National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel expenditure analysis

  1. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  4. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  5. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  6. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  7. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  8. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  9. Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    national concerns about dependence on foreign oil and the deleterious effect on the environment of fossil fuel combustion, residential vehicle fleet fuel consumption was...

  10. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  11. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1992 Consumption and Expenditures 1992 Consumption & Expenditures Overview Full Report Tables National estimates of electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district heat...

  12. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F8: Distillate Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures ... Where shown, (s) Expenditure value less than 0.05. Notes: Distillate fuel oil estimates ...

  13. Effects of the R and D tax credit on energy R and D expenditures: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moe, R.J.; Kee, J.R.; Lackey, K.C.; Cronin, F.J.

    1985-02-01

    Objective of the study was to estimate the effects on industrial energy research and development (R and D) expenditures of the R and D Tax Credit component of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Two tasks were performed. The first task was to collect data on industrial R and D expenditures, sales, oil prices, and price deflators. The R and D expenditure data were obtained from the National Science Foundation; other data were collected from Commerce Department and Department of Energy publications. The second task was to perform an econometric analysis of the effects of the tax credit on industrial R and D expenditures. Equations relating: (1) total; and (2) energy-related R and D expenditures to sales, oil prices, and a variable representing the availability of the tax credit were estimated, using data for each of seven manufacturing industries and eleven years. The analysis showed that the tax credit caused real total industrial R and D expenditures to be 9.1% greater than they would have been without the credit, but caused real energy industrial R and D expenditures to be 13.8% less than they would have been without the tax credit.

  14. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems ...

  15. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  16. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  17. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  18. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F2: Jet fuel consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2014 State Jet fuel a Consumption Prices Expenditures Thousand barrels Trillion Btu Dollars per million Btu Million ...

  19. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1995...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel oil, and district heat consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings by building characteristics. Previous Page Arrow Separater Bar File Last Modified: January 29,...

  20. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption and Expenditures Electricity Consumption Natural Gas Consumption Wood and Solar Energy Consumption Fuel Oil and District Heat Consumption Energy Consumption in...

  1. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  2. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0: Residual Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Commercial Industrial Transportation ...

  3. State energy price and expenditure report 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1994. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1994, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in October 1996. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources. Documentation is included describing the development of price estimates, data sources, and calculation methods. 316 tabs.

  4. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model This presentation by ...

  5. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  6. TMI Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry L. Taylor

    2003-09-01

    This report documents the reported contents of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) canisters. proposed packaging, and degradation scenarios expected in the repository. Most fuels within the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel inventory deal with highly enriched uranium, that in most cases require some form of neutronic poisoning inside the fuel canister. The TMI-2 fuel represents a departure from these fuel forms due to its lower enrichment (2.96% max.) values and the disrupted nature of the fuel itself. Criticality analysis of these fuel canisters has been performed over the years to reflect conditions expected during transit from the reactor to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, water pool storage,1 and transport/dry-pack storage at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.2,3 None of these prior analyses reflect the potential disposal conditions for this fuel inside a postclosure repository.

  7. State energy price and expenditure report, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The estimates developed in the State Energy Price and Expenditure Data System (SEPEDS) are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970 through 1995. Data for all years are available on a CD-ROM and via Internet. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures and the documentation for those estimates are taken from the State Energy Data Report 1995, Consumption Estimates (SEDR), published in December 1997. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, which are adjusted to remove process fuel; intermediate petroleum products; and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, and photovoltaic energy sources.

  8. Thermal Analysis of a TREAT Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadias, Dionissios; Wright, Arthur E.

    2014-07-09

    The objective of this study was to explore options as to reduce peak cladding temperatures despite an increase in peak fuel temperatures. A 3D thermal-hydraulic model for a single TREAT fuel assembly was benchmarked to reproduce results obtained with previous thermal models developed for a TREAT HEU fuel assembly. In exercising this model, and variants thereof depending on the scope of analysis, various options were explored to reduce the peak cladding temperatures.

  9. Economic Analysis of Alternative Fuel School Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M.

    2004-04-01

    This Clean Cities final report provides a general idea of the potential economic impacts of choosing alternative fuels for school bus fleets. It provides information on different school bus types, as well as analysis of the three main types of alternative fuel used in school bus fleets today (natural gas, propane, and biodiesel).

  10. Thermal Analysis of Ball Type Fuel Element for PBR. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Thermal Analysis of Ball Type Fuel Element for PBR. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Analysis of Ball Type Fuel Element for PBR. Authors: ...

  11. NREL: Energy Analysis - Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis focuses on hydrogen production, storage, and delivery systems for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) as ... Analysts also develop least-cost scenarios for hydrogen ...

  12. State energy price and expenditure report 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the United States. The estimates are provided by energy source (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity) and by major consuming or economic sector. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1988 published in September 1990. Changes from the last report are summarized in a section of the documentation. Energy price and expenditure estimates are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1989. Documentation follows the tables and describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. Consumption estimates used to calculate expenditures, and the documentation for those estimates, are from the State Energy Data Report, Consumption Estimates, 1960--1989 (SEDR), published in May 1991. Expenditures are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the consumption estimates, adjusted to remove process fuel and intermediate product consumption. All expenditures are consumer expenditures, that is, they represent estimates of money directly spent by consumers to purchase energy, generally including taxes. 11 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Analysis of Burnup and Economic Potential of Alternative Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Analysis of Burnup and Economic Potential of Alternative Fuel Materials in Thermal Reactors A strategy is proposed for the assessment of nuclear fuel material economic ...

  14. Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel Annular fuel with internal flow is proposed to allow higher power density in pressurized water reactors. The ...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  16. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Webinar August 11: Analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy August 5, 2015 The Energy Department's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar...

  17. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus ... Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus Robb Barnitt and ...

  18. Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis, held April 16, 2013.

  19. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty

  20. Renewable Fuels Legislation Impact Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    An analysis based on an extension of the ethanol supply curve in our model to allow for enough ethanol production to meet the requirements of S. 650. This analysis provides an update of the May 23, 2005 analysis, with revised ethanol production and cost assumptions.

  1. Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment for Shaving

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peak Building Energy | Department of Energy Analysis Using Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment for Shaving Peak Building Energy Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment for Shaving Peak Building Energy Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Analysis Using Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment (MHE) for Shaving Peak Building Energy" held on August 11, 2015. Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for

  2. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-10-08

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Fuel Cycle Transitioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon; Steve Piet; David Shropshire; Gretchen Matthern

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle to a closed fuel cycle. The once-through system involves only Light Water Reactors (LWRs) operating on uranium oxide fuel UOX), while the closed cycle includes both LWRs and fast spectrum reactors (FRs) in either a single-tier system or two-tier fuel system. The single-tier system includes full transuranic recycle in FRs while the two-tier system adds one pass of mixed oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX U-Pu) fuel in the LWR. While the analysis primarily focuses on burner fast reactors, transuranic conversion ratios up to 1.0 are assessed and many of the findings apply to any fuel cycle transitioning from a thermal once-through system to a synergistic thermal-fast recycle system. These findings include uranium requirements for a range of nuclear electricity growth rates, the importance of back end fuel cycle facility timing and magnitude, the impact of employing a range of fast reactor conversion ratios, system sensitivity to used fuel cooling time prior to recycle, impacts on a range of waste management indicators, and projected electricity cost ranges for once-through, single-tier and two-tier systems. The study confirmed that significant waste management benefits can be realized as soon as recycling is initiated, but natural uranium savings are minimal in this century. The use of MOX in LWRs decouples the development of recycle facilities from fast reactor fielding, but also significantly delays and limits fast reactor deployment. In all cases, fast reactor deployment was significantly below than predicted by static equilibrium analyses.

  4. Palmetto Fuel Cell Analysis and Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analysis and Design Jump to: navigation, search Name: Palmetto Fuel Cell Analysis and Design Place: Columbia, South Carolina Product: Analysis and design spinout of the University...

  5. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis Photo of a man hooking up test instruments to an engine mounted on an engine dynamometer. An NREL engineer maintains an engine fuel economy and emissions test stand at the ReFUEL Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's emissions and fuel economy testing and analysis projects help address greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions by advancing the development of new fuels and engines that deliver both high efficiency and reduced emissions. Emissions that

  6. NREL: Energy Analysis - Vehicles and Fuels Research Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Research Analysis NREL offers online resources for information, data, and publications related to advanced transportation technologies and fuels. These easy-to-use resources help industry, fleet managers, and the public understand alternative fuel and advanced vehicle issues, technologies, regulations, incentives, and more. Fleet DNA: Commercial Fleet Vehicle Operating Data Online tool providing data summaries and visualizations similar to real-world "genetics" for

  7. DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership: Analysis Workshop ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership: Analysis Workshop Presentation by Mark Paster for Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop. PDF icon wkshpstoragepaster....

  8. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  9. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    Fact sheet describing the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  10. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  11. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Michael Wang of Argonne National Laboratory provides information about an analysis of hydrogen-powered fuel-cell systems.

  12. State energy price and expenditure report 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 states and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the US. The five economic sectors used in SEPER correspond to those used in SEDR and are residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility. Documentation in appendices describe how the price estimates are developed, provide conversion factors for measures used in the energy analysis, and include a glossary. 65 tabs.

  13. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes opportunities for leading fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible fuel cell technology performance and durability analysis by sharing their raw fuel cell test data related to operations, maintenance, safety, and cost with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory via the Hydrogen Secure Data Center.

  14. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  15. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis of the annual energy outlook 1999 forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Balsley, J.H.

    2000-01-07

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impact of the base-case scenario used in Annual Energy Outlook 1999 on different population groups. Projections of energy consumption and expenditures, as well as energy expenditure as a share of income, from 1996 to 2020 are given. The projected consumption of electricty, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas during this period is also reported for each population group. In addition, this report compares the findings of the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 report with the 1998 report. Changes in certain indicators and information affect energy use forecasts, and these effects are analyzed and discussed.

  16. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems analysis program uses a consistent set of models and data for transparent analytical evaluations. The following fact sheets provide an overview and individual summaries of the models and tools used for systems analysis of hydrogen and fuel cells. View the Overview Fact Sheet and

  17. An analysis of plutonium immobilization versus the "spent fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: An analysis of plutonium immobilization versus the "spent fuel" standard Safe Pu management is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and ...

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via ...

  19. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  20. Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Jennifer Smith, Gabe Stout and Mike Jansen Battelle April 16, 2013 Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Fuel Cells for Material Handling ...

  1. 2009 Energy Expenditure Per Person | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Expenditure Per Person 2009 Energy Expenditure Per Person 2009 Energy Expenditure Per Person...

