contains a substantial fraction of Na, which explains the lack of recrystallization into crystalline Sb. The reaction of SnSb yields Na3Sb crystalline phase at full discharge at higher temperatures (65 and 95°C) while the room temperature reaction yields amorphous compounds. The electrochemically-driven, solid-state amorphization reaction occurring at room temperature is governed by the simultaneous formation of Na-coordinated Sn and Sb environments, as monitored by the decrease (increase) of the 119Sn (121Sb) Mössbauer isomer shifts. Overall, the monitoring of the hyperfine parameters enables to correlate the changes in Na content to the individual Sn and Sb local chemical environments.

  6. U.S. Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1981 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1982 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 NA NA

  7. Immobilization of sodium-bearing high-level radioactive waste in synroc containing (Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-type perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Luo, S.; Tang, B.; Wang, D.

    1997-01-01

    This study on the immobilization of high-sodium-bearing HLW in synroc indicates that (Na{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}-type perovskite can be used to incorporate a high content of sodium in synroc. Synroc samples containing 13.0 wt% waste oxide and 5.7 wt% Na{sub 2}O show very well chemical durability and physical properties. The standard Synroc-C formulation can incorporate only 2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, so this study greatly improved the immobilization ability of sodium in Synroc-related material.

  8. Effects of Mg doping on the remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Hui; Yu, Xiqian; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan; Liu, Liang-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Na3V2-xMgx(PO4)3/C composites with different Mg2+ doping contents (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The doping effects on the crystal structure were investigated by XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The results show that low dose doping Mg2+ does not alter the structure of the material, and magnesium is successfully substituted for vanadium site. The Mg doped Na3V2-xMgx(PO4)3/C composites exhibit significant improvements on the electrochemistry performances in terms of the rate capability and cycle performance, especially for the Na3V1.95Mg0.05(PO4)3/C. For example, when the current density increased from 1 C to 30 C, the specific capacitymore » only decreased from 112.5 mAh g-1 to 94.2 mAh g-1 showing very good rate capability. Moreover, even cycling at a high rate of 20 C, an excellent capacity retention of 81% is maintained from the initial value of 106.4 mAh g-1 to 86.2 mAh g-1 at the 50th cycle. Enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the optimized particle size, structural stability and enhanced ionic and electronic conductivity induced by Mg doping.« less

  9. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe₂(MoO₄)₃

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji-Li; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Shi, Si-Qi; Shadike, Zulipiya; Huang, Xuan-Qi; Luo, Jun; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-03-06

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na⁺ and Li⁺, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites in partially sodiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and Na/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  10. Scintillation properties and electronic structure of the intrinsic and extrinsic mixed elpasolites Cs2 Na RBr3I3 (R = La, Y)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Hua; Du, Mao -Hua; Stand, Luis; Zhao, Zhao; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.; Shi, Hongliang

    2016-02-19

    Scintillators attract wide research interest for their distinct applications in radiation detection. Elpasolite halides are among the most promising scintillators due to their high structural symmetry and good scintillation performance. A better understanding of their underlying scintillation mechanism opens up possibilities in scintillator development. In this work, we employ a variety of experimental techniques to study the two mixed-anion elpasolites Cs2NaRBr3I3 (R = La, Y). The emission of intrinsic Cs2NaRBr3I3 with a light yield ranging from 20 000 to 40 000 ph / MeV is dominant by self-trapped exciton emission. Partial substitution of R with Ce introduces a competing emission,more » the Ce3+ 5d-to-4f radiative transition. Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structures as well as the binding energies of polarons in Cs2NaRBr6. The calculated large self-trapped exciton binding energies are consistent with the observed high light yield due to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission. The unique electronic structure of halide elpasolites as calculated enhances the STE stability and the STE emission. The highly tunable scintillation properties of mixed-anion elpasolites underscore the role of their complex scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, our study provides guidance for the design of elpasolite scintillators with exceptional energy resolution and light yield desirable for applications.« less

  11. Scintillation properties and electronic structure of the intrinsic and extrinsic mixed elpasolites Cs2 Na REBr3I3 (R = La, Y)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Hua; Du, Mao -Hua; Stand, Luis; Zhao, Zhao; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.; Shi, Hongliang

    2016-02-19

    Scintillators attract wide research interest for their distinct applications in radiation detection. Elpasolite halides are among the most promising scintillators due to their high structural symmetry and good scintillation performance. A better understanding of their underlying scintillation mechanism opens up possibilities in scintillator development. In this work, we employ a variety of experimental techniques to study the two mixed-anion elpasolites Cs2 Na REBr3I3 (R = La, Y). The emission of intrinsic Cs2Na RBr3I3 with a light yield ranging from 20 000 to 40 000 ph / MeV is dominant by self-trapped exciton emission. Partial substitution of R with Ce introducesmore » a competing emission, the Ce3+ 5d-to-4f radiative transition. Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structures as well as the binding energies of polarons in Cs2 Na RBr6. The calculated large self-trapped exciton binding energies are consistent with the observed high light yield due to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission. The unique electronic structure of halide elpasolites as calculated enhances the STE stability and the STE emission. The highly tunable scintillation properties of mixed-anion elpasolites underscore the role of their complex scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, our study provides guidance for the design of elpasolite scintillators with exceptional energy resolution and light yield desirable for applications.« less

  12. Discrete Li-occupation versus pseudo-continuous Na-occupation and their relationship with structural change behaviors in Fe₂(MoO₄)₃

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji-Li; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Shi, Si-Qi; Shadike, Zulipiya; Huang, Xuan-Qi; Luo, Jun; Yang, Zhen-Zhong; Li, Hong; Gu, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Qing; et al

    2015-03-06

    The key factors governing the single-phase or multi-phase structural change behaviors during the intercalation/deintercalation of guest ions have not been well studied and understood yet. Through systematic studies of orthorhombic Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ electrode, two distinct guest ion occupation paths, namely discrete one for Li and pseudo-continuous one for Na, as well as their relationship with single-phase and two-phase modes for Na⁺ and Li⁺, respectively during the intercalation/deintercalation process have been demonstrated. For the first time, the direct atomic-scale observation of biphasic domains (discrete occupation) in partially lithiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and the one by one Na occupation (pseudo-continuous occupation) at 8d sites inmore » partially sodiated Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ are obtained during the discharge processes of Li/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ and Na/Fe₂(MoO₄)₃ cells respectively. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies bring the new insights for the research and development of intercalation compounds as electrode materials for secondary batteries.« less

  13. DOE/NA-0027

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... of Selby 1 ; the black square, red, and green data points at 14-14.7 MeV are those of ... Nuclear Laboratory Facility * Off-energy neutrons are produced with increasing ...

  14. DOE/NA-0038

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... was performed at OMEGA by measuring the energy losses (shown on the vertical axis) of ... Data points are in blue, and the black and green lines show best fits using two stopping ...

  15. 20Na.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. 20Na_78.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. NA Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    99352 Dear Ms. Leckband: This letter is in response to Hanford AdvisorylBoard (I ll) consensus advice fi 199, Costs and Baseline Schedules, and to your letter of February...

  18. Experimental Determination of Phase Equilibria in the System H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl at 0.5 Kb from 500 to 800C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.

    2001-01-09

    An understanding of activity-composition (a/X) relations and phase equilibria for halite-bearing, mixed-species supercritical fluids is critically important to many geological and industrial applications. The authors have performed experiments on the phase equilibria of H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl fluids from 500 C to 800 C at 500 bars, conditions of significant importance in studies of magma-hydrothermal systems, geothermal reservoirs and some ore deposits, to obtain highly accurate and precise data for this ternary system. These experiments are conducted using a double capsule technique. An excess of NaCl is placed in an inner Pt capsule, which is crimped shut and placed in an outer capsule containing H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. During the experiment NaCl dissolves out of the inner capsule, and is deposited in the outer capsule during the quench. After the experiment the capsule is opened, and the amount of NaCl remaining in the inner capsule determined by dissolution. The difference between the initial and final amounts of NaCl in the inner capsule yields the solubility of NaCl at the P-T conditions of the experiment. At 500 C data from these experiments suggest that the vapor comer of the three-phase field lies near X(H{sub 2}O) = 0.760, X(NaCl) = 0.065, which is a significantly more water-rich composition than suggested by previous models. As expected, increasing temperature increases the solubility of NaCl in the NaCl-vapor field. For example, at intermediate H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2} ratios the vapor field extends from approximately near X(H{sub 2}O) = 0.66, X(NaCl) = 0.06 at 500 C to near X(H{sub 2}O) = 0.65, X(NaCl) = 0.08 at 600 C.

  19. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst utilizing upconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: Design and synthesis of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} based on upconversion. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite was prepared for the first time. Coreshell structure benefits the properties. Upconversion contributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Helps to understand the functionality of new type photocatalysts. - Abstract: NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite was designed and prepared for the first time based on upconversion. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results revealed that the as-synthesized NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} consisted of spheres with a core diameter of about 26 nm and a shell diameter of around 6 nm. The core was upconversion illuminant NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb and the shell was Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} around the core, which was confirmed by EDS. The NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the photodecomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the irradiation of Xe lamp and green light emitting diode (g-LED). The mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity was discussed by photoluminescence spectra (PL), which is mainly attributed to upconversion of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb in the NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite and the coreshell structure.

  20. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  1. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  2. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Garca, Hugo A.; Romero-Ibarra, Issis C.; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2014-10-15

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO{sub 2} powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO{sub 2} samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical growth of cubic Na-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized by hydrothermal processes in the presence of surfactants and sodium. Sodium addition stabilized the cubic phase by a Na-doping process, while the microstructural characteristics varied with surfactants. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction. - Highlights: Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process. ZrO{sub 2} structure and microstructures changed as a function of the surfactant. Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction.

  3. Surface Complexation of Neodymium at the Rutile-Water Interface: A Potentiometric and Modeling Study in NaCl Media to 250C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, Mora K.; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of Nd{sup 3+} onto rutile surfaces was examined by potentiometric titration from 25 to 250 C, in 0.03 and 0.30m NaCl background electrolyte. Experimental results show that Nd{sup 3+} sorbs strongly, even at low temperature, with adsorption commencing below the pHznpc of rutile. In addition, there is a systematic increase in Nd{sup 3+} adsorption with increasing temperature. The experimental results were rationalized and described using surface oxygen proton affinities computed from the MUlti SIte Complexation or MUSIC model, coupled with a Stern-based three-layer description of the oxide/water interface. Moreover, molecular-scale information was incorporated successfully into the surface complexation model, providing a unique geometry for the adsorption of Nd{sup 3+} on rutile. The primary mode of Nd{sup 3+} adsorption was assumed to be the tetradentate configuration found for Y{sup 3+} adsorption on the rutile (110) surface from previously described in situ X-ray standing wave experiments, wherein the sorbing cations bond directly with two adjacent ''terminal'' and two adjacent ''bridging'' surface oxygen atoms. Similarly, the adsorption of Na{sup +} counterions was also assumed to be tetradentate, as supported by MD simulations of Na{sup +} interactions with the rutile (110) surface, and by analogous X-ray standing wave results for Rb{sup +} adsorption on rutile. Fitting parameters for Nd{sup 3+} adsorption included binding constants for the tetradentate adsorption complex and capacitance values for the inner-sphere binding plane. In addition, hydrolysis of the tetradentate adsorption complex was permitted and resulted in significantly improved model fits at higher temperature and pH values. The modeling results indicate that the Stern-based MUSIC surface-complexation model adequately accommodates molecular-scale information to uniquely rationalize and describe multivalent ion adsorption systematically into the hydrothermal regime.

  4. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties in (K,Na)NbO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with two-phase co-existing state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, H. Matsuoka, T.; Kozuka, H.; Yamazaki, M.; Ohbayashi, K.; Ida, T.

