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Sample records for fuel ethanol industry

  1. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  2. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol-Blended Fuels A Study Guide and Overview of: * Ethanol's History in the U.S. and Worldwide * Ethanol Science and Technology * Engine Performance * Environmental Effects * Economics and Energy Security The Curriculum This curriculum on ethanol and its use as a fuel was developed by the Clean Fuels Development Coalition in cooperation with the Nebraska Ethanol Board. This material was developed in response to the need for instructional materials on ethanol and its effects on vehicle

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

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  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on AddThis.com... More

  6. Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Agency...

  7. Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc Place: Hastings, Nebraska Product: Ethanol producer and supplier References: Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc1 This...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15

  10. Chief Ethanol Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chief Ethanol Fuels Place: Hastings, NE Website: www.chiefethanolfuels.com References: Chief Ethanol Fuels1 Information About Partnership...

  11. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Digg Find

  15. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 30,319 28,678 30,812 28,059 30,228 30,258 1981-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 641 698 804 725 734

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Feedstocks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on AddThis.com... More in this section...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on AddThis.com... More in this section...

  18. Platte Valley Fuel Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Fuel Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Platte Valley Fuel Ethanol Place: Central City, Nebraska Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock References:...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  20. Ethanol: farm and fuel issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The current U.S. and world grain situations are described as well as adjustments which would be likely for fuel production of 1, 2 and 4 billion gallons of ethanol annually in the 1985-86 period. Predicted acreage shifts in corn, soybeans, wheat and the total of seven major crops are shown. The most likely effects on the feed grains markets both here and abroad are discussed. The value of corn for fuel both with and without the gasoline tax exemption is compared to the actual farm price expected if in the base case (1 billion gallons) real corn prices do not rise. In the higher 2 and 4 billion gallon cases, increases in the real cost of corn and its impact on food prices and the CPI are estimated. A theoretical maximum level of ethanol production recognizing market factors is discussed in terms of acreage, yield, corn production and the fuel ethanol available. Agricultural and other policy frameworks are discussed.

  1. Economics of ethanol fuel for crop production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontana, C.; Rotz, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate conventional and ethanol fuel consumption for crop production. The model was validated by obtaining a close comparison between simulated and actual diesel requirements for farms in Michigan. Parameters for ethanol consumption were obtained from laboratory tests using total fueling of spark-ignition engines and dual-fueling of diesel engines with ethanol. Ethanol fuel will always be more economically used in spark-ignition engines than in dual-fueled diesel engines. The price of gasoline must inflate at least 14 percent/year greater than that of ethanol and diesel must inflate at least 23 percent/year more than ethanol to allow economic use of ethanol as tractor fuel within the next 5 years. (Refs. 13).

  2. Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in a high-level blend ...

  3. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel Certification Paul Machiele, Center Director for Fuel Programs, Office of Transportation & Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency b13_machiele_2-b.pdf (124.12 KB) More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels The

  4. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  5. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  6. Low-Level Ethanol Fuel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    This fact sheet addresses: (a) why Clean Cities promotes ethanol blends; (b) how these blends affect emissions; (c) fuel performance and availability; and (d) cost, incentives, and regulations.

  7. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Protec Fuel to market and distribute commercial ethanol produced from algae for fleets and retail consumption from Algenol's commercial demonstration module in Fort Myers, Florida. ...

  8. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  9. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States By all accounts, 2009 was a volatile year for the American economy, and the ethanol industry was no exception. The combination of unstable commodity prices and weak motor fuel demand caused by the worst recession in decades presented a significant challenge for ethanol producers. Commodity prices retreated from the record

  10. Henan Tianguan Fuel Ethanol Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianguan Fuel Ethanol Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Henan Tianguan Fuel Ethanol Co Ltd Place: Nanyang, Henan Province, China Product: Project developer of a bioethanol...

  11. Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report...

  12. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water Title: Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water The present invention relates to a ...

  13. Pilot Integrated Cellulosic Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol Award Number: DE-EE0002875 March 23, 2015 ... to refine cellulosic biomass into fuel ethanol and co-products Create an ...

  14. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.

  15. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).

  16. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Benefits and Considerations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Digg Find More

  18. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energyís Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) partner Algenol signed an agreement with Protec Fuel to market and distribute commercial ethanol produced from algae for fleets and...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for

  20. Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nanyang Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang AgencyCompany Organization: BioEthanol for...

  1. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  2. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) partner Algenol signed an agreement with Protec Fuel to market and distribute commercial ethanol produced from algae for fleets and retail consumption from Algenol’s commercial demonstration module in Fort Myers, Florida. Algenol expects that the first two gas stations offering the fuel will open next year in Tampa and Orlando. The companies will distribute both E15 and E85 blends of ethanol that Algenol will produce at its future full-scale commercial plant upon completion in 2017.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Surpasses 1 Million Gallons Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons on Google Bookmark Alternative

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Dispenser Certified (August 2010) Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) on Google Bookmark Alternative

  5. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  6. Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May

    2008-03-27

    In 2007, the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) conducted a survey of US ethanol production plants to provide an assessment of the current US ethanol industry. The survey covers plant operations in both corn dry mills and wet mills. In particular, it includes plant type, ownership structure, capacity, feedstocks, production volumes, coproducts, process fuel and electricity usage, water consumption, and products transportation and distribution. This report includes a summary and analysis of these results.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Clarification of Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) Clarification of Ethanol Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Clarification of Ethanol Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Clarification of Ethanol Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  8. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  9. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    All Petrolem Reports U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity Release Date: June 29, ... This is the sixth release of the U.S. Energy Information Administration data on fuel ...

  10. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbanchuk, John

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  11. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Presentation given at the ...

  12. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout ...

  13. Microbial Fuel Cells for Recycle of Process Water from Cellulosic Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biorefineries - Energy Innovation Portal Microbial Fuel Cells for Recycle of Process Water from Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefineries Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA method was invented at ORNL for removing inhibitor compounds from process water in biomass-to-ethanol production. This invention can also be used to produce power for other industrial processes. DescriptionLarge amounts of water are used in the processing of cellulosic

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    August 2009: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level ... In 2007, UL published new testing procedures for E85 ethanol dispenser systems and, in ...

  15. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F4: Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2014 State Commercial Industrial Transportation ... a In estimating the Btu consumption of fuel ethanol, the Btu content of denaturant ...

  16. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  17. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  18. Goat Industries Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Goat Industries Fuels Place: Gwynedd, Wales, United Kingdom Zip: LL56 4PZ Product: Welsh manufacturer of biodiesel equipment that...

  19. Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. imports of fuel ethanol were low until 2004 when imports began to rise sharply. By 2006 imports of fuel ethanol reached a record high of 735.8 million gallons. As domestic supply of fuel...