  2. Feasibility Study of MOX Fuel Online Burnup Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, M.L.; Usman, S.

    2006-07-01

    This research is an extension of well established Non-Destructive Analysis of UO fuel using gamma spectroscopy of Cs-137 and other related isotopes. Given the performance similarities between UO fuel and MOX fuel, investigations are underway to develop similar correlation for MOX. MOX fuel burnup and decay simulations are being performed using ORIGEN-ARP (Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion Code - Automatic Rapid Processing). Simulation results are being analyzed and will be used to determine performance specifications of a detection system for field applications. Analysis of isotopic activity from irradiated fuel will be used to develop correlations to determine burn-up and Plutonium content of MOX fuel. These results will be particularly useful in view of the recent interest in MOX fuel. (authors)

  3. 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Systems Analysis 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure ...

  4. Image analysis for remote examination of fuel pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J.H.; Nayak, U.P.

    1982-01-01

    An image analysis system operating in the Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory provides quantitative microstructural analyses of irradiated fuels and materials. With this system, fewer photomicrographs are required during postirradiation microstructural examination and data are available for analysis much faster. The system has been used successfully to examine Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division experimental fuel pins.

  5. Well-to-wheels analysis of fuel-cell vehicle/fuel systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.

    2002-01-22

    Major automobile companies worldwide are undertaking vigorous research and development efforts aimed at developing fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs). Proton membrane exchange (PEM)-based FCVs require hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the fuel-cell (FC) fuel. Because production and distribution infrastructure for H{sub 2} off board FCVs as a transportation fuel does not exist yet, researchers are developing FCVs that can use hydrocarbon fuels, such as methanol (MeOH) and gasoline, for onboard production of H{sub 2} via fuel processors. Direct H{sub 2} FCVs have no vehicular emissions, while FCVs powered by hydrocarbon fuels have near-zero emissions of criteria pollutants and some carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. However, production of H{sub 2} can generate a large amount of emissions and suffer significant energy losses. A complete evaluation of the energy and emission impacts of FCVs requires an analysis of energy use and emissions during all stages, from energy feedstock wells to vehicle wheels--a so-called ''well-to-wheels'' (WTW) analysis. This paper focuses on FCVs powered by several transportation fuels. Gasoline vehicles (GVs) equipped with internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the baseline technology to which FCVs are compared. Table 1 lists the 13 fuel pathways included in this study. Petroleum-to-gasoline (with 30-ppm sulfur [S] content) is the baseline fuel pathway for GVs.

  6. Code System for Spent Fuel Heating Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-24

    Version 00 SFHA calculates steady-state fuel rod temperatures for hexagon and square-fuel bundles. The code is used to perform sensitivity studies and confirmatory analyses of results submitted by applicants for spent fuel storage licenses. All three modes of heat transfer are considered; radiation, convection, and conduction. Each is modeled separately. SFHA benchmark calculations were made with test data to validate the use of a simple one-dimensional heat transfer model for estimating fuel rod temperatures. Benchmarkmore » results show that SFHA is capable of calculating spent fuel rod temperatures for square and hexagonal fuel bundles under various environments for the consolidated or unconsolidated condition. The program is menu-driven and executes automatically after all required information is entered.« less

  7. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Energy Analysis and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis and Tools NREL offers energy analysis tools, models, and other resources for researchers, developers, investors, and others interested in the viability, analysis, and development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and systems. Learn about NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell system analysis projects. ADOPT: Automotive Deployment Options Projection Tool Modeling tool that predicts consumer demand for different vehicle types based on income distribution and other demographic

  8. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Systems Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Analysis Graphic showing a map and chart. Hydrogen infrastructure simulation models focus on the spatial and temporal deployment of vehicles and fueling infrastructure to provide insights into investment decisions and policy support options. Image of a generic bar graph. H2FAST: Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool Delivers in-depth financial analysis for hydrogen fueling stations. NREL's hydrogen systems analysis activities provide direction, insight, and support for the

  9. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  10. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 FY 2007 Federal Buildings Energy Prices and Expenditures, by Fuel Type ($2010) Fuel Type Electricity (1) Natural Gas Fuel Oil Coal Purchased Steam LPG/Propane Other Average Total Note(s): Source(s): 17.05 6028.63 Prices and expenditures are for Goal-Subject buildings. 1) $0.0776/kWh. 2) Energy used in Goal-Subject buildings in FY 2007 accounted for 33.8% of the total Federal energy bill. DOE/FEMP, Annual Report to Congress on FEMP FY 2007, Jan. 2010, Table A-4, p. 93 for prices and

  12. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel cells can efficiently produce electricity from a number of domestic fuels, including bio-gas, natural gas, propane, methanol, diesel, and hydrogen. Compared with traditional ...

  13. VHTR Prismatic Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-09-01

    The advanced Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the VHTRs innovative features is the reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel prismatic block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, if the fuel kernels are not perfect black absorbers, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced Kernel-by-Kernel (K-b-K) hexagonal super lattice model can be used to address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The developed Prismatic Super Homogeneous Lattice Model (PSHLM) is verified by comparing the calculated burnup characteristics of the double-heterogeneous Prismatic Super Kernel-by-Kernel Lattice Model (PSK-b-KLM). This paper summarizes and compares the PSHLM and PSK-b-KLM burnup analysis study and results. This paper also discusses the coupling of a Monte-Carlo code with fuel depletion and buildup code, which provides the fuel burnup analysis tool used to produce the results of the VHTR EqFC burnup analysis.

  14. Agenda for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting Agenda for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure ...

  15. UPDATE ON MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF MONOLITHIC FUEL PLATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Burkes; F. J. Rice; J.-F. Jue; N. P. Hallinan

    2008-03-01

    Results on the relative bond strength of the fuel-clad interface in monolithic fuel plates have been presented at previous RRFM conferences. An understanding of mechanical properties of the fuel, cladding, and fuel / cladding interface has been identified as an important area of investigation and quantification for qualification of monolithic fuel forms. Significant progress has been made in the area of mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates, including mechanical property determination of fuel foils, cladding processed by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding, and the fuel-clad composite. In addition, mechanical analysis of fabrication induced residual stress has been initiated, along with a study to address how such stress can be relieved prior to irradiation. Results of destructive examinations and mechanical tests are presented along with analysis and supporting conclusions. A brief discussion of alternative non-destructive evaluation techniques to quantify not only bond quality, but also bond integrity and strength, will also be provided. These are all necessary steps to link out-of-pile observations as a function of fabrication with in-pile behaviours.

  16. Characterization of Nuclear Fuel using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robel, M; Robel, M; Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Kristo, M J

    2007-11-27

    Various combinations of reactor type and fuel composition have been characterized using principle components analysis (PCA) of the concentrations of 9 U and Pu isotopes in the 10 fuel as a function of burnup. The use of PCA allows the reduction of the 9-dimensional data (isotopic concentrations) into a 3-dimensional approximation, giving a visual representation of the changes in nuclear fuel composition with burnup. Real-world variation in the concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 236}U in the fresh (unirradiated) fuel was accounted for. The effects of reprocessing were also simulated. The results suggest that, 15 even after reprocessing, Pu isotopes can be used to determine both the type of reactor and the initial fuel composition with good discrimination. Finally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PSLDA) was investigated as a substitute for PCA. Our results suggest that PLSDA is a better tool for this application where separation between known classes is most important.

  17. Data Analysis of Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-11-17

    Presentation about early fuel cell markets, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Secure Data Center and its role in data analysis and demonstrations, and composite data products, and results reported to multiple stakeholders.

  18. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth. Participating fuel cell developers share price information about their fuel cell products and/or raw fuel cell test data related to operations, maintenance, and safety with NREL via the Hydrogen Secure Data Center (HSDC). The limited-access, off-network HSDC houses the data and analysis tools to protect proprietary information. NREL shares individualized data analysis results as detailed data products (DDPs) with the partners who supplied the data. Aggregated results are published as composite data products (CDPs), which show the technology status without identifying individual companies. The CDPs are a primary benchmarking tool for the U.S. Department of Energy and other stakeholders interested in tracking the status of fuel cell technologies. They highlight durability advancements, identify areas for continued development, and help set realistic price expectations at small-volume production.

  19. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  20. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  2. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-09-01

    This paper estimates the temperature of high Pu content ZPPR fuel while in storage to determine the probablilty of fuel damage during storage. The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) is an experimental reactor which has been decomissioned. It ran only at extremely low power, for testing nuclear reactor designs and was operated as a criticality facility from April 18, 1969 until decommissioned in 1990. Its fuel was manufactured in 1967 and has been in storage since the reactor was decomissioned. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible fuel damage. Any damage to the cladding would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing over a long period of storage as was described in the analysis of the damage to the ZPPR uranium fuel resulting in the fuel becoming unuseable and a large potential source of contamination. (Ref. Solbrig, 1994). A series of computer runs were made to scope out the range of temperatures that can occur in the ZPPR fuel in storage. The maximum calculated conservative fuel temperature is high (292 degrees C [558 degrees F]) in spite of the fact that the fuel element heat generation rates seem quite low, between 35 and 10 W for containers (called clamshells) full of fuel. However, the ZPPR storage bins, built for safeguards, are very effective insulators. The calculated clamshells and the cavity doors temperatures are also high. No record exists of people receiving skin burns by touching the cavity doors or clamshells, which indicates the computed temperatures may be higher than actual. (Note, gloves are worn when handling hotter clamshells.) Given the high calculated temperatures, a cursory measurement program was conducted to calibrate the calculated results. The measurement of bin doors, cavity doors, and clamshell temperatures would be easy to make if it were not for regulations resulting from security and potential contamination. Due to conservative assumptions in the model like high heat

  3. Sensitivity analysis and optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Kazimi, M. S.; Shwageraus, E.

    2012-07-01

    A sensitivity study has been conducted to assess the robustness of the conclusions presented in the MIT Fuel Cycle Study. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is considered as the base-line case, while advanced technologies with fuel recycling characterize the alternative fuel cycles. The options include limited recycling in LWRs and full recycling in fast reactors and in high conversion LWRs. Fast reactor technologies studied include both oxide and metal fueled reactors. The analysis allowed optimization of the fast reactor conversion ratio with respect to desired fuel cycle performance characteristics. The following parameters were found to significantly affect the performance of recycling technologies and their penetration over time: Capacity Factors of the fuel cycle facilities, Spent Fuel Cooling Time, Thermal Reprocessing Introduction Date, and in core and Out-of-core TRU Inventory Requirements for recycling technology. An optimization scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle is proposed. Optimization criteria and metrics of interest for different stakeholders in the fuel cycle (economics, waste management, environmental impact, etc.) are utilized for two different optimization techniques (linear and stochastic). Preliminary results covering single and multi-variable and single and multi-objective optimization demonstrate the viability of the optimization scheme. (authors)

  4. Analysis of vehicle fuel release resulting in waste tank fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STEPHENS, L.S.