    2015-06-07

    Two phases of (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) co-exist in a KNN-based composite lead-free piezoelectric ceramic 0.910(K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}){sub 0.86}Ca{sub 0.04}Li{sub 0.02}Nb{sub 0.85}O{sub 3−δ}–0.042K{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 0.85}Nb{sub 1.15}O{sub 5} –0.036BaZrO{sub 3}–0.0016Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}– 0.0025Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–0.0069ZnO system, over a wide range of Na fractions, where 0.56 ≤ x ≤ 0.75. The crystal systems of the two KNN phases are identified to tetragonal and orthorhombic by analyzing the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAD). In the range 0.33 ≤ x ≤ 0.50, the main component of the composite system is found to be single-phase KNN with a tetragonal structure. Granular nanodomains of the orthorhombic phase dispersed in the tetragonal matrix have been identified by HR-TEM and SAD for 0.56 ≤ x ≤ 0.75. Only a trace amount of the orthorhombic phase has been found in the SAD patterns at the composition x = 0.56. However, the number of orthorhombic nanodomains gradually increases with increasing Na content up to x < 0.75, as observed from the HR-TEM images. An abrupt increase and agglomeration of the nanodomains are observed at x = 0.75, where weak diffraction peaks of the orthorhombic phase have also become detectable from the XRD data. The maximum value of the electromechanical coupling coefficient, k{sub p} = 0.56, has been observed at the composition x = 0.56.

  5. NaLaF{sub 4}:Pr{sup 3+},Yb{sup 3+}, an efficient blue to near infra-red quantum cutter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guille, A.; Pereira, A.; Moine, B.

    2013-12-01

    In order to reduce the thermalization losses in solar cells, down-conversion of blue photons into near infra-red photons is a promising solution. In the present paper, we analyse the energy transfer processes between Pr{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} in NaLaF{sub 4} and we show that an efficient quantum-cutting process occurs. Nevertheless, we also show that a back transfer from Yb{sup 3+} toward the {sup 1}G{sub 4} level of Pr{sup 3+} ion leading to emission beyond 1??m reduces the potentiality of this material as a quantum cutter for Si solar cells.

  6. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology February 6, 2013 - 11:20am Addthis Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate Director and Chief Technology Officer of the National Fuel Cell Research Center, points out the tri-generation facility that uses biogas from Orange County Sanitation District’s wastewater treatment plant to produce hydrogen, heat and power. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate

  7. The solubility of zinc oxide in 0.03 m NaTr as a function of temperature, with in situ pH measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-01

    The solubility of zincite (ZnO) has been measured in noncomplexing solutions over a wide range of pH{sub m} (4--11), and temperature (75--200 C) at 0.03 mol/kg ionic strength in NaTr media (sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate, a noncomplexing 1:1 electrolyte), in a hydrogen electrode concentration cell (HECC), which provided continuous in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Total zinc content was analyzed by atomic absorption using graphite furnace, flame, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometers. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturation state was varied to demonstrate that the system was reversible thermodynamically. Separate experiments were performed in alkaline solutions (0.03 mol/kg NaOH) at 25 and 50 C in polypropylene syringes, and between 50 and 290 C in a Teflon-lined pressure vessel. The aim of these experiments was to reach higher pH{sub m} (>8 depending on the temperature) to determine the thermodynamic properties of the negatively charged species, Zn(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}}. A least-squares regression of the results obtained at this ionic strength was used to determine the molal solubility products (Q{sub sn}) of zincite. The solubility products (Q{sub sn}) were extrapolated to infinite dilution (K{sub sn}), permitting calculation of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous species of zinc for comparison with previous work.

  8. Measurement of muon annual modulation and muon-induced phosphorescence in NaI(Tl) crystals with DM-Ice17

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cherwinka, J.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; A. J. F. Hubbard; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lim, K. E.; et al

    2016-02-01

    We report the measurement of muons and muon-induced phosphorescence in DM-Ice17, a NaI(Tl) direct detection dark matter experiment at the South Pole. Muon interactions in the crystal are identified by their observed pulse shape and large energy depositions. The measured muon rate in DM-Ice17 is 2.93±0.04 μ/crystal/day with a modulation amplitude of 12.3±1.7%, consistent with expectation. Following muon interactions, we observe long-lived phosphorescence in the NaI(Tl) crystals with a decay time of 5.5±0.5 s. The prompt energy deposited by a muon is correlated to the amount of delayed phosphorescence, the brightest of which consist of tens of millions of photons.more » These photons are distributed over tens of seconds with a rate and arrival timing that do not mimic a scintillation signal above 2 keVee. Furthermore, while the properties of phosphorescence vary among individual crystals, the annually modulating signal observed by DAMA cannot be accounted for by phosphorescence with the characteristics observed in DM-Ice17.« less

  9. Report on the GC-MBS method for correcting NaI spectra for transmission loss in hand-held instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1997-10-08

    The goals of this project were (1) to develop a capability to study the scattered components in the NaI spectra of attenuated sources and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of the gross count material basis set (GC-MBS) method in quantifying transmission losses from the shapes of measured NaI spectra. These goals are related, as the GC-MBS method involves a linear log-spectrum decomposition into MBS component spectra, and scattered gamma rays represent a significant nonlinear interference. Eventually, the authors hope to understand the effect of the scattered components on the MBS decomposition and to develop ways to correct for inaccuracies. As of this writing the authors have not reached that long-term objective, so the two halves of this project are treated here as separate topics, with a separate section for each. They have substantially achieved both of the project goals and are collecting additional data for two publications at the upcoming IEEE conference in Albuquerque, NM--one paper about their work on scattering and another on the GC-MBS method. This project report will contain preliminary portions of those two papers.

  10. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} organicinorganic hybrid nanocomposite: High-performance and recyclable visible light driven photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Bharat; Surendar, T.; Shanker, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High-performance and recyclable visible-light driven g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposite photocatalysts have been prepared by a facile ultrasonic dispersion method. The hybrid nanocomposite photocatalyst can be promising photocatalytic material for practical application in water splitting and environmental remediation. - Highlights: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposites as a high performance and recyclable photocatalysts. These catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity under UVvisible light irradiation. More attractively, dramatic activity is generated under visible light irradiation due to the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} loaded. Interestingly, the as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites possess high reusability. - Abstract: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared by a facile ultrasonic dispersion method. Our results clearly show the formation of interface between NaTaO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and further loading of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} did not affect the crystal structure and morphology of NaTaO{sub 3}. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Rhodamine B under UVvisible and visible light irradiation compared to pure NaTaO{sub 3} and Degussa P25. Interestingly, the visible light photocatalytic activity is generated due to the loading of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to discuss the enhanced photocatalytic activity based on trapping experiments of photoinduced radicals and holes. Under visible light irradiation, electron excited from the valance band (VB) to conduction band (CB) of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could directly inject into the CB of NaTaO{sub 3}, making g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} visible light driven photocatalyst. Since the as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites possess high reusability therefore it can be promising photocatalyst for environmental applications.

  11. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; Kang, Kisuk; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  12. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin Tengteng; Liu Wei; Chen Shuang; Prots, Yurii; Schnelle, Walter; Zhao Jingtai; Kniep, Ruediger; Hoffmann, Stefan

    2012-08-15

    A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that the title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c (No. 14), with lattice parameters a=8.392(2) A, b=6.3960(10) A, c=16.670(2) A, {beta}=109.470(10) Degree-Sign , V=843.6(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The crystal structure is characterized by a complex chain of copper-centered polyhedra running along [0 1 0] which are connected by phosphate tetrahedra. The resulting three-dimensional polyhedra framework exhibits channels filled by additional copper and sodium atoms. Field and temperature dependent measurements of the specific heat and the magnetic susceptibility reveal low-dimensional magnetic behavior. The compound starts to decompose at 700 K under release of oxygen and evaporation of Cu{sup I}Cl as shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of the new copper(II) phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], exhibits linear chains of copper tetrahedra which show low-dimensional magnetic behavior proven by specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new copper(II) oxide phosphate chloride, NaCu{sup II}[(Cu{sup II}{sub 3}O)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}Cl], has been synthesized by flux synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure comprises chains of Cu{sub 4}O tetrahedra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dimensional behavior has been proven by magnetic and specific heat measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On heating, Cu{sup I}Cl and oxygen are released shown by simultaneous thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry.

  13. Fuel Consumption per Vehicle.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected Survey Years (Gallons) Survey Years Household Composition Households With Children... NA NA 609 597 625 665 Age of Oldest Child Under...

  14. {sup 25}Na and {sup 25}Mg fragmentation on {sup 12}C at 9.23 MeV per nucleon at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St-Onge, Patrick; Boisjoli, Mark; Fregeau, Marc-Olivier; Gauthier, Jerome; Wallace, Barton; Roy, Rene

    2012-10-20

    HERACLES is a multidetector that is used to study heavy-ion collisions, with ion beams with an energy range between 8 to 15 MeV per nucleon. It has 78 detectors axially distributed around the beam axis in 6 rings allowing detection of multiple charged fragments from nuclear reactions. HERACLES has 4 different types of detectors, BC408/BaF{sub 2} phoswich, Si/CsI(Tl) telescope, BC408/BC444 phoswich and CsI(Tl) detectors. The multidetector has been run with a radioactive {sup 25}Na beam and a stable {sup 25}Mg beam at 9.23 MeV per nucleon on a carbon target.

  15. Fundamental limitation to the magnitude of piezoelectric response of (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Shashaank; Belianinov, Alex; Okatan, Mahmut B; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Priya, Shashaank

    2014-01-01

    (001)pc textured K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) ceramic was found to exhibit a 65% improvement in the longitudinal piezoelectric response as compared to its random counterpart. Piezoresponse force microscopy study revealed the existence of larger 180 and non-180 domains for textured ceramic as compared to that of the random ceramic. Improvement in piezoresponse by the development of (001)pc texture is discussed in terms of the crystallographic nature of KNN and domain morphology. A comparative analysis performed with a rhombohedral composition suggested that the improvement in longitudinal piezoresponse of polycrystalline ceramics by the development of (001)pc texture is limited by the crystal structure.

  16. DOSE RATES FOR WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR SNF IN A WASTE PACKAGE (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-01-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to estimate the dose rate on and near the surface a Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package (WP) which is loaded with Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel. The 21 PWR MPC WP is used to provide an upper bound for waste package designs since the 12 PWR MPC WP will have a smaller source term and an equivalent amount of shielding. the objectives of this evaluation are to calculate the requested dose rate(s) and document the calculation in a fashion to allow comparisons to other waste forms and WP designs at a future time.

  17. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  18. Differential effects of five 'classical' scorpion {beta}-toxins on rNa{sub v}1.2a and DmNav1 provide clues on species-selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosmans, Frank; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Tytgat, Jan . E-mail: Jan.Tytgat@pharm.kuleuven.be

    2007-01-01

    In general, scorpion {beta}-toxins have been well examined. However, few in-depth studies have been devoted to species selectivity and affinity comparisons on the different voltage-activated Na{sup +} channels since they have become available as cloned channels that can be studied in heterologous expression systems. As a result, their classification is largely historical and dates from early in vivo experiments on mice and cockroach and fly larvae. In this study, we aimed to provide an updated overview of selectivity and affinity of scorpion {beta}-toxins towards voltage-activated Na{sup +} channels of vertebrates or invertebrates. As pharmacological tools, we used the classic {beta}-toxins AaHIT, Css II, Css IV, Css VI and Ts VII and tested them on the neuronal vertebrate voltage-activated Na{sup +} channel, rNa{sub v}1.2a. For comparison, its invertebrate counterpart, DmNav1, was also tested. Both these channels were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the currents measured with the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. We supplemented this data with several binding displacement studies on rat brain synaptosomes. The results lead us to propose a general classification and a novel nomenclature of scorpion {beta}-toxins based on pharmacological activity.

  19. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-03-15

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.

