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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Efficient Driving Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Efficient Driving Behaviors to Conserve Fuel on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Management Strategies

2

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Alternative Fuel Use Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Alternative Fuel Use Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Alternative Fuel Use Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Alternative Fuel Use Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Alternative Fuel Use Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Alternative Fuel Use Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

3

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Driving Training  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Driving Training to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Driving Training on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center:...

4

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Tire Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Fuel-Efficient Tire Program Development The California Energy Commission (CEC) must adopt and implement a

5

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Goals To help achieve the statewide goal of reducing petroleum use by 20% by July

6

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

7

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

8

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Staples Delivers on Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency on AddThis.com... April 7, 2011 Staples Delivers on Fuel Efficiency " Over time, we'll look to increase the number of these trucks in the Staples fleet as an effective way to service our delivery customers while reducing

9

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

10

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

11

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Transportation System Transportation System Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Ridesharing Mass Transit Active Transit Multi-Modal Transportation Telework

12

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient and Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

13

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

14

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Low Carbon Fuel and Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirement on AddThis.com...

15

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Title Tax Exemption on AddThis.com...

16

Financing Turnkey Efficiency Solutions for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Financing Turnkey Efficiency Financing Turnkey Efficiency Solutions for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Rois Langner NREL Rois.Langner@nrel.gov 303-275-4329 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Disproportionate transaction costs, lack of purchasing power, financial risk, insufficient organizational capacity, and lack of technical expertise inhibit the adoption of energy efficiency measures in the small building and small portfolio (SBSP) sector at

17

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Use Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Use Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Use Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Use Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Use Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Use Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

18

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Emissions Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Emissions Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Emissions Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Emissions Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Emissions Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition and Emissions Reduction Requirements on

19

Small-scale alcohol fuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of a project to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale alcohol fuel production. A list of equipment and costs incurred in contracting the still are included. No experimental results are presented. (DMC)

Evans, J.; McQueary, J.

1983-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

Small Fuel Cell Systems with Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

eere.energy.gov H 2 and FC Technologies Manufacturing R&D Workshop Renaissance Hotel, Washington, DC August 11-12, 2011 Small Fuel Cell Systems with Hydrogen Storage Ned T....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Energy Efficiency of Small Data Centers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency of Small Data Centers Energy Efficiency of Small Data Centers Example of a small data center October 2013 October-November Special Focus: Energy Efficiency, Buildings, and the Electric Grid Fifty-seven percent of U.S. servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99.3 percent of all server spaces in the U.S. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management, and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges.

22

Increasing Power Plant Efficiency: Lignite Fuel Enhancement ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Power Plant Efficiency: Lignite Fuel Enhancement (Completed March 31, 2010) Project Description The objectives of this project are to demonstrate a unique system for...

23

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation Efficiency Fund  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fund is a non-lapsing fund managed by the Maine Department of Transportation to increase energy efficiency and reduce reliance on fossil fuels within the state's transportation...

24

fuel efficiency | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fuel efficiency fuel efficiency Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 13 December, 2012 - 14:40 The Apps for Vehicles Challenge has begun! contest data fuel efficiency launch Obama Administration OpenEI Vehicles Data Challenge **Update: Visit the Apps for Vehicles page for all the information you need on the challenge.** Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 30 August, 2012 - 15:16 Historic Fuel Standards auto fuel efficiency obama standards vehicle White House On Tuesday, Ray Lahood, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and Lisa P. Jackson, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator, unveiled the joint effort, along with the Obama Administration, to create record fuel standards for vehicles built between 2017 and 2025.

25

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.

Benedict, R.W.; Krsul, J.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Park, K.; Teske, G.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Austin Energy - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Austin Energy - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eligibility Commercial Nonprofit Savings For Home Weatherization...

28

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers on Facebook Tweet about...

29

Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maximizing Alternative Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle Efficiency on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines

30

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Energy Efficiency and Renewable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Printable Version Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies...

31

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduced Registration Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

32

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Green Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

33

CenterPoint Energy- Residential and Small Commercial Efficiency Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

CenterPoint Energy's (CNP) Residential and Small Commercial Standard Offer Program (SOP) provides incentives to encourage contractors to install energy efficiency measures in homes and small...

34

WIP Small Business Opportunity- Energy Efficiency and Renewable...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy WIP Small Business Opportunity- Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy More Documents & Publications US-China Clean Energy Forum 2010 Recovery...

35

Clallam County PUD - Residential and Small Business Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency Loan Program Clallam County PUD - Residential and Small Business Efficiency Loan Program Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings For Home Weatherization Commercial...

36

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction and Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction and Fuel-Efficient, Low Emission Vehicle Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle

37

Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Throughof the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards. ” EconomicImplications for Fuel Economy Policy. ” Presentation to SAE

Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Thomas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Clean and Efficient Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Clean and Efficient Fleet Assistance Western Washington Clean Cities and the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency

40

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where water is scarce. When firing local coal and/or bio-mass it can be very cost effective compared to diesel power generation.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Company, Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

State Energy State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Energy Efficiency and Conservation Plans on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

42

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Award Success Story: FuelCell Energy Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FuelCell Energy Inc., in collaboration FuelCell Energy Inc., in collaboration with Sustainable Innovations LLC, develops highly efficient solid state electrochemical hydrogen compressor FuelCell Energy Inc. manufactures stationary fuel cells for commercial and industrial applications as well as for government facilities and utilities. Based in Danbury, Connecticut, with more than thirty years of experience and roughly 440 employees, they are one of the world leaders in the manufacturing and commercialization of ultra-clean and efficient stationary fuel cells for electric power generation. Their manufacturing plant is located in Torrington, Connecticut and has a capacity of producing up to 90 MW per year with full utilization. FuelCell Energy has received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)

43

Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency October 7, 2013 - 11:53am Addthis YOU ARE HERE: Step 3 For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy. Table 1. Determining When and How to Promote the Use of Strategies to Improve Fuel Efficiency Strategy When Applicable Best Practices Acquiring higher fuel economy vehicles Applicable to all types of vehicles, regardless of ownership or vehicle and fuel type Mission and geographical (e.g., terrain, climate) constraints should be evaluated when acquiring new vehicles Use a VAM to ensure vehicles are right-sized to their intended mission.

44

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon Twitter icon A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

45

Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ideas and implement initiatives with the Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices The Air Force Energy Plan is built upon three pillars: reduce...

46

Funding for Small Business Innovation Research in Energy Efficiency and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Funding for Small Business Innovation Research in Energy Efficiency Funding for Small Business Innovation Research in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Funding for Small Business Innovation Research in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 10, 2012 - 9:06am Addthis Bill Valdez Bill Valdez Principal Deputy Director The Energy Department today announced up to $9 million available this year to fund approximately 50 small businesses to advance innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. This initiative will help small businesses with promising ideas that could improve manufacturing processes, boost the efficiency of buildings, reduce reliance on oil, and generate electricity from renewable sources to bring new clean energy solutions to market faster. This effort is part of the Obama Administration's strategy to drive innovative clean energy technologies

47

National Grid (Electric) - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Grid (Electric) - Small Business Energy Efficiency National Grid (Electric) - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program National Grid (Electric) - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Electric Efficiency Rebates: 70% of project costs can be paid through a rebate. Custom Electric Efficiency Loans: The remaining 30% can be financed by National Grid with a 0% interest loan for 24 months. National Grid's Small/Mid-Sized Business Program is for business customers with an average demand of 200 kilowatts or less per month. The program aids qualifying business customers in installing energy efficient equipment. National Grid provides a free energy audit and report of

48

INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Road to Fuel Efficiency The Road to Fuel Efficiency INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency November 27, 2012 - 11:01am Addthis This infographic takes a look at fuel economy standards and how recent improvements in these standards will benefit consumers and the U.S. economy. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. This infographic takes a look at fuel economy standards and how recent improvements in these standards will benefit consumers and the U.S. economy. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs The Obama Administration's new national fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles will improve vehicle efficiency and save Americans money at the pump, all while reducing our dependence on foreign oil and growing

49

TEP - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TEP - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program TEP - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program TEP - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Installer/Contractor Local Government Nonprofit Schools Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Small Business: 90% of the incremental measure costs New Construction: up to 50% of incremental cost of the energy efficient measures and up to $75,000 per project per year New Construction Design Work: up to 50% of the cost of the additional fees required for the energy efficient design and up to $10,000 per design team

50

Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric) - Small Business Energy Advantage Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric) - Small Business Energy Advantage Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric) - Small Business Energy Advantage Program Energy Efficiency Fund (Electric) - Small Business Energy Advantage Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate 100,000/project $500,000/municipality $750,000/Federal Tax ID Program Info Funding Source Energy Efficiency Fund State Connecticut Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $500 - $100,000/project Provider The United Illuminating Company The Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund offers financing through electric utility implementation of the Small Business Energy Advantage Program. The

51

Austin Energy - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Austin Energy - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Austin Energy - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Austin Energy - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Nonprofit Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Insulation Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount General Equipment: 30% bonus on all rebates offered through the standard Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Lighting Equipment: Up to 90% of installed cost Provider Austin Energy Austin Energy offers a special incentive for its small-to-midsize and not-for-profit business customers to increase the energy efficiency of

52

Energy Efficiency First Fuel Requirement (Gas and Electric) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency First Fuel Requirement (Gas and Electric) Energy Efficiency First Fuel Requirement (Gas and Electric) Energy Efficiency First Fuel Requirement (Gas and Electric) < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Utility Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Energy Efficiency Resource Standard Provider Massachusetts Energy Efficiency Advisory Council Note: The 2013 Three Year Efficiency Plans have not yet been approved. The process is underway. For the latest draft plan, review the Massachusetts Energy Efficiency Advisory Council [http://www.ma-eeac.org/3%20Year%20Draft%20Plan%20November%202012.htm web site]. This summary will be updated once the Three Year Efficiency Plans have been approved in early 2013. In 2008, Governor Patrick signed a major energy reform bill, the [http://www.malegislature.gov/Laws/SessionLaws/Acts/2008/Chapter169 Green

53

Missouri Gas Energy (MGE)- Residential and Small Business Efficiency Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Missouri Gas Energy (MGE) offers its residential and small business customers rebates for the purchase and installation of efficient natural gas water heating and space heating equipment within its...

54

Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet Agency/Company /Organization: FIA Foundation, International Energy Agency, International Transport Forum, United Nations Environment Programme Focus Area: Vehicles Topics: Best Practices Website: www.unep.org/transport/gfei/autotool/ This tool is designed to provide policymakers and interested individuals and groups with overviews of policy tools and approaches to improving fleet-wide automobile fuel efficiency and promote lower CO2 and non-CO2 emissions from cars, along with case studies that depict these approaches from developed and developing countries. How to Use This Tool

55

DOE Expands International Effort to Develop Fuel-Efficient Trucks |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expands International Effort to Develop Fuel-Efficient Trucks Expands International Effort to Develop Fuel-Efficient Trucks DOE Expands International Effort to Develop Fuel-Efficient Trucks June 30, 2008 - 2:15pm Addthis GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN - U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Alexander Karsner and Volvo Group CEO Leif Johansson today agreed to expand cooperation to develop more fuel-efficient trucks. Once contractual negotiations are complete later this year, the cooperative program will be extended for three more years. An additional $9 million over three years in DOE funds will be matched by $9 million in Swedish government funds and $18 million from Volvo Group. When added with the existing $12 million commitment from the United States, Sweden and the Volvo Group the overall value of the cooperation will be $48

56

Small core axial compressors for high efficiency jet aircraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis quantifies mechanisms that limit efficiency in small core axial compressors, defined here as compressor exit corrected flow between 1.5 and 3.0 lbm/s. The first part of the thesis describes why a small engine ...