    2003-03-21

    This document reevaluates several aspects of the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident formally documented as an independent accident (representative accident [rep acc] 2). This reevaluation includes frequencies for the accidents and incorporates the behavior of gasoline and diesel fuel in more detail than previous analysis. This reevaluation uses data from RPP-13121, ''Historical Summary of Occurrences from the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report'', Table B-1, ''Tank Farm Events, Off-Normal and Critiques,'' and B-2, ''Summary of Occurrences,'' and from the River Protection Project--Occurrence Reporting & Processing System (ORPS) reports as a basis for changing some of the conclusions formally reported in HNF-SD-WM-CN-037, ''Frequency Analysis of Vehicle Fuel Releases Resulting in Waste Tank Fire''. This calculation note will demonstrate that the in-tank vehicle fuel fire/deflagration accident event may be relocated to other, more bounding accidents.

  5. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    EAGLES1.1 is PC-based interactive software for analyzing performance (e.g., maximum range) of electric vehicles (EVs) or fuel economy (e.g., miles/gallon) of gasoline vehicles (GVs). The EV model provides a second by second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. It takes into account the effects of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD) and regenerative braking. The GV fuel economy model which relates fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving cycle characteristics, canmore » be used to investigate the effects of changes in vehicle parameters and driving patterns on fuel economy. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be studied. Alternatively, the software can be used to determine the size of battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., maximum range and driving patterns). Options are available to estimate the time necessary for a vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a specified constant power and to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a drivng cycle for speeds exceeding a given value.« less

  6. Metallographic analysis of irradiated RERTR-3 fuel test specimens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Strain, R. V.; Clark, C. R.; Stuart, J. R.

    2000-11-08

    The RERTR-3 irradiation test was designed to investigate the irradiation behavior of aluminum matrix U-MO alloy dispersion fuels under high-temperature, high-fission-rate conditions. Initial postirradiation examination of RERTR-3 fuel specimens has concentrated on binary U-MO atomized fuels. The rate of matrix aluminum depletion was found to be higher than predictions based on low temperature irradiation data. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS) indicates that aluminum is present in the interior of the fuel particles. WDS data is supported by a mass and volume balance calculation performed on the basis of image analysis results. The depletion of matrix aluminum seems to have no detrimental effects on fuel performance under the conditions tested to date.

  7. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHP and CHHP Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.

    2010-03-30

    This presentation describes the fuel cell power model for CHP and CHHP economics and performance analysis.

  8. ANALYSIS AND EXAMINATION OF MOX FUEL FROM NONPROLIFERATION PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Machut, Dr McLean; Morris, Robert Noel; Blanpain, Patrick; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio of less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. The performance of the rods was analyzed with AREVA s next-generation GALILEO code. The results of the analysis confirmed that the fuel rods had performed safely and predictably, and that GALILEO is applicable to MOX fuel with a low 240Pu/239Pu ratio as well as to standard MOX. The results are presented and compared to the GALILEO database. In addition, the fuel cladding was tested to confirm that traces of gallium in the fuel pellets had not affected the mechanical properties of the cladding. The irradiated cladding was found to remain ductile at both room temperature and 350 C for both the axial and circumferential directions.

  9. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  10. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  11. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  12. Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry March 30, 2009 Connecticut Center for Advance Technology, Inc Paul M. Aresta - Energy Program Manager, CCAT 2 Drivers for Market Growth * World electric consumption is projected to more than double between 2003 and 2030. * Transportation demands for petroleum currently exceed domestic supply. Alternative fuels will be required for energy security. * Increased energy efficiency for transportation and electric generation will be required

  13. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 100 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems for Primary Power and Combined ... Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Material Handling ...

  14. Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycle Schemes.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-03-17

    Version 00 SMAFS was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model aremore » represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can easily modify values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs.« less

  15. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  16. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  17. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  18. Table 2.5 Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space ... 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 ...

  19. Thermal analysis for fuel handling system for sodium cooled reactor considering minor actinide-bearing metal fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) is one of the components of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) used to close the fuel cycle. ABR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is used to consume transuranic elements resulting from the reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel. ABR-1000 [1000 MW(thermal)] is a fast reactor concept created at Argonne National Laboratory to be used as a reference concept for various future trade-offs. ABR-1000 meets the GNEP goals although it uses what is considered base sodium fast reactor technology for its systems and components. One of the considerations of any fast reactor plant concept is the ability to perform fuel-handling operations with new and spent fast reactor fuel. The transmutation fuel proposed as the ABR fuel has a very little experience base, and thus, this paper investigates a fuel-handling concept and potential issues of handling fast reactor fuel containing minor actinides. In this study, two thermal analyses supporting a conceptual design study on the ABR-1000 fuel-handling system were carried out. One analysis investigated passive dry spent fuel storage, and the other analysis investigated a fresh fuel shipping cask. Passive dry storage can be made suitable for the ABR-1000 spent fuel storage with sodium-bonded metal fuel. The thermal analysis shows that spent fast reactor fuel with a decay heat of 2 kW or less can be stored passively in a helium atmosphere. The 2-kW value seems to be a reasonable and practical level, and a combination of reasonably-sized in-sodium storage followed by passive dry storage could be a candidate for spent fuel storage for the next-generation sodium-cooled reactor with sodium-bonded metal fuel. Requirements for the shipping casks for minor actinide-bearing fuel with a high decay heat level are also discussed in this paper. The shipping cask for fresh sodium-cooled-reactor fuel should be a dry type to reduce the reaction between residual moisture on fresh fuel and the

  20. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  1. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures by Census Division, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number...

  2. Analysis of on-board fuel processing designs for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kartha, S.; Fischer, S.; Kreutz, T.

    1996-12-31

    As a liquid fuel with weight and volume energy densities comparable to those of gasoline, methanol is an attractive energy carrier for mobile power systems. It is available without contaminants such as sulfur, and can be easily reformed at relatively low temperatures with inexpensive catalysts. This study is concerned with comparing the net efficiencies of PEM fuel cell vehicles fueled with methanol and hydrogen, using fuel cell system models developed using ASPEN chemical process simulation software. For both the methanol and hydrogen systems, base case designs are developed and several variations are considered that differ with respect to the degree of system integration for recovery of heat and compressive work. The methanol systems are based on steam reforming with the water-gas shift reaction and preferential oxidation, and the hydrogen systems are based on compressed hydrogen. This analysis is an exercise in optimizing the system design for each fuel, which ultimately entails balancing system efficiency against a host of other considerations, including system complexity, performance, cost, reliability, weight and volume.

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3.3 Commercial Sector Expenditures March 2012 3.3.3 Commercial Buildings Aggregate Energy Expenditures, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (2) Total 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 148.6 37.0 17.0 202.6 148.9 37.2 17.1 203.2 145.9 36.2

  5. SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS PROPOSED SHIPMENT OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS PROPOSED SHIPMENT OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TO DOE NATIONAL LABORATORIES FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PURPOSES Office of Nuclear Energy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DECEMBER 2015 DOE/EIS-0203-SA-07 DOE/EIS-0250F-S-1-SA-02 Commercial Fuel Shipment SA DOE/EIS-0203-SA-07 December 2015 CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to English English to Metric Multiply by To get Multiply by To get Area Square kilometers 247.1 Acres Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles Square meters 10.764 Square

  6. Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B. W.; Novascone, S. R.; Williamson, R. L.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics,more » particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is

  7. Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B. W.; Novascone, S. R.; Williamson, R. L.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics, particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is possible to use

  8. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Michael Wang Argonne National Laboratory June 10, 2008 Project ID # AN2 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Overview * Project start date: Oct. 2002 * Project end date: Continuous * Percent complete: N/A * Inconsistent data, assumptions, and guidelines * Suite of models and tools * Unplanned studies and analyses * Total project funding from DOE: $2.04 million

  9. Selected papers on fuel forecasting and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.L.; Prast, W.G.

    1983-05-01

    Of the 19 presentations at this seminar, covering coal, uranium, oil, and gas issues as well as related EPRI research projects, eleven papers are published in this volume. Nine of the papers primarily address coal-market analysis, coal transportation, and uranium supply. Two additional papers provide an evaluation and perspective on the art and use of coal-supply forecasting models and on the relationship between coal and oil prices. The authors are energy analysts and EPRI research contractors from academia, the consulting profession, and the coal industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 11 papers.

  10. 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final List of Attendees 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Final List of Attendees 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell ...

  11. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 100 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Analysis of 100 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems for Primary Power and Combined Heat and ... Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 100 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems for Primary Power and ...

  12. Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Presented by Paul Aresta at the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. on March 30, 2009 aresta_job_creation.pdf (90.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2014 State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2011

  13. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 3,709.1 863,909.0 Where shown, (s) Expenditure value less than 0.05. Notes: Total petroleum includes fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. * Totals may not equal sum

  14. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State Nuclear Electric Power Nuclear Fuel Consumption Prices Expenditures Million Kilowatthours Trillion Btu Dollars per Million Btu Million Dollars Alabama 41,244 431.4 0.80 344.2 ...

  15. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-22

    This report is the third in the series of reports presenting data from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The 1987 RECS, seventh in a series of national surveys of households and their energy suppliers, provides baseline information on household energy use in the United States. Data from the seven RECS and its companion survey, the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS), are made available to the public in published reports such as this one, and on public use data files. This report presents data for the four Census regions and nine Census divisions on the consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and kerosene (as a single category), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Data are also presented on consumption of wood at the Census region level. The emphasis in this report is on graphic depiction of the data. Data from previous RECS surveys are provided in the graphics, which indicate the regional trends in consumption, expenditures, and uses of energy. These graphs present data for the United States and each Census division. 12 figs., 71 tabs.

  16. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  18. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  19. A Monte Carlo based spent fuel analysis safeguards strategy assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael L; Tobin, Stephen J; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Menlove, Howard O; Sandoval, Nathan P

    2009-01-01

    assessment process, the techniques employed to automate the coupled facets of the assessment process, and the standard burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library. We also clearly define the diversion scenarios that will be analyzed during the standardized assessments. Though this study is currently limited to generic PWR assemblies, it is expected that the results of the assessment will yield an adequate spent fuel analysis strategy knowledge that will help the down-select process for other reactor types.