  20. Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies Authors: Ham, Y ; Sitaraman, S ; Swan, R ; Lorenzana, H Publication Date: 2010-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1244657 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-433906 DOE Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: International Nuclear

  1. In Situ Study of CO2 and H2O Partitioning Between Na-Montmorillonite and Variably Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loring, John S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Benezeth, Pascale; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-06-03

    Shale formations play fundamental roles in large-scale geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) aimed primarily to mitigate climate change, and in smaller-scale GCS targeted mainly for CO2-enhanced gas recovery operations. In both technologies, CO2 is injected underground as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), where interactions with shale minerals could influence successful GCS implementation. Reactive components of shales include expandable clays, such as montmorillonites and mixed-layer illite/smectite clays. In this work, we used in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate the swelling/shrinkage and water/CO2 sorption of a pure montmorillonite, Na-SWy-2, when the clay is exposed to variably hydrated scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Measured interlayer spacings and sorbed water concentrations at varying levels of scCO2 hydration are similar to previously reported values measured in air at ambient pressure over a range of relative humidities. IR spectra show evidence of both water and CO2 intercalation, and variations in peak shapes and positions suggest multiple sorbed types with distinct chemical environments. Based on the intensity of the asymmetric CO stretching band of the CO2 associated with the Na-SWy-2, we observed a significant increase in sorbed CO2 as the clay expands from a 0W to a 1W state, suggesting that water props open the interlayer so that CO2 can enter. However, as the clay transitions from a 1W to a 2W state, CO2 desorbs sharply. These observations were placed in the context of two conceptual models concerning hydration mechanisms for expandable clays and were also discussed in light of recent theoretical studies on CO2-H2O-clay interactions. The swelling/shrinkage of expandable clays could affect solid volume, porosity, and permeability of shales. Consequently, the results from this work could aid predictions of shale caprock integrity in large-scale GCS, as well as methane transmissivity in enhanced gas recovery operations.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of the electrical double layer on smectite surfaces contacting concentrated mixed electrolyte (NaCl-CaCl?) solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison

    2011-01-01

    We report new molecular dynamics results elucidating the structure of the electrical double layer (EDL) on smectite surfaces contacting mixed NaClCaCl2 electrolyte solutions in the range of concentrations relevant to pore waters in geologic repositories for CO2 or high-level radioactive waste (0.341.83 molc dm-3). Our results confirm the existence of three distinct ion adsorption planes (0-, ?-, and d-planes), often assumed in EDL models, but with two important qualifications: (1) the location of the ?- and d-planes are independent of ionic strength or ion type and (2) indifferent electrolyte ions can occupy all three planes. Charge inversion occurred in the diffuse ion swarm because of the affinity of the clay surface for CaCl+ ion pairs. Therefore, at concentrations {>=0.34 molc dm-3}, properties arising from long-range electrostatics at interfaces (electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, co-ion exclusion, colloidal aggregation) will not be correctly predicted by most EDL models. Co-ion exclusion, typically neglected by surface speciation models, balanced a large part of the clay mineral structural charge in the more concentrated solutions. Water molecules and ions diffused relatively rapidly even in the first statistical water monolayer, contradicting reports of rigid ice-like structures for water on clay mineral surfaces.

  3. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  4. High Schottky barrier at grain boundaries observed in Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somphan, Weeraya; Thongbai, Prasit; Yamwong, Teerapon; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: NSCTO exhibits a high ?? of 7.08.4 10{sup 3} and low tan ? of 0.0300.041. NSCTO exhibits a high E{sub b} of ?2208 V cm{sup ?1} and large ? of 15.6. Giant ?? response is attributed to the electrically heterogeneous microstructure. High ?{sub b} values at grain boundaries are found to be 0.9250.964 eV. Formation of a potential barrier at grain boundaries is caused by Schottky effect. - Abstract: The dielectric properties and nonlinear currentvoltage characteristics of Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method were investigated. Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics exhibited a high dielectric permittivity of 7.08.4 10{sup 3} and low loss tangent (tan ??0.0300.041). Non-Ohmic properties with a high breakdown voltage of ?2208 V cm{sup ?1} and large nonlinear coefficient of 15.6 were observed in Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics. Using complex impedance analysis, Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics were shown to be electrically heterogeneous consisting of semiconducting grains and insulating grain boundaries. Giant dielectric properties were described based on the electrically heterogeneous microstructure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggested that the semiconductive nature of grains may be related to the presence of Cu{sup +} and Ti{sup 3+}. The formation of an electrostatic potential barrier at the grain boundaries of Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics was suggested to be caused by the Schottky effect. Interestingly, high electrostatic potential barriers at grain boundaries in Na{sub 1/2}Sm{sub 1/2}Cu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics were calculated and found to be 0.9250.964 eV.

  5. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Indiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Kentucky NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Maryland NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Michigan NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Mississippi NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Missouri NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Nebraska NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Nevada NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 New York NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oregon NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991

  6. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1-2016 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Indiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Kentucky NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Maryland NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Michigan NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Mississippi NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Missouri NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Nebraska NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Nevada NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 New York NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oregon NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996

  7. U.S. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980's 155 176 145 132 110 126 113 101 101 107 1990's 123 113 118 119 111 110 109 103 102 98 2000's 90 86 68 68 60 64 66 63 61 65 2010's 65 60 61 55 60 60 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  8. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Bingjun; Soderlund, David M.

    2011-12-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells differ from the effects of these compounds on Na{sub v}1.6 channels in Xenopus oocytes and more closely reflect the actions of pyrethroids on channels in their native neuronal environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 voltage-gated sodium channels in HEK293 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tefluthrin and deltamethrin caused resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only deltamethrin exhibited use-dependent enhancement of modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer State-dependent effects of pyrethroids are influenced by the cellular context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Channels in HEK293 cells exhibit properties similar to native neuronal channels.

  9. Isothermal evaporation process simulation using the Pitzer model for the Quinary system LiCl–NaCl–KCl–SrCl2–H2O at 298.15 K

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Lingzong; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Deng, Tianlong; Guo, Yafei; Li, Dan

    2015-08-05

    In this study, the Pitzer thermodynamic model for solid-liquid equilibria in the quinary system LiCl–NaCl–KCl–SrCl2–H2O at 298.15 K was constructed by selecting the proper parameters for the subsystems in the literature. The solubility data of the systems NaCl–SrCl2–H2O, KCl–SrCl2–H2O, LiCl–SrCl2–H2O, and NaCl–KCl–SrCl2–H2O were used to evaluate the model. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated solubilities shows that the model is reliable. The Pitzer model for the quinary system at 298.15 K was then used to calculate the component solubilities and conduct computer simulation of isothermal evaporation of the mother liquor for the oilfield brine from Nanyishan district in themore » Qaidam Basin. The evaporation-crystallization path and sequence of salt precipitation, change in concentration and precipitation of lithium, sodium, potassium, and strontium, and water activities during the evaporation process were demonstrated. The salts precipitated from the brine in the order : KCl, NaCl, SrCl2∙6H2O, SrCl2∙2H2O, and LiCl∙H2O. The entire evaporation process may be divided into six stages. In each stage the variation trends for the relationships between ion concentrations or water activities and the evaporation ratio are different. This result of the simulation of brines can be used as a theoretical reference for comprehensive exploitation and utilization of this type of brine resources.« less

  10. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  11. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, Susan E.; Pickett, Chris A.; Queirolo, Al; Bachner, Katherine M.; Worrall, Louise G.

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  12. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (CASH) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked CASH gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  13. Effect of tungsten doping in bismuth-layered Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 2.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} high temperature piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Zhiyong Li, Yuchen; Hui, Shipeng; Dong, Xianlin

    2014-01-06

    The effects of W{sup 6+} doping for B site on the structural and electrical properties of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 2.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}-based ceramics were studied. It shows a trend of preferable orientation growth along c-axis and the Curie point (T{sub c}) decreases slightly from 792 to 761?C with the increasing W{sup 6+} amount. The electrical resistivity of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 2.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}-based ceramics increases as much as about two orders of magnitude and the piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is significantly improved from 10.5 to 21.8 pC/N by W{sup 6+} modification. The composition of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 2.5}Nb{sub 1.99}W{sub 0.01}O{sub 9} with a high T{sub c} (792?C), very good temperature stability up to ?0.96T{sub c}, a large d{sub 33} of 17.9 pC/N and sufficient high resistivity, is an excellent candidate for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  14. A proposal for positive cooperativity in anion-cation binding in yttrium and lutetium complexes based on o-amino-substituted phenolate ligands. On the way to coordination polymers by self-assembly. Molecular structures of [ClLu(OAr){sub 3}Na] (X-ray) and [ClY(OAr{prime}){sub 3}Y(OAr{prime}){sub 3}Na] (X-ray and {sup 89}Y-NMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogerheide, M.P.; Ringelberg, S.N.; Grove, D.M.

    1996-02-28

    The authors prepared the hetero(poly)metallic complexes [ClM(OAr){sub 3}Na] (M = Lu (3a), Y (3b)) and [ClY(OAr`){sub 3}Y(OAR`){sub 3}Na] (4) (OAr = OC{sub 6}H{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-2,6,Me-4; OAr` = OC{sub 6}H{sub 4}(CH{sub 2}NMe{sub 2})-2). Structural analysis was afforded by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The structures show evidence for anion-cation cooperativity in bonding and are discussed in detail for the compounds in both the solid state and in solution.

  15. Document: NA Actionee: Dorothy Riehie

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MGR AMRP DEP AMRP CPD AMB AMRP RCD AMB BUD AMISE AMB FIN AMISE EMD AMB HRM AMISE OOD AMIB PRO AMISE SED AMMIS 0CC AMMIS SES OCE Riehle, Dorothy (Actionee) AMIMS ISI ORP AMMS PlC...

  16. NA SD 452.2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... The panel should use the criteria in Attachment 2 as ... such as graduate level courses directly related ... conductive flooring, and waste management. (e) Facility special ...

  17. U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 by Grade Regular NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 Midgrade NA NA NA NA NA NA 1988-2016 Premium NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 by Formulation Conventional NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Oxygenated - - - - - - 1994-2016 Reformulated NA NA NA NA NA NA

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1984 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1985 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1986 ...

  19. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir4+ ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4 and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory and Madelung potential analyses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gordon, Elijah E.; Xiang, Hongjun; Koehler, Jurgen; Whangbo, Myung -Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The spins of the low-spin Ir4+ (S = 1/2, d5) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4 and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of DFT calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3,more » both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir4+ spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axes directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir4+ ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir4+ ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. As a result, the spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir4+ is not as strong as has been assumed lately.« less

  20. South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption South Dakota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas

  1. Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 6 3 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 148 145 150 142 128 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption

  2. Vermont Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 0 1 1 1 1 0 W 1 1 2010's 1 3 3 3 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to Vehicle Fuel Consumers Vermont

  3. Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 100 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2010's 1 1 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to Vehicle Fuel Consumers Maine Natural

  4. Maryland Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1990's 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

  5. Missouri Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

  6. Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 34 35 30 19 31 21 13 1990's 0 14 9 0 3 2 3 7 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel

  7. Nevada Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 53 30 21 16 13 11 9 9 8 2000's 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 2010's 4 3 4 3 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption

  8. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-03-15

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.

  9. Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    W 2.5 NA NA - W - W - 14.9 September ... W 2.5 156.3 22.2 W W - W W 22.0 October ... W 2.4 NA NA - W - W W W November...

  10. Effects of Mg doping on the remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode materials for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hui; Yu, Xiqian; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan; Liu, Liang-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Na3V2-xMgx(PO4)3/C composites with different Mg2+ doping contents (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method. The doping effects on the crystal structure were investigated by XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The results show that low dose doping Mg2+ does not alter the structure of the material, and magnesium is successfully substituted for vanadium site. The Mg doped Na3V2-xMgx(PO4)3/C composites exhibit significant improvements on the electrochemistry performances in terms of the rate capability and cycle performance, especially for the Na3V1.95Mg0.05(PO4)3/C. For example, when the current density increased from 1 C to 30 C, the specific capacity only decreased from 112.5 mAh g-1 to 94.2 mAh g-1 showing very good rate capability. Moreover, even cycling at a high rate of 20 C, an excellent capacity retention of 81% is maintained from the initial value of 106.4 mAh g-1 to 86.2 mAh g-1 at the 50th cycle. Enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the optimized particle size, structural stability and enhanced ionic and electronic conductivity induced by Mg doping.

  11. Missouri Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2009 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2012 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

  12. Missouri Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2009 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2012 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2013 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0

  13. Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Da-Hai; Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena ; Song, Li-Ying; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Li, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Su, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Hu, Zan-Min

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was isolated from Caragana korshinskii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was expressed mainly in roots, and significantly induced by NaCl in stems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1 enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl in yeast and Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had little effect on NaCl/LiCl tolerance in Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-terminal region of CkNHX1 is required for its Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} transporting activity. -- Abstract: Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-{Delta}C, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Li{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanging activity of CkNHX1.