  20. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study uses numerical simulations to explore the use of wet ethanol as the low-reactivity fuel and diesel as the high-reactivity fuel for RCCI operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

  1. EERE Success Story-Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partnership | Department of Energy Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership EERE Success Story-Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership October 21, 2015 - 10:35am Addthis Algenol is a company located in Fort Myers, FL that is working with its unique photosynthetic algae to take carbon dioxide that is in the atmosphere and produce a variety of affordable and sustainable biofuels. The scale-up of this work by Algenol was funded in part by the U.S.

  2. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos; Graves, Ronald Lee; Storey, John Morse Elliot; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Charles Scott; Thomas, John Foster

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  3. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the ...

  4. Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

    1980-01-31

    The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in Classic Cars Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides

  6. Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007 Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007 The survey covers plant operations in corn dry mills, wet ...

  7. Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Transportation Activity and Potential Distribution Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of fuel ethanol transportation activity and potential distribution constraints if the total 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022 is mandated by EPA under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Ethanol transport by domestic truck, marine, and rail distribution systems from ethanol refineries to blending terminals is estimated using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) North American Infrastructure Network Model. Most supply and demand data provided by EPA were geo-coded and using available commercial sources the transportation infrastructure network was updated. The percentage increases in ton-mile movements by rail, waterways, and highways in 2022 are estimated to be 2.8%, 0.6%, and 0.13%, respectively, compared to the corresponding 2005 total domestic flows by various modes. Overall, a significantly higher level of future ethanol demand would have minimal impacts on transportation infrastructure. However, there will be spatial impacts and a significant level of investment required because of a considerable increase in rail traffic from refineries to ethanol distribution terminals.

  8. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  9. Ethanol Fuels Incentives Applied in the U.S.: Reviewed from California's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This report describes measures employed by state governments and by the federal government to advance the production and use of ethanol fuel in the United States. The future of ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel poses a number of increasingly-important issues and decisions for California government, as the state becomes a larger consumer, and potentially a larger producer, of ethanol.

  10. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbanchuk, John M.

    2008-02-20

    Despite the challenges to profitability the ethanol industry continues to expand. Total ethanol production for 2007 is estimated at nearly 6.5 billion gallons, 33 percent more than 2006. This study estimates the contribution of the ethanol industry to the American economy in 2007.

  11. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the recently released BioPower engines. analysis_saab2007.pdf (248.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon

  12. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry "The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade. " Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry (1.03 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Biofuels Industry: Mind the Gap Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power - Committee on Energy

  13. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The fuel economy of a vehicle is dependent on many things, one of which is the fuel used in the vehicle. Two National Laboratories recently studied the effects that ethanol blends have on the fuel...

  14. Fuel and Fuel Additive Registration Testing of Ethanol-Diesel Blend for O2Diesel, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanick, E. R.

    2004-02-01

    O2 Diesel Inc. (formerly AAE Technologies Inc.) tested a heavy duty engine with O2Diesel (diesel fuel with 7.7% ethanol and additives) for regulated emissions and speciation of vapor-phase and semi-volatile hydrocarbon compounds. This testing was performed in support of EPA requirements for registering designated fuels and fuel additives as stipulated by sections 211(b) and 211(e) of the Clean Air Act.

  15. Current State of the U S Ethanol Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry November 30, 2010 Fulfillment of Subcontract No. 02-5025 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585 Prepared by Cardno ENTRIX John Urbanchuk, Technical Director 10 Corporate Circle, Suite 300, New Castle, DE 19720 Tel 302.395.1919 Fax 302.395.1920 www.cardnoentrix.com This report is dedicated to the memory of Lawrence J. Russo, Jr. in honor of his devoted service to the Office of

  16. Computerized simulation of fuel consumption in the agriculture industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontana, C.; Rotz, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate conventional and ethanol fuel consumption for crop production. The model was validated by obtaining a close comparison between simulated and actual diesel requirements for farms in Michigan. Parameters for ethanol consumption were obtained from laboratory tests using total fueling of spark-ignition engines and dual-fueling of diesel engines with ethanol. Ethanol fuel will always be more economically used in spark-ignition engines than in dual-fueled diesel engines. The price of gasoline must inflate at least 14 percent/yr greater than that of ethanol and diesel must inflate at least 23 percent/yr more than ethanol to allow economic use of ethanol as tractor fuel within the next 5 years.

  17. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  18. Corn Ethanol Industry Process Data: September 27, 2007 - January 27, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BBI International

    2009-02-01

    This subcontract report supplies timely data on the historical make-up of the corn ethanol industry and a current estimate of where the industry stands. The subcontractor has also reported on the expected future trends of the corn ethanol dry grind industry.

  19. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  20. Customizable Fuel Processor Technology Benefits Fuel Cell Power Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-IN-00-030) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Customizable Fuel Processor Technology Benefits Fuel Cell Power Industry (ANL-IN-00-030) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Figure 1. Schematic of a functional fuel processor</p> Figure 1. Schematic of a functional fuel processor

  1. 2007 Year in Review - U.S. Ethanol Industry: The Next Inflection Point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Brian

    2008-05-01

    This report provides an objective view of the evolving ethanol industry and many of its key participants. This report covers the period Jan 2007‚ÄďFeb 2008.

  2. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  3. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  4. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and

  6. Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act Self Certifications Title II of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), as amended ...

  7. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to

  8. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Fact sheet offers an overview of the U.S. Air ...

  9. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  10. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect -MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant

  11. Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Self-certification of power plants in acordance with Title II of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.).

  12. Ethanol as a fuel: design and construction of an ethanol production facility for a farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelger, E.C. III

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation describes the production of ethanol from biomass. It includes descriptions of photosynthesis, feedstock preparation, fermentation, distillation and end use. Technical problems and limitations as well as social, political, and economic aspects of producing ethanol are addressed. The potential of small-scale ethanol production and specific case studies are reviewed. A low-cost efficient design for a single farm ethanol facility is included. (DMC)

  13. Feedstock selection for small- and intermediate-scale fuel ethanol distilleries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meo, M.

    1985-07-01

    A variety of commercial and experimental starch- and sugar-rich crops were evaluated for their suitability as feedstocks for both small-scale, on-farm and intermediate-scale, off-farm fuel ethanol production in California's Sacramento Valley. Solutions of linear programming models indicated that sweet sorghum is the least-cost feedstock for on-farm production of 50,000 gallons of fuel ethanol per year. Fodder beet proved to be the least-cost feedstock for off-farm production of 1 million gallons of fuel ethanol per year.

  14. Renewable Fuels Association’s National Ethanol Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mark Elless, a BETO technology manager, will be representing BETO at the 20th anniversary of the National Ethanol Conference.