  20. Table C12. Electricity Expenditures by Census Region, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Electricity Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per kWh",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  1. NMR apparatus for in situ analysis of fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-11-13

    The subject apparatus is a fuel cell toroid cavity detector for in situ analysis of samples through the use of nuclear magnetic resonance. The toroid cavity detector comprises a gas-tight housing forming a toroid cavity where the housing is exposed to an externally applied magnetic field B.sub.0 and contains fuel cell component samples to be analyzed. An NMR spectrometer is electrically coupled and applies a radiofrequency excitation signal pulse to the detector to produce a radiofrequency magnetic field B.sub.1 in the samples and in the toroid cavity. Embedded coils modulate the static external magnetic field to provide a means for spatial selection of the recorded NMR signals.

  2. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  3. N-Reactor (U-metal) Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Larry Lorin

    2000-05-01

    DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels encompass many fuel types. In an effort to facilitate criticality analysis for these various fuel types, they were categorized into nine characteristic fuel groups with emphasis on fuel matrix composition. Out of each fuel group, a representative fuel type was chosen for analysis as a bounding case within that fuel group. Generally, burnup data, fissile enrichments, and total fuel and fissile mass govern the selection of the representative or candidate fuel within that group. Additionally, the criticality analysis will also require data to support design of the canister internals, thermal, and radiation shielding. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and provide in a concise format, material and information/data needed to perform supporting analyses to qualify N-Reactor fuels for acceptance into the designated repository. The N Reactor fuels incorporate zirconium cladding and uranium metal with unique fabrication details in terms of physical size, and method of construction. The fuel construction and post-irradiation handling have created attendant issues relative to cladding failure in the underwater storage environment. These fuels were comprised of low-enriched metal (0.947 to 1.25 wt% 235U) that were originally intended to generate weapons-grade plutonium for national defense. Modifications in subsequent fuel design and changes in the mode of reactor operation in later years were focused more toward power production.

  4. Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This fact sheet describes opportunities for interested stationary fuel cell developers and end users to participate in an objective and credible analysis of stationary fuel cell systems to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  5. Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 4.3 Federal Buildings and Facilities Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 FY 2007 Federal Buildings Energy Prices and Expenditures, by Fuel Type ($2010) Fuel Type Electricity 23.68 (1) 4,009 Natural Gas 9.37 1,138 Fuel Oil 15.25 419 Coal 3.62 63 Purchased Steam 24.30 318 LPG/Propane 17.06 44 Other 16.19 37 Average 17.05 Total 6,029 Note(s): Source(s): Average Fuel Prices Total Expenditures ($/million BTU) ($ million) (2) Prices and expenditures are for Goal-Subject buildings. 1) $0.0776/kWh. 2) Energy used in Goal-Subject buildings in FY 2007 accounted for 33.8% of

  7. USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

    2014-09-29

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  8. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alliance INLEXT-14-31624 Revision 0 Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii ... INLEXT-14-31624 Revision 0 Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility ...

  9. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel ... to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel ...

  10. Reliability and availability requirements analysis for DEMO: fuel cycle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinna, T.; Borgognoni, F.

    2015-03-15

    The Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) will be a fusion reactor prototype designed to demonstrate the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. Two of the key elements of the engineering development of the DEMO reactor are the definitions of reliability and availability requirements (or targets). The availability target for a hypothesized Fuel Cycle has been analysed as a test case. The analysis has been done on the basis of the experience gained in operating existing tokamak fusion reactors and developing the ITER design. Plant Breakdown Structure (PBS) and Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) related to the DEMO Fuel Cycle and correlations between PBS and FBS have been identified. At first, a set of availability targets has been allocated to the various systems on the basis of their operating, protection and safety functions. 75% and 85% of availability has been allocated to the operating functions of fuelling system and tritium plant respectively. 99% of availability has been allocated to the overall systems in executing their safety functions. The chances of the systems to achieve the allocated targets have then been investigated through a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Reliability Block Diagram analysis. The following results have been obtained: 1) the target of 75% for the operations of the fuelling system looks reasonable, while the target of 85% for the operations of the whole tritium plant should be reduced to 80%, even though all the tritium plant systems can individually reach quite high availability targets, over 90% - 95%; 2) all the DEMO Fuel Cycle systems can reach the target of 99% in accomplishing their safety functions. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INL is a U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Battelle Energy Alliance INL/EXT-14-31624 Revision 0 Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis Porter Hill - INL Michael Penev - NREL August 2014 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability

  12. DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Attendees list for the DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006. wkshp_storage_attendees.pdf (163.35 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Final List of Attendees

  13. 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Final List of Attendees | Department of Energy Final List of Attendees 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Final List of Attendees 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Final List of Attendees scenario_analysis_attendees.pdf (431.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Participant List for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting on January 31,

  14. State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Energy price and expenditure estimates in dollars per million Btu and in million dollars, by state, 1970-2014.

  15. Table 7.9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Million U.S. Dollars. NAICS Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal and Breeze Other(e) Total United States 311 Food 10,111 5,328 130 431 3,391 150 442 29 210 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 2,130 932 2 12 673 Q 294 0 158 311221 Wet Corn Milling 1,002 352 1 5 296 1 239 0 107

  16. GCtool for fuel cell systems design and analysis : user documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.

    1999-01-15

    GCtool is a comprehensive system design and analysis tool for fuel cell and other power systems. A user can analyze any configuration of component modules and flows under steady-state or dynamic conditions. Component models can be arbitrarily complex in modeling sophistication and new models can be added easily by the user. GCtool also treats arbitrary system constraints over part or all of the system, including the specification of nonlinear objective functions to be minimized subject to nonlinear, equality or inequality constraints. This document describes the essential features of the interpreted language and the window-based GCtool environment. The system components incorporated into GCtool include a gas flow mixer, splitier, heater, compressor, gas turbine, heat exchanger, pump, pipe, diffuser, nozzle, steam drum, feed water heater, combustor, chemical reactor, condenser, fuel cells (proton exchange membrane, solid oxide, phosphoric acid, and molten carbonate), shaft, generator, motor, and methanol steam reformer. Several examples of system analysis at various levels of complexity are presented. Also given are instructions for generating two- and three-dimensional plots of data and the details of interfacing new models to GCtool.

  17. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT. This webinar will explore the synergy between a facility's use of hydrogen fuel cell forklifts and its reduction of electric grid time of use energy charges.

  18. Participant List for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting on January 31, 2007 | Department of Energy Participant List for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting on January 31, 2007 Participant List for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting on January 31, 2007 This list describes the participants at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure meeting on January 31, 2007.

  19. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions | Department of Energy Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions A complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW)

  20. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

  1. Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ftp_02_wang.pdf (309.07 KB) More Documents & Publications GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle/Fuel Systems Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A North

  2. Agenda for the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This agenda provides information about the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure meeting on January 31, 2007.

  3. Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) have been under consideration for ...

  4. Analysis of the Impact of Fuel Cell Vehicles on Energy Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector in Japan AgencyCompany Organization: Tohoku University Focus Area: Fuels & Efficiency, Hydrogen Topics: Analysis Tools, Policy Impacts, Policy Impacts Website:...

  5. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems - A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced FuelVehicle Systems - A North American ...

  6. Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon; Sonny Kim; David Shropshire; Steven Piet; Gretchen Matthern; Bill Halsey

    2008-12-01

    This report examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from the current United States (U.S.) nuclear fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is disposed in a repository to a closed fuel cycle where the used fuel is recycled and only fission products and waste are disposed. The report is intended to help inform policy developers, decision makers, and program managers of system-level options and constraints as they guide the formulation and implementation of advanced fuel cycle development and demonstration efforts and move toward deployment of nuclear fuel recycling infrastructure.

  7. Fort Saint Vrain HTGR (Th/U carbide) Fuel Characteristics for Disposal Criticality Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Larry Lorin

    2001-01-01

    DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels encompass many fuel types. In an effort to facilitate criticality analysis for these various fuel types, they were categorized into eight characteristic fuel groups with emphasis on fuel matrix composition. Out of each fuel group, a representative fuel type was chosen for analysis as a bounding case within that fuel group. Generally, burnup data, fissile enrichments and total fuel mass govern the selection of the representative or candidate fuel within that group. For the HTGR group, the Fort Saint Vrain (FSV) reactor fuel has been chosen for the evaluation of viability for waste co-disposal. The FSV reactor was operated by Public Service of Colorado as a licensed power reactor. The FSV fuel employs a U/Th carbide matrix in individually pyrolytic carbon-coated particles. These individual particles are in turn coated with silicon carbide (SiC) and contained within fuel compacts, that are in turn embedded in graphite blocks that comprised the structural core of the reactor.

  8. Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Transportation Activity and Potential Distribution Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of fuel ethanol transportation activity and potential distribution constraints if the total 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022 is mandated by EPA under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Ethanol transport by domestic truck, marine, and rail distribution systems from ethanol refineries to blending terminals is estimated using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) North American Infrastructure Network Model. Most supply and demand data provided by EPA were geo-coded and using available commercial sources the transportation infrastructure network was updated. The percentage increases in ton-mile movements by rail, waterways, and highways in 2022 are estimated to be 2.8%, 0.6%, and 0.13%, respectively, compared to the corresponding 2005 total domestic flows by various modes. Overall, a significantly higher level of future ethanol demand would have minimal impacts on transportation infrastructure. However, there will be spatial impacts and a significant level of investment required because of a considerable increase in rail traffic from refineries to ethanol distribution terminals.

  9. Mechanical Analysis of the Fuel Assembly Box of a HPLWR Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Steffen; Starflinger, Joerg; Schulenberg, Thomas; Hofmeister, Jan

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the work presented in this paper is to demonstrate that the assembly box of the fuel assembly for a HPLWR proposed by Hofmeister et al. will remain mechanically within the design limits. The commercial finite element code ANSYS has been used to investigate the deformation behaviour caused by thermal convective and pressure boundary conditions provided by the results from Waata et al. for the fuel assembly. The results of these ANSYS analyses show a bending of the assembly box caused by the applied temperature and pressure distribution which, however, is still within the geometrical allowances. The maximum bending of the 4.35 m long assembly box appears close to the mid section, i.e. at 2.45 m axial height, and amounts to about 2 mm, only. The maximum indentation is mainly caused by the pressure difference across the box wall and occurs near the top of the assembly. The indentation at this point can be evaluated to be around 0.2 mm. Both bending and indentation will influence the coolant mass flux and the moderator distribution, and thus needs to be considered for predictions of the power profile and of the coolant heat-up. They are not considered to be critical as long as these deformations are small compared with the nominal gap width of 1 mm between box wall and claddings and 10 mm between adjacent assembly boxes. A second analysis has been performed to study the effect on non-symmetric coolant temperature profiles. A coolant temperature increase by 30 deg. C on one side of the box increased the thermal bending to 4 mm, indicating the sensitivity of this design with respect to temperature non-uniformities. (authors)

  10. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an income-producing site equipped with a hydrogen fueling station and a covered 175-stall ... the covered parking spaces, and selling hydrogen-at competitive prices-to fuel FCEVs. ...