  14. In-beam Mssbauer spectroscopy of {sup 57}Fe/{sup 57}Mn in MgO and NaF at Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, M. K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Sato, W.; Miyazaki, J.; Sato, S.; Kitagawa, A.

    2014-02-15

    Development of efficient ion supply of {sup 58}Fe from {sup 58}Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, and quick switching between therapy and material science at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba realized a new {sup 57}Mn in-beam emission Mssbauer spectroscopy measurement system. Application to simple binary chemical compounds, MgO and NaF, proved the usefulness of the system to probe chemical and physical behaviors of trace impurities in solids. Annealing of lattice defects produced by the implantation and ?-decay of {sup 57}Mn and/or ?-ray emission recoil was observed by a local probe.

  15. A sodium gadolinium phosphate with two different types of tunnel structure: Synthesis, crystal structure, and optical properties of Na{sub 3}GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, M.; Cheng, W.-D. Zhang, H.; Zhao, D.; Zhang, W.-L.; Yang, S.-L.

    2008-09-15

    A sodium gadolinium phosphate crystal, Na{sub 3}GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8}, has been synthesized by a high-temperature solution reaction, and it exhibits a new structural family of the alkali-metal-rare-earth phosphate system. Although many compounds with formula M{sub 3}LnP{sub 2}O{sub 8} have been reported, but they were shown to be orthorhombic [R. Salmon, C. Parent, M. Vlasse, G. LeFlem, Mater. Res. Bull. 13 (1978) 439] rather than monoclinic as shown in this paper. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows the structure to be monoclinic with space group C2/c and the cell parameters: a=27.55 (25), b=5.312 (4), c=13.935(11) A, {beta}=91.30(1){sup o}, and V=2038.80 A{sup 3}, Z=4. Its structure features a three-dimensional GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 3-} anionic framework with two different types of interesting tunnels at where Na atoms are located by different manners. The framework is constructed by Gd polyhedra and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. It is different from the structure of K{sub 3}NdP{sub 2}O{sub 8} [R. Salmon, C. Parent, M. Vlasse, G. LeFlem, Mater. Res. Bull. 13 (1978) 439] with space group P2{sub 1}/m that shows only one type of tunnel. The emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of the compound have been investigated. Additionally, the calculations of band structure, density of states, dielectric constants, and refractive indexes have been also performed with the density functional theory method. The obtained results tend to support the experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the structure of Na{sub 3}GdP{sub 2}O{sub 8} with a unit cell edge along the b-axis. The Na-O bonds are omitted for clarity.

  16. Evolution of structure in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} single crystals with BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Wenwei Luo, Chengtao; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Zhang, Qinhui; Luo, Haosu; Ren, Yang

    2014-10-20

    The structural, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x mol. %BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-x%BT) crystals have been investigated. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT-x%BT were enhanced near x = 5–7. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction studies revealed the presence of a phase boundary between monoclinic (Cc) and tetragonal (P4bm) phases near x = 5–7, where the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced.

  17. Electric field-induced phase transitions in Li-modified Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} at the polymorphic phase boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Jones, Jacob L.; Tutuncu, Goknur; Uthaisar, Chunmanus; Pojprapai, Soodkhet; Wongsaenmai, Supattra

    2015-01-14

    The electric field-induced phase transitions in Li-modified Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} at the polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) were observed using in situ X-ray diffraction. The ratio of monoclinic to tetragonal phase fraction was used as an indicator of the extent and reversibility of the phase transitions. The reversibility of the phase transition was greater in compositions further from the PPB. These results demonstrate that the field-induced phase transition is one of the origins of high piezoelectric properties in lead-free ferroelectric materials.

  18. Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2009 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2012 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2015 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2016 NA NA

  19. Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2009 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2010 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2012 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2015 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2016 NA NA

  20. Capacity Enhancement of Aqueous Borohydride Fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, David M.; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark E.; Whittemore, Sean M.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Thomas

    2015-10-05

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of Protonex Inc. for useful discussion regarding liquid hydrogen storage materials for portable power applications and the U.S. DoE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office for their continued interest in liquid hydrogen storage carriers. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The authors dedicate the work to the memory of Professor Sheldon Shore. His contributions to boron hydride chemistry set the foundation for many who have followed.

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 110,000 105,000 114,000 110,000 118,000 114,000 114,000 114,000 115,000 118,000 112,000 122,000 1981 108,000 101,000 109,000 108,000 115,000 109,000

  2. U.S. Total LNG Export From All point of Exit Natural Gas Plant Processing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 17 16 16 12 11 10 10 10 10 12 14 16 1981 20 17 17 14 13 12 12 12 12 14 15 19 1982 19 16 15 12 9 9 9 9 9 11 13 14 1983 16 12 12 10 8 8 8 10 10 10 13 16 1984

  3. Degradation of EBR-II driver fuel during wet storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-03-09

    Characterization data are reported for sodium bonded EBR-II reactor fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the 1981--1982 timeframe. Ten stainless steel storage containers, which had leaked water during storage due to improper sealing, were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage basin at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide sludge filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas sampling determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium 137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a concentrated caustic solution of NaOH.

  4. Electric-field-induced strain contributions in morphotropic phase boundary composition of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} during poling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E.; Hinterstein, Manuel; Wang, Zhiyang; Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook

    2015-12-14

    The microscopic contributions to the electric-field-induced macroscopic strain in a morphotropic 0.93(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3})−0.07(BaTiO{sub 3}) with a mixed rhombohedral and tetragonal structure have been quantified using full pattern Rietveld refinement of in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction data. The analysis methodology allows a quantification of all strain mechanisms for each phase in a morphotropic composition and is applicable to use in a wide variety of piezoelectric compositions. It is shown that during the poling of this material 24%, 44%, and 32% of the total macroscopic strain is generated from lattice strain, domain switching, and phase transformation strains, respectively. The results also suggest that the tetragonal phase contributes the most to extrinsic domain switching strain, whereas the lattice strain primarily stems from the rhombohedral phase. The analysis also suggests that almost 32% of the total strain is lost or is a one-time effect due to the irreversible nature of the electric-field-induced phase transformation in the current composition. This information is relevant to on-going compositional development strategies to harness the electric-field-induced phase transformation strain of (Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric materials for actuator applications.

  5. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  6. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  7. Dual-enhancement of ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance in Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yongbin; Jia, Yanmin E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jiang; Shen, Yichao; Wu, Zheng E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn; Luo, Haosu

    2014-07-28

    A mutual enhancement action between the ferro-/piezoelectric polarization and the photoluminescent performance of rare earth Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} (KNN) lead-free ceramics is reported. After Pr{sup 3+} doping, the KNN ceramics exhibit the maximum enhancement of ?1.2 times in the ferroelectric remanent polarization strength and ?1.25 times in the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33}, respectively. Furthermore, after undergoing a ferro-/piezoelectric polarization treatment, the maximum enhancement of ?1.3 times in photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the poled 0.3% Pr{sup 3+} doped sample. After the trivalent Pr{sup 3+} unequivalently substituting the univalent (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sup +}, A-sites ionic vacancies will occur to maintain charge neutrality, which may reduce the inner stress and ease the domain wall motions, yielding to the enhancement in ferro-/piezoelectric performance. The polarization-induced enhancement in PL is attributed to the decrease of crystal symmetry abound the Pr{sup 3+} ions after polarization. The dual-enhancement of the ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance makes the Pr{sup 3+} doped KNN ceramic hopeful for piezoelectric/luminescent multifunctional devices.

  8. High-performance symmetric sodium-ion batteries using a new, bipolar O3-type material, Na 0.8 Ni 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Liu, Pan; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-01-01

    Based on low-cost and rich resources, sodium-ion batteries have been regarded as a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage batteries in the large-scale energy applications of renewable energy and smart grids. However, there are some critical drawbacks limiting its application, such as safety and stability problems. In this work, a stable symmetric sodium-ion battery based on the bipolar, active O3-type material, Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2, is developed. This bipolar material shows a typical O3-type layered structure, containing two electrochemically active transition metals with redox couples of Ni4+/Ni2+ and Ti4+/Ti3+, respectively. This Na0.8Ni0.4Ti0.6O2-based symmetric cell exhibits a high average voltage of 2.8 V, a reversible discharge capacity of 85 mA h g(-1), 75% capacity retention after 150 cycles and good rate capability. This full symmetric cell will greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries with a view towards safety, low cost and long life, and it will stimulate further research on symmetric cells using the same active materials as both cathode and anode.

  9. Florida Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA 1989

  10. Illinois Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2006-2016 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991

  11. South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 74 184 63 73 62 87 31 22 191 201 1990's 17 47 26 34 154 62 178 10 0 18 2000's 63 6 3 15 2 86 75 0 2010's 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  12. South Dakota Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 61 76 93 70 125 123 112 1990's 158 393 451 452 437 404 424 911 848 864 2000's 1,003 538 495 553 562 545 508 573 545 568 2010's 562 594 866 916 827 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  13. South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 2 5 7 5 4 4 10 8 10 2000's 10 13 13 16 18 0 W 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered

  14. Tennessee Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 113 153 138 98 93 60 45 1990's 68 41 39 49 44 47 37 45 31 26 2000's 29 48 80 47 46 68 66 109 161 235 2010's 214 231 335 335 142 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  15. Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 127 443 454 375 209 414 75 141 643 428 1990's 59 240 245 538 1,195 445 716 350 148 179 2000's 493 239 124 368 145 192 39 89 89 247 2010's 159 89 48 130 301 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  16. Washington Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 440 326 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  17. Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 21 27 33 2000's 37 46 46 56 63 9 6 5 4 1 2010's 1 1 1 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to

  18. Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 24 57 151 84 28 121 124 248 241 292 1990's 209 185 166 199 123 130 94 14 16 12 2000's 73 51 7 14 5 0 3 2 52 2010's 732 701 660 642 635 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  19. Indiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4 12 11 10 7 12 10 1990's 13 5 5 6 2 5 8 12 13 18 2000's 23 26 51 38 74 97 108 101 161 211 2010's 283 433 506 506 177 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  20. New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 774 720 582 328 681 509 362 464 492 592 1990's 205 128 96 154 160 90 147 102 103 111 2000's 180 86 66 58 91 84 92 9 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  1. New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 617 840 1,041 957 975 788 604 1990's 840 1,073 965 563 781 1,074 939 778 636 701 2000's 590 640 876 1,094 614 803 635 657 687 1,005 2010's 573 498 423 375 541 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 1 3 8 8 12 15 41 40 49 2000's 54 67 68 83 93 3 1 1 1 2010's 1 1 1 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered

  3. Ohio Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 50 63 71 69 96 88 87 1990's 14 14 16 20 36 32 37 39 40 42 2000's 43 40 37 17 18 12 8 5 0 0 2010's 0 0 127 202 468 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  4. Oregon Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 120 131 130 115 59 1990's 93 60 68 118 95 66 40 0 0 0 2000's 49 42 40 43 27 21 24 23 26 26 2010's 31 39 44 44 25 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  5. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 158 171 148 171 205 191 218 1990's 156 159 341 235 116 181 217 253 222 274 2000's 208 272 251 343 395 483 549 495 575 599 2010's 881 963 2,529 9,200 11,602 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  6. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,025 7,165 6,940 4,056 852 830 627 1990's 657 702 707 689 611 702 682 641 548 641 2000's 419 475 535 536 617 698 653 691 587 391 2010's 772 278 641 280 278 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  7. Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 249 435 553 560 517 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Louisiana Supplemental Supplies of

  8. Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 484 498 984 352 332 373 155 136 743 899 1990's 24 72 126 418 987 609 882 178 80 498 2000's 319 186 48 160 124 382 41 245 181 170 2010's 115 89 116 107 809 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.82 1.63 2.51 2.76 2.79 2.91 2000's 3.75 7.85 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  10. Montana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 439 457 542 437 449 474 519 1990's 557 518 423 295 206 168 168 188 208 235 2000's 218 396 249 512 606 697 820 816 788 771 2010's 800 604 612 645 657 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  11. Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 1990's 0 2 2 4 6 8 13 40 31 38 2000's 43 53 54 66 74 4 2 1 1 1 2010's 1 0 1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Delivered to