DiOrio, Austin Graf

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Method of improving fuel combustion efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of operating an internal combustion engine. It comprises: vaporizing a gasoline-alcohol fuel mixture by heating it in a chamber to above the final boiling point of the gasoline at one atmosphere pressure in the absence of air to form a vaporized gasoline-alcohol fuel mixture and immediately mixing the vaporized gasoline-alcohol fuel mixture with air in a carburetor without forming liquid droplets in the mixture and then immediately combusting the mixture in the engine in substantially a vaporized state. The gasoline comprises a mixture of hydrocarbons: the mixture having an intermediate carbon range relative to c{sub 4}-C{sub 12} fuel.

Talbert, W.L.

1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Program Info State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Home Energy Audit: Contact Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power CFL Bulbs: Up to 10 CFL bulbs at reduced cost Water Heater: $75 Refrigerator Recycling: $30 Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to electric customers who wish to install energy efficient equipment in participating homes. Incentives are available for home energy audits, CFL light bulbs, tank water heaters and refrigerator recycling. Water heater purchases and

59

Berkeley Lab's Ashok Gadgil Takes Fuel Efficient Cookstoves to Ethiopia |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Berkeley Lab's Ashok Gadgil Takes Fuel Efficient Cookstoves to Berkeley Lab's Ashok Gadgil Takes Fuel Efficient Cookstoves to Ethiopia Berkeley Lab's Ashok Gadgil Takes Fuel Efficient Cookstoves to Ethiopia February 8, 2011 - 1:21pm Addthis Darfuri woman using a Berkeley-Darfur cookstove | Courtesy of darfurstoves.org Darfuri woman using a Berkeley-Darfur cookstove | Courtesy of darfurstoves.org April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Clean-burning cookstoves reduce the need for firewood in the developing world. Refugees are able to spend less time outside of the camps searching for fuel, therefore reducing the risk of violence and assault. By using less fuel, clean-burning cookstoves decrease deforestation and lessen greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National

60

Clallam County PUD - Residential and Small Business Efficiency Loan Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clallam County PUD - Residential and Small Business Efficiency Loan Clallam County PUD - Residential and Small Business Efficiency Loan Program Clallam County PUD - Residential and Small Business Efficiency Loan Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Manufacturing Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate $15,000 Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $1,000 - $15,000 Provider PUD #1 of Clallam County In conjunction with First Federal Savings and Loan, Clallam County PUD offers residential and small commercial customers a low-interest loan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Efficiency of a hybrid-type plasma-assisted fuel reformation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major advantages of a new plasma-assisted fuel reformation system are its cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. Applied Plasma Technologies has proposed its new highly efficient hybrid-type plasma-assisted system for organic fuel combustion and gasification. The system operates as a multimode multipurpose reactor in a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turndown ratios. This system also has convenient and simultaneous feeding of several reagents in the reaction zone such as liquid fuels, coal, steam, and air. A special methodology has been developed for such a system in terms of heat balance evaluation and optimization. This methodology considers all existing and possible energy streams, which could influence the system's efficiency. The developed hybrid-type plasma system could be suitable for combustion applications, mobile and autonomous small- to mid-size liquid fuel and coal gasification modules, hydrogen-rich gas generators, waste-processing facilities, and plasma chemical reactors.

Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I.; Lux, S.M. [Applied Plasma Technologies, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Energy Efficiency & On-Bill Financing for Small Businesses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Efficiency & On-Bill Financing For Small Businesses Presentation for: Webinar DOE 05/11/2011 5/12/2011 Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund (CEEF) Connecticut's Energy Efficiency Programs are funded by a Charge on Customer's electric bills. The Programs are designed to help customers manage their energy usage and cost. Objective PROVIDE > COST-EFFECTIVE, turn-key CONSERVATION and LOAD MANAGEMENT SERVICES to SMALL C&I CUSTOMERS. What qualifies as a SMALL BUSINESS? A "Mom & Pop" store with a $150 monthly electric bill up to a mid size manufacturing company with a $20,000 monthly electric bill. Examples: Retail, convenience stores, houses of worship, professional offices, non-profits, gas stations, restaurants, common areas of apartment buildings,

63

Doing better with less energy [fuel-efficient power generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe how many fuel-efficient coal-fired power generation technologies can be adopted at reduced net cost, but argue that, unless barriers to innovation are removed, their adoption will be far from automatic

J. Sathbye; J. Sinton; T. Heller

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

National Fuel (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Fuel (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates National Fuel (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates National Fuel (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Rebate amount cannot exceed the purchase price Program Info Start Date 1/1/2013 Expiration Date 3/31/2014 State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Furnace: $250 Forced Air Furnace with ECM: $350 Hot Water Boiler: $350 Steam Boiler: $200 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Indirect Water Heater: $250 Provider Energy Federation Incorporated (EFI) National Fuel offers pre-qualified equipment rebates for the installation of certain energy efficiency measures to residential customers in Western

65

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycles  

SciTech Connect

Carbonate fuel cells developed in commercial 2.85 MW size, have an efficiency of 57.9%. Studies of higher efficiency hybrid power cycles were conducted to identify an economically competitive system and an efficiency over 65%. A hybrid power cycle was identified that includes a direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle, which generates power at a LHV efficiency over 70%; it is called a Tandem Technology Cycle (TTC). In a TTC operating on natural gas fuel, 95% of the fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming the fuel, and flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell system which generates 72% of the power. The portion of fuel cell anode exhaust not recycled, is burned and heat is transferred to compressed air from a gas turbine, heating it to 1800 F. The stream is then heated to 2000 F in gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 13% of the power. Half the gas turbine exhaust flows to anode exhaust burner and the rest flows to the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Studies of the TTC for 200 and 20 MW size plants quantified performance, emissions and cost-of-electricity, and compared the TTC to gas turbine combined cycles. A 200-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 72.6%; estimated cost of electricity is 45.8 mills/kWhr. A 20-MW TTC plant has an efficiency of 65.2% and a cost of electricity of 50 mills/kWhr.

Steinfeld, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Residential Energy Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Construction Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Insulation (Wall/Ceiling/Floor): $750 Insulation (Duct): $170 Infiltration Control: $200 Duct Sealing: $285 Program Info State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Home Energy Audit: Required for Infiltration Control, Insulation, Duct Sealing, and Window Rebates

67

Duke Energy - Small Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duke Energy - Small Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Duke Energy - Small Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Duke Energy - Small Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Institutional Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Combined maximum of $50,000/facility/year Program Info State Indiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount CFL Screw-In: $2 Hardwired, Pin Based CFL Fixtures (Replacing Incandescent): $22 T8 Fluorescent Fixtures (Replacing T8/T12): $3-$30 T5 Fluorescent Fixtures (Replacing T12): $5-$13 T8 High Bay Fixtures (Replacing HID): $30-$60 T5 High Bay Fixtures (Replacing HID): $30-$75

68

The Retrocommissioning Sensor Suitcase Brings Energy Efficiency to Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Retrocommissioning Sensor Suitcase Brings Energy Efficiency to Small The Retrocommissioning Sensor Suitcase Brings Energy Efficiency to Small Commercial Buildings The data module communicates wirelessly with the smart pad, which launches senso Sensor platform prototype Downloading the data November 2013 November Special Focus: Energy Efficiency, Buildings and the Electric Grid Most buildings in the U.S. don't perform as energy-efficiently as they could simply because energy-using equipment in the building have never been set up to maximize energy performance. Thermostat setpoints are too low or too high, so rooftop units (RTUs) cool buildings down below recommended temperatures, or keep them too warm (or both). Or, there is no difference in the setpoint during hours when the building is unoccupied versus occupied-turning the heat and space conditioning down during unoccupied

69

Fuel-Efficient Stove Programs in Humanitarian Settings | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel-Efficient Stove Programs in Humanitarian Settings Fuel-Efficient Stove Programs in Humanitarian Settings Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Fuel-Efficient Stove Programs in Humanitarian Settings Agency/Company /Organization: USAID Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, Energy Efficiency Phase: Evaluate Options, Prepare a Plan, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Presentation, Publications User Interface: Spreadsheet, Website Website: www.energytoolbox.org/cookstoves/ Cost: Free Language: English A step-by-step process of assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of a Cookstove activity This Toolkit is designed to take you and your organization through a step-by-step process of assessment, planning, implementation, and

70

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process efficiency (UoK, GA) · Estimate the size and cost of the process equipment (All) #12;s NERI H2 6 cycle analysis (SNL) · Develop detailed chemical flowsheet for selected process and determine projected UT-3 process is conceptually simple. . . l Invented at Univ. of Tokyo, being pursued in Japan, SI

72

Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on comparable 5W-30 formulations based on either hydrogenated mineral oil, or hydrocracked or poly alpha olefin basestocks. These blends clearly demonstrate the effect of improved volatility on oil consumption and oxidation stability in a range of bench engine tests. Equivalent engine test performance is observed for the hydrocracked and polyalphaolefin blends. Both exhibit performance superior to that attained by the hydrogenated mineral oil-based blend. Predicted Sequence VI fuel savings for these blends show additional fuel efficiency benefits for hydrocracked vs. hydrogenated mineral oil-based blends. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Kiovsky, T.E. [BP Oil Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Yates, N.C.; Bales, J.R. [BP Oil International Limited, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom: 50% of project cost Program Info Start Date 06/09/2011 State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: $75 - $300 Furnaces: $250 - $400 Boilers: $150 - $400 Setback Thermostat: $25 - $50 Convection Oven: $100 High Efficiency Range/Oven: $500 Conveyor Oven: $500 Fryer: $500 Broiler: $100 Steam Cooker: $500 Vent Dampers for Boilers: $125 Custom: Two year buy down or 50% of project cost, whichever is less

74

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

75

Small Business Innovation Research Award Success Story: FuelCell Energy Inc.  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This success story describes FuelCell Energy Inc., a small business that manufactures stationary fuel cells. In collaboration with Sustainable Innovations LLC, and with support from a Small Business I

76

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

National Fuel (Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program (Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program National Fuel (Gas) - Small Commercial Conservation Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Custom Rebates: $25,000 Program Info State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom Rebates: $15/Mcf x the gas savings Unit Heater: $1000 Hot Air Furnace: $500 Low Intensity Infrared Heating: $500 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Hot Water Boiler: $600-$3500 Steam Boiler: $600-$2000 + $2/kBtuh Tankless Water Heaters: $350 Storage Tank Water Heater: $150 Fryer: $750 Convection Oven: $500 Combination Oven: $750 Broiler: $500 Steamer: $750 Griddle: $500 Provider New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