  11. Gap Analysis to Support Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology, has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development...

  12. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.; Andrus, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F). Conservative assumptions in themore » model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F).« less

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Section 7. Consumption Adjustments for Calculating Expenditures C O N S U M P T I O N A D J U S T M E N T S Expenditures developed in the EIA State Energy Data System (SEDS) are calculated by multiplying the price estimates by the SEDS consumption estimates. The consumption estimates are adjusted to remove process fuel, intermediate petroleum products, electricity exports, and other consumption that has no direct fuel costs, i.e., hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar thermal and photovoltaic

  14. Identification of fuel cycle simulator functionalities for analysis of transition to a new fuel cycle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Carlsen, Brett W.; Dixon, Brent W.; Feng, Bo; Greenberg, Harris R.; Hays, Ross D.; Passerini, Stefano; Todosow, Michael; Worrall, Andrew

    2016-06-09

    Dynamic fuel cycle simulation tools are intended to model holistic transient nuclear fuel cycle scenarios. As with all simulation tools, fuel cycle simulators require verification through unit tests, benchmark cases, and integral tests. Model validation is a vital aspect as well. Although compara-tive studies have been performed, there is no comprehensive unit test and benchmark library for fuel cycle simulator tools. The objective of this paper is to identify the must test functionalities of a fuel cycle simulator tool within the context of specific problems of interest to the Fuel Cycle Options Campaign within the U.S. Department of Energy smore » Office of Nuclear Energy. The approach in this paper identifies the features needed to cover the range of promising fuel cycle options identified in the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening (E&S) and categorizes these features to facilitate prioritization. Features were categorized as essential functions, integrating features, and exemplary capabilities. One objective of this paper is to propose a library of unit tests applicable to each of the essential functions. Another underlying motivation for this paper is to encourage an international dialog on the functionalities and standard test methods for fuel cycle simulator tools.« less

  15. GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle/Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle/Fuel Systems GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle/Fuel Systems 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting van002_wang_2013_o.pdf (1.64 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015:

  16. DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership: Analysis Workshop | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fuels Partnership: Analysis Workshop DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership: Analysis Workshop Presentation by Mark Paster for Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop. wkshp_storage_paster.pdf (48.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the Hydrogen Delivery and Onboard Storage Analysis Workshop Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis Meeting Agenda Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues

  17. ZPPR FUEL ELEMENT THERMAL STRESS-STRAIN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Jason Andrus; Chad Pope

    2014-04-01

    The design temperature of high plutonium concentration ZPPR fuel assemblies is 600 degrees C. Cladding integrity of the 304L stainless steel cladding is a significant concern with this fuel since even small holes can lead to substantial fuel degradation. Since the fuel has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the cladding, an investigation of the stress induced in the cladding due to the differential thermal expansion of fuel and cladding up to the design temperature was conducted. Small holes in the cladding envelope would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing into a powder over a long period of time. This is the same type of chemical reaction chain that exists in the degradion of the high uranium concentration ZPPR fuel. Unfortunately, the uranium fuel was designed with vents which allowed this degradation to occur. The Pu cladding is sealed so only fuel with damaged cladding would be subject to this damage. The thermal stresses that can be developed in the fuel cladding have been calculated in in this paper and compared to the ultimate tensile stress of the cladding. The conclusion is drawn that thermal stresses cannot induce holes in the cladding even for the highest storage temperatures predicted in calculations (292C). In fact, thermal stress can not cause cladding failure as long as the fuel temperatures are below the design limit of 600 degrees C (1,112 degrees F).

  18. Performance limit analysis of a metallic fuel for Kalimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Cheon, J.S.; Lee, C.B.

    2007-07-01

    A metallic fuel is being considered as the fuel for SFR in Korea. The metal fuel development for SFR in Korea started in 2007 in the areas of metal fuel fabrication, cladding materials and fuel performance evaluation. The MACSIS code for a metallic fuel has been developed as a steady-state performance computer code. Present study represents the preliminary parametric results for evaluating the design limits of the metal fuel for SFR in Korea. The operating limits were analyzed by the MACSIS code. The modules of the creep rupture strength for the Mod.HT9 and the barrier cladding were inserted. The strain limits and the CDF limit were analyzed for the HT9, and the Mod.HT9. To apply the concept of a barrier cladding, the burnup limit of the barrier cladding was analyzed. (authors)

  19. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  20. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    propane Go Propane_li_by_state Propane Incentives and Laws, by State Propane_li_by_state View Map Graph Propane-stations Propane Fueling Station Locations by State Propane-stations View Map Graph 10561_expenditures_by_sector_20130906 Per Capita Energy Expenditures by Sector 10561_expenditures_by_sector_20130906 Trend of transportation and residential energy expenditures from 1970-2010 Last update September 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20140826-27944-1rznsji Alternative Fuel

  2. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  3. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  4. State energy price and expenditure report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1980, and 1985 through 1992. Data for all years, 1970 through 1992, are available on personal computer diskettes.

  5. Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,4628,16.42,12.75,16.62,20.42,1.38,1.06,1.35,1.48 "Three ...",2390,3012,2457,1285,15.31,12.75,15.02,20.2,1.15,1.17,1.27,1.43 "Four to Nine...

  6. State energy price and expenditure report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The State Energy Price and Expenditure Report (SEPER) presents energy price and expenditure estimates individually for the 50 States and the District of Columbia and in aggregate for the United States. The price and expenditure estimates are provided by energy source and economic sector and are published for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985 through 1991. Data for all years, 1970 through 1991, are available on personal computer diskettes. Documentation in Appendix A describes how the price estimates are developed, including sources of data, methods of estimation, and conversion factors applied. This report is an update of the State Energy Price and Expenditure Report 1990, published in September 1992.

  7. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distribution Category UC-950 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992 April 1995 Energy Information Adminstration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S....

  8. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this report were based on monthly billing records submitted by the buildings' energy suppliers. The section, "Annual Consumption and Expenditures" provide a detailed...

  9. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  10. DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Action items and discussion comments from the DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop on January 25, 2006. wkshp_storage_discussion.pdf (265.27 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop Agenda for the Hydrogen Delivery and Onboard Storage Analysis Workshop Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis Meeting Agenda

  11. The Application of CYCLUS to Fuel Cycle Transition Analysis ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: GLOBAL 2015, 21st International Conference & Exhibition: "Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future", Paris, France, Sep 20 - Sep 24, ...

  12. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This feasibility report assesses the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a hydrogen fueling station at the Fort Armstrong site in Honolulu.

  13. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  14. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 100 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems for Primary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power and Combined Heat and Power Applications | Department of Energy 0 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems for Primary Power and Combined Heat and Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 100 and 250 kW Fuel Cell Systems for Primary Power and Combined Heat and Power Applications Battelle Memorial Institute is conducting manufacturing cost assessments of fuel cells for stationary and non-automotive applications to identify the primary cost drivers impacting successful product

  15. Hazard analysis of compressed natural gas fueling systems and fueling procedures used at retail gasoline service stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-28

    An evaluation of the hazards associated with operations of a typical compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station is presented. The evaluation includes identification of a typical CNG fueling system; a comparison of the typical system with ANSI/NFPA (American National Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association) Standard 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel System, requirements; a review of CNG industry safety experience as identified in current literature; hazard identification of potential internal (CNG system-specific causes) and external (interface of co-located causes) events leading to potential accidents; and an analysis of potential accident scenarios as determined from the hazard evaluation. The study considers CNG dispensing equipment and associated equipment, including the compressor station, storate vessels, and fill pressure sensing system.

  16. Aggregrate consumer expenditures on energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgenson, D.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report presents a new economic model for the allocation of aggregate consumer expenditures on energy in the United States. Our model is based on a theory of consumer behavior involving two stages. In the first stage total expenditures are allocated between and nonenergy commodities. Allocation depends on the price of energy, prices of all nonenergy commodities, and the level of total expenditure. Total energy expenditure in the second stage is allocated among individual types of energy. The second stage allocation depends on the prices of individual types of energy and the level of total energy expenditure. Our econometric model can be applied to the generation of projection of aggregrate energy demand in the United States. Projected future energy prices, the future level and distribution of total energy expenditure, and the future demographic development of the population for projections. The model can also be used to make projections for individual consumer groups within the United States, classified by total energy expenditure and by demographic characteristics. Finally, it can be integrated into a model of energy and nonenergy expenditures to provide a complete model of aggregate consumer behavior. Our econometric model of aggregate consumer behavior can be applied to the generation of projection of demand individual types of energy and for all nonenergy commodities in the United States.

  17. 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure | Department of Energy Systems Analysis » 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier would involve major changes in the country's energy and vehicle fleet infrastructure. Technical challenges, costs, and risk will be highest in the near-term, when markets are very small and the technology and infrastructure are immature.

  18. 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Meeting Discussion Group 1 Summary Presentation | Department of Energy 1 Summary Presentation 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting Discussion Group 1 Summary Presentation 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis Meeting Discussion Group 1 Summary Presentation group_1_summary.pdf (138.27 KB) More Documents & Publications 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting Discussion Group 2

  19. 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Meeting Discussion Group 2 Summary Presentation | Department of Energy 2 Summary Presentation 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting Discussion Group 2 Summary Presentation 2010-2025 Senario Analysis Meeting Discussion Group 2 Summary Presentation group_2_summary.pdf (82.13 KB) More Documents & Publications 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure Meeting Discussion Group 1

  20. Company Template (Expenditure-Based) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Company Template (Expenditure-Based) Company Template (Expenditure-Based) Company Exp-based template.doc (182.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Company Template (Fixed Support) Consortium Template (Expenditure-Based) Consortium Support (Fixed Support)

  1. INITIAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT POWER TIME LAG DUE TO HETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE TREAT FUEL MATRIX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Wachs; A.X. Zabriskie, W.R. Marcum

    2014-06-01

    were related by a multiplier relative to the average moderator temperature. As time increases the multiplier is comparable to the factor found in a previous analytical study from literature. The implementation of this multiplier and the method of analysis may be employed to remove assumptions and increase fidelity for future research on the effect of fuel particles during transient events.