  15. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record #13007: Industry Deployed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record 13007: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Backup Power (BuP) DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 13007: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Backup Power (BuP) This record from the ...

  16. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability The issues

  17. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    Report identifies and documents plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017 as a guide for setting government policy and targeting government investment to areas with greatest potential impact.

  18. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

  19. NREL Industry Partners Move Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Forward...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory (NREL) and DuPont will be put to use to develop and commercialize technology to produce cellulosic ethanol from non-food sources. DuPont and its partner Genencor, ...

  20. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record, Record # 13008: Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks | Department of Energy Record, Record # 13008: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record, Record # 13008: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks This program record from the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program focuses on deployments of fuel cell powered lift trucks. 13008_industry_lift_truck_deployments.pdf (296.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material

  1. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Note: In previous ethanol capacity reports, EIA included data on maximum sustainable ... The collection and publication efforts for the maximum sustainable data value were ...

  2. Alternative Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Biodiesel Electricity Ethanol Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane Addthis Related Articles ... Homes & Buildings Industry Vehicles & Fuels Fuels Electricity Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane

  3. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition ... for Fully Installed Fuel Cell Systems ......19 8 Logit ...

  4. Cold start characteristics of ethanol as an automobile fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1982-01-01

    An alcohol fuel burner and decomposer in which one stream of fuel is preheated by passing it through an electrically heated conduit to vaporize the fuel, the fuel vapor is mixed with air, the air-fuel mixture is ignited and combusted, and the combustion gases are passed in heat exchange relationship with a conduit carrying a stream of fuel to decompose the fuel forming a fuel stream containing hydrogen gas for starting internal combustion engines, the mass flow of the combustion gas being increased as it flows in heat exchange relationship with the fuel carrying conduit, is disclosed.

  5. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ‚Äď Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2‚ÄďB: End Use and Fuel Certification Bill Woebkenberg, Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Senior Engineer, Mercedes-Benz

  6. NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2011-10-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were

  7. NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; West, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were

  8. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  9. U.S. Fuel Cell Council: The Voice of the Fuel Cell Industry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fuel Cell Council: The Voice of the Fuel Cell Industry U.S. Fuel Cell Council: The Voice of the Fuel Cell Industry Presentation to the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group about_usfcc.pdf (152.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Council Working Group on Aircraft and Aircraft Ground Support Fuel Cell Applications Legislative Update: State and Regional Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Initiatives Conference Call Micro and Man-Portable Fuel Cells

  10. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  11. Demonstration and implementation of ethanol as an aviation fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the viability of ethanol as an aviation fuel at appropriate locations and audiences in the participating Biomass Energy Program Regions, and to promote implementation projects in the area. Seven demonstrations were to be performed during the Summer 1995 through December 1996 period. To maximize the cost effectiveness of the program, additional corporate co-sponsorships were sought at each demonstration site and the travel schedule was arranged to take advantage of appropriate events taking place in the vicinity of the schedule events or enroute. This way, the original funded amount was stretched to cover another year of activities increasing the number of demonstrations from seven to thirty-nine. While the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) contract focused on ethanol as an aviation fuel, RAFDC also promoted the broader use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. The paper summarizes locations and occasions, and gives a brief description of each demonstration/exhibit/presentation held during the term of the project. Most of the demonstrations took place at regularly scheduled air shows, such as the Oshkosh, Wisconsin Air Show. The paper also reviews current and future activities in the areas of certification, emission testing, the international Clean Airports Program, air pollution monitoring with instrumented aircraft powered by renewable fuels, training operation and pilot project on ethanol, turbine fuel research, and educational programs.

  12. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  13. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    07-01-3994 Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol- Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Brian H. West, Alberto J. López, Timothy J. Theiss, Ronald L. Graves, John M. Storey and Samuel A. Lewis Oak Ridge National Laboratory ABSTRACT Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on

  14. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  15. Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wendy Clark Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy,

  16. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  17. Fuel ethanol and South Carolina: a feasibility assessment. Volume II. Detailed report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of producing ethanol from carbohydrates in the State of South Carolina is discussed. It is preliminary in the sense that it provides partial answers to some of the questions that exist concerning ethanol production in the state, and is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject. A great deal more work needs to be done as ethanol fuels become a more significant element in South Carolina's energy mix. The existing carbohydrate resource base in the state is reviewed, the extent to which this base can be increased is estimated, and importation of out-of-state feedstocks to expand the base further is discussed. A discussion of the economics of ethanol production is provided for farm-scale and commercial-sized plants, as is a general discussion of environmental impacts and state permitting and approval requirements. Several other considerations affecting the small-scale producer are addressed, including the use of agricultural residues and manure-derived methane to fuel the ethanol production process. Research needs are identified, and brief case studies for Williamsburg and Orangeburg counties are provided.

  18. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  19. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  20. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical ... kW Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Material Handling ...

  1. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For the fuels most commonly used by U.S. industry, including natural gas, propane, and fuel oils, approximately one cubic foot of air is required to release about 100 British ...

  2. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  3. Farm-scale production of fuel ethanol and wet grain from corn in a batch process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westby, C.A.; Gibbons, W.R.

    1982-07-01

    The batch production of fuel grade ethanol and distillers' wet grain (wet solids) in a farm-scale process (1240-15,580 L/batch) is described. The procedure employs yeast fermentation of amylase-treated corn mash and a two-stage distillation. Primary emphasis in this study was on the cooking, fermentation and centrifugation steps. Without recycling, fermentation of the mash yielded beers with 10.0-10.5% ethanol. Recycling of stillage supernatant at full, 75, or 50% strengths produced enriched mashes that after 48-hour fermentation yielded beers with 5-14% more ethanol. Recycling twice with full-strength stillage supernatant at pH 7.0 increased the ethanol yield in the final beer 16.5%; however, the time to complete the final fermentation was extended from 48 to 72 hours and salt buildup occurred. By recycling at pH 5.4, it was possible to avoid salt buildup and obtain beers with 10.3-10.5% ethanol. Recycling resulted in increased levels of glucose, starch, crude protein, and fat in the beer and a reduced moisture content while the wet solids showed an increased starch content. Centrifugation after cooking or fermentation instead of after distillation reduced the mash volume 17-20% and this lowered the ethanol yield in the subsequently produced beer. Fermentation of a volume-restored mash supernatant gave a beer with only 9.25% ethanol. Mash wet solids varied somewhat chemically from beer and stillage solids. An economic and energy balance analysis of various modes of plant operation are provided and plant design considerations are suggested. (Refs. 31).