79

The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle January 8, 2014 - 1:10pm Addthis Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Thomas_EyeDesign Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Thomas_EyeDesign Jason Lutterman Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Other ways to save money at the pump You can save money and use less fuel even without the purchase of a new car. Check out these easy tips to boost your gas mileage and save money. Are you in the market for a new car to start off the New Year? Choosing the

80

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fuel Cell/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton cycle utilizing indirect heat recovery from the power plant. Features of the DFC/T{trademark} system include: high efficiency, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, no pressurization of the fuel cell, independent operating pressure of the fuel cell and turbine, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants at much smaller sizes. Objectives of the Vision 21 Program include developing power plants that will generate electricity with net efficiencies approaching 75 percent (with natural gas), while producing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions of less than 0.01 lb/million BTU. These goals are significant improvements over conventional power plants, which are 35-60 percent efficient and produce emissions of 0.07 to 0.3 lb/million BTU of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen oxide and sulfur emissions from the DFC/T system are anticipated to be better than the Vision 21 goals due to the non-combustion features of the DFC/T power plant. The expected high efficiency of the DFC/T will also result in a 40-50 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional power plants. To date, the R&D efforts have resulted in significant progress including proof-of-concept tests of a sub-scale power plant built around a state-of-the-art DFC stack integrated with a modified Capstone Model 330 Microturbine. The objectives of this effort are to investigate the integration aspects of the fuel cell and turbine and to obtain design information and operational data that will be utilized in the design of a 40-MW high efficiency Vision 21 power plant. Additionally, these tests are providing the valuable insight for DFC/Turbine power plant potential for load following, increased reliability, and enhanced operability.

Hossein, Ghezel-Ayagh

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

82

The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

83

Concept for a small, colocated fuel cycle facility for oxide breeder fuels  

SciTech Connect

As part of a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to examine innovative liquid-metal reactor (LMR) system designs over the past three years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) collaborated on studies of mixed oxide fuel cycle options. A principal effort was an advanced concept for a small integrated fuel cycle colocated with a 1300-MW(e) reactor station. The study provided a scoping design and a basis on which to proceed with implementation of such a facility if future plans so dictate. The facility integrated reprocessing, waste management, and refabrication functions in a single facility of nominal 35-t/year capacity utilizing the latest technology developed in fabrication programs at WHC and in reprocessing at ORNL. The concept was based on many years of work at both sites and extensive design studies of prior years.

Burch, W.D.; Stradley, J.G.; Lerch, R.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric) - Commercial Energy Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Custom: 50% of project cost Program Info Start Date 06/09/2011 State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount T8 Fixtures: $5 - $18 /system or $0.50 /lamp Fluorescents: $4 - $125 CFLs: $8 - $25 Indirect Lighting: $16 - $24 Pulse Start Metal Halide Fixtures: $25 - $65 Lighting Controls: $12 - $35 Variable Frequency Drive: $30 /hp Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled: $10 - $600 Open Drip-Proof: $10 - $600 Custom: Buy down to 2 year pay back or 50% of cost, whichever is less

87

Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power plants spend nearly 50 billion dollars a year on fuel cost. Presently coal accounts for over 75% of the electricity generated in this country. Due to increasingly harsh environmental regulations, the demand for low sulfur (S) coal has dramatically increased. This increase in demand is expected to cause the price of coal to rise. Such a senario has caused the utilities to explore the possibilities of supplementing coal with fuel alternatives such as the byproducts of process industries. The supplemental fuel for utilities located near feedlots (e.g. Northwest Texas) happens to be feedlot manure. Feedlot manure is attractive because it is nearly ten times cheaper than coal and is relatively inexpensive to transport. There exists nearly six million head of cattle in Northwest Texas which produce 25,000 tons of manure each day. Feedlot manure presents water and air pollution concerns if not disposed of properly. As such, the feedlot operators are eager to find methods of safely disposing of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure, partially composted feedlot manure, and finished composted feedlot manure. Performance characteristics and emission data were taken for each case. A summary of the results is as follows: (I) sulfur Wyoming coal was fired and a gasification efficiency of 66% was measured. (i I) Emissions measurements were recorded and it was seen that emissions of NO,, and S02 increased as the burnt mass fraction increased. However, all emissions were within NSPS guidelines. (iii) The successful firing of coal and feedlot manure was achieved, a gasification efficiency in the range of 86% was measured, which is higher than 66% obtained when firing coal alone. (iv) When the fuel blend is fully burnt, the NO,, emissions with the blend firing was lower than the firing of coal alone.

Frazzitta, Stephen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled â??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.â? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Energy Efficiency & On-Bill Financing for Small Businesses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2011 UI Customer Base 325,000 Total Customers 30,000 C&I Customers (Commercial, Industrial, Municipal) 16,800 are Small Businesses Over 4,400 Small Businesses...

91

Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O'Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Federal Fuel Cell Tax Incentives; An investment in clean and efficient technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Federal Fuel Cell Tax Incentives; An investment in clean and efficient technologies On October 3 rd , 2008, Congress passed and President Bush, consult the Internal Revenue Service bulletin, "Energy Credit for Qualified Fuel Cell Property

93

A systems engineering methodology for fuel efficiency and its application to a tactical wheeled vehicle demonstrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Defense faces growing fuel demand, resulting in increasing costs and compromised operational capability. In response to this issue, the Fuel Efficient Ground Vehicle Demonstrator (FED) program was ...

Luskin, Paul (Paul L.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Project: Fuel Cell Efficiency and Initial Durability (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation by NREL's Keith Wipke at the 2006 Fuel Cell Seminar provides information about the Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Project, with a focus on fuel cell efficiency and durability.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels - Technology Management, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels-Technology Management, Inc. Background In this congressionally directed project, Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) will develop and demonstrate a residential scale prototype solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system at end-user sites. These small-scale systems would operate continuously on either conventional or renewable biofuels, producing cost effective, uninterruptible

96

Efficient regeneration of partially spent ammonia borane fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H{sub 2}) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical hydrogen storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H{sub 3}B-NH{sub 3}, AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of hydrogen (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol{sup -1}). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H2 can be readily released. As such, a number of publications have described H{sub 2} release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. Even though the viability of any chemical hydrogen storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. For example, the DOE recently decided to no longer pursue the use of NaBH{sub 4} as a H{sub 2} storage material, in part because of inefficient regeneration. We thus endeavored to find an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H{sub 2} depleted AB with a minimum number of steps.

Davis, Benjamin Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stephens, Frances [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David A [UNIV OF ALABAMA; Matus, Myrna H [UNIV OF ALABAMA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Small Hydropower Systems: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet introduces consumers to small hydropower systems, and includes information on how the systems work and how to assess a stream site for hydropower suitability.

Nachman-Hunt, N.

2001-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Glendale Water and Power - Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Information California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Installation of Energy-Saving Upgrades: Free Glendale Water and Power offers incentives to small business...

99

CenterPoint Energy - Residential and Small Commercial Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

conditioners, Dishwasher, DuctAir sealing, Lighting, Refrigerators, Water Heaters, Windows Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy Efficiency...

100

Funding for Small Business Innovation Research in Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

processes, boost the efficiency of buildings, reduce reliance on oil, and generate electricity from renewable sources to bring new clean energy solutions to market faster....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A homogenous combustion catalyst for fuel efficiency improvements in diesel engines fuelled with diesel and biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] The ferrous picrate based homogeneous combustion catalyst has been claimed to promote diesel combustion and improve fuel efficiency in diesel engines. However, the… (more)

Zhu, Mingming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Maximum Rebate Limits (% of cost) vary by system type, but the following limits also exist: NJCEP Incentive: $1 million Pay for Performance Bonus Incentive: $250,000 Utility Match: $1 million Overall Maximum: $2.25 million Program Info Funding Source New Jersey Societal Benefits Charge (public benefits fund) State New Jersey Program Type State Grant Program

103

Thermally efficient PEM fuel cell that runs on ethanol  

PEM fuel cell with onboard conversion of ethanol into hydrogen fuel Liquid ethanol feedstock eliminates problems with storage and transportation of gaseous hydrogen Control of temperature maximizes selectivity of reformation process and prevents ...

104

Rail versus truck fuel efficiency: The relative fuel efficiency of truck-competitive rail freight and truck operations compared in a range of corridors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the findings of a study to evaluate the fuel efficiency of rail freight operations relative to competing truckload service. The objective of the study was to identify the circumstances in which rail freight service offers a fuel efficiency advantage over alternative truckload options, and to estimate the fuel savings associated with using rail service. The findings are based on computer simulations of rail and truck freight movements between the same origins and destinations. The simulation input assumptions and data are based on actual rail and truck operations. Input data was provided by U.S. regional and Class I railroads and by large truck fleet operators.

Not Available

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

EM Safely and Efficiently Manages Spent Nuclear Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Waste Management » Nuclear Materials & Waste » EM Services » Waste Management » Nuclear Materials & Waste » EM Safely and Efficiently Manages Spent Nuclear Fuel EM Safely and Efficiently Manages Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry storage casks at Idaho National Laboratory can safely house spent nuclear fuel for decades. Dry storage casks at Idaho National Laboratory can safely house spent nuclear fuel for decades. EM's mission is to safely and efficiently manage its spent nuclear fuel and prepare it for disposal in a geologic repository. Previously, the Office of Environmental Management's (EM) mission had included the safe and efficient management of its spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and preparation for its disposal in a geologic repository. However, in May 2009, the planned geologic repository at Yucca Mountain was cancelled. The

106

Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Socio-Economic Website: drrc.lbl.gov/sites/drrc.lbl.gov/files/lbnl-2743e.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/successful-case-study-small-business- Language: English Policies: Financial Incentives This report presents the results of a pilot study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Participants were given a participation incentive and provided with both help in implementing energy efficiency measures for their buildings and an array of energy

108

Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

highest potential to save aviation fuel. highest potential to save aviation fuel. All MAF personnel are encouraged to propose fuel savings ideas. These ideas are then processed as initiatives, assigned a primary point of contact, and routed through an analysis process to prepare the initiative for presenta- tion to the Air Force's corporate structure. The corporate structure then evaluates and determines the initiatives with the highest potential fuel savings. Fuel-saving efforts focus on six major areas: policy, planning, execution, maintenance, science and technology, and fuel-efficient aircraft systems. The MAF also established a predetermined set of fuel-savings metrics and required reporting. In fiscal year 2011, implemented fuel initiatives saved the MAF more than 42 million gallons of aviation fuel in both

109

Pages that link to "Fuels & Efficiency" | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cars: Case Study of Stockholm and Sweden ( links) The BEST Experiences with Bioethanol Buses ( links) UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update ( links) View...

110

Fuel economy standards have affected vehicle efficiency - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This new footprint standard required that all vehicle manufacturers improve their fuel economy at a similar rate, regardless of the types and sizes of vehicles sold.