  2. Analysis of BWR high burnup fuel in LOCA conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Sedano, Pablo; Dey Navarro, Jose Manuel; Gallego Cabezon, Ines; Orive Moreno, Raul

    2004-07-01

    High Burnup Fuel Behaviour has been growing in importance since middle 80's when pellet microstructure changes (rim effect) and cladding oxidation rates increase were observed. Later on, Cadarache reactivity tests revealed cladding integrity failures below safety limits. These phenomena, occurred at high burnup, stressed the necessity of having a wide experimental data base that would allow to dispose non-extrapolated data of material properties submitted to higher burnups than 40000 MWd/TM and data of new materials at the same time. One of the objectives of the EPRI's Fuel Reliability Program is to establish the bases for the licensing of nuclear fuel to burnup levels beyond the current licensed value of 62 GWd/MTU rod average burnup. The technical bases to support those high burnup levels are being developed. One of the licensing points of concern is the behaviour of the high burnup fuel in LOCA conditions. To respond to this concern a series of LOCA experiments are being performed at Argonne National Laboratory using fuel rods from Limerick NPP at 57 GWd/TM and H.B. Robinson at 67 GWd/MTU. When the ANL tests have been finished, a conservative Peak Cladding Temperature/ Equivalent Cladding Reacted (PCT/ECR) limit will be determine from the residual ductility tests to be applied to the high burnup fuel. This makes necessary to determine the behaviour of the high burnup fuel in LOCA conditions and to determine the available safety margin. In licensing LOCA calculations, corresponding to present core designs and future core designs, the calculated PCT and ECR values as a function of the fuel burnup could be used to determine the relative severity of LOCA for the high burnup fuel. This report presents the LOCA analyses performed by IBERDROLA (Spanish utility), using results from the Cofrentes NPP (BWR-6) LOCA evaluations. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen Fueling Station in Honolulu, Hawaii Feasibility Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter Hill; Michael Penev

    2014-08-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011) identifies the use of hydrogen for government and fleet electric vehicles as a key step for achieving “reduced greenhouse gas emissions; reduced oil consumption; expanded use of renewable power …; highly efficient energy conversion; fuel flexibility …; reduced air pollution; and highly reliable grid-support.” This report synthesizes several pieces of existing information that can inform a decision regarding the viability of deploying a hydrogen (H2) fueling station at the Fort Armstrong site in Honolulu, Hawaii.

  4. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  5. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  6. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, F. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Kučák, L. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Bereznai, J. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Závodný, Z. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Muškát, P. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk

    2014-08-06

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  7. Webinar: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... The-what we did this year was look at 10 and 25 kilowatt PEM fuel cell systems for material handling applications, and that's what I'll be talking about today. Next slide ...

  8. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact 748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household ...

  9. Table C10. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per Square Foot (kWh)","per...

  10. Consortium Template (Expenditure-Based) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Template (Expenditure-Based) Consortium Template (Expenditure-Based) Consortium Exp-based template.doc (200.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Consortium Support (Fixed Support

  11. Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

  12. CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-10-01

    Defects and Flaws control the structural and functional property of ceramics. In determining the reliability and lifetime of ceramics structures it is very important to quantify the crack growth behavior of the ceramics. In addition, because of the high variability of the strength and the relatively low toughness of ceramics, a statistical design approach is necessary. The statistical nature of the strength of ceramics is currently well recognized, and is usually accounted for by utilizing Weibull or similar statistical distributions. Design tools such as CARES using a combination of strength measurements, stress analysis, and statistics are available and reasonably well developed. These design codes also incorporate material data such as elastic constants as well as flaw distributions and time-dependent properties. The fast fracture reliability for ceramics is often different from their time-dependent reliability. Further confounding the design complexity, the time-dependent reliability varies with the environment/temperature/stress combination. Therefore, it becomes important to be able to accurately determine the behavior of ceramics under simulated application conditions to provide a better prediction of the lifetime and reliability for a given component. In the present study, Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of 9.6 mol% Yttria composition was procured in the form of tubes of length 100 mm. The composition is of interest as tubular electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Rings cut from the tubes were characterized for microstructure, phase stability, mechanical strength (Weibull modulus) and fracture mechanisms. The strength at operating condition of SOFCs (1000 C) decreased to 95 MPa as compared to room temperature strength of 230 MPa. However, the Weibull modulus remains relatively unchanged. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameter, n = 17 evaluated at room temperature in air was representative of well studied brittle materials. Based on the results, further work

  13. Analysis of liquid natural gas as a truck fuel: a system dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Mason, T.L.; Mills, J.I.; Rice, R.E.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the potential for growth in use of liquid natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks. . A system dynamics model was constructed for the analysis and a variety of scenarios were investigated. The analysis considers the economics of LNG fuel in the context of the trucking industry to identify barriers to the increased use of LNG trucks and potential interventions or leverage points which may overcome these barriers. The study showed that today, LNG use in trucks is not yet economically viable. A large change in the savings from fuel cost or capital cost is needed for the technology to take off. Fleet owners have no way now to benefit from the environmental benefits of LNG fuel nor do they benefit from the clean burning nature of the fuel. Changes in the fuel cost differential between diesel and LNG are not a research issue. However, quantifying the improvements in reliability and wear from the use of clean fuel could support increased maintenance and warranty periods. Many people involved in the use of LNG for trucks believe that LNG has the potential to occupy a niche within the larger diesel truck business. But if LNG in trucks can become economic, the spread of fuel stations and technology improvements could lead to LNG trucks becoming the dominant technology. An assumption in our simulation work is that LNG trucks will be purchased when economically attractive. None of the simulation results show LNG becoming economic but then only to the level of a niche market.

  14. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  15. Effect of separation efficiency on repository loading values in fuel cycle scenario analysis codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radel, T.E.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Grady, R.M.; Bauer, T.H.

    2007-07-01

    Fuel cycle scenario analysis codes are valuable tools for investigating the effects of various decisions on the performance of the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole. Until recently, repository metrics in such codes were based on mass and were independent of the isotopic composition of the waste. A methodology has been developed for determining peak repository loading for an arbitrary set of isotopics based on the heat load restrictions and current geometry specifications for the Yucca Mountain repository. This model was implemented in the VISION fuel cycle scenario analysis code and is used here to study the effects of separation efficiencies on repository loading for various AFCI fuel cycle scenarios. Improved separations efficiencies are shown to have continuing technical benefit in fuel cycles that recycle Am and Cm, but a substantial benefit can be achieved with modest separation efficiencies. (authors)

  16. DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attendees list for the DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageattendees.pdf ...

  17. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  18. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_steward.pdf (818.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Project Reports for Tulalip Tribes - 2003 Project

  19. Supplement Analysis … Spent Nuclear Fuel and SRS H-Canyon Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE/EIS-0218-SA-07 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR THE FOREIGN RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ACCEPTANCE PROGRAM Highly Enriched Uranium Target Residue Material Transportation U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC November 2015 DOE/EIS-0218-SA-07 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR THE FOREIGN RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ACCEPTANCE PROGRAM Highly Enriched Uranium Target Residue Material Transportation 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) has a continuing responsibility for safeguarding

  20. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFD) For Fuel Assembly Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Michael Reichenberger; Phillip Ugorowski

    2013-09-01

    Neutron sensors capable of real-time measurement of thermal flux, fast flux, and temperature in a single miniaturized probe are needed in irradiation tests required to demonstrate the performance of candidate new fuels, and cladding materials. In-core ceramic-based miniature neutron detectors or “Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors” (MPFDs) have been studied at Kansas State University (KSU). The first MPFD prototypes were tested in various neutron fields at the KSU TRIGA research reactor with successful results. Currently, a United States Department of Energy-sponsored joint KSU/Idaho National Laboratory (INL) effort is underway to develop a high-temperature, high-pressure version of the MPFD using radiation-resistant, high temperature materials, which would be capable of withstanding irradiation test conditions in high performance material and test reactors (MTRs). Ultimately, this more compact, more accurate, and longer lifetime flux sensor for critical mock-ups, existing and advanced reactor designs, high performance MTRs, and transient test reactors has the potential to lead to higher accuracy and resolution data from irradiation testing, more detailed core flux measurements and enhanced fuel assembly processing. Prior evaluations by KSU indicate that these sensors could also be used to monitor burn-up of nuclear fuel. If integrated into nuclear fuel assemblies, MPFDs offer several advantages to current spent fuel management systems.

  1. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  2. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel Preliminary Food & Fuel Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Grosshans; Kevin M. Kostelnik; Jake Jacobson

    2007-04-01

    To promote economic growth and energy security, and to protect the environment, the U.S. is pursuing a national strategy of energy independence and climatic protection in which domestic renewable carbon-neutral biofuels displace 30 percent of U.S. oil consumption by the mid-21st century. Such fuels, including ethanol and biodiesel, will be produced from biological feed stocks (biomass). The availability of this billion-ton biomass will hinge on the application of modern scientific and engineering tools to create a highly-integrated biofuel production system. Efforts are underway to identify and develop energy crops, ranging from agricultural residues to genetically engineered perennials; to develop biology-based processing methods; and, to develop large-scale biorefineries to economically convert biomass into fuels. In addition to advancing the biomass-to-biofuel research and development agenda, policy makers are concurrently defining the correct mix of governmental supports and regulations. Given the volumes of biomass and fuels that must flow to successfully enact a national biomass strategy, policies must encourage large-scale markets to form and expand around a tightly integrated system of farmers, fuel producers and transporters, and markets over the course of decades. In formulating such policies, policy makers must address the complex interactions of social, technical, economic, and environmental factors that bound energy production and use. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering national laboratory dedicated to supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The INL Bioenergy Program supports the DOE and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Key multidisciplinary INL capabilities are being leveraged to address major science and technology needs associated with the cost-effective utilization of biomass. INLs whole crop utilization (WCU) vision is focused on the use of the entire crop, including both the grain and

  3. Transition Analysis of Promising U.S. Future Fuel Cycles Using ORION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, Eva E.; Worrall, Andrew; Peterson, Joshua L.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Gehin, Jess C.; Gregg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies performed an evaluation and screening (E&S) study of nuclear fuel cycle options to help prioritize future research and development decisions. Previous work for this E&S study focused on establishing equilibrium conditions for analysis examples of 40 nuclear fuel cycle evaluation groups (EGs) and evaluating their performance according to a set of 22 standardized metrics. Following the E&S study, additional studies are being conducted to assess transitioning from the current US fuel cycle to future fuel cycle options identified by the E&S study as being most promising. These studies help inform decisions on how to effectively achieve full transition, estimate the length of time needed to undergo transition from the current fuel cycle, and evaluate performance of nuclear systems and facilities in place during the transition. These studies also help identify any barriers to achieve transition. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuel Cycle Options Campaign team used ORION to analyze the transition pathway from the existing US nuclear fuel cycle—the once-through use of low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel in thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs) —to a new fuel cycle with continuous recycling of plutonium and uranium in sodium fast reactors (SFRs). This paper discusses the analysis of the transition from an LWR to an SFR fleet using ORION, highlights the role of lifetime extensions of existing LWRs to aid transition, and discusses how a slight delay in SFR deployment can actually reduce the time to achieve an equilibrium fuel cycle.