  4. Decision guide to farm fuel production: ethanol, methanol, or vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstetter, J.D.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform farmers of the choices they have today regarding production of motor vehicle fuels. Its intent is to inform farmers of what is involved in producing an alternative fuel, its compatibility with existing engines, the costs involved, and the markets for the fuel and any by-products. This paper is not a how-to-do-it manual or a policy document. Some of the data has been developed from the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program managed by the Washington State Energy Office. Part One provides background information on Washington's fuel use patterns, highlighting the agricultural sector. In Part Two, general considerations common to all alternative fuels are covered. Part Three contains three detailed discussions of the alternative fuels most favored by Washington farmers for production and use - ethanol, vegetable oils, and methanol. The Appendix contains a brief summary of the 11 ethanol projects in Washington funded as a result of the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program. 5 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  6. PRAJ Industries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    molasses based distillery technology, plant and equipment for alcohol, fuel ethanol and beer production. References: PRAJ Industries Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  7. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  8. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallaro, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  9. DOE Announces $14 Million Industry Partnership Projects to Increase Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency | Department of Energy 4 Million Industry Partnership Projects to Increase Fuel Efficiency DOE Announces $14 Million Industry Partnership Projects to Increase Fuel Efficiency May 26, 2005 - 1:02pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman today announced a public-private partnership between the Department of Energy, industry and academia aimed at significantly improving the vehicle efficiency of cars and trucks through advances in technology. The partnership

  10. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allow a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.

  11. Consumer Choice of E85 Denatured Ethanol Fuel Blend: Price Sensitivity and Cost of Limited Fuel Availability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David

    2014-12-01

    The promotion of greater use of E85, a fuel blend of 85% denatured ethanol, by flex-fuel vehicle owners is an important means of complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard 2. A good understanding of factors affecting E85 demand is necessary for effective policies that promote E85 and for developing models that forecast E85 sales in the United States. In this paper, the sensitivity of aggregate E85 demand to E85 and gasoline prices is estimated, as is the relative availability of E85 versus gasoline. The econometric analysis uses recent data from Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa. The more recent data allowmore¬†¬Ľ a better estimate of nonfleet demand and indicate that the market price elasticity of E85 choice is substantially higher than previously estimated.¬ę¬†less

  12. Renewable Fuels Assocation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DC Zip: 20001 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: US national trade association for the ethanol industry, the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) has been working as the "Voice of the...

  13. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record #13007: Industry Deployed Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Backup Power (BuP) | Department of Energy Record #13007: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Backup Power (BuP) DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record #13007: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Backup Power (BuP) This record from the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program describes the number of current and planned fuel cell deployments for backup power applications. 13007_industry_bup_deployments.pdf (307.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Early Stage Market Change and Effects of the Recovery

  14. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  15. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Fact sheet offers an overview of the U.S. Air Force's fuel-efficiency program. af_fuelefficiency.pdf (939.66 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation National Clean Fleets Partnership Fact Sheet and Progress Update Report of the DOE-DOE Workshop on Fuel Cells in Aviation: Workshop Summary and Action Plan

  16. The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C.

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

  17. NREL Teams with Industry to Validate Methanol Fuel Cell Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Teams with Industry to Validate Methanol Fuel Cell Technology February 18, 2011 The ... The total cost of the project is just over 2 million; NREL will contribute 900,000 to ...

  18. The U.S. Dry-Mill Ethanol Industry: Biobased Products and Bioenergy Initiative Success Stories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the history of ethanol production in the United States and describes innovations in dry-mill ethanol production.

  19. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  20. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  1. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study of the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.

  2. Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry March 30, 2009 Connecticut Center for Advance Technology, Inc Paul M. Aresta - Energy Program Manager, CCAT 2 Drivers for Market Growth * World electric consumption is projected to more than double between 2003 and 2030. * Transportation demands for petroleum currently exceed domestic supply. Alternative fuels will be required for energy security. * Increased energy efficiency for transportation and electric generation will be required

  3. Western Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Company LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Ethanol Company LLC Place: Placentia, California Zip: 92871 Product: California-based fuel ethanol distribution and...

  4. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2012-03-30

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

  5. Fuel quality issues in the oil heat industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of fuel oil plays an essential role in combustion performance and efficient operation of residential heating equipment. With the present concerns by the oil-heat industry of declining fuel-oil quality, a study was initiated to identify the factors that have brought about changes in the quality of distillate fuel. A background of information will be provided to the industry, which is necessary to deal with the problems relating to the fuel. The high needs for servicing heating equipment are usually the result of the poor handling characteristics of the fuel during cold weather, the buildup of dirt and water in storage tanks, and microbial growth. A discussion of how to deal with these problems is presented in this paper. The effectiveness of fuel additives to control these problems of quality is also covered to help users better understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Test data have been collected which measure and compare changes in the properties of fuel using selected additives.

  6. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record, Record # 13008: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Date: 10/04/2013 Title: Industry Deployed Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks Originators: Pete Devlin, Jim Alkire, Sara Dillich, Kristen Nawoj, Stephanie Byham Approved by: Sunita Satyapal and Rick Farmer Date: 10/15/2013 Item: Table 1: Number of fuel cell deployments (installed and on-order) for applications in material handling equipment (MHE). The successful deployment of nearly 700 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fuel cell material handling units has led to almost 5,400 industry installation

  7. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  8. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  9. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  10. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure | Department of Energy and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure This report by Oak Ridge National Laboratory assesses the current status of automotive fuel cell

  11. Argonne works with marine industry on new fuel | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an alternative to the 15 percent ethanol blend for much of the recreational boating fleet. ... "Butanol at 16 percent blend level works as well as ethanol at 10 percent under tested ...

  12. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  13. DuPont’s Cellulosic Ethanol Grand Opening Marks a Milestone for the Advanced Biofuels Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On a bright, crisp October morning in Iowa, I had the privilege to speak at the grand opening of DuPont‚Äôs cellulosic ethanol biorefinery‚ÄĒthe fourth biorefinery of its kind in the United States and the largest in the world. This impressive plant is equipped to produce 30 million gallons of ethanol each year from the leftover stalks and leaves of the corn plant, called corn stover.

  14. Ethanol Tolerant Yeast for Improved Production of Ethanol from Biomass -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol Basics Ethanol is a widely used, domesti- cally produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Fuel ethanol contains the same chemical compound as beverage alcohol, but it is denatured with a small amount of gasoline or other chemicals during the production process, making it unsafe for human consumption. Ethanol's primary market drivers are the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard requiring its use and

  15. Cellulosic Ethanol Technology on Track to Being Competitive With Other Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been driving down the cost of cellulosic ethanol and overcoming the technical challenges that surround it-major milestones toward the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012.