111

Improving Costs and Efficiency of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles by ...  

Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower emissions. Running the vehicle’s motor on hydrogen rather than gasoline ...

112

54.5 MPG and Beyond: Fueling Energy-Efficient Vehicles | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4.5 MPG and Beyond: Fueling Energy-Efficient Vehicles 4.5 MPG and Beyond: Fueling Energy-Efficient Vehicles 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Fueling Energy-Efficient Vehicles November 27, 2012 - 11:08am Addthis This infographic looks how new fuel economy standards will save Americans money at the pump, reduce our dependence on foreign oil and grow the U.S. economy. Click here to view the full infographic. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. This infographic looks how new fuel economy standards will save Americans money at the pump, reduce our dependence on foreign oil and grow the U.S. economy. Click here to view the full infographic. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. This infographic looks how new fuel economy standards will save Americans money at the pump, reduce our dependence on foreign oil and grow the U.S. economy. Click here to view the full infographic. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity.

113

Micropower chemical fuel-to-electric conversion : a "regenerative flip" hydrogen concentration cell promising near carnot efficiency.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although battery technology is relatively mature, power sources continue to impose serious limitations for small, portable, mobile, or remote applications. A potentially attractive alternative to batteries is chemical fuel-to-electric conversion. Chemical fuels have volumetric energy densities 4 to 10 times those of batteries. However, realizing this advantage requires efficient chemical fuel-to-electric conversion. Direct electrochemical conversion would be the ideal, but, for most fuels, is generally not within the state-of-the-science. Next best, chemical-to-thermal-to-electric conversion can be attractive if efficiencies can be kept high. This small investigative project was an exploration into the feasibility of a novel hybrid (i.e., thermal-electrochemical) micropower converter of high theoretical performance whose demonstration was thought to be within near-term reach. The system is comprised of a hydrogen concentration electrochemical cell with physically identical hydrogen electrodes as anode and cathode, with each electrode connected to physically identical hydride beds each containing the same low-enthalpy-of-formation metal hydride. In operation, electrical power is generated by a hydrogen concentration differential across the electrochemical cell. This differential is established via coordinated heating and passive cooling of the corresponding hydride source and sink. Heating is provided by the exothermic combustion (i.e., either flame combustion or catalytic combustion) of a chemical fuel. Upon hydride source depletion, the role of source and sink are reversed, heating and cooling reversed, electrodes commutatively reversed, cell operation reversed, while power delivery continues unchanged. This 'regenerative flip' of source and sink hydride beds can be cycled continuously until all available heating fuel is consumed. Electricity is efficiently generated electrochemically, but hydrogen is not consumed, rather the hydrogen is regeneratively cycled as an electrochemical 'working fluid'.

Wally, Karl

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

2011-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

Microsoft Word - SmallServerRoomEfficiencyFactSheet.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5E 5E Fact Sheet: Improving Energy Efficiency for Server Rooms and Closets Hoi Ying (Iris) Cheung, Rod Mahdavi, Steve Greenberg, Rich Brown and William Tschudi, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Pierre Delforge, National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Joyce Dickerson, Google Environmental Energy Technologies Division September 2012 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

116

Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R D issues.

Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R&D issues.

Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shore Capacity - Low Profile, Easy Siting Connects to existing electricity and fuel infrastructure System Operation · Over 300 Hours of Operation on Load with Water Recovery · Power Output up to 125 k

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Thermally efficient PEM fuel cell that runs on ethanol  

onboard conversion of ethanol into hydrogen fuel Liquid ethanol feedstock eliminates problems with storage and transportation of gaseous hydrogen Control of temperature maximizes selectivity of reformation process and prevents membrane fouling ...

122

Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Efficient Fleets Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Efficient Fleets March 9, 2012 - 2:15pm Addthis With their presence in almost every neighborhood and community, refuse trucks, like the one shown above, can benefit from alternative fuels and advanced technology. | Photo courtesy of Veolia Environmental Services. With their presence in almost every neighborhood and community, refuse trucks, like the one shown above, can benefit from alternative fuels and advanced technology. | Photo courtesy of Veolia Environmental Services. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? Veolia operates four compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations

123

Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Efficient  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Efficient Fleets Veolia and Johnson Controls Get the Job Done with Clean, Fuel Efficient Fleets March 9, 2012 - 2:15pm Addthis With their presence in almost every neighborhood and community, refuse trucks, like the one shown above, can benefit from alternative fuels and advanced technology. | Photo courtesy of Veolia Environmental Services. With their presence in almost every neighborhood and community, refuse trucks, like the one shown above, can benefit from alternative fuels and advanced technology. | Photo courtesy of Veolia Environmental Services. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? Veolia operates four compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations

124

Analysis of Two Biomass Gasification/Fuel Cell Scenarios for Small-Scale Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two scenarios were examined for small-scale electricity production from biomass using a gasifier/fuel cell system. In one case, a stand-alone BCL/FERC gasifier is used to produce synthesis gas that is reformed and distributed through a pipeline network to individual phosphoric acid fuel cells. In the second design, the gasifier is integrated with a molten carbonate fuel cell stack and a steam bottoming cycle. In both cases, the gasifiers are fed the same amount of material, with the integrated system producing 4 MW of electricity, and the stand-alone design generating 2 MW of electricity.

Amos, W. A.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Small Wind Guidebook/First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Small Wind Guidebook/First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient < Small Wind Guidebook(Redirected from Small Wind Guidebook/First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient?) Jump to: navigation, search Print PDF WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHSmall Wind Guidebook Home WindTurbine-icon.png Small Wind Guidebook * Introduction * First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient? * Is Wind Energy Practical for Me? * What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need? * What Are the Basic Parts of a Small Wind Electric System? * What Do Wind Systems Cost? * Where Can I Find Installation and Maintenance Support?

126

Efficient Living in a Small House: Could You Make the Switch? | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficient Living in a Small House: Could You Make the Switch? Efficient Living in a Small House: Could You Make the Switch? Efficient Living in a Small House: Could You Make the Switch? November 10, 2009 - 7:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL From time to time over the last few years, I've come across articles and blogs discussing the "Small House Movement." The movement encourages homeowners to reject the huge homes that dominate many suburban neighborhoods and embrace smaller homes and simpler living. Do a quick Web search on the movement and you'll find many photos and testimonials for these small homes-some smaller than 100 square feet. Many of these homes are fascinating. Not only are the designs innovative, attractive, and comfortable, they are also relatively inexpensive-especially when you consider long-term maintenance costs.

127

54.5 MPG and Beyond: Fueling Energy-Efficient Vehicles | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

standards will save Americans money at the pump, reduce our dependence on foreign oil and grow the U.S. economy. fuel-efficiency">Click here to...

128

Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Small Transit Systems; A Case Study of the Miami Metro Bus Service.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the recent past there has been an emphasis on energy and fuel efficiency in transit systems across the United States. Transit systems continue to… (more)

Kazungu, Conny Sidi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

GreenGPS: a participatory sensing fuel-efficient maps application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper develops a navigation service, called GreenGPS, that uses participatory sensing data to map fuel consumption on city streets, allowing drivers to find the most fuel efficient routes for their vehicles between arbitrary end-points. The service ... Keywords: green GPS, green navigation, model clustering, participatory sensing

Raghu K. Ganti; Nam Pham; Hossein Ahmadi; Saurabh Nangia; Tarek F. Abdelzaher

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

131

KIVA: Increases engine efficiency while improving fuel economy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in automotive catalytic converters Design of fire suppression systems Pulsed detonation propulsion systems design Benefits: Increases engine efficiency while reducing harmful...

132

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs Amount Home Energy Audit: Required for Infiltration Control, Insulation, Duct Sealing, and Window...

133

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

136

Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

Dr. Andrew Myers

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AURORA Program Overview Topic 4A. Transport within the PEM Stack / Transport Studies Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Award#: DE-EE0000472 US DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting Washington, DC September 30, 2009 Program Objectives The objective of this program is to optimize the efficiency of a stack technology meeting DOE cost targets. As cost reduction is of central importance in commercialization, the objective of this program addresses all fuel cell applications. AURORA C. Performance Technical Barriers Premise: DOE cost targets can be met by jointly exceeding both the Pt loading (1.0 W/cm2) targets.

138

Exergy efficiency of small coal-fired power plants as a criterion of their wide applicability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The applicability of small coal-fired power plants as an independent and reliable power supply source was considered. The advantages of using small thermal power plants were given, and the classification characteristics of small coal-fired power plants were put forward. The exergy method was chosen as a versatility indicator for the operating efficiency of a flowsheet in question. The exergy efficiency factor of the flowsheet was 32%. With the manufacture of by-products, such as activated carbons, the exergy efficiency of the flowsheet increased to 35%. The studies undertaken substantiated the wide applicability of small coal-fired power plants for the development of decentralized power supply. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

O.V. Afanas'eva; G.R. Mingaleeva [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tatarstan (Russian Federation). Research Center of Power Engineering Problems

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Use of plastic construction materials in small-scale fuel alcohol production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several general designs for small-scale fuel alcohol plants that have been published primarily use conventional materials of construction (steel, copper, etc.). A fuel alcohol plant owned by Dixie Fuels, Inc. Valley Park, Mississippi, and a farm-scale alcohol plant being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority have incorporated plastic materials in several areas of their plants; results have been excellent in terms of reduced materials, labor, and operating costs. However, plastics were not used in the distillation step. This work investigated the suitability of small-scale distillation equipment made entirely or partially from plastics. A low-cost alcohol distillation system can be constructed using chlorinated poly(viny chloride) (CPVC) pipe or poly(vinly chloride) (PVC) plastic pipe for the column and heat-exchanger shells. Although pipe made from CPVC is preferred, schedule 80 PVC pipe can be used if external supports are used to provide rigidity. 3 figures, 1 table. (DP)

Lightsey, G.R.; Kadir, O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 22nd Operations Group Fuel Efficiency Office  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Efficiency Efficiency Office U.S. Air Force McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas During FY 2012, the 22nd Operations Group Fuel Efficiency Office (FEO) designed and implemented multiple measures, including a focus on institutional culture change, to reduce inefficiency in fuel management of the KC-135 aircraft and save the Air Force $4.3 million during a 42 percent rise in local sorties (the deployment of aircraft for missions of national defense or aircrew proficiency). These efforts included reducing KC-135 landing fuel by 5000 lb per sortie to save 1.94 million gallons per year; changing the KC-135 standard landing configuration to save 50 lb of fuel per approach; and implementing a new training configuration to reduce aircraft basic weight by 1,600 lb. The FEO also incorporated Mission Index Flying

142

Development program for heat balance analysis fuel to steam efficiency boiler and data wireless transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research aim to improve a combustion system of boiler within increase combustion efficiency and use all out of the energy. The large boilers were used in the industrial factories which consume a lot of energy for production. By oil and gas fuel ... Keywords: boiler, cogeneration energy, heat balance, steam efficiency, wireless data transfer