  4. An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)

  5. Analysis of In-Use Fuel Economy Shortfall Based on Voluntarily Reported MPG Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Goeltz, Rick; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Tworek, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The usefulness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) passenger car and light truck fuel economy estimates has been the subject of debate for the past three decades. For the labels on new vehicles and the fuel economy information given to the public, the EPA adjusts dynamometer test results downward by 10% for the city cycle and 22% for the highway cycle to better reflect real world driving conditions. These adjustment factors were developed in 1984 and their continued validity has repeatedly been questioned. In March of 2005 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and EPA's fuel economy information website, www.fueleconomy.gov, began allowing users to voluntarily share fuel economy estimates. This paper presents an initial statistical analysis of more than 3,000 estimates submitted by website users. The analysis suggests two potentially important results: (1) adjusted, combined EPA fuel economy estimates appear to be approximately unbiased estimators of the average fuel economy consumers will experience in actual driving, and (2) the EPA estimates are highly imprecise predictors of any given individual's in-use fuel economy, an approximate 95% confidence interval being +/-7 MPG. These results imply that what is needed is not less biased adjustment factors for the EPA estimates but rather more precise methods of predicting the fuel economy individual consumers will achieve in their own driving.

  6. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  7. EERE Announces Notice of Intent to Issue FOA: Clean Energy Supply Chain & Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE intends to issue, on behalf of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, a Funding Opportunity Announcement entitled "Clean Energy Supply Chain and Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies" in May 2014.

  8. Analysis of LOCA Scenarios in the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, J. S.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D.

    2015-08-30

    An analysis has been done of hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCAs) in the research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The purpose of the analysis is to determine if the peak clad temperature remains below the Safety Limit, which is the blister temperature for the fuel. The configuration of the NBSR considered in the analysis is that projected for the future when changes will be made so that shutdown pumps do not operate when a LOCA signal is detected. The analysis was done for the present core with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and with the proposed low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel that would be used when the NBSR is converted from one to the other. The analysis consists of two parts. The first examines how the water would drain from the primary system following a break and the possibility for the loss of coolant from within the fuel element flow channels. This work is performed using the TRACE system thermal-hydraulic code. The second looks at the fuel clad temperature as a function of time given that the water may have drained from many of the flow channels and the water in the vessel is in a quasi-equilibrium state. The temperature behavior is investigated using the three-dimensional heat conduction code HEATING7.3. The results in all scenarios considered for both HEU and LEU fuel show that the peak clad temperature remains below the blister temperature.

  9. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  10. U N I T E D S T A T E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices and Expenditures 25 Table ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2014, United States Year Primary Energy Electric Power Sector h,j Retail Electricity Total Energy g,h,i Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i,j Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Exports Imports Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f,g Prices in Dollars per Million Btu

  11. A mono-dimensional nuclear fuel performance analysis code, PUMA, development from a coupled approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, C. B.; Yacout, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Multidimensional-multi-physical phenomena in nuclear fuels are treated as a set of mono-dimensional-coupled problems which encompass heat, displacement, fuel constituent redistribution, and fission gas release. Rather than uncoupling these coupled equations as in conventional fuel performance analysis codes, efforts are put into to obtain fully coupled solutions by relying on the recent advances of numerical analysis. Through this approach, a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code) is under development. Although coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was made easily, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is accomplished by introducing one-level Newton scheme through backward differentiation formula. Displacement equations from 1D finite element formulation of the mechanical equilibrium equation are solved simultaneously with stress equation, creep equation, swelling equation, and FGR equations. Calculations was made successfully such that the swelling and the hydrostatic pressure are interrelated each other. (authors)

  12. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  13. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the standard UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  14. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  15. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  16. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105 KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1996-08-09

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan describes the equipment,procedures and techniques for obtaining gas and liquid samples from sealed K West fuel canisters. The analytical procedures and quality assurance requirements for the subsequent laboratory analysis of the samples are also discussed.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.2 Building Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Buildings Aggregate Energy Expenditures, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Residential Buildings Commercial Buildings Total Building Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (2) Total Electricity Natural Gas Petroleum (3) Total Expenditures 1980 89.1 40.5 28.9 158.5 70.9 20.5 17.2 108.6 267.2 1981 94.9 41.3 27.8 164.0 79.4 21.4 16.5 117.3 281.3 1982 99.9 47.9 24.5 172.3 83.4 25.1 13.7 122.2 294.5 1983 103.6 51.0 21.4 176.1 83.6 26.1 14.6 124.3 300.4 1984 103.3 51.6 23.6 178.5 87.6 25.9

  19. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  20. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  1. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  2. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry Analysis of Data from Measurements on Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Gavron, Victor A.; Harris, Jason; Stewart, Trevor N.

    2015-01-12

    Improved non-destructive assay of isotopic masses in used nuclear fuel would be valuable for nuclear safeguards operations associated with the transport, storage and reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. Our collaboration is examining the feasibility of using lead slowing down spectrometry techniques to assay the isotopic fissile masses in used nuclear fuel assemblies. We present the application of our analysis algorithms on measurements conducted with a lead spectrometer. The measurements involved a single fresh fuel pin and discrete 239Pu and 235U samples. We are able to describe the isotopic fissile masses with root mean square errors over seven different configurations to 6.35% for 239Pu and 2.7% for 235U over seven different configurations. Funding Source(s):

  3. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  4. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-08-01

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models.

  5. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel; Trowbridge, Lee D; Renier, John-Paul; Ellis, Ronald James; Williams, Kent Alan; Spencer, Barry B; Collins, Emory D

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  6. Neutronics Design and Fuel Cycle Analysis of a High Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... core height and improve neutron economy without the risk of a positive void coefficient. ... been well assessed and benchmarked for analysis of light water reactor systems. ...

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Residential Aggregate Energy Expenditures, by Year and Major Fuel Type ($2010 Billion) (1) Electricity Total 1980 158.5 1981 164.0 1982 172.3 1983 176.1 1984 178.5 1985 176.8 1986 169.2 1987 167.1 1988 170.1 1989 172.8 1990 168.2 1991 169.9 1992 166.7 1993 175.6 1994 174.9 1995 172.7 1996 181.8 1997 180.0 1998 173.5 1999 174.0 2000 192.8 2001 203.3 2002 192.1 2003 208.8 2004 215.1 2005 236.7 2006 240.0 2007 246.1 2008 259.6 2009 241.6 2010 251.8 2011 251.3 2012 247.1 2013 240.3 2014 239.4 2015

  9. A Second Look at Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis as a Spent Fuel NDA Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W .Sterbentz; David L. Chichester

    2011-07-01

    Many different nondestructive analysis techniques are currently being investigated as a part of the United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) seeking methods to quantify plutonium in spent fuel. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) is one of these techniques. Having first been explored in the mid-1970s for the analysis of individual spent-fuel pins a second look, using advanced simulation and modeling methods, is now underway to investigate the suitability of the NRTA technique for assaying complete spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The technique is similar to neutron time-of-flight methods used for cross-section determinations but operates over only the narrow 0.1-20 eV range where strong, distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239, 240, 241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Initial modeling shows excellent agreement with previously published experimental data for measurements of individual spent-fuel pins where plutonium assays were demonstrated to have a precision of 2-4%. Within the simulation and modeling analyses of this project scoping studies have explored fourteen different aspects of the technique including the neutron source, drift tube configurations, and gross neutron transmission as well as the impacts of fuel burn up, cooling time, and fission-product interferences. These results show that NRTA may be a very capable experimental technique for spent-fuel assay measurements. The results suggest sufficient transmission strength and signal differentiability is possible for assays through up to 8 pins. For an 8-pin assay (looking at an assembly diagonally), 64% of the pins in a typical 17 ? 17 array of a pressurized water reactor fuel

  10. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY11 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2011-09-30

    Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today's confirmatory assay methods. This document is a progress report for FY2011 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2011 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel. PNNL developed an empirical model based on calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from well-characterized used fuel. The empirical model, which accounts for self-shielding effects using empirical basis vectors calculated from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix containing the true self-shielding functions of the used fuel assembly models. The potential for the direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of 239Pu and 241Pu to within approximately 3% over a wide used fuel parameter space was demonstrated. Also, in FY2011, PNNL continued to develop an analytical model. Such efforts included the addition of six more non-fissile absorbers in the analytical shielding function and the non-uniformity of the neutron flux across the LSDS assay chamber. A hybrid analytical-empirical approach was developed to determine the mass of total Pu (sum of the masses of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu), which is an important quantity in safeguards. Results using this hybrid method were of approximately the same accuracy as the pure

  11. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-09-28

    Executive Summary Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today’s confirmatory methods. This document is a progress report for FY2012 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2012 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel assemblies. PNNL further refined the semi-empirical model developed in FY2011 based on singular value decomposition (SVD) to numerically account for the effects of self-shielding. The average uncertainty in the Pu mass across the NGSI-64 fuel assemblies was shown to be less than 3% using only six calibration assemblies with a 2% uncertainty in the isotopic masses. When calibrated against the six NGSI-64 fuel assemblies, the algorithm was able to determine the total Pu mass within <2% uncertainty for the 27 diversion cases also developed under NGSI. Two purely empirical algorithms were developed that do not require the use of Pu isotopic fission chambers. The semi-empirical and purely empirical algorithms were successfully tested using MCNPX simulations as well applied to experimental data measured by RPI using their LSDS. The algorithms were able to describe the 235U masses of the RPI measurements with an average uncertainty of 2.3%. Analyses were conducted that provided valuable insight with regard to design requirements (e

  12. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  13. Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook October 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights  EIA projects average U.S. household expenditures for natural gas and propane will increase by 13% and 9%, respectively, this winter heating season (October 1 through March 31) compared with last winter. Projected U.S. household expenditures are 2% higher for electricity and 2% lower for heating oil this winter. Although EIA expects average expenditures for households that heat with natural gas will be significantly

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Section 1. Documentation Guide D O C U M E N T A T I O N G U I D E This section describes the data identification codes in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). Sections 2 through 6 provide information for each of the major energy sources: coal, natural gas, petroleum, renewable energy, and electricity. Section 7 describes adjustments for consumption of industrial process fuel and intermediate products and other uncosted energy sources that are removed in the calculation of expenditures.