  16. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  17. Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Presented by Paul Aresta at the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. on March 30, 2009 aresta_job_creation.pdf (90.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2014 State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2011

  18. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  19. I DOE/RA/50354 FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A 1~--QfY FUEL ETHANOL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Material Balance 3.3 Energy Balance 3.4 Water Balance 4 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 4. 1 ... yeast formed per pound ethanol Pounds water- produced pei' pound yeast Pound carbon ...

  20. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record, Record # 13008: Industry...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    record from the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program focuses on deployments of fuel cell powered lift trucks. ... An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel ...

  1. DOE/RA/50354 Volume II FEAS)IBILITY STUDY FOR A 10 MM GPY FUEL ETHANOL PLANT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE/RA/50354 Volume II FEAS)IBILITY STUDY FOR A 10 MM GPY FUEL ETHANOL PLANT BRADY HOT SPRINGS, NEVADA . Volume II - Geothermal Resource, Agricultural Feedstock, Markets and E c o q h i c Viability 8 *e _. - - * 7 , - - - September 1980 i Prepared by Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. Fernley, Nevada and The Andersen Group DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof,

  2. New Analysis Methods Estimate a Critical Property of Ethanol Fuel Blends (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods developed at NREL disclose the impact of ethanol on gasoline blend heat of vaporization with potential for improved efficiency of spark-ignition engines. More stringent standards for fuel economy, regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, and the mandated increase in the use of renew- able fuel are driving research to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines. When fuel properties such as octane number and evaporative cooling (heat of vaporization or HOV) are insufficient, they

  3. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  4. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for initial identification and evaluation of the opportunities being provided. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings (June 2003) (445.24 KB) More Documents & Publications This thermoelastic system provides a promising

  5. NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Teams with Navy, Private Industry to Make Jet Fuel from Switchgrass Project could ... Department of Defense are poised to help private firms build the huge biorefineries that ...

  6. Hydrogen fuel cells in chemical industry: The assemini project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caserza, G.; Bozzoni, T.; Porcino, G.; Pasquinucci, A.

    1996-12-31

    Chemical and petrochemical industries generate large quantities of hydrogen-rich streams, in the range 50%-100% H{sub 2} concentration by volume, as by-products of electrochemical or dehydrogenation processes, or exhausts/purging in hydrogenation processes. Due to safety aspects, and because of the low density, which makes difficult transportation and storage, such streams often constitute a problem for plant managers. In most cases recycling within the plant processes is not possible, and transportation to other sites, generally by truck after compression in cylinders, is not economical. Many of these streams arc therefore simply co-burned in plant boilers, and in some cases even wasted by venting or flaring. Their value ranges from zero (if vented), to the value of the fuel used in the boiler, where they are co-burned.

  7. Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Fuel from farms: a guide to small-scale ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-02-01

    A guide on fermentation processes with emphasis on small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as a source of raw material is published. The current status of on-farm ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors is presented. Decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in decision making are included. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Diagrams of fermentors and distilling apparatus are included. (DC)

  9. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With ‚ÄúRenewable Super Premium‚ÄĚ

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2‚ÄďB: End Use and Fuel Certification Brian West, Deputy Director for the Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  10. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Legacy 151000* -- Geothermal Energy-- Direct Energy Utilization; 140504 -- Solar Energy Conversion-- Biomass Production & Conversion-- (-1989); 090222 -- Alcohol Fuels-- ...

  11. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... -- Alcohol Fuels-- Preparation from Wastes or Biomass-- (1976-1989); 140504 -- Solar Energy Conversion-- Biomass Production & Conversion-- (-1989); 151000 -- Geothermal ...

  12. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Theiss, Timothy J.; Graves, Ronald L.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.

  13. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    highest potential to save aviation fuel. All MAF personnel are encouraged to propose fuel savings ideas. These ideas are then processed as initiatives, assigned a primary point of ...

  14. Fuel cells at the crossroads : attitudes regarding the investment climate for the US fuel cell industry and a projection of industry job creation potential.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-05-27

    Fuel Cells at the Crossroads examines financial community and fuel cell industry views on the investment climate for the fuel cell industry. It also explores the investment history of the US fuel cell industry and projects potential future job creation. The scope of the study included the transportation, stationary power generation and portable sectors. Interviews were conducted with industry and financial experts. The results of the interviews provide a snapshot of industry perspective just prior to President Bush's endorsement of a hydrogen economy in his 2003 State of the Union address. In April 2003, we conducted a spot check to test whether the State of the Union address had changed opinions. We found little change among the financial and investment communities, but some guarded new optimism among industry leaders. The general outlook of our sample was cautiously hopeful. There is no question, however, that the current climate is one of great uncertainty, particularly when compared with the enthusiasm that existed just a few years ago. Among other things: (1) Respondents generally believed that the energy industry will undergo profound change over the next few decades, resulting in some form of hydrogen economy. They acknowledged, however, that huge technology and cost hurdles must be overcome to achieve a hydrogen economy. (2) Respondents were worried about the future of the industry, including timeframes for market development, foreign competition, technical problems, and the current poor investment environment. (3) Respondents generally believed that the US federal government must provide strong leadership to ensure American leadership in the fuel cell industry. They believe that governments in Europe and Japan are highly committed to fuel cells, thus providing European and Japanese companies with significant advantages. (4) Respondents frequently mentioned several areas of concern, including the situation in Iraq, the increased commitment to fuel cells in

  15. Workshop on the Increased Use of Ethanol and Alkylates in Automotive Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, D W

    2001-05-04

    The goals of the Workshop are to: (1) Review the existing state of knowledge on (a) physicochemical properties, multi-media transport and fate, exposure mechanisms and (b) release scenarios associated with the production, distribution, and use of ethanol and alkylates in gasoline; (2) Identify key regulatory, environmental, and resource management issues and knowledge gaps associated with anticipated changes in gasoline formulation in California; and (3) Develop a roadmap for addressing issues/knowledge gaps.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Dispenser Requirement A retail motor fuel dispenser that dispenses fuel containing more than 10% ethanol by volume must be labeled with the capital letter "E" ...

  17. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities | Department of Energy Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities This report prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory examines the progress that has been made in U.S. non-automotive fuel cell

  18. First United Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: First United Ethanol LLC Place: Camilla, Georgia Zip: 31730 Product: First United Ethanol LLC (FUEL) was formed to construct a 100 MGY...

  19. Identifying Opportunities and Impacts of Fuel Switching in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Ramesh C.; Jamison, Keith; Thomas, Daniel E.

    2006-08-01

    The underlying purpose of this white paper is to examine fuel switching opportunities in the U.S. industrial sector and make strategic recommendations‚ÄĒleading to application of the best available technologies and development of new technologies‚ÄĒthat will introduce fuel use flexibility as an economically feasible option for plant operators, as a means to condition local fuel demands and a hedge against the local rises in fuel prices.