Nattapong Phanthuna; Warunee Srisongkram; Sunya Pasuk; Thaweesak Trongtirakul

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Energy-efficient alcohol-fuel production. Technical final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proposed utilization schedule for the alcohol fuel plant and methane generator is to produce 180 proof ethanol during the spring, summer, and fall (April to October). The ethanol will be used in the farm tractors and trucks during the planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. Some alcohol can be stored for use during the winter. The still will not be operated during the winter (November to March) when the methane from the digester will be used to replace fuel oil for heating a swine farrowing building. There are tentative plans to develop a larger methane generator, which will utilize all of the manure (dairy, beef, horses, and swine) produced on the ISU farm. If this project is completed, there will be enough methane to produce all of the alcohol fuel needed to operate all of the farm equipment, heat the buildings, and possibly generate electricity for the farm. The methane generating system developed is working so well that there is a great deal of interest in expanding the project to where it could utilize all of the livestock waste on the farm for methane production.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Small Wind Guidebook/First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient < Small Wind Guidebook Jump to: navigation, search Print PDF WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHSmall Wind Guidebook Home WindTurbine-icon.png Small Wind Guidebook * Introduction * First, How Can I Make My Home More Energy Efficient? * Is Wind Energy Practical for Me? * What Size Wind Turbine Do I Need? * What Are the Basic Parts of a Small Wind Electric System? * What Do Wind Systems Cost? * Where Can I Find Installation and Maintenance Support? * How Much Energy Will My System Generate? * Is There Enough Wind on My Site? * How Do I Choose the Best Site for My Wind Turbine? * Can I Connect My System to the Utility Grid? * Can I Go Off-Grid? * State Information Portal * Glossary of Terms * For More Information

146

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) Investigation for Residential and Small Commercial Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities frequently use the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) in air conditioning–based incentive programs to categorize energy efficiency and to quantify financial value. For residential and small commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, SEER is determined by the procedures outlined in ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240. Within Standard 210/240, SEER is calculated based on laboratory test results and equations that follow specific assumptions regarding indoor temperature, ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

147

Test and Evaluation of a High Efficiency Residential Fuel Cell System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A confluence of industry drivers, including the availability of low-cost natural gas, is creating new market opportunities for natural gas-based distributed generation. Solid oxide fuel cell systems (SOFC) are a potentially attractive option because of their high electrical efficiency (50–60% lower heating value (LHV)). This report documents two years of testing and evaluation of a 1.5 kW SOFC residential system provided by Ceramics Fuel Cell Limited. Tests were conducted in collaboration with ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Optimization of efficiency and energy density of passive micro fuel cells and galvanic hydrogen generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A PEM micro fuel cell system is described which is based on self-breathing PEM micro fuel cells in the power range between 1 mW and 1W. Hydrogen is supplied with on-demand hydrogen production with help of a galvanic cell, that produces hydrogen when Zn reacts with water. The system can be used as a battery replacement for low power applications and has the potential to improve the run time of autonomous systems. The efficiency has been investigated as function of fuel cell construction and tested for several load profiles.

Hahn, Robert; Krumbholz, Steffen; Reichl, Herbert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following figures are included: Westinghouse (W.) SOFC pilot manufacturing facility; cell scale-up plan; W. 25 kW SOFC unit at the utility`s facility on Rokko Island; pressure effect on SOFC power and efficiency; SureCELL{trademark} vs conventional gas turbine plants; SureCELL{trademark} product line for distributed power applications; 20 MW pressurized SOFC/gas turbine power plant; 10 MW SOFT/CT power plant; SureCELL{trademark} plant concept design requirements; and W. SOFC market entry.

Morehead, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Northwest home buyers' fuel and energy-efficiency preferences  

SciTech Connect

This study for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) investigated home buyers' heating fuel and energy-efficiency preferences, and the influence of incentives on their choices. The study was conducted in four regions of Washington State: Spokane and Pierce Counties, where the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) for new electrically heated homes have been adopted as local code, and King and Clark Counties, where the MCS has been implemented only through a voluntary marketing program. The results of this study provide useful information about energy-efficiency, space heating fuel type, and alternative incentive programs. They provide initial evidence that fuel-specific energy-efficiency standards may significantly affect the shares of different heating fuels in the new home market. They also suggest that cash rebates and utility rate incentives may have a modest effect on the shares for different heating fuels. Because these results are based on a technique relying on hypothetical choices and because they reflect only four metropolitan areas, further study must be conducted to determine whether the results apply to other locations and whether other analytic approaches produce similar findings. 3 refs.

Lee, A.D.; Harkreader, S.A.; Bruneau, C.L.; Volke, S.M.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial velocity component of exhaust moving down the filter inlet channel. Soot mass collected in this way would have a smaller impact on backpressure than soot forced into the flow restrictions deeper in the porous wall structure. This project has focused on the development of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques that are generally applicable to a wide variety of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. By helping to develop improved fundamental understanding pore-scale phenomena affecting filtration, soot oxidation, and NOX abatement, this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has also assisted Dow Automotive in continuing development and commercialization of the ACM filter substrate. Over the course of this research project, ACM filters were successfully deployed on the Audi R10 TDI racecar which won the 24 Hours of LeMans endurance race in 2006, 2007, and 2008; and the 12 Hours of Sebring endurance race in 2006 and 2007. It would not have been possible for the R10 to compete in these traditionally gasoline-dominated events without reliable and effective exhaust particulate filtration. These successes demonstrated not only the performance of automotive diesel engines, but the efficacy of DPF technology as it was being deployed around the world to meet new emissions standards on consumer vehicles. During the course of this CRADA project, Dow Automotive commercialized their ACM DPF technology under the AERIFYTM DPF brand.

Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. Overall results show that pilot participants had energy savings of 20%, and the potential for an additional 14% to 20% load drop during a 100 F demand response event. In addition to the efficiency-related bill savings, participants on the dynamic rate saved an estimated 5% on their energy costs compared to the standard rate. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

153

Turning Bacteria into Fuel: Cyanobacteria Designed for Solar-Powered Highly Efficient Production of Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is engineering a type of photosynthetic bacteria that efficiently produce fatty acids—a fuel precursor for biofuels. This type of bacteria, called Synechocystis, is already good at converting solar energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) into a type of fatty acid called lauric acid. ASU has modified the organism so it continuously converts sunlight and CO2 into fatty acids—overriding its natural tendency to use solar energy solely for cell growth and maximizing the solar-to-fuel conversion process. ASU’s approach is different because most biofuels research focuses on increasing cellular biomass and not on excreting fatty acids. The project has also identified a unique way to convert the harvested lauric acid into a fuel that can be easily blended with existing transportation fuels.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Small-scale Specimen Testing of Monolithic U-Mo Fuel Foils  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to develop a shear punch testing (SPT) procedure and standardize it to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated fuels in a hot-cell so that the tensile behavior can be predicted using small volumes of material and at greatly reduced irradiation costs. This is highly important in the development of low-enriched uranium fuels for nuclear research and test reactors. The load-displacement data obtained using SPT can be interpreted in terms of and correlated with uniaxial mechanical properties. In order to establish a correlation between SPT and tensile data, sub-size tensile and microhardness testing were performed on U-Mo alloys. In addition, efforts are ongoing to understand the effect of test parameters (such as specimen thickness, surface finish, punch-die clearance, crosshead velocity and carbon content) on the measured mechanical properties, in order to rationalize the technique, prior to employing it on a material of unknown strength.

Ramprashad Prabhakaran; Douglas E. Burkes; James I. Cole; Indrajit Charit; Daniel M. Wachs

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Injection Timing Effects on Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency and Engine System's Respones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Societal concerns on combustion-based fuel consumption are ever-increasing. With respect to internal combustion engines, this translates to a need to increase brake fuel conversion efficiency (BFCE). Diesel engines are a relatively efficient internal combustion engine to consider for numerous applications, but associated actions to mitigate certain exhaust emissions have generally deteriorated engine efficiency. Conventionally, diesel engine emission control has centered on in-cylinder techniques. Although these continue to hold promise, the industry trend is presently favoring the use of after-treatment devices which create new opportunities to improve the diesel engine's brake fuel conversion efficiency. This study focuses on injection timing effects on the combustion processes, engine efficiency, and the engine system's responses. The engine in the study is a medium duty diesel engine (capable of meeting US EPA Tier III off road emission standards) equipped with common rail direct fuel injection, variable geometry turbo charging, and interfaced with a custom built engine controller. The study found that injection timing greatly affected BFCE by changing the combustion phasing. BFCE would increase up to a maximum then begin to decrease as phasing became less favorable. Combustion phasing would change from being mostly mixing controlled combustion to premixed combustion as injection timing would advance allowing more time for fuel to mix during the ignition delay. Combustion phasing, in turn, would influence many other engine parameters. As injection timing is advanced, in-cylinder temperatures and pressures amplify, and intake and exhaust manifold pressures deteriorate. Rate of heat release and rate of heat transfer increase when injection timing is advanced. Turbocharger speed falls with the advancing injection timing. Torque, however, rose to a maximum then fell off again even though engine speed and fueling rate were held constant between different injection timings. Interestingly, the coefficient of heat transfer changes from a two peak curve to a smooth one peak curve as the injection timing is advanced further. The major conclusion of the study is that injection advance both positively and negatively influences the diesel engine's response which contributes to the brake fuel conversion efficiency.

McLean, James Elliott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

FuelEff&PhysicsAutosSanders FUEL EFFICIENCY AND THE PHYSICS OF AUTOMOBILES1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The result is a gasoline savings of 3.3 million barrels per day in the US, more than half the total crude oil. In terms of barrels per day of oil, this efficiency improvement is far larger than production from any oil by applying the 60% improvement, in average miles per US gallon or km per liter, to today's driving

Edwards, Paul N.

157

Washington State Department of Transportation energy efficiency guidelines for small buildings  

SciTech Connect

This document provides energy efficiency guidelines for the construction and remodel of small buildings owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation (DOT). For the purpose of these guidelines {open_quotes}small buildings{close_quotes} are defined as those under 25,000 square feet. However, many of the guidelines can also be used for larger buildings. DOT is responsible for 641 buildings totaling 2.2 million square feet and consuming approximately $1,087,500 dollars in energy costs each year. Building types covered by these guidelines are small offices, shop buildings, and heated and unheated storage. These building types can be expected to vary greatly in both the distribution and magnitude of energy use.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Design assumptions and bases for small D-T-fueled spherical tokamak (ST) fusion core  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in defining the assumptions and clarifying the bases for a small D-T-fueled ST fusion core are presented. The paper covers several issues in the physics of ST plasmas, the technology of neutral beam injection, the engineering design configuration, and the center leg material under intense neutron irradiation. This progress was driven by the exciting data from pioneering ST experiments, a heightened interest in proof-of-principle experiments at the MA level in plasma current, and the initiation of the first conceptual design study of the small ST fusion core. The needs recently identified for a restructured fusion energy sciences program have provided a timely impetus for examining the subject of this paper. Our results, though preliminary in nature, strengthen the case for the potential realism and attractiveness of the ST approach.

Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Haines, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Making more efficient fuel cells 08.09.2009 -Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making more efficient fuel cells 08.09.2009 - Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert waste to generate electricity would greatly increase the cell's power output." The pili on the bacteria's surface

Lovley, Derek

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161

Development of a Safeguards Approach for a Small Graphite Moderated Reactor and Associated Fuel Cycle Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small graphite-moderated and gas-cooled reactors have been around since the beginning of the atomic age. Though their existence in the past has been associated with nuclear weapons programs, they are capable of being used in civilian power programs. The simpler design constraints associated with this type of reactor would make them ideal for developing nations to bolster their electricity generation and help promote a greater standard of living in those nations. However, the same benefits that make this type of reactor desirable also make it suspicious to the international community as a possible means to shorten that state?s nuclear latency. If a safeguards approach could be developed for a fuel cycle featuring one of these reactors, it would ease the tension surrounding their existence and possibly lead to an increased latency through engineered barriers. The development of this safeguards approach follows a six step procedure. First, the fuel cycle was analyzed for the types of facilities found in it and how nuclear material flows between facilities. The goals of the safeguards system were established next, using the normal IAEA standards for the non-detection and false alarm probabilities. The 5 MWe Reactor was modeled for both plutonium production and maximum power capacity. Each facility was analyzed for material throughput and the processes that occur in each facility were researched. Through those processes, diversion pathways were developed to test the proposed safeguards system. Finally, each facility was divided into material balance areas and a traditional nuclear material accountancy system was set up to meet the established safeguards goals for the facility. The DPRK weapons program is a great example of the type of fuel cycle that is the problem. The three major facilities in the fuel cycle, the Fuel Fabrication Facility, the 5 MWe Reactor, and the Radiochemical Laboratory, can achieve the two goals of safeguards using traditional methods. Each facility can be adequately safeguarded using methods and practices that are relatively inexpensive and can obtain material balance periods close to the timeliness limits set forth by the IAEA. The Fuel Fabrication Facility can be safeguarded at both its current needed capacity and its full design capacity using inexpensive measurements. The material balance period needed for both capacities are reasonable. For the 5 MWe reactor, plutonium production is simulated to be 6.7 kg per year and is on the high side of estimates. The Radiochemical Laboratory can also be safeguarded at its current capacity. In fact, the timeliness goal for the facility dictates what the material balance period must be for the chosen set of detectors which make it very reasonable.

Rauch, Eric B.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Radiological assessment of the decontamination and decommissioning of a small-scale fuel-reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of surplus radiological facilities is becoming a major concern as buildings built during the 1940's and 1950's reach the end of their useful lives. Prior to the start of a D and D project, a detailed radiological characterization of the facility is required to determine the nature and extent of residual contamination. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently begun such a characterization of Building 3505, originally called the Metal Recovery Facility, which served as a small-scale fuel reprocessing plant during the 1950's. Extensive contamination remains within areas of the facility, including transuranic (TRU) materials. Laboratory analyses were used in conjunction with in situ measurements of dose rate and contamination levels to determine the current status of the building and surrounding area. This information will be used to estimate the amount of decontamination required and the quantity of radioactive waste.

Simpson, D.R.; Emery, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Forest Products: Georgia-Pacific's Insulation Upgrade Leads to Reduced Fuel Costs and Increased Process Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This Steam Challenge Case Study looks at how the company, by insulating steam lines and replacing steam traps, was able to reduce fuel costs, increase process efficiency, and improve plant safety.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Engineering a 70-percent efficient, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle  

SciTech Connect

The authors introduce the natural gas, indirect-fired fuel-cell bottomed turbine cycle (NG-IFFC) as a novel power plant system for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20 to 200 megawatt (MW) size range. The NG-IFFC system is a new METC-patented system. This power-plant system links the ambient pressure, carbonate fuel cell in tandem with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger. Performance calculations based on Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulations show material and energy balances with expected power output. Early results indicated efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFFC are comparable to conventionally bottomed, carbonate fuel-cell steam-bottomed cycles. More recent calculations extended the in-tandem concept to produce near-stoichiometric usage of the oxygen. This is made possible by reforming the anode stream to completion and using all hydrogen fuel in what will need to be a special combustor. The performance increases dramatically to 70%.

Williams, M.C.; Micheli, P.L.; Parsons, E.L. Jr.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Case Study: Georgia-Pacific Reduces Outside Fuel Costs and Increases Process Efficiency with Insulation Upgrade Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Georgia-Pacific plywood plant located in Madison, Georgia recently decided to insulate their steam lines for energy conservation, improved process efficiency and personnel protection. The goal of the project was to eliminate dependency on purchased fuel. Georgia-Pacific realized immediate and significant results and reduced fuel cost by about one third over a one year period.

Jackson, D.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effect of Wide-Based Single Tires on Fuel Efficiency of Class 8 Combination Trucks  

SciTech Connect

In 2007 and 2008, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class- 8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information is useful to support Class-8 modeling of heavy-truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within heavy-truck research and analyses. This paper presents some general statistics, including distribution of idling times during long-haul trucking operations. However, the main focus is on the analysis of some of the extensive real-world information collected in this project, specifically on the assessment of the effect that different types of tires (i.e., dual tires vs. new generation single wide-based tires or NGSWBTs) have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The tire effect is also evaluated as a function of the vehicle load level. In all cases analyzed, the statistical tests performed strongly suggest that fuel efficiencies achieved when using all NGSWBTs or combinations of duals and NGSWBTs are higher than in the case of a truck equipped with all dual tires.

Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL; Slezak, Lee [U.S. Department of Energy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

Sayer, J.H.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

Howell, Thomas Russell

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Reliable, Efficient and Cost-Effective Electric Power Converter for Small Wind Turbines Based on AC-link Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Grid-tied inverter power electronics have been an Achilles heel of the small wind industry, providing opportunity for new technologies to provide lower costs, greater efficiency, and improved reliability. The small wind turbine market is also moving towards the 50-100kW size range. The unique AC-link power conversion technology provides efficiency, reliability, and power quality advantages over existing technologies, and Princeton Power will adapt prototype designs used for industrial asynchronous motor control to a 50kW small wind turbine design.

Darren Hammell; Mark Holveck; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in a hybrid surface ship propulsion plant to increase fuel efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An increasingly mobile US Navy surface fleet and oil price uncertainty contrast with the Navy's desire to lower the amount of money spent purchasing fuel. Operational restrictions limiting fuel use are temporary and cannot ...

Kroll, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Interactions between fuel choice and energy-efficiency in new homes in the Pacific Northwest  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the Bonneville Power Administration has instituted programs to prompt the implementation of the residential Model Conservation Standards (MCS) issued by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in 1983. These standards provide alternative methods for designing and constructing homes to cost effectively reduce residential energy consumption. Authority exists to apply them only to new, electrically heated homes. Because they apply to electrically heated homes, concerns have arisen about how the standards might affect buyers' decisions to purchase a new home, in particular, their choice of a heating fuel. Early data suggested that electricity started losing market share in Tacoma about when the MCS went into effect in 1984, and recent data have shown that about half of electricity's share of the new home market has shifted to natural gas. This decline in electric heating was consistent with concerns about the possible detrimental effect of the cost of MCS on sales of electrically heated homes. A desire to understand the causes of the perceived decline in electricity's market share was part of the impetus for this study. Multiple techniques and data sources are used in this study to examine the relationship between residential energy-efficiency and fuel choice in the major metropolitan areas in Washington: Spokane, Clark, Pierce, and King Counties. Recent regional surveys have shown that electricity is the predominant space heating fuel in the Pacific Northwest, but it appears to be losing its dominance in some markets such as Tacoma.

Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Bruneau, C.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hydrogen as a zero-emission, high-efficiency fuel: Uniqueness, experiments and simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The planned use of hydrogen as the energy carrier of the future introduces new challenges and opportunities, especially to the engine design community. Hydrogen is a bio-friendly fuel that can be produced from renewable resources and has no carbon dioxide combustion products; and in a properly designed ICE, almost zero NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved. Because of the unique properties of hydrogen combustion - in particular the highly wrinkled nature of the laminar flame front due to the preferential diffusion instability - modeling approaches for hydrocarbon gaseous fuels are not generally applicable to hydrogen combustion. This paper reports on the current progress to develop an engine design capability based on the KIVA family of codes for hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engines in support of the National Hydrogen Program. A turbulent combustion model, based on a modified eddy-turnover model in conjunction with an intake flow valve model, is found to describe well the efficiency and NO{sub x} emissions for an experimental engine over a wide range of ignition timings. The NO{sub x} emissions of this engine satisfy the Equivalent Zero Vehicle (EZEV) standard established by the California Resource Board.

Johnson, N.L.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Essays on Efficiency of the Farm Credit System and Dynamic Correlations in Fossil Fuel Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Markets have always changed in response to either exogenous or endogenous shocks. Many large events have occurred in financial and energy markets the last ten years. This dissertation examines market behavior and volatility in agricultural credit and fossil fuel markets under exogenous and endogenous changes in the last ten years. The efficiency of elements within the United States Farm Credit System, a major agricultural lender in the United States, and the dynamic correlation between coal, oil and natural gas prices, the three major fossil fuels, are examined. The Farm Credit system is a key lender in the U.S. agricultural sector, and its performance can influence the performance of the agricultural sector. However, its efficiency in providing credit to the agricultural sector has not been recently examined. The first essay of the dissertation provides assessments on the performance of elements within the Farm Credit System by measuring their relative efficiency using a stochastic frontier model. The second essay addresses the changes in relationship in coal, oil, and natural gas markets with respect to changes and turbulence in the last decade, which has also not been fully addressed in literature. The updated assessment on the relative performance of entities within the Farm Credit System provides information that the Farm Credit Administration and U.S. policy makers can use in their management of and policy toward the Farm Credit System. The measurement of the changes in fossil fuel markets’ relationships provides implications for energy investment, energy portfolio anagement, energy risk management, and energy security. It can also be used as a foundation for structuring forecasting models and other models related to energy markets. The dynamic correlations between coal, oil, and natural gas prices are examined using a dynamic conditional correlation multivariate autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH DCC) model. The estimated results show that the FCS’s five banks and associations with large assets have more efficiently produced credit to the U.S. agricultural sector than smaller sized associations. Management compensation is found to be positively associated with the system’s efficiency. More capital investment and monitoring along with possible consolidation are implied for smaller sized associations to enhance efficiency. On average, the results show that the efficiency of the associations is increasing over time while the average efficiency of the five large banks is more stable. Overall, the associations exhibit a higher variation of efficiency than the five banks. In terms of energy markets the estimates from the MGARCH DCC model indicate significant and changing dynamic correlations and related volatility between the coal, oil, and natural gas prices. The coal price was found to experience more volatility and become more closely related to oil and natural gas prices in recent periods. The natural gas price was found to become more stable and drift away from its historical relationship with oil.