  12. Nebraska Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 60 70 57 40 43 26 21 1990's 26 17 31 56 86 58 43 38 37 29 2000's 31 29 295 286 302 236 176 182 395 359 2010's 331 287 194 194 62 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  13. Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Alaska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas Supplies of Natural Gas Supplemental Fuels (Annual

  14. On the crystal energy and structure of A{sub 2}Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n+1} (A=Li, Na, K) titanates by DFT calculations and neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catti, Michele; Pinus, Ilya; Scherillo, Antonella

    2013-09-15

    First-principles quantum-mechanical calculations (CRYSTAL09 code, B3LYP functional) were performed on alkali titanates A{sub 2}Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n+1} with layered structure (n=3,4,6). Monoclinic structural types with unshifted (P2{sub 1}/m) and with shifted (C2/m) layers were considered. Crystal energies and full structural details were obtained for all Li, Na, and K phases. Neutron diffraction data were collected on powder samples of P2{sub 1}/m-Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} (a=9.3146(3), b=3.7522(1), c=7.5447(3) Å, β=97.611(4)°) and C2/m-K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} (a=18.2578(8), b=3.79160(9), c=12.0242(4) Å, β=106.459(4)°) and their structures were Rietveld-refined. Computed energies show the P2{sub 1}/m arrangement as favoured over the C2/m one for n=3, and the opposite holds for n=6. In the n=4 case the P2{sub 1}/m configuration is predicted to be more stable for Li and Na, and the C2/m one for K titanates. Analysis of Li–O and K–O crystal-chemical environments from experiment and theory shows that the alkali atom bonding is stabilized/destabilized in the different phases consistently with the energy trend. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The P2{sub 1}/m structure-type is found to be more stable for A{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} layer titanates. • The C2/m structure-type is found to be more stable for A{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} layer titanates. • Tetratitanates are predicted to prefer the P2{sub 1}/m (Li and Na) or C2/m (K) structure. • Li–O and K–O bond distances follow a trend consistent with computed phase energies.

  15. New Hampshire Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.21 6.16 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price New Hampshire Natural Gas Prices

  16. Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.67 2010's 15.10 15.29 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price Nebraska Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas

  17. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use Plant Fuel Consumption of Natural Gas

  18. Word Pro - S9

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 9.10 Natural Gas Prices (Dollars a per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wellhead Price f City- gate Price g Consuming Sectors b Residential Commercial c Industrial d Transportation Electric Power e Price h Percentage of Sector i Price h Percentage of Sector i Price h Percentage of Sector i Vehicle Fuel j Price h Price h Percentage of Sector i,k 1950 Average .................... 0.07 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1955 Average .................... .10 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1960 Average

  19. Determination of crystallographic orientation of lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Qi; Zhu, Fang-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Qian; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2014-03-10

    Crystallographic structure of sol-gel-processed lead-free (K,Na)NbO{sub 3} (KNN) epitaxial films on [100]-cut SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystalline substrates was investigated for a deeper understanding of its piezoelectric response. Lattice parameter measurement by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the orthorhombic KNN films on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces are [010] oriented (b-axis-oriented) rather than commonly identified c-axis orientation. Based on the crystallographic orientation and corresponding ferroelectric domain structure investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy, the superior piezoelectric property along b-axis of epitaxial KNN films than other orientations can be explained.

  20. Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapper, Eva; Dittmer, Robert; Rödel, Jürgen; Damjanovic, Dragan; Erdem, Emre; Keeble, David J.; Jo, Wook; Granzow, Torsten

    2014-09-14

    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1–x)(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO₃-xBaTiO₃ doped with 1at.% Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (Fe{sub Ti}´-V{sub O}{sup ••}){sup •} defect complexes in the Fe-doped material.

  1. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K???Bi???TiO?-BaTiO?-Na???Bi???TiO? piezoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K???Bi???TiO?-BaTiO?-xNa???Bi???TiO? (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d?? ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180 domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  2. Study of electrical conduction behavior of the system La[sub 1[minus]x]Na[sub x]Co[sub 1[minus]x]Nb[sub x]O[sub 3] (x [gt] 0. 05)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkash, O. . School of Materials Science and Technology); Tewari, H.S.; Tare, V.B. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Kumar, D. ); Pandey, L. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on electrical behavior of a few compositions with x [ge] 0.50 in the system La[sub 1 [minus] x]Na[sub x]Co[sub 1 [minus] x]Nb[sub x]O[sub 3] that has been studied by complex-plane-impedance analysis in the temperature range 300-525 K. Three depressed semicircular arcs have been observed in the complex impedance plot of the composition with x = 0.50. These arcs represent the contributions of bulk, grain boundaries, and electrode polarization to the total observed resistance. Two semicircular arcs have been observed in the complex-impedance plot of the compositions with x = 0.70 and 0.80. They represent the bulk and the grain boundaries contribution to the total observed resistance. The values of the resistance for the bulk and grain boundaries in each sample indicate the formation of barrier layers in these mathese materials.

  3. Fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence from glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}:NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals under excitation of two near infrared femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Wenjing; Zhou, Kan; Ma, Jing; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Jia, Tianqing; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-08-14

    In this paper, we report fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence of glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}: NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals excited simultaneously by two near infrared femtosecond lasers. When the glass ceramic was irradiated by 800?nm femtosecond laser, weak red emission centered at 670?nm was detected. Bright red light was observed when the fs laser wavelength was tuned to 1490?nm. However, when excited by the two fs lasers simultaneously, the sample emitted bright green light centered at 550?nm, while the red light kept the same intensity. The dependences of the red and the green light intensities on the two pump lasers are much different, which enables us to manipulate the color emission by adjusting the two pump laser intensities, respectively. We present a theoretical model of Er{sup 3+} ions interacting with two fs laser fields, and explain well the experimental results.

  4. First principles DFT study of ferromagnetism in SnO{sub 2} induced by doped group 1A and 2A non-magnetic elements X (X=Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2014-04-24

    Transition metal - free - ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is of much current interest in the search for more efficient DMS materials for spintronic applications. Here, we report the results of our first principles density functional theory (DFT) study on impurity - induced ferromagnetism in non-magnetic SnO{sub 2} by a non-magnetic impurity. The impurities considered are sp-type of group 1A and 2A elements X (X = Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca). Even a single atom of the group 1A elements makes the system magnetic, whereas for the group 2A elements Ca and Mg, a higher doping is required to induce ferromagnetism. For all the elements studied, the magnetic moment appears to increase with the doping concentration, at least at certain impurity separations, which is a positive indicator for practical applications.

  5. Alternating and direct current field effects on the structure-property relationships in Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-x%BaTiO{sub 3} textured ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank

    2013-06-03

    The influence of alternating (ac) and direct current (dc) fields on the structural and dielectric properties of [001]{sub PC} textured Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-7%BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT-7%BT) ceramics has been investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the depolarization at temperature T{sub d} in poled samples resulted from a tetragonal {yields} pseudo-cubic transition on heating. Moderate ac drive and dc bias had opposite influences on T{sub d}: ac drive decreased the T{sub d}, whereas dc bias increased it. These investigations suggested an effective method to expand the working temperature range of NBT-x%BT textured ceramics to a high temperature.

  6. Electrical properties of (1?x)(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}xKNbO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xijie; Wang, Baoyin; Luo, Laihui; Li, Weiping; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Hongbing

    2014-05-01

    In this investigation, a simple compound (1?x)(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}xKNbO{sub 3} (BNTxKN, x=00.08) lead-free ceramics were synthesized successfully by conventional solid state reaction method. The piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of the ceramics were investigated and discussed. The results shows that moderate KN addition can enhance the piezoelectric response without an obvious decline of ferroelectric properties. The largest piezoelectric response is obtained in BNT0.05KN, whereas largest electric-field-induced strain is obtained in BNT0.06KN. An effective d{sub 33}{sup eff} of ?400 pC/N calculated from electric-field-induced strain is obtained in BNT0.06KN. The present investigation demonstrates that addition KN effectively reduces the depolarization temperature of the BNTxKN ceramics. The electrical properties of the ceramics are tightly related to their depolarization temperature. - Graphical abstract: Unipolar electric-field-induced strain for the BNTxKN ceramics. A maximum strain of 0.28% is achieved with a low field in BNT0.06KN. - Highlights: Moderate KNbO{sub 3} addition enhances the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics. A maximum strain of 0.28% is achieved with a low field. A large piezoelectric response is achieved in 0.95(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})TiO{sub 3}0.05KNbO{sub 3}. The electrical properties are tightly related to the depolarization temperature T{sub d}.

  7. Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA

  9. Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Dry Production 2006-2013

  10. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA

  11. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA

  12. Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Utah NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 West Virginia NA NA NA NA NA

  13. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Utah NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 West Virginia NA NA NA NA NA

  14. Natural Gas Vented and Flared

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 ...

  15. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1-2015 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Indiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Kentucky NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Maryland NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Michigan NA NA NA NA NA NA ...

  16. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2015 Illinois NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Indiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Kentucky NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Maryland NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Michigan NA NA NA NA NA NA ...

  17. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2007-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA

  18. Characterization of degraded EBR-II fuel from the ICPP-603 basin: National spent nuclear fuel program, FY 1999 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-04-17

    Characterization data is reported for sodium bonded Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the late 1970's. Sixteen stainless steel storage containers were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. Ten of the containers had leaked water due to improper sealing. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide particulate formed and filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas analysis determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium-137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a caustic solution of NaOH.

  19. Strategy for stabilization of the antiferroelectric phase (Pbma) over the metastable ferroelectric phase (P2{sub 1}ma) to establish double loop hysteresis in lead-free (1−x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xSrZrO{sub 3} solid solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Hanzheng Randall, Clive A.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youichi

    2015-06-07

    A new lead-free antiferroelectric solid solution system, (1−x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xSrZrO{sub 3}, was rationalized through noting the crystal chemistry trend, of decreasing the tolerance factor and an increase in the average electronegativity of the system. The SrZrO{sub 3} doping was found to effectively stabilize the antiferroelectric (P) phase in NaNbO{sub 3} without changing its crystal symmetry. Preliminary electron diffraction and polarization measurements were presented which verified the enhanced antiferroelectricity. In view of our recent report of another lead-free antiferroelectric system (1−x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xCaZrO{sub 3} [H. Shimizu et al. “Lead-free antiferroelectric: xCaZrO{sub 3} - (1−x)NaNbO{sub 3} system (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10),” Dalton Trans. (published online)], the present results point to a general strategy of utilizing tolerance factor to develop a broad family of new lead-free antiferroelectrics with double polarization hysteresis loops. We also speculate on a broad family of possible solid solutions that could be identified and tested for this important type of dielectric.

  20. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2002-2016 Alaska NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2006-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 2006-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA

  1. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2002-2016 Alaska NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2006-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 2006-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA

  2. Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael

    2013-04-19

    A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

  3. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  4. Boron-10 ABUNCL Models of Fuel Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) active configuration model with fuel pins previously measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A comparison of the GE-ABUNCL simulations and simulations of 3He based UNCL-II active counter (the system for which the GE-ABUNCL was targeted to replace) with the same fuel pin assemblies is also provided.

  5. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  6. Chemical and structural effects on the high-temperature mechanical behavior of (1−x)(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluca, Marco; Picht, Gunnar; Hoffmann, Michael J.; Rechtenbach, Annett; Töpfer, Jörg; Schader, Florian H.; Webber, Kyle G.