  20. Challenges of Electric Power Industry Restructuring for Fuel Suppliers

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry.

  1. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record #13007: Industry Deployed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The funding of 903 Department of Energy (DOE) fuel cell backup power systems has led to over 3,500 ...stfuelcellorderinhistory.asp 5. "PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Backup ...

  2. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  3. Alcohol-fuel symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the state-of-the-art of ethanol production and use. The following topics were discussed: ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines; ethanol production system design; the economics of producing fuel alcohol in form size plants; alternate feedstocks for ethanol stillage as a cattle feed; high energy sorghum, ethanol versus other alternative fuels; alcohol-fuel; legal and policy issues in ethanol production; and small scale fuel alcohol production. (DMC)

  4. Verifying the Benefits and Resolving the Issues in the Commercialization of Ethanol Containing Diesel Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  5. Wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea: an assessment of industrial combustion equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendis, M.S.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised. Potential industrial wood-fuel systems that utilize wood, wood wastes, charcoal and pyrolytic oils and which are particularly applicable to Papua New Guinea are identified. An economic assessment of wood-fuel systems is conducted for eleven case studies which are representative of a cross-section of Papua New Guinea industry. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to aid both government and industry in Papua New Guinea in fostering the development of appropriate wood-fuel technologies and thereby help displace the consumption of imported petroleum.

  6. Iridium‚ąíRuthenium Alloyed Nanoparticles for the Ethanol Oxidation Fuel Cell Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su D.; Du, W.; Deskins, N.A.; Teng, X.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, carbon supported Ir-Ru nanoparticles with average sizes ranging from 2.9 to 3.7 nm were prepared using a polyol method. The combined characterization techniques, that is, scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were used to determine an Ir-Ru alloy nanostructure. Both cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (CA) results demonstrate that Ir{sub 77}Ru{sub 23}/C bears superior catalytic activities for the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to Ir/C and commercial Pt/C catalysts. In particular, the Ir{sub 77}Ru{sub 23}/C catalyst shows more than 21 times higher mass current density than that of Pt/C after 2 h reaction at a potential of 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl in CA measurement. Density functional theory simulations also demonstrate the superiority of Ir-Ru alloys compared to Ir for the ethanol oxidation reaction.

  7. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  8. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The report combines information from interviews with automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles in Japan, Korea, Germany, and the United ...

  9. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol Ďbeersí in 6 to 12 hours using either a Ďconsecutive batchí or Ďcontinuous cascadeí implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The Ďconsecutive batchí technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  10. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL): Industrial Collaborations with the Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Accelerating Widespread Commercialization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FCTO T2M Event at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar (11/11/14) Industrial Collaborations with the ORNL Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Accelerating Widespread Commercialization David L. Wood, III, Ph.D. Senior Scientist & Fuel Cell Technologies Program Manager T2M Event at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar Los Angeles, CA 11/11/14 2 FCTO T2M Event at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar (11/11/14) ORNL Overview * Founded: 1943 as a key Manhattan Project location. * Location: Oak Ridge, TN * 4250 Employees * Budget:

  12. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (CLFP) offers incentives to commercial and industrial gas customers who install energy efficient equipment in existing buildings. Incentives are available for boilers...

  13. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to commercial and industrial electric customers who wish to install energy efficient equipment and measures in eligible facilities. Incentives are...

  14. The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svendsen, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification. Data are presented on; current (1996) regulatory status of fossil-fuel combustion wastes; FBC technology identified for further study; CIBO special project methods; Bevill amendment study factors; data collection; and CIBO special project status.

  15. The Fuel Cell Industrial Vehicle Jobs Act (H.R. 1659) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Fuel Cell Industrial Vehicle Jobs Act (H.R. 1659) The Fuel Cell Industrial Vehicle Jobs Act (H.R. 1659) Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Where the Jobs Are: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Your Area, July 19, 2011. webinarjul19_lipsey.pdf (3.61 MB) More Documents & Publications GREENING DOE HEADQUARTERS Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Yucca Mountain - U.S. Department of Energy's Reply to the Responses to

  16. Analysis of Fuel Flexibility Opportunities and Constraints in the U.S. Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-03-07

    The purpose of this assessment was to determine if flexible, alternative fuel use in industry, beyond switching from natural gas to petroleum derivatives, presents a sizeable opportunity for the reduction in use of natural gas. Furthermore, the assessment was to determine what programmatic activities the DOE could undertake to accelerate a fuel flexibility program for industry. To this end, a six-part framework (see Figure ES-1) was used to identify the most promising fuel flexibility options, and what level of accomplishment could be achieved, based on DOE leadership.

  17. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J; Kass, Michael D; Janke, Christopher James

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  18. Grain ethanol as a petroleum substitute: a perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alston, T.G.

    1980-04-01

    Present tax exemptions for gasohol are more than sufficient to move ethanol into the gasoline market in a number of states. The principal near-term response to this profit opportunity, production of ethanol from feed grains, matches a limited biomass resource to an enormous market. This report estimates upper-bound prices for feed grains resulting from gasohol tax exemptions and concludes that grain price increases could be substantial. As shown else-where by Alston and Asbury, industrial uses constitute a more economical market for grain ethanol, one in which the product is now competitive with ethanol derived from petroleum and natural gas liquids. Without tax exemptions for gasohol, grain ethanol would now be displacing petroleum in the industrial market at a net economic gain, rather than in the fuel market at a net economic loss. The present analysis indicates that this industrial market for ethanol could grow significantly, principally by use of grain ethanol as an intermediate in production of chemicals now derived from petroleum and natural gas.

  19. Opportunities for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications - Volume I

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Micropower and Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems in Industrial Applications Volume I: Main Text Subcontract No. 85X-TA009V Final Report to Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation and the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies January 2000 Notice: This report was prepared by Arthur D. Little for the account of Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation and the DOE's Office of Industrial Technologies. This report represents Arthur D. Little's best judgment in light of information made

  20. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II. deer12_ickes.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on

  1. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol, June 2006 Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

  2. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol ...