Dang, Trang Phuong Th 1977-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

A 48-month extended fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small, rail-shippable pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and an electric power output of 150 MW, which is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height, but otherwise standard, PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array on a 21.5 cm inter-assembly pitch. The B and W mPower core design and cycle management plan, which were performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, follow the pattern of a typical nuclear reactor fuel cycle design and analysis performed by most nuclear fuel management organizations, such as fuel vendors and utilities. However, B and W is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for four years of continuous power operations without refueling and without the hurdles of chemical shim. (authors)

Erighin, M. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, 109 Ramsey Place, Lynchburg, VA 24502 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

Brown, L.C.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001  

SciTech Connect

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the selected thermochemical process and to define the selected reactor and process to the point that capital costs, operating costs and the resultant cost of hydrogen can be estimated. During original contract negotiation, it was necessary to reduce work scope to meet funding limits. As a result, the reactor interface and process will not be iterated to the point that only hydrogen is produced. Rather, hydrogen and electricity will be co-generated and the hydrogen cost will be stated as a function of the electricity sales price.

Brown, L.C.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to everyone at the Demand Response Research Center, theEnergy Efficiency and Demand Response with CommunicatingEnergy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating

Herter, Karen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon: systems for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct electrochemical conversion of carbon involves discharge of suspensions of reactive carbon particles in a molten salt electrolyte against an oxygen (air) cathode. (Figure 1). The free energy and the enthalpy of the oxidation reaction are nearly identical. This allows theoretical efficiencies ({Delta}G(T)/{Delta}H) to approach 100% at temperatures from 500 to 800 C. Entropy heat losses are therefore negligible. The activities of the elemental carbon and of the carbon dioxide product are uniform throughout the fuel cell and constant over discharge time. This stabilizes cell EMF and allows full utilization of the carbon fuel in a single pass. Finally, the energy cost for pyrolysis of hydrocarbons is generally very low compared with that of steam reforming or water gas reactions. Direct electrochemical conversion of carbon might be compared with molten carbonate fuel cell using carbon rather than hydrogen. However, there are important differences. There is no hydrogen involved (except from trace water contamination). The mixture of molten carbonate and carbon is not highly flammable. The carbon is introduced in as a particulate, rather than as a high volume flow of hydrogen. At the relatively low rates of discharge (about 1 kA/m{sup 2}), the stoichiometric requirements for carbon dioxide by the cathodic reaction may be met by diffusion across the thin electrolyte gap. We report recent experimental work at LLNL using melt slurries of reactive carbons produced by the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. We have found that anodic reactivity of carbon in mixed carbonate melts depends strongly on form, structure and nano-scale disorder of the materials, which are fixed by the hydrocarbon starting material and the conditions of pyrolysis. Thus otherwise chemically pure carbons made by hydrocarbon pyrolysis show rates at fixed potentials that span an order of magnitude, while this range lies 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the current density of graphite plate electrodes. One carbon materials was identified which delivered anode current densities of 1 kA/m{sup 2} at 0.8 V (i.e., 80% efficiency, based on the standard enthalpy of carbon/oxygen reaction, and assuming full conversion), which we believe to be sufficiently great to allow practical application in fuel cell arrays. Since the hydrocarbon starting materials are ''ash free,'' entrainment of ash into the melt is not limiting. Finally, the use of fine carbon particulates in slurries avoids cost and logistics of carbon electrode manufacture and distribution.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Krueger, R

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

180

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Small oil-fired heating equipment: The effects of fuel quality  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical characteristics of fuel can affect its flow, atomization, and combustion, all of which help to define the overall performance of a heating system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of some important parameters of fuel quality on the operation of oil-fired residential heating equipment. The primary focus was on evaluating the effects of the fuel`s sulfur content, aromatics content, and viscosity. Since the characteristics of heating fuel are generally defined in terms of standards (such as ASTM, or state and local fuel-quality requirements), the adequacy and limitations of such specifications also are discussed. Liquid fuels are complex and their properties cannot generally be varied without affecting other properties. To the extent possible, test fuels were specially blended to meet the requirements of the ASTM limits but, at the same time, significant changes were made to the fuels to isolate and vary the selected parameters over broad ranges. A series of combustion tests were conducted using three different types of burners -- a flame-retention head burner, a high static-pressure-retention head burner, and an air-atomized burner. With some adjustments, such modern equipment generally can operate acceptably within a wide range of fuel properties. From the experimental data, the limits of some of the properties could be estimated. The property which most significantly affects the equipment`s performance is viscosity. Highly viscous fuels are poorly atomizated and incompletely burnt, resulting in higher flue gas emissions. Although the sulfur content of the fuel did not significantly affect performance during these short-term studies, other work done at BNL demonstrated that long-term effects due to sulfur can be detrimental in terms of fouling and scale formation on boiler heat exchanger tubes.

Litzke, W.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

An extended conventional fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and a thermal output of about 500 MW; it is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array. The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for a four-year cycle based on its presumed attractiveness to potential customers. This option is a once-through fuel cycle in which the entire core is discharged and replaced after four years. In addition, a conventional fuel utilization strategy, employing a periodic partial reload and shuffle, was developed as an alternative to the four-year once-through fuel cycle. This study, which was performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, is a typical multi-cycle projection analysis of the type performed by most fuel management organizations such as fuel vendors and utilities. In the industry, the results of such projections are used by the financial arms of these organizations to assist in making long-term decisions. In the case of the B and W mPower reactor, this analysis demonstrates flexibility for customers who consider the once-through fuel cycle unacceptable from a fuel utilization standpoint. As expected, when compared to the once-through concept, reloads of the B and W mPower reactor will achieve higher batch average discharge exposure, will have adequate shut-down margin, and will have a relatively flat hot excess reactivity trend at the expense of slightly increased peaking. (authors)

Scarangella, M. J. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, 109 Ramsey Place, Lynchburg, VA 24502 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

USE OF A DIESEL FUEL PROCESSOR FOR RAPID AND EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF SINGLE LEG NOX ADSORBER SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lean NOx adsorber systems are one of the primary candidate technologies for the control of NOx from diesel engines to meet the 2007-2010 US emissions regulations, which require a 90% reduction of NOx from the 2004 regulations. Several of the technical challenges facing this technology are regeneration at low exhaust temperatures and the efficient use of diesel fuel to minimize fuel penalty. A diesel processor system has been developed and tested in a single leg NOx adsorber configuration on a diesel engine test stand. During NOx adsorber regeneration, this fuel processor system performs reduces the exhaust O2 level to zero and efficiently processes the diesel fuel to H2 and CO. Combined with a Nox adsorber catalyst, this system has demonstrated NOx reduction above 90%, regeneration of the NOx adsorber H2/CO pulses as short as 1 second and fuel penalties in the 3 to 4% range at 50% load. This fuel processor system can also be used to provide the desulfation cycle required with sulfur containing fuels as well as providing thermal management for PM filter regeneration.

Betta, R; Cizeron, J; Sheridan, D; Davis, T

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

185

Bio Diesel Oil of Mustard: Small Diesel a Renewable Alternative Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper represents the mustard oil is a kind of renewable energy and alternative fuel of the future. In order to cope with the current situation of load shedding, and reduce dependence on imported fuels, the Bangladesh government to encourage the ... Keywords: Calorific Value, Ester Exchange Reaction, Keywords: Biodiesel, Mustard Oil, Pyrolysis, Viscosity

Liu Hongcong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR EMPLOYING SMALL UNCLAD BODIES OF FISSIONABLE MATERIAL AS FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor in which fuel pellets are continuously dissolved in a moderator liquid is described. The fuel pellets are fed into the top of elongated baskets which are submerged in moderator liquid, and a portion of the moderator liquid is continuously withdrawn and processed to recove r reaction products.

Hyman, H.H.; Katz, J.J.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Increasing vehicle fuel efficiency and decreasing de-pendence on foreign oil are priorities of the U.S. De-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Increasing vehicle fuel efficiency and decreasing de- pendence on foreign oil are priorities manufacturing research facility in the DOE laboratory system. For more than ten years, it has worked with government and industry to address commercialization challeng- es, including cost and manufacturing

189

Small Hydropower Systems: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) Fact Sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

you're considering building a small you're considering building a small hydropower system on water flowing through your property, you have a long tradition from which to draw your inspi- ration. Two thousand years ago, the Greeks learned to harness the power of running water to turn the massive wheels that rotated the shafts of their wheat flour grinders. And in the hydropower heyday of the 18th century, thousands of towns and cities worldwide were located around small hydropower sites. Today, small hydropower projects offer emissions-free power solutions for many remote communities throughout the world-such as those in Nepal, India, China, and Peru-as well as for highly industrialized countries, like the United States. This fact sheet will help you determine whether a small hydropower system will

190

Fuel Cell Technologies Program - Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential.

191

Emissions and efficiency of agricultural diesels using low-proof ethanol as supplement fuel. [Tractor engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental investigations were made to evaluate the potential of using low-proof ethanol to supplement diesel fuel in agricultural engines. Fumigation, mechanical emulsification, and chemical emulsifiers were used to introduce a significant amount of alcohol with diesel fuel for engine operation. A total of five diesel tractor engines were tested using each of the fuel systems. Exhaust products and fuel usage were determined at various engine speed/load conditions. 5 references, 12 figures, 14 tables.