    2015-04-07

    Bismuth sodium titanate–barium titanate [(1−x)(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3}, NBT-100xBT] is one of the most well studied lead-free piezoelectric materials due in large part to the high field-induced strain attainable in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.06). The BaTiO{sub 3}-rich side of the phase diagram, however, has not yet been as comprehensively studied, although it might be important for piezoelectric and positive temperature coefficient ceramic applications. In this work, we present a thorough study of BaTiO{sub 3}-rich NBT-100xBT by ferroelastic measurements, dielectric permittivity, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the high-temperature mechanical behavior, i.e., above the Curie temperature, T{sub C}, is influenced by local disorder, which appears also in pure BT. On the other hand, in NBT-100xBT (x < 1.0), lattice distortion, i.e., tetragonality, increases, and this impacts both the mechanical and dielectric properties. This increase in lattice distortion upon chemical substitution is counterintuitive by merely reasoning on the ionic size, and is due to the change in the A-O bond character induced by the Bi{sup 3+} electron lone pair, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Cyclic electric field response of morphotropic Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinterstein, M.; Schmitt, L. A.; Hoelzel, M.; Jo, W.; Rödel, J.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Hoffman, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the evolution of field induced mechanisms in lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (1−x)Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} with x = 0.06 and 0.07 was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, neutron, and X-ray diffraction. Preliminary investigations revealed a strong degradation of macroscopic electromechanical properties within the first 100 bipolar electric cycles. Therefore, this structural investigation focuses on a comparative diffraction study of freshly prepared, poled, and fatigued specimens. Transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction of the initial specimens reveal the coexistence of a rhombohedral and a tetragonal phase with space group R3c and P4bm, respectively. In situ electric field X-ray diffraction reveals a pronounced field induced phase transition from a pseudocubic state to a phase composition of significantly distorted phases upon poling with an external electric field of 4 kV/mm. Although the structures of the two compositions are pseudocubic and almost indistinguishable in the unpoled virgin state, the electric field response shows significant differences depending on composition. For both compositions, the application of an electric field results in a field induced phase transition in the direction of the minority phase. Electric cycling has an opposite effect on the phase composition and results in a decreased phase fraction of the minority phase in the fatigued remanent state at 0 kV/mm.

  8. Effect of mechanical alloying synthesis process on the dielectric properties of (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Rasool; Shams, Seyyedeh Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Morteza; Ardakani, Hamed Ahmadi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • MA samples show higher dielectric permittivity and Curie temperature. • In MA samples, dielectric loss is almost 27% less than conventional ones. • In MA samples, sintering time and temperature are lower than conventional ones. • In MA samples, particle morphology is more homogeneous conventional ones. • In MA samples, crystallite size is smaller conventional ones. - Abstract: In present work, in order to study the effects of synthesis techniques on dielectric properties, the BNBT lead-free piezoceramics with (Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 0.94}Ba{sub 0.06}TiO{sub 3} stoichiometry (called as BNBT6) were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and conventional mixed oxides methods. The structural, microstructural, and dielectric properties were carried out by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and impedance analyzer LCR meter, respectively. Based on results, the density of MA samples is considerably higher than conventional samples owning to smaller particles size and more uniformity of particle shape of MA samples. Moreover, the dielectric properties of MA samples are comparatively improved in which the dielectric loss of these samples is almost 27% less than conventional ones. Furthermore, MA samples exhibit obviously higher dielectric permittivity and Curie temperature compared to the conventional samples.

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahesh, P. Subhash, T. Pamu, D.

    2014-04-24

    We report the dielectric properties of (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics doped with x wt% of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x= 0.0-1.5 wt%) using the broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of perovskite structure signifying that Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffuse into the KNN lattice. Samples doped with x > 0.5 wt% exhibit smaller grain size and lower relative densities. The dielectric properties of KNN ceramics doped with Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} are enhanced by increasing the Dy{sup 3+} content; among the compositions studied, x = 0.5 wt% exhibited the highest dielectric constant and lowest loss at 1MHz over the temperature range of 30C to 400C. All the samples exhibit maximum dielectric constant at the Curie temperature (? 326C) and a small peak in the dielectric constant at around 165C is due to a structural phase transition.

  10. Natural Gas Used for Repressuring

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2015 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Montana NA NA NA NA ...

  11. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1 ) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1955 324 63 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 424 (s) NA (s) 1960 396 95 2 NA 42 43 NA NA 535 (s) NA (s) 1965 546

  12. Word Pro - S7

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    21 Table 7.5 Stocks of Coal and Petroleum: Electric Power Sector Coal a Petroleum Distillate Fuel Oil b Residual Fuel Oil c Other Liquids d Petroleum Coke e Total e,f Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels Thousand Short Tons Thousand Barrels 1950 Year ............................. 31,842 NA NA NA NA 10,201 1955 Year ............................. 41,391 NA NA NA NA 13,671 1960 Year ............................. 51,735 NA NA NA NA 19,572 1965 Year ............................. 54,525 NA NA NA NA

  13. Rhode Island Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  14. South Dakota Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 63 61 76 93 70 125 123 112 1990's 158 393 451 452 437 404 424 911 848 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  15. South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.13 4.08 4.19 3.17 3.89 3.76 3.48 4.95 4.83 2000's 4.48 -- 4.14 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  16. Tennessee Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 355 753 986 1970's 1,265 1,524 1,150 1,263 1,087 387 537 509 516 616 1980's 0 0 78 113 153 138 98 93 60 45 1990's 74 44 39 49 44 47 37 45 31 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016

  17. Virginia Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 128 211 1970's 252 213 157 170 307 168 157 157 191 266 1980's 240 361 181 124 272 443 438 669 536 425 1990's 489 327 653 1,120 1,102 1,296 1,183 1,330 1,243 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  18. West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.90 2.90 3.82 2.08 2.20 2.69 2.55 2000's -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  19. Delaware Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease and

  20. Idaho Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 38 5 6 22 4 1980's 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease and

  1. Indiana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1980's 7 51 10 4 12 11 10 7 12 10 1990's 13 5 5 6 2 5 8 12 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  2. Iowa Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.48 3.11 3.99 3.84 3.51 2.98 2.70 5.41 4.82 2.57 2000's 6.06 -- -- -- -- -- -- 11.68 -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  3. New York Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 508 538 561 1970's 485 460 0 442 340 267 273 278 109 961 1980's 115 80 494 617 840 1,041 957 975 788 604 1990's 840 1,073 965 563 781 1,074 939 778 636 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. Oregon Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 32 30 37 30 30 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 120 131 130 115 59 1990's 93 60 68 118 95 66 40 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  5. Kentucky Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.78 5.30 4.62 5.10 5.54 6.68 6.75 6.68 2000's 5.49 7.78 9.42 11.15 -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  6. Maryland Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 257 310 381 1970's 319 451 67 474 392 277 415 342 889 2,488 1980's 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1990's 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  7. Michigan Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.03 2.15 0.99 3.36 2.84 3.08 3.38 4.01 3.51 2000's -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  8. Missouri Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 494 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  9. Nevada Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 168 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 53 30 21 16 1 11 9 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  10. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Authors: Talou, Patrick [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-02-03 OSTI Identifier: 1051591 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-00844; LA-UR-11-844 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Advanced Reactor Concepts Meeting ; February 2, 2011 ; Oak

  11. Development of models and online diagnostic monitors of the high-temperature corrosion of refractories in oxy/fuel glass furnaces : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Gupta, Amul; Walsh, Peter M.; Rice, Steven F.; Velez, Mariano; Allendorf, Mark D.; Pecoraro, George A.; Nilson, Robert H.; Wolfe, H. Edward; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Bugeat, Benjamin American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Spear, Karl E.; Marin, Ovidiu American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Ghani, M. Usman

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-year effort to understand the mechanisms and develop models that predict the corrosion of refractories in oxygen-fuel glass-melting furnaces. Thermodynamic data for the Si-O-(Na or K) and Al-O-(Na or K) systems are reported, allowing equilibrium calculations to be performed to evaluate corrosion of silica- and alumina-based refractories under typical furnace operating conditions. A detailed analysis of processes contributing to corrosion is also presented. Using this analysis, a model of the corrosion process was developed and used to predict corrosion rates in an actual industrial glass furnace. The rate-limiting process is most likely the transport of NaOH(gas) through the mass-transport boundary layer from the furnace atmosphere to the crown surface. Corrosion rates predicted on this basis are in better agreement with observation than those produced by any other mechanism, although the absolute values are highly sensitive to the crown temperature and the NaOH(gas) concentration at equilibrium and at the edge of the boundary layer. Finally, the project explored the development of excimer laser induced fragmentation (ELIF) fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of gas-phase alkali hydroxides (e.g., NaOH) that are predicted to be the key species causing accelerated corrosion in these furnaces. The development of ELIF and the construction of field-portable instrumentation for glass furnace applications are reported and the method is shown to be effective in industrial settings.

  12. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-04-01

    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  13. DOE-NA-STD-3016-2006

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hazard Analysis Reports for Nuclear Explosive Operations The purpose of this technical standard is to clarify DOE/NNSA expectations and to provide guidance for preparing HARs for NEOs. The general requirements for operation-specific HARs are those contained in Chapters 2-5 of DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, “Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analysis”, or superseding directives.

  14. A=17Na (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    excess is predicted to be 35.61 MeV by (1966KE16). It is then unbound with respect to breakup into 16Ne + p by 4.3 MeV and with respect to breakup into 14O + 3p by 5.7 MeV. See...

  15. A=17Na (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    excess is predicted to be 35.61 MeV by (1966KE16). It is then unbound with respect to breakup into 16Ne + p by 4.3 MeV and with respect to breakup into 14O + 3p by 5.7 MeV. See...

  16. A=17Na (71AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its mass excess is predicted to be 35.61 MeV by (KE66C). It is then unbound with respect to breakup into 16Ne + p by 3.2 MeV and with respect to breakup into 14O + 3p by 5.8 MeV...

  17. A=17Na (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    excess is predicted to be 35.61 MeV by (1966KE16). It is then unbound with respect to breakup into 16Ne + p by 3.2 MeV and with respect to breakup into 14O + 3p by 5.8 MeV. See...

  18. A=17Na (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its mass excess is predicted to be 35.61 MeV by (1966KE16). It is then unbound with respect to breakup into 16Ne + p by 4.3 MeV and with respect to breakup into 14O + 3p by 5.7 MeV...

  19. SOFE Romanelli_na1.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... construction) Enhancements of ITER and JT60-SA needed Increase in heating power Operation ... + I nternaTonal C ollaborators JET JT60---SA DEMO d ecision Mission 2: Heat and particle ...

  20. Contract No. DE-NA0001942

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1942 Section B - H, Page i PART I - THE SCHEDULE TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION B ................................................................................................................................... 1 SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS ................................................................... 1 CLIN 0001 MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION (M&O) OF Y12/PX .................................. 1 CLIN 0001A CONTRACT TRANSITION: COST REIMBURSEMENT, NO FEE ................ 1 CLIN 0001B

  1. Contract No. DE-NA0002839

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2839 Section B - H, Page i PART I - THE SCHEDULE TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION B: SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS ......................................................................... 1 B-1 SERVICES BEING ACQUIRED ........................................................................................................ 1 CLIN 0001 MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY CAMPUS ..................... 1 CLIN 0001A TRANSITION TERM

  2. A=13Na (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    86AJ01) (Not illustrated) These nuclei have not been observed: see (1983ANZQ

  3. A=13Na (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (Not illustrated) These nuclei have not been observed. See (1986AN07

  4. A=16Na (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    86AJ04) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ; theor.

  5. A=16Na (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  6. Document: NA (FOIA) Actionee: Dorothy Riehie

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    well as our newsletters, and often reported in the news media. In addition, we publish special reports and meet with public officials, workers, and the public at large to educate...

  7. NA 80 - Associate Administrator for Counterterrorism and

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Counterproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration 80 - Associate Administrator for Counterterrorism and Counterproliferation

  8. NA-40 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4

  9. NA-80 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8

  10. na-00 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    require a secure production and laboratory infrastructure meeting immediate and long term needs. The Associate Administrator for Infrastructure and Operations develops and...

  11. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  12. Fuel Cell Handbook (Seventh Edition)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... increasing the basicity of the electrolyte (using a more basic melt such as LiNaCO 3 ). ... and ammonia could all be removed in a low temperature water quench followed by gas reheat. ...

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook (Fourth Edition)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... or change the electrolyte to LiNa rather than the baseline 6238 LiK melt (23,39,40). ... and ammonia could all be removed in a low temperature water quench followed by gas reheat. ...