  3. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Can industry`s `fourth` fossil fuel establish presence in US?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armor, A.F.; Dene, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    After five years of commercial experience burning Orimulsion overseas, US utilities are now evaluating the new fuel as a serious alternative to oil. In their relentless drive to remain competitive, electric utilities with oil-fired generating units are searching for lower cost fuel alternatives. Because of high fuel prices, oil-fired units have low capacity factors. Only 23 out of 142 oil-capable units in the US had capacity factors greater than 50% in 1993; the average was a mere 24%. Utility consumption of fuel oil slid from over 600,000 barrels (bbl)/day in 1989 to less than 200,000 bbl/day last year. Orimulsion now fuels nearly 3,000 MW/yr worldwide. The UK`s PowerGen Ltd, currently the world`s largest consumer of Orimulsion, fires some 10-million bbl/yr at two 500-MW units at its Ince plant and three 120-MW units at its Richborough plant. Both plants formerly burned fuel oil, and have been using Orimulsion since 1991. Canada`s New Brunswick Power Corp has fired Orimulsion in two units at its Dalhousie plant since 1994 (Power, April 1995, p 27); one 105-MW unit was originally designed for fuel oil, the other 212-MW unit was designed for coal. Last year, Denmark`s SK Power converted its coal-fired, 700-MW Asnaes Unit 5 to Orimulsion firing. And in the US, Florida Power and Light Co. (FP and L) has signed a 20-yr fuel supply contract with Bitor America Corp (Boca Raton, Fla.), for two 800-MW units at the oil-fired Manatee plant, contingent on securing necessary permits. The Manatee installation (Power, September 1994, p 57) would be the first in the US to burn the fuel. Today, five years after Orimulsion begun to be used commercially, many of the lingering questions involving the new fuel`s handling, transportation, combustion, emissions control, spill control, and waste utilization have been settled. Several US utilities have expressed serious interest in the fuel as an alternative to oil.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Dispenser Labeling Requirement All equipment used to dispense motor fuel containing at least 1% ethanol or methanol must be clearly labeled to inform customers that the fuel contains ethanol or methanol. (Reference Texas Statutes, Agriculture Code 17.051

  6. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  7. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  8. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel This study ...

  9. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  10. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site‚Äôs Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: ‚ÄĘ Facility and system description ‚ÄĘ Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates ‚ÄĘ Groundwater monitoring data ‚ÄĘ Status of special compliance conditions ‚ÄĘ Discussion of the facility‚Äôs environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  11. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  12. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site‚Äôs Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: ‚ÄĘ Facility and system description ‚ÄĘ Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates ‚ÄĘ Groundwater monitoring data ‚ÄĘ Status of special compliance conditions ‚ÄĘ Discussion of the facility‚Äôs environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  13. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  14. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  15. Stocks of Fuel Ethanol

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History U.S. 20,390 20,603 20,460 20,425 20,817 20,926 2010-2016 PADD 1 7,399 7,375 6,918 7,488 7,170 7,365 2010-2016 PADD 2 6,478 6,366 6,777 6,754 6,880 6,894 2010-2016 PADD 3 3,713 4,036 3,792 3,201 3,718 3,648 2010-2016 PADD 4 321 330 321 343 346 359 2010-2016 PADD 5 2,479 2,495

  16. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry, Government Policy and Future Opportunities. Fuel cells (FCs)are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several

  17. Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high octane ethanol blended fuels will require careful consideration of material compatibility issues with existing infrastructure Outline: 1. Ethanol blended fuels ...

  18. Cradle-to-Grave Nuclear Fuel Supply Assurance Workshop: Industryís Potential Role

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bengelsdorf, Harold; Hund, Gretchen; Kessler, Carol E.; Mahy, Heidi A.; McGoldrick, Fred; Seward, Amy M.

    2007-09-30

    The Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security hosted a workshop on June 6, 2007 in Washington D.C. to discuss the feasibility, merits and implications of the United States offering cradle-to-grave nuclear fuel cycle services to other countries. The workshop consisted of a small group of senior individuals from the private sector, government and the national laboratories. The workshop is summarized and recommendations given.

  19. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Divita, Vincent

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET ‚ÄĒ (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol ‚ÄĒ to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  20. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  1. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  2. Breaking down the barriers to commercialization of fuel cells in transportation through Government - industry R&D programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalk, S.G.; Venkateswaran, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    PEM fuel cell technology is rapidly emerging as a viable propulsion alternative to the internal combustion engine. Fuel cells offer the advantages of low emissions, high efficiency, fuel flexibility, quiet and continuous operation, and modularity. Over the last decade, dramatic advances have been achieved in the performance and cost of PEM fuel cell technologies for automotive applications. However, significant technical barriers remain to making fuel cell propulsion systems viable alternatives to the internal combustion engine. This paper focuses on the progress achieved and remaining technical barriers while highlighting Government-industry R&D efforts that are accelerating fuel cell technology toward commercialization.

  3. List of Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Refueling Stations Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Alternative Vehicle Conversion Credits - Corporate (Louisiana)...

  4. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  5. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  6. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  7. Fuel ethanol and high protein feed from corn and corn-whey mixtures in a farm-scale plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost savings of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided. (Refs. 46).

  8. Industrial process fuel switching analysis. Topical report, September 1990-March 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study was undertaken to develop accurate, up-to-date profiles of process heat energy consumption and assess the fuel switching capability from natural gas to No. 6 oil for the industrial sector. Energy profiles of drying, calcining, clay firing, petroleum refining, copper smelting, chemical fluid heating, steel heating, iron melting, iron smelting, and ferrous heat treating processes were developed. The natural gas capacity switchable to No. 6 residual oil was also determined. It was determined that 18% (262 trillion Btu) of the natural gas capacity was convertible to No. 6 oil in these processes. Fuel switching capability of No. 6 oil is on the decline in many of the industrial processes. This is due to: replacement of aging equipment capable to burning both natural gas and No. 6 oil, availability and cost effectiveness of natural gas utilization, and emission standards set by amendments to the Clean Air Act and other environmental regulations.

  9. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 őľm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: Alternative Fuels Research and Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Increasing the fuels available to drivers reduces price volatility, supports domestic industries, and increases environmental sustainability. VTO supports efforts to help consumers to learn more about alternative fuels (including biofuels like ethanol and natural gas), as well as research and development to increase their availability and usage.

  11. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site‚Äôs Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: ‚ÄĘ Facility and system description ‚ÄĘ Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates ‚ÄĘ Groundwater monitoring data ‚ÄĘ Status of special compliance conditions ‚ÄĘ Discussion of the facility‚Äôs environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality‚Äôs groundwater quality standard levels.

  12. New Guinea schedules ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-28

    It is reported that the Government of Papua New Guinea plans to build nine ethanol plants based on cassava to meet half the nation's transport fuel needs by 1990.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alternative fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), coal-derived liquid fuels, hydrogen, electricity, biodiesel, renewable diesel,...