  15. DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Analysis Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Workshop U.S. Department of Energy - Washington, DC January 25, 2006 A AC CT TI IO ON N I IT TE EM MS S A AN ND D D DI IS SC CU US SS SI IO ON N C CO OM MM ME EN NT TS S Agenda 1. Agenda and Purpose - Mark Paster, DOE-HFCIT 2. On-Board Storage Systems Analysis - Rajesh Ahluwalia, ANL 3. On-Board Storage Cost and Efficiency Analysis - Steve Lasher, TIAX 4. Off-Board Storage and Tube Trailers - Salvador Aceves and Gene Berry, LLNL 5. Forecourt Storage and Compression Options - Mark

  16. Algorithms for thermal and mechanical contact in nuclear fuel performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, J. D.; Andrs, D.; Gaston, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    The transfer of heat and force from UO{sub 2} pellets to the cladding is an essential element in typical nuclear fuel performance modeling. Traditionally, this has been accomplished in a one-dimensional fashion, with a slice of fuel interacting with a slice of cladding. In this manner, the location at which the transfer occurs is set a priori. While straightforward, this limits the applicability and accuracy of the model. We propose finite element algorithms for the transfer of heat and force where the location for the transfer is not predetermined. This enables analysis of individual fuel pellets with large sliding between the fuel and the cladding. The simplest of these approaches is a node on face constraint. Heat and force are transferred from a node on the fuel to the cladding face opposite. Another option is a transfer based on quadrature point locations, which is applied here to the transfer of heat. The final algorithm outlined here is the so-called mortar method, with applicability to heat and force transfer. The mortar method promises to be a highly accurate approach which may be used for a transfer of other quantities and in other contexts, such as heat from cladding to a CFD mesh of the coolant. This paper reviews these approaches, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, and presents results from each on simplified nuclear fuel performance models. (authors)

  17. CONTAINMENT ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR TRANSPORT OF BREACHED CLAD ALUMINUM SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    Aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to the Savannah River Site and placed in interim storage in a water basin. To enter the United States, a cask with loaded fuel must be certified to comply with the requirements in the Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The requirements include demonstration of containment of the cask with its contents under normal and accident conditions. Many Al-SNF assemblies have suffered corrosion degradation in storage in poor quality water, and many of the fuel assemblies are 'failed' or have through-clad damage. A methodology was developed to evaluate containment of Al-SNF even with severe cladding breaches for transport in standard casks. The containment analysis methodology for Al-SNF is in accordance with the methodology provided in ANSI N14.5 and adopted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG/CR-6487 to meet the requirements of 10CFR71. The technical bases for the inputs and assumptions are specific to the attributes and characteristics of Al-SNF received from basin and dry storage systems and its subsequent performance under normal and postulated accident shipping conditions. The results of the calculations for a specific case of a cask loaded with breached fuel show that the fuel can be transported in standard shipping casks and maintained within the allowable release rates under normal and accident conditions. A sensitivity analysis has been conducted to evaluate the effects of modifying assumptions and to assess options for fuel at conditions that are not bounded by the present analysis. These options would include one or more of the following: reduce the fuel loading; increase fuel cooling time; reduce the degree of conservatism in the bounding assumptions; or measure the actual leak rate of the cask system. That is, containment analysis for alternative inputs at fuel-specific conditions and at cask

  18. An advanced deterministic method for spent fuel criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past two decades, criticality safety analysts have come to rely to a large extent on Monte Carlo methods for criticality calculations. Monte Carlo has become popular because of its capability to model complex, non-orthogonal configurations or fissile materials, typical of real world problems. Over the last few years, however, interest in determinist transport methods has been revived, due shortcomings in the stochastic nature of Monte Carlo approaches for certain types of analyses. Specifically, deterministic methods are superior to stochastic methods for calculations requiring accurate neutron density distributions or differential fluxes. Although Monte Carlo methods are well suited for eigenvalue calculations, they lack the localized detail necessary to assess uncertainties and sensitivities important in determining a range of applicability. Monte Carlo methods are also inefficient as a transport solution for multiple pin depletion methods. Discrete ordinates methods have long been recognized as one of the most rigorous and accurate approximations used to solve the transport equation. However, until recently, geometric constraints in finite differencing schemes have made discrete ordinates methods impractical for non-orthogonal configurations such as reactor fuel assemblies. The development of an extended step characteristic (ESC) technique removes the grid structure limitations of traditional discrete ordinates methods. The NEWT computer code, a discrete ordinates code built upon the ESC formalism, is being developed as part of the SCALE code system. This paper will demonstrate the power, versatility, and applicability of NEWT as a state-of-the-art solution for current computational needs.

  19. Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schafer, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will demonstrate the cost and performance of currently available equipment. The objective of this report is to examine the economics of the EG and G small-scale alcohol plant design and to determine the conditions under which a farm plant is a financially sound investment. The reference EG and G Small-Scale Plant is estimated to cost $400,000. Given the baseline conditions defined in this report, it is calculated that this plant will provide an annual after-tax of return on equity of 15%, with alcohol selling at $1.62 per gallon. It is concluded that this plant is an excellent investment in today's market, where 200 proof ethanol sells for between $1.80 and $2.00 per gallon. The baseline conditions which have a significant effect on the economics include plant design parameters, cost estimates, financial assumptions and economic forecasts. Uncertainty associated with operational variables will be eliminated when EG and G's reference plant begins operation in the fall of 1980. Plant operation will verify alcohol yield per bushel of corn, labor costs, maintenance costs, plant availability and by-product value.

  20. Analysis of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for Light Trucks and Increased Alternative Fuel Use

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002), House Resolution 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001) and Senate Bill 517 (S. 517, the Energy Policy Act of 2002). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  1. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis NREL analyzed the cost of hydrogen production via wind-based water electrolysis at 42 potential sites in 11 states across the nation. This analysis included centralized plants producing the Department of Energy (DOE) target of 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day, using both wind and grid electricity. The use of wind and grid electricity can be balanced either by power or cost, including or excluding the purchase of peak summer electricity. Current wind incentives-such

  2. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  3. Analysis of fission gas release in LWR fuel using the BISON code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; R.L. Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in the development of the finite-element based, multidimensional fuel performance code BISON of Idaho National Laboratory are presented. Specifically, the development, implementation and testing of a new model for the analysis of fission gas behavior in LWR-UO2 fuel during irradiation are summarized. While retaining a physics-based description of the relevant mechanisms, the model is characterized by a level of complexity suitable for application to engineering-scale nuclear fuel analysis and consistent with the uncertainties pertaining to some parameters. The treatment includes the fundamental features of fission gas behavior, among which are gas diffusion and precipitation in fuel grains, growth and coalescence of gas bubbles at grain faces, grain growth and grain boundary sweeping effects, thermal, athermal, and transient gas release. The BISON code incorporating the new model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments database, also included in the IAEA coordinated research projects FUMEX-II and FUMEX-III. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data at moderate burn-up is presented, pointing out an encouraging predictive accuracy, without any fitting applied to the model parameters.

  4. Characterization of Used Nuclear Fuel with Multivariate Analysis for Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayman, Kenneth J.; Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor combines gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to detect anomalies in various process streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing system. Measured spectra are compared to models of nominal behavior at each measurement location to detect unexpected changes in system behavior. In order to improve the accuracy and specificity of process monitoring, fuel characterization may be used to more accurately train subsequent models in a full analysis scheme. This paper presents initial development of a reactor-type classifier that is used to select a reactor-specific partial least squares model to predict fuel burnup. Nuclide activities for prototypic used fuel samples were generated in ORIGEN-ARP and used to investigate techniques to characterize used nuclear fuel in terms of reactor type (pressurized or boiling water reactor) and burnup. A variety of reactor type classification algorithms, including k-nearest neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses, and support vector machines, were evaluated to differentiate used fuel from pressurized and boiling water reactors. Then, reactor type-specific partial least squares models were developed to predict the burnup of the fuel. Using these reactor type-specific models instead of a model trained for all light water reactors improved the accuracy of burnup predictions. The developed classification and prediction models were combined and applied to a large dataset that included eight fuel assembly designs, two of which were not used in training the models, and spanned the range of the initial 235U enrichment, cooling time, and burnup values expected of future commercial used fuel for reprocessing. Error rates were consistent across the range of considered enrichment, cooling time, and burnup values. Average absolute relative errors in burnup predictions for validation data both within and outside the training space were 0.0574% and 0.0597%, respectively. The errors seen in this

  5. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2005 Average Household Expenditures, by Census Region ($2010) Item Energy (1) Shelter (2) Food Telephone, water and other public services Household supplies, furnishings and equipment (3) Transportation (4) Healthcare Education Personal taxes (5) Other expenditures Average Annual Income Note(s): Source(s): 1) Average household energy expenditures are calculated from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), while average expenditures for other categories are calculated from the

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.3 Residential Sector Expenditures

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 2005 Average Household Expenditures as Percent of Annual Income, by Census Region ($2010) Item Energy (1) Shelter (2) Food Telephone, water and other public services Household supplies, furnishings and equipment (3) Transportation (4) Healthcare Education Personal taxes (5) Average Annual Expenditures Average Annual Income Note(s): Source(s): 1) Average household energy expenditures are calculated from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), while average expenditures for other

  8. Radiolysis Model Sensitivity Analysis for a Used Fuel Storage Canister

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-09-20

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone (M3FT-13PN0810027) to report on a radiolysis computer model analysis that estimates the generation of radiolytic products for a storage canister. The analysis considers radiolysis outside storage canister walls and within the canister fill gas over a possible 300-year lifetime. Previous work relied on estimates based directly on a water radiolysis G-value. This work also includes that effect with the addition of coupled kinetics for 111 reactions for 40 gas species to account for radiolytic-induced chemistry, which includes water recombination and reactions with air.

  9. Nuclear Engineering Computer Models for In-Core Fuel Management Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-12

    Version 00 VPI-NECM is a nuclear engineering computer system of modules for in-core fuel management analysis. The system consists of 6 independent programs designed to calculate: (1) FARCON - neutron slowing down and epithermal group constants, (2) SLOCON - thermal neutron spectrum and group constants, (3) DISFAC - slow neutron disadvantage factors, (4) ODOG - solution of a one group neutron diffusion equation, (5) ODMUG - three group criticality problem, (6) FUELBURN - fuel burnupmore » in slow neutron fission reactors.« less

  10. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.