  14. COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truett, Lorena Faith; Cooper, Christy; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The information for many of the surveys is collected face-to-face or electronically; however, all of the DOE surveys are conducted via telephone interviews. Most of the surveys concentrated on a specific population group, while the DOE surveys addressed five different populations (general public, students, government agencies, end users, and safety and codes officials). No survey (except the DOE survey) conducted since 2003 surveyed students knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cells. Although several surveys have solicited opinions of users (e.g., passengers of fuel-cell vehicles), no surveys were conducted of end users (industrial users needing large power supplies, commercial users needing uninterrupted power, or transportation businesses). While the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has surveyed its membership concerning standards, the population of safety and codes officials has not been surveyed. The greatest impact and importance of the DOE surveys is that five distinct population groups are surveyed for both knowledge and opinions on hydrogen and fuel cells. Knowledge levels can be computed for each population group and can be compared across the populations and across time. Opinions can be compared with knowledge levels. A baseline of knowledge levels was derived using the results of the 2004 surveys; this baseline will be compared with the results of the knowledge evaluation for the surveys of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The DOE knowledge and opinion surveys are unique in coverage and purpose. It must be noted, however, that response rates for telephone surveys have decreased dramatically over time. Developments in survey methodology research will have to be followed over the next few years so that necessary adjustments are made in the 20112012 DOE hydrogen survey design, to account for cell-phone-only individuals as well as other changes in telephone usage demographics.

  15. Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Petroleum: Conventional Oil Sands Gasoline Diesel LPG Naphtha Residual oil Natural Gas: NA Non-NA CNG LNG LPG Methanol Dimethyl Ether FT Diesel and Naphtha Hydrogen Nuclear Energy ...

  16. Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 257 951 718 594 102 130 182 109 391 219 1990's 51 92 155 126 0 27 42 18 1 1 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  17. South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9 24 50 1 0 0 0 0 10 16 1990's 10 3 10 9 61 37 87 30 4 5 2000's 13 5 3 57 5 4 0 1 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  18. Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 12 42 90 39 25 36 13 26 36 78 1990's 3 8 12 13 84 33 73 19 4 11 2000's 13 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  19. Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 1 14 2 9 19 4 4 9 1990's 1,240 1,076 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 17 2000's 0 1,505 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release

  20. Utah Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,806 5,621 6,286 6,775 8,970 7,970 6,596 1990's 10,573 4,597 3,866 3,241 3,322 18,520 18,570 16,478 19,481 15,930 2000's 16,394 14,578 17,163 16,398 15,802 17,216 20,221 21,715 18,169 20,222 2010's 22,022 23,209 28,165 28,165 25,336 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  1. Utah Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,732 2,754 2,715 6,514 8,701 8,919 9,615 1990's 9,146 9,141 8,745 9,285 9,951 8,492 8,549 8,141 7,985 7,880 2000's 8,276 5,436 4,534 4,481 3,370 3,914 3,739 2,779 2,206 1,573 2010's 1,616 3,063 3,031 5,996 4,782 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  2. Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 6 3 4 9 4 5 6 0 1 2000's 7 104 2 10 12 9 2 2 1 2 2010's 1 2 3 3 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  3. Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 124 272 443 438 669 536 425 1990's 489 327 653 1,120 1,102 1,296 1,183 1,330 1,243 1,519 2000's 1,820 1,641 3,000 2,108 3,307 2,749 3,809 3,143 4,406 6,040 2010's 6,121 7,206 8,408 8,408 7,252 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  4. Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 15 13 15 11 11 9 10 21 79 154 1990's 181 154 180 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  5. West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,720 4,377 4,270 3,849 5,480 5,017 4,203 1990's 6,427 4,353 4,807 3,749 4,815 4,846 4,292 4,500 4,549 3,705 2000's 6,720 6,384 7,420 4,881 4,277 6,729 8,339 6,483 8,423 11,348 2010's 11,348 15,571 21,569 28,682 27,853 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  6. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,106 2,855 2,920 2,809 3,355 3,326 3,679 1990's 3,204 3,391 3,290 3,316 3,272 3,199 2,262 2,710 2,344 2,209 2000's 2,505 2,342 2,186 1,361 723 281 315 309 283 698 2010's 810 1,153 1,812 3,429 6,776 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  7. Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 2 4 13 2 6 14 1 1 2 5 1990's 1 1 1 3 5 2 21 5 21 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  8. Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 7 8 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  9. Arkansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,402 4,956 5,362 4,353 5,720 5,469 3,940 1990's 6,464 1,218 5,570 6,053 4,283 5,083 5,124 6,349 7,980 1,822 2000's 1,468 849 536 615 1,364 1,288 1,351 1,502 2,521 4,091 2010's 5,340 6,173 6,599 6,605 6,452 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  10. California Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 14,569 17,498 17,575 15,868 18,066 14,370 11,065 1990's 14,754 96,442 84,220 80,210 63,251 62,160 63,297 69,386 68,370 61,810 2000's 60,757 49,766 41,878 39,452 37,337 37,865 57,234 56,936 64,689 63,127 2010's 64,931 44,379 51,154 49,846 54,288 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  11. Colorado Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,943 5,500 5,586 4,991 6,380 6,081 5,630 1990's 8,888 14,802 8,936 12,969 11,865 11,570 12,598 17,150 18,874 23,695 2000's 23,790 26,907 27,708 32,886 34,178 35,866 38,088 39,347 44,231 64,873 2010's 66,083 78,800 76,462 71,105 74,402 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  12. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,057 5,060 5,243 4,406 5,715 5,541 6,591 1990's 8,455 9,081 12,233 11,863 12,482 13,560 14,894 12,435 12,200 12,863 2000's 13,064 13,871 15,904 15,927 17,093 15,641 16,347 16,218 18,613 21,288 2010's 25,090 28,265 29,383 25,806 30,873 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  13. Connecticut Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.45 8.97 7.74 6.08 6.66 5.68 5.21 5.11 2000's 7.51 8.84 8.84 10.72 12.65 14.60 18.39 20.57 24.04 15.26 2010's 16.31 18.59 13.70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  14. Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 55 135 56 20 13 12 9 0 2 18 1990's 4,410 4,262 3,665 3,597 3,032 1 1 2 0 0 2000's 6 0 0 7 17 0 W 5 2 2 2010's 1 0 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016

  15. District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 2 1 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016