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  16. Capacity utilization and fuel consumption in the electric power industry, 1970-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report updates the 1980 Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication entitled Trends in the Capacity Utilization and Fuel Consumption of Electric Utility Powerplants, 1970-1978, DOE/EIA-184/32. The analysis covers the period from 1970 through 1981, and examines trends during the period prior to the 1973 Arab oil embargo (1970-1973), after the embargo (1974-1977), and during the immediate past (1978-1981). The report also addresses other factors affecting the electric utility industry since the oil embargo: the reduction in foreign oil supplies as a result of the 1979 Iranian crisis, the 1977 drought in the western United States, the 1978 coal strike by the United Mine Workers Union, and the shutdown of nuclear plants in response to the accident at Three Mile Island. Annual data on electric utility generating capacity, net generation, and fuel consumption are provided to identify changes in patterns of power plant capacity utilization and dispatching.

  17. The Fuel Cell Industrial Vehicle Jobs Act (H.R. 1659)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MODEL PARTNERSHIP AMONG LOCAL LEADERS SIMPLE, SMART REFORM TO PROMOTE JOB GROWTH The Fuel Cell Industrial Vehicle Jobs Act (H.R. 1659) RACHEL LIPSEY - OFFICE OF REP. PAUL D. TONKO - 202.225.5076 - RLIPSEY@MAIL.HOUSE.GOV Rep. Paul D. Tonko New York's 21 st Congressional District Biography * U.S. Congress (NY-21) *Budget and Science Committees *Educated as an Engineer at SUNY Clarkson * New York Assembly 20+ years *Chair of Energy Committee *President and CEO of NYSERDA RACHEL LIPSEY - OFFICE OF

  18. Studies on the new fuels with Santilli magnecular structure and their industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandhurnekar, Chandrashekhar P.

    2015-03-10

    Professor R. M. Santilli, the Italian-American physicist, for the first time in the history of Science, presented the theoretical and experimental evidence on the existence of the new chemical species of ďmagneculesĒ [1]. This new species mainly consist of individual atoms, radicals and conventional molecules bonded together with stable clusters under the new attractive force primarily originating from torroidal polarization of orbitals of atomic electrons under strong magnetic field. The main contribution in this area was the production of Magnegas{sup TM}, new clean fuels developed by Prof. Santilli, which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called Plasma Arc FlowTM, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000{sup 0} F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. In fact, the exhaust of magnegases shows: absence of carcinogenic or other toxic substances; breathable oxygen up 14 percent; and carbon dioxide down to 0.01 percent. Since, in addition, the new fuels can be produced everywhere, and have environmentally acceptable exhausts, Magnegases offer promising possibilities to satisfy our ever increasing energy needs, as well as to contain the alarming environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to present some of the industrial applications of environmentally benign fuel consisting magnecular bonds [2, 3, 4, 5]. Also in the present communications, some of the experimental evidences of Santilliís new chemical species i. e. Magnecules which had been published recently

  19. Ethanol Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History U.S. 998 1,004 1,018 1,029 1,028 1,023 2010-2016 PADD 1 W W W W W W 2010-2016 PADD 2 911 916 931 947 939 934 2010-2016 PADD 3 W W W W W W 2010-2016 PADD 4 W W W W W W 2010-2016 PADD 5 W W W W W W

  20. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL/TM-2013/222 Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Revised July 2013 1 Prepared by David L. Greene Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gopal Duleep HD Systems 1 This is a revised version of the paper originally published in June 2013. DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web

  1. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, Lee R; Shao, Xiongjun; Raman, Babu; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Zhu, Mingjun

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1 2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  2. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Xiongjun; Raman, Babu; Zhu, Mingjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1-2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  3. The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2008-04-01

    This report details pooled regional time-series data and panel data estimation used to quantify the impact of monthly ethanol production on monthly retail regular gasoline prices.

  4. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  5. Platinum Supported on NbRuyOz as Electrocatalyst for Ethanol Oxidation in Acid and Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotaro, S.; Konopka, D.A.; Li, M.; Artyushkova, K.; Marinkovic, N.; Adzic, R.; Ward, T.L.; Atanassov, P.

    2011-02-02

    Platinum supported on a mixed metal oxide, NbRu{sub y}O{sub z} (8Nb:1Ru), was evaluated as an electrocatalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and 1 M KOH. The support was synthesized from a liquid precursor solution of metal chlorides that was aerosolized and thermally decomposed into a powder via the spray pyrolysis (SP) process. Two samples were of primary interest: 30%Pt deposited onto the support by dry impregnation and 60%Pt as part of the precursor solution that underwent in situ SP Pt dispersion. TEM, SEM, and XRD were used to confirm morphology and deposition of Pt. XPS and XAS studies confirmed elemental distribution and oxidation state of Pt catalyst. In situ IRRAS studies in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} show that these electrocatalysts are capable of facilitating the complete oxidation pathway of EOR, involving scission of the C-C bond and CO oxidation.

  6. Platinum Supported on NbRuyOz as Electrocatalyst for Ethanol Oxidation in Acid and Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Konopka; M Li; K Artyushkova; N Marinkovic; K Sasaki; R Adzic; T Ward; P Atanassov

    2011-12-31

    Platinum supported on a mixed metal oxide, NbRu{sub y}O{sub z} (8Nb:1Ru), was evaluated as an electrocatalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and 1 M KOH. The support was synthesized from a liquid precursor solution of metal chlorides that was aerosolized and thermally decomposed into a powder via the spray pyrolysis (SP) process. Two samples were of primary interest: 30%Pt deposited onto the support by dry impregnation and 60%Pt as part of the precursor solution that underwent in situ SP Pt dispersion. TEM, SEM, and XRD were used to confirm morphology and deposition of Pt. XPS and XAS studies confirmed elemental distribution and oxidation state of Pt catalyst. In situ IRRAS studies in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} show that these electrocatalysts are capable of facilitating the complete oxidation pathway of EOR, involving scission of the C-C bond and CO oxidation.

  7. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  8. List of Renewable Fuel Vehicles Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Refueling Stations Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Alternative Fuels Loan Program (Kansas) State Loan Program Kansas...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Diesel Fuel Blend Tax Exemption The biodiesel or ethanol portion of blended fuel containing taxable diesel is exempt from the diesel fuel tax. The biodiesel or ethanol fuel blend must be clearly identified on the retail pump, storage tank, and sales invoice in order to be eligible for the exemption. (Reference Texas Statutes, Tax Code 162.2

  10. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical juncture. A large-scale market for automotive fuel cells appears to be several years away and in any case will require a long-term, coordinated commitment by government and industry to insure the co-evolution of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles (Greene et al., 2008). The market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells, on the other hand, may be much closer to commercial viability (Stone, 2006). Cost targets are less demanding and manufacturers appear to be close, perhaps within a factor of two, of meeting them. Hydrogen supply is a significant obstacle to market acceptance but may not be as great a barrier as it is for hydrogen-powered vehicles due to the smaller quantities of hydrogen required.