  16. Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 1 3 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  17. Florida Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 668 422 392 278 313 241 208 1990's 250 2,413 3,819 476 653 620 2,049 2,321 2,200 2,240 2000's 2,307 2,154 1,262 1,133 1,178 987 896 654 897 94 2010's 4,512 4,896 6,080 5,609 6,551 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  18. Florida Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,852 7,425 6,782 5,878 7,250 7,034 8,734 1990's 1,466 1,338 1,315 1,241 167 145 125 113 129 147 2000's 157 127 124 112 102 286 796 671 83 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 272 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  19. Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,190 2,993 2,899 2,775 2,449 2,655 2,630 2,461 2,801 2,844 1990's 2,817 2,725 2,711 2,705 2,831 2,793 2,761 2,617 2,715 2,752 2000's 2,769 2,689 2,602 2,602 2,626 2,606 2,613 2,683 2,559 2,447 2010's 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,743 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  20. Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 36,713 29,509 19,005 19,734 17,308 19,805 22,980 12,514 9,803 9,477 1990's 8,140 6,869 8,042 9,760 7,871 6,256 3,912 4,165 2,736 2,527 2000's 1,955 763 456 52 14 15 13 11 15 20 2010's 17 1 1 63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  1. Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 1,602 5,056 3,496 4,142 4,027 2,711 2,351 3,890 4,243 3,512 1990's 3,015 3,077 3,507 3,232 2,457 3,199 3,194 3,580 3,149 5,442 2000's 5,583 5,219 1,748 2,376 2,164 1,988 1,642 635 30 1 2010's 1 5 1 6 69 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  2. Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 57 64 68 23 53 45 44 40 34 82 1990's 81 46 45 84 123 96 301 137 17 12 2000's 44 39 23 143 30 31 46 40 27 3 2010's 2 1 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  3. Kansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12,471 14,232 15,160 13,269 15,701 16,571 13,965 1990's 18,415 13,814 17,424 20,363 15,623 18,772 18,752 20,641 13,068 11,611 2000's 13,338 11,598 17,693 10,861 8,589 11,734 13,681 10,232 12,803 15,169 2010's 13,461 12,781 17,017 17,110 14,851 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  4. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 25,430 25,873 27,297 25,616 28,804 29,357 29,665 1990's 22,499 30,800 26,312 36,294 28,988 28,510 30,444 26,205 20,921 19,321 2000's 16,664 10,928 11,723 9,706 6,460 8,100 7,541 5,439 2,331 2,126 2010's 2,102 2,246 2,268 2,189 1,983 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  5. New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  6. New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 26,231 29,787 27,294 20,497 28,958 23,288 20,828 1990's 32,573 11,826 14,805 12,832 18,476 16,134 17,901 18,476 17,728 16,738 2000's 38,944 37,094 34,686 36,339 40,977 41,815 44,880 47,525 49,753 49,655 2010's 49,070 47,556 47,696 47,018 49,406 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  7. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 21,399 20,875 19,415 15,118 19,180 18,418 21,396 1990's 33,316 32,940 38,892 36,826 36,310 36,455 63,850 45,982 41,926 39,345 2000's 41,863 39,501 38,973 37,620 42,601 35,508 33,435 35,600 36,571 36,827 2010's 35,289 38,331 37,195 33,121 35,269 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  8. New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3,226 4,722 2,350 1,646 1,792 1,797 707 416 728 1,239 1990's 385 678 1,190 1,638 1,460 1,490 1,259 881 699 459 2000's 858 970 1 18 8 14 4 13 7 6 2010's 2 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  9. North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 7 42 58 59 60 43 43 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 2 4 3 0 0 0 0 21 2000's 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,086 2,165 2,216 1,957 2,737 2,112 2,005 1990's 4,835 4,777 4,753 4,734 5,059 4,542 4,283 4,420 4,471 4,553 2000's 4,738 3,874 5,141 4,548 4,602 4,816 4,364 4,323 4,283 4,521 2010's 4,294 5,473 5,887 6,707 5,736 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  11. Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 69,169 69,850 64,812 62,032 43,866 24,444 5,182 18 44 348 1990's 849 891 1,051 992 1,432 904 1,828 1,423 1,194 1,200 2000's 1,442 1,149 79 1,002 492 579 423 608 460 522 2010's 353 296 366 416 641 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  12. Ohio Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,327 5,678 5,371 5,174 5,706 4,781 3,789 1990's 5,115 1,462 1,434 1,346 1,296 1,251 1,193 1,162 1,085 1,035 2000's 986 983 972 936 894 833 855 872 840 879 2010's 773 781 836 1,079 4,247 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  13. Oklahoma Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 49,480 60,470 57,064 54,495 68,664 60,418 51,833 1990's 72,318 46,200 53,278 60,658 55,607 45,946 37,803 51,042 35,509 32,868 2000's 41,032 38,916 30,281 40,292 35,875 35,989 36,396 38,229 42,250 40,164 2010's 39,489 40,819 43,727 45,581 50,621 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  14. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 29,750 31,237 31,121 29,705 35,751 40,508 38,392 1990's 39,249 42,166 39,700 39,211 35,432 34,900 35,236 30,370 26,034 25,055 2000's 25,934 28,266 25,525 26,276 27,818 27,380 28,435 28,213 27,161 24,089 2010's 23,238 24,938 27,809 32,119 36,231 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  15. Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 24 3 6 6 10 10 6 3 1990's 3 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2000's 2 2 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  16. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3,127 10,532 5,621 3,844 82 221 196 247 254 305 1990's 220 222 132 110 252 75 266 135 80 119 2000's 261 107 103 126 131 132 124 145 123 205 2010's 4 2 2 3 20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  17. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,385 5,065 4,427 4,544 5,594 4,792 4,549 1990's 5,875 3,343 3,040 3,910 3,136 2,888 3,082 2,022 1,484 3,675 2000's 5,111 5,469 6,154 4,156 4,277 4,341 5,855 5,112 6,801 11,753 2010's 19,805 46,784 79,783 115,630 112,847 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  18. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 2,270 1,530 1,924 1970's 2,251 2,419 2,847 2,725 1,649 1,760 3,043 3,210 2,134 2,889 1980's 1,320 1,580 3,278 3,543 5,236 4,575 4,715 5,799 4,983 4,767 1990's 6,031 3,502 3,381 4,145 3,252 3,069 3,299 2,275 1,706 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.88 5.26 5.97 8.28 6.46 7.24 4.14 5.00 5.02 5.93 2000's 4.90 8.64 6.75 7.10 9.30 9.95 13.53 10.83 8.30 5.15 2010's 3.76 3.40 7.96 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  20. Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 42 2 131 259 94 4 1 0 6 44 1990's 2 2 5 16 50 6 45 24 2 3 2000's 10 2 1 98 0 15 3 124 15 18 2010's 5 8 1 29 52 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  1. Kentucky Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,336 1,873 2,155 2,279 2,402 2,112 1,718 1990's 2,492 1,730 2,105 2,573 2,162 1,945 1,744 1,816 1,777 1,615 2000's 2,075 1,980 3,442 2,278 2,044 2,879 3,524 2,676 3,914 4,862 2010's 5,626 5,925 6,095 6,095 4,388 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  2. Louisiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 153,850 179,291 153,777 141,098 178,271 150,519 121,991 1990's 175,439 111,793 134,088 147,888 140,571 133,825 144,486 156,387 131,595 111,203 2000's 130,550 37,811 34,285 51,254 48,308 45,543 49,124 61,368 52,941 56,656 2010's 59,336 80,983 54,463 57,549 58,034 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  3. Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 121,848 123,993 104,292 102,185 123,008 121,936 134,132 1990's 82,828 83,733 86,623 74,925 66,600 75,845 69,235 71,155 63,368 68,393 2000's 69,174 63,137 63,031 56,018 55,970 45,837 46,205 51,499 42,957 39,002 2010's 40,814 42,633 42,123 34,179 30,527 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  4. Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 15,366 21,828 17,586 10,732 6,545 3,668 2,379 1,404 876 692 1990's 317 120 105 61 154 420 426 147 68 134 2000's 26 16 137 324 80 46 51 15 13 10 2010's 0 3 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  5. Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.59 3.90 3.65 4.97 2.32 4.22 4.51 3.70 2.41 4.65 2000's 2.72 6.88 4.99 7.09 5.94 10.33 13.05 12.84 13.80 12.99 2010's 12.48 4.28 14.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3 3,038 2,473 2,956 2,773 2,789 2,754 2,483 2,402 2,402 1990's 19,106 15,016 14,694 12,795 13,688 21,378 21,848 22,238 21,967 20,896 2000's 12,423 4,054 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  7. Michigan Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,135 4,574 4,053 3,778 5,251 4,354 3,862 1990's 5,882 6,252 4,178 4,889 6,399 6,198 5,478 9,386 6,160 5,954 2000's 7,689 6,799 10,925 6,309 5,755 8,276 7,932 7,588 5,447 6,841 2010's 6,626 5,857 7,428 7,248 5,948 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,995 4,136 4,142 3,831 4,365 3,896 4,141 1990's 3,212 3,343 3,096 3,282 3,367 3,337 3,011 2,674 3,073 2,912 2000's 2,455 2,587 2,445 2,798 2,419 2,318 2,363 2,076 1,982 1,686 2010's 1,684 1,303 1,174 1,071 1,152 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,777 6,372 5,655 5,971 7,706 6,802 4,741 1990's 6,636 3,877 4,372 4,291 3,169 3,108 3,202 3,280 3,347 3,283 2000's 2,962 3,304 3,818 4,243 4,559 4,718 5,473 7,068 8,976 9,090 2010's 10,388 2,107 3,667 2,663 1,487 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 8,582 9,158 8,521 1970's 7,893 5,840 9,153 6,152 5,357 7,894 4,836 4,979 5,421 8,645 1980's 4,428 4,028 7,236 6,632 7,202 6,296 6,562 8,091 7,100 5,021 1990's 7,257 4,585 4,945 4,829 3,632 3,507 3,584 3,652 3,710 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  11. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 855 830 641 591 385 298 280 1990's 621 708 573 538 463 399 382 372 363 638 2000's 786 722 758 251 895 1,018 1,138 1,196 1,140 1,150 2010's 1,155 1,042 1,111 1,103 1,310 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  12. Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 65 60 2,129 1,278 326 351 1 1 2 1,875 1990's 0 0 0 0 371 4 785 719 40 207 2000's 972 31 62 1,056 917 15 78 66 6 10 2010's 18 172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  13. Montana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,531 1,612 1,596 1,371 1,639 1,520 1,247 1990's 1,705 1,162 1,448 2,084 2,037 2,070 2,233 2,089 1,792 798 2000's 2,360 2,644 3,113 3,543 3,933 4,502 4,864 4,327 4,067 3,371 2010's 3,265 2,613 3,845 3,845 1,793 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  14. Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9 1,838 63 2,006 2,470 2,689 2,142 2,199 1,948 2,088 1990's 2,361 2,032 1,437 791 890 15 315 134 11 4 2000's 339 6 1 13 39 16 19 33 28 18 2010's 12 9 4 2 376 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  15. Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 4 0 2 2 2 4 11 11 32 37 1990's 125 0 30 38 9 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  16. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.44 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.71 0.57 0.57 2000's 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.67 0.47 0.36 0.32 0.29 2010's 0.37 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  17. Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 50 23 91 9 54 14 3 2 17 16 1990's 320 332 171 410 69 0 18 21 2 4 2000's 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  18. Alabama Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,600 4,154 4,227 4,139 5,314 5,021 4,277 1990's 6,171 4,907 8,391 8,912 9,381 10,468 10,492 7,020 7,650 9,954 2000's 10,410 9,593 9,521 11,470 11,809 11,291 12,045 11,345 11,136 10,460 2010's 10,163 10,367 12,389 12,456 10,055 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  19. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,129 1,178 1,249 1,303 1,564 1,634 1,875 1990's 3,710 3,720 4,477 4,453 3,747 3,806 2,827 2,468 2,391 5,336 2000's 5,377 3,491 4,148 3,293 3,914 3,740 6,028 6,269 6,858 6,470 2010's 6,441 6,939 6,616 6,804 6,462 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  20. Alaska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,225 1,736 1,807 1,582 4,278 2,390 2,537 1990's 27,720 36,088 36,741 35,503 37,347 39,116 40,334 40,706 39,601 41,149 2000's 42,519 42,243 44,008 44,762 44,016 43,386 38,938 41,197 40,286 39,447 2010's 37,316 35,339 37,397 36,638 36,707 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  1. Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 124 222 518 373 271 316 339 303 291 167 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 15,438 18,274 17,619 16,966 25,122 23,252 20,541 1990's 29,233 20,988 27,382 7,592 4,676 4,570 4,252 4,099 3,477 3,125 2000's 3,236 4,032 4,369 4,590 4,823 5,010 5,279 33,309 35,569 36,290 2010's 34,459 39,114 33,826 32,004 21,811 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  3. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12,572 16,185 17,090 13,633 16,249 17,446 19,820 1990's 12,182 14,154 13,217 13,051 13,939 14,896 15,409 15,597 16,524 19,272 2000's 20,602 20,991 25,767 28,829 24,053 24,408 23,868 25,276 23,574 25,282 2010's 27,104 28,582 29,157 27,935 25,782 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  4. U.S. Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1981 3.94 3.99 4.06 4.11 4.29 4.30 4.32 4.30 4.47 4.50 4.53 4.55 1982 4.65 4.69 4.78 4.86 5.17

  5. U.S. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2015...

  6. Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA ...

  7. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells (Summary)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2007-2015 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 Alabama NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 Arizona NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015...

  8. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2007-2015 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2015 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA...

  9. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  10. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  11. Self-biased large magnetoelectric coupling in co-sintered Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based piezoelectric and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} based magnetostrictive bilayered composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, Mukesh; Singh, Amrita; Chatterjee, Ratnamala E-mail: ratnamalac@gmail.com; Gupta, Arti; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-12-28

    In this work, magnetoelectric properties of a co-sintered bilayered composite of non-lead based piezoelectric 0.97(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3})–0.03(K{sub 0.47}Na{sub 0.47}Li{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.74}Sb{sub 0.06}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}) and magnetostrictive Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} are presented. Similar optimal sintering conditions of the individual components lead to a very clean interface as evidenced in the scanning electron microscopy, angle dispersive X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results. Clean interface results in strong intimate mechanical coupling between both components and causes a maximum transfer of induced strain, leading to a large magnetoelectric coupling ∼142 mV/cm·Oe measured in longitudinally magnetized-transversely polarized configuration (L-T mode). Remnant polarization ∼32 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant magnetization ∼0.50 emu/g, and sufficiently high self biased magnetoelectricity ∼135 mV/cm Oe (L-T mode) were observed for this composite.

  12. Piezoelectricity and local structural distortions in (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} flexoelectric-type polar ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L. H.; Zhao, M. L.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J.; Kuai, W. J.; Tao, X. T.

    2012-08-06

    We have previously described sintered Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} composites as flexoelectric-type polar ceramics because they have a net macroscopic flexoelectric polarization. Here, we report on the universal existence of the macroscopic flexoelectric polarization in the (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} system, in which enhanced piezoelectricity is observed. By combining Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques, we have identified the local flexoelectric polarization as distorted BiO{sub 5} polyhedra and TiO{sub 6} octahedra in the SrTiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} ceramic. The macroscopic polarization may be due to the partial alignment of these distorted units located within the grain boundary amorphous phases. Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} could have an important role in these flexoelectric-type polar ceramics.

  13. Structural, ferroelectric and magnetic study of lead free (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 0.988}Fe{sub 0.012}O{sub 3} (x=0,0.01,0.03,0.05) ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmar, Kusum Sharma, Anshu; Sharma, Hakikat; Negi, N. S.

    2015-05-15

    Lead free (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 0.988}Fe{sub 0.012}O{sub 3} ceramic having compositions (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) has been prepared by sol gel method using citric acid. Structural analysis has been done by X-ray diffraction and FTIR measurements. XRD patterns have been confirmed perovskite structure for all samples. FTIR absorption band at around ?630?cm{sup ?1} is observed for all samples which confirm perovskite phase formation in samples. With increasing La concentration, shifting in XRD peaks and FTIR absorption bands is observed which suggests incorporation of La on A-site in prepared (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 0.988}Fe{sub 0.012}O{sub 3} samples. Effect of La substitution on Ferroelectric (Polarization vs. Electric field) and Magnetic (Magnetization vs. Magnetic field) properties have been studied at room temperature. All samples exhibit weak ferromagnetic order and also possess ferroelectric behavior which provides new insight to lead free single phase multiferroic materials.

  14. Partial Defect Testing of Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-433906 DOE Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: International Nuclear Material ...

  15. Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1951 235 42 2 NA 29 31 NA NA 308 1 NA 1 1952 240 50 2 NA 31 33 NA NA 323 1 NA 1 1953 260 57 3 NA 38 40 NA NA 358 (s) NA (s)

  16. Fuel salt and container material studies for MOSART transforming system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Zagnitko, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V.; Subbotin, V.; Gordeev, M.; Panov, A.; Toropov, A.

    2013-07-01

    A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycling and Transmuting system without and with Th support (MOSART) fuelled with different compositions of actinide tri-fluorides (AnF{sub 3}) from used LWR fuel. New fast-spectrum design options with homogeneous core and fuel salts with high enough solubility for AnF{sub 3} are being examined because of new goals. The flexibility of single fluid MOSART concept with Th support is underlined, particularly, possibility of its operation in self-sustainable mode (Conversion Ratio: CR=1) using different loadings and make up. The paper summarizes the most current status of fuel salt and container material data for the MOSART concept received within ISTC-3749 and ROSATOM-MARS projects. Key physical and chemical properties of various fluoride fuel salts are reported. The issues like salt purification, the electroreduction of U(IV) to U(III) in LiF-ThF{sub 4} and the electroreduction of Yb(III) to Yb(II) in LiF-NaF are detailed.

  17. Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA NA NA NA 9 9 1967-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA 8 8 1967-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA 1 * 2007-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA 0 0 2007-2014 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA 0 0 2007-2014 Repressuring NA NA NA NA 0 0 2007-2014 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA 0 0 2007-2014 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA 0 0 2007-2014 Marketed Production NA NA NA NA 9 9 1967-2014 Dry Production NA NA NA NA 9 9

  18. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  19. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  20. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.