Allsup, J.R.; Clingenpeel, J.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Guide to Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment Contents Introduction........................... 4 Compressed Natural Gas ........................ 6 Biodiesel ................................. 6 Electricity ............................... 7 Propane .................................. 8 Incentives ............................... 14 Special Considerations ...... 14 Resources............................... 15 A single commercial lawnmower can annually use as much gaso- line or diesel fuel as a commercial work truck. Powering commercial lawn service equipment with alternative fuels is an effective way to reduce petroleum use. Alternative fuels can also reduce pollutant emissions compared with conventional fuels. Nu- merous biodiesel, compressed natural gas, electric, and propane

194

Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

variation during the operation. The analysis will consider an average profile for heat and power demand gross electricity generation in 2010 by doubling the generation capacity and increasing the plant load and degrades the fuel cells. To counteract the degradation, the system has not to be stressed with rapid load

Liso, Vincenzo

195

Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

Ariani, Menik [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Asiah, Nur [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Shafii, M. Ali [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Andalas University, Kampus Limau Manis, Padang, Sumatera Barat (Indonesia); Khairurrijal

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

196

Physical characteristics of LWRs and SCLWRs loaded by ({sup 233}U-Th-{sup 238}U) oxide fuel with small additions of {sup 231}Pa  

SciTech Connect

The paper investigates the possibility and attractiveness of using (U-Th) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs) and in light-water reactors with super-critical coolant parameters (SCLWRs). It is proposed to dilute {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U to enhance the proliferation resistance of this fissionable isotope. If is noteworthy that she idea was put forward for the first time by she well known American physicist and participant of the Manhattan Project Dr. T. Taylor. Various fuel compositions are analyzed and compared on fuel breeding, achievable values of fuel burn-up and cross-sections of parasitic neutron absorption. It is also demonstrated that small {sup 231}Pa additions (several percent) into the fuel allows: to increase fuel burn-up, to achieve more negative temperature reactivity coefficient of coolant and to enhance nonproliferation of the fuel. (authors)

Kulikov, E.G.; Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute - State University, Kashirskoe shosse, 31, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikov, G.G. [International Science and Technology Center, Krasnoproletarskaya ul., 32-34, P.0. Box 20, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 FUEL CELL 2009 FUEL CELL MARKET REPORT NOVEMBER 2010 Authors This report was written primarily by Bill Vincent of the Breakthrough Technologies Institute in Washington, DC, with significant assistance from Jennifer Gangi, Sandra Curtin, and Elizabeth Delmont. Acknowledgement This report was the result of hard work and valuable contributions from government staff and the fuel cell industry. The authors especially wish to thank Sunita Satyapal, Nancy Garland and the staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program for their support and guidance in the preparation of this report. The authors also wish to thank Robert Rose and Robert Wichert of the U.S. Fuel Cell Council, Lisa Callaghan-Jerram of Fuel Cell Today Consulting, Rachel Gelman of the National

198

From here to efficiency : time lags between the introduction of new technology and the achievement of fuel savings.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the energy savings of new technology offering significant improvements in fuel efficiency are tracked for over 20 years as vehicles incorporating that technology enter the fleet and replace conventional light-duty vehicles. Two separate analyses are discussed: a life-cycle analysis of aluminum-intensive vehicles and a fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and greenhouse gas emissions of double vs. triple fuel-economy vehicles. In both efforts, market-penetration modeling is used to simulate the rate at which new technology enters the new fleet, and stock-adjustment modeling is used to capture the inertia in turnover of new and existing current-technology vehicles. Together, these two effects--slowed market penetration and delayed vehicle replacement--increase the time lag between market introduction and the achievement of substantial energy savings. In both cases, 15-20 years elapse, before savings approach these levels.

Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.; Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

199

Simulated Verification of Fuel Element Inventory in a Small Reactor Core Using the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)  

SciTech Connect

The International Panel on Climate Change projects that by 2050 the world energy demand may double. Although the primary focus for new nuclear power plants in industrialized nations is on large plants in the 1000-1600 MWe range, there is an increasing demand for small and medium reactors (SMRs). About half of the innovative SMR concepts are for small (<300 MWe) reactors with a 5-30 year life without on-site refueling. This type of reactor is also known as a battery-type reactor. These reactors are particularly attractive to countries with small power grids and for non-electrical purposes such as heating, hydrogen production, and seawater desalination. Traditionally, this type of reactor has been used in a nautical propulsion role. This type of reactor is designed as a permanently sealed unit to prevent the diversion of the uranium in the core by the user. However, after initial fabrication it will be necessary to verify that the newly fabricated reactor core contains the quantity of uranium that initially entered the fuel fabrication plant. In most instances, traditional inspection techniques can be used to perform this verification, but in certain situations the core design will be considered sensitive. Non-intrusive verification techniques must be utilized in these situations. The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with imaging uses active interrogation and a fast time correlation processor to characterize fissile material. The MCNP-PoliMi computer code was used to simulate NMIS measurements of a small, sealed reactor core. Because most battery-type reactor designs are still in the early design phase, a more traditional design based on a Russian icebreaker core was used in the simulations. These simulations show how the radiography capabilities of the NMIS could be used to detect the diversion of fissile material by detecting void areas in the assembled core where fuel elements have been removed.

Grogan, Brandon R [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power - for the period August 1, 1999 through October 31, 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power - for the period August 1, 1999 through October 31, 1999. The highlights for this period are: (1) The methodologies for searching the literature for potentially attractive thermochemical water-splitting cycles, storing cycle and reference data, and screening the cycles have been established; and (2) The water-splitting cycle screening criteria were established on schedule.

L. C. Brown

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

203

Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

Wiltsee, G.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT JUNE 2011 i Authors This report was a collaborative effort by staff of the Breakthrough Technologies Institute, Inc., in Washington, DC. Acknowledgement The authors relied upon the hard work and valuable contributions of many men and women in government and in the fuel cell industry. The authors especially wish to thank Sunita Satyapal, Nancy Garland and the staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program for their support and guidance in the preparation of this report. The authors also wish to thank Lisa Callaghan- Jerram of Pike Research and Rachel Gelman of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the many others who made this report possible. ii Contents List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... iv

205

2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 22nd Operations Group Fuel Efficiency Office  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

E ciency O ce E ciency O ce U.S. Air Force McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas During FY 2012, the 22nd Operations Group Fuel E ciency O ce (FEO) designed and implemented multiple measures, including a focus on institutional culture change, to reduce ine ciency in fuel management of the KC-135 aircraft and save the Air Force $4.3 million during a 42 percent rise in local sorties (the deployment of aircraft for missions of national defense or aircrew proficiency). These e orts included reducing KC-135 landing fuel by 5000 lb per sortie to save 1.94 million gallons per year; changing the KC-135 standard landing configuration to save 50 lb of fuel per approach; and implementing a new training configuration to reduce aircraft basic weight by 1,600 lb. The FEO also incorporated Mission Index Flying

206

Fuel economy regulations and efficiency technology improvements in U.S. cars since 1975  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light-duty vehicles account for 43% of petroleum consumption and 23% of green- house gas emissions in the United States. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are the primary policy tool addressing petroleum ...

MacKenzie, Donald Warren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Fuel from farms: a guide to small-scale ethanol production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A guide on fermentation processes with emphasis on small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as a source of raw material is published. The current status of on-farm ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors is presented. Decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in decision making are included. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Diagrams of fermentors and distilling apparatus are included. (DC)

None

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Detective quantum efficiency of CT reconstruction: the detection of small objects  

SciTech Connect

The loss of detection sensitivity incurred by any stage of image processing may normally be characterized by the frequency dependence of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of that stage of processing, provided the image is represented in continuous coordinates. However, limitations to the DQE concept arise when discretely sampled projection data are used to obtain discretely sampled computed tomographic (CT) reconstructions. The source of these limitations is the aliasing produced by the discrete sampling which mixes contributions from various frequencies. An associated problem is that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the detection of an object can depend upon the position of the object relative to the discrete reconstruction pixels. The effective SNR for discrete images must take into account this variation. While there may be no loss in the detection SNR for reconstructions in continuous coordinates (DQE = 100%), a reduction in the SNR will result from aliasing for discrete reconstructions. A simple one-dimensional model elucidates the characteristics of discrete CT reconstruction.

Hanson, K.M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Impact of Liquefied Natural Gas usage and payload size on Hybrid Wing Body aircraft fuel efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work assessed Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft in the context of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel usage and payload/range scalability at three scales: H1 (B737), H2 (B787) and H3 (B777). The aircraft were optimized for ...

Mody, Pritesh (Pritesh Chetan)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Chapter 4, Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Small Commercial 4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol David Jacobson, Jacobson Energy Research Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 4 - 1 Chapter 4 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol ....................................................................................... 3 2.1 Programs with Enhanced Measures ................................................................................. 5 3 Savings Calculations .............................................................................................................. 6

211

Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heavy-water-moderated, light-water-moderated and liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors fueled with natural or low-enriched uranium and containing thorium mixed with the uranium or in separate target channels. U-232 decays with a 69-year half-life through 1.9-year half-life Th-228 to Tl-208, which emits a 2.6 MeV gamma ray upon decay. We find that pressurized light-water-reactors fueled with LEU-thorium fuel at high burnup (70 MWd/kg) produce U-233 with U-232 contamination levels of about 0.4 percent. At this contamination level, a 5 kg sphere of U-233 would produce a gammaray dose rate of 13 and 38 rem/hr at 1 meter one and ten years after chemical purification respectively. The associated plutonium contains 7.5 percent of the undesirable heat-generating 88-year half-life isotope Pu-238. However, just as it is possible to produce weapon-grade plutonium in low-burnup fuel, it is also practical to use heavy-water reactors to produce U-233 containing only a few ppm of U-232 if the thorium is segregated in “target ” channels and discharged a few times more frequently than the natural-uranium “driver ” fuel. The dose rate from a 5-kg solid sphere of U-233 containing 5 ppm U-232 could be reduced by a further factor of 30, to about 2 mrem/hr, with a close-fitting lead sphere weighing about 100 kg. Thus the proliferation resistance of thorium fuel cycles depends very much upon how they are implemented. The original version of this manuscript was received by Science & Global Security on

Jungmin Kang A

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Turbocharged engine operations using knock resistant fuel blends for engine efficiency improvements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engine downsizing with a turbocharger has become popular these days in automotive industries. Downsizing the engine lets the engine operate in a more efficient region, and the engine boosting compensates for the power loss ...

Jo, Young Suk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

IMPROVING THE NATION'S ENERGY SECURITY: CAN CARS AND TRUCKS BE MADE MORE FUEL EFFICIENT - Testimony to the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, February 9, 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IMPROVING THE NATION'S ENERGY SECURITY: CAN CARS AND TRUCKS IMPROVING THE NATION'S ENERGY SECURITY: CAN CARS AND TRUCKS BE MADE MORE FUEL EFFICIENT? 2:00 pm, Wednesday, February 9, 2005 Rayburn House Office Building, Room 2318 by Dr. David L. Greene Corporate Fellow Engineering Science and Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1. WHAT ARE THE POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENCOURAGING THE ADOPTION OF FUEL EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES? There are many ways to structure policies to achieve significant increases in fuel economy effectively and efficiently. I will focus on five below. It is possible to create policies that are reasonably effective, efficient, and fair. Our own experience with our CAFE standards and difficulties we have had updating the CAFE law indicates that we should also prefer policies that

215

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

216

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The closed cycle gas turbine, the most efficient turbine burning any fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are two types of gas turbines. The open cycle is very well known as, for example, the JET. The closed cycle in the U.S.A. is just starting to be well known. In Europe, the closed cycle gas turbine has been used in power plants, especially in Germany, and have been very efficient in burning coal. Concentrated in this paper is the Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) as it is the most efficient type of turbine. There are the following sections in this paper: closed cycle gas turbine in more detail; various advantages of the CCGT; Nuclear power; and three comments.

Sawyer, R.T.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power for the period February 01, 2001- April 30, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power for the period February 01, 2001-April 30, 2002. Future nuclear reactors will operate at higher efficiencies and, therefore, at higher temperature than current reactors. High temperatures present the potential for generating hydrogen at high efficiency using a thermochemical process. Thermochemical cycles for the generation of hydrogen from water were extensively studied in the 1970s and early 1980s both in the U.S. and abroad. Since that time, thermochemical water-splitting has not been pursued in the U.S. at any significant level. In Phase 1, we reviewed and analyzed all available data to determine the process best suited to hydrogen production from the advanced nuclear reactors expected to be available in the next 20 to 30 years. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle was selected for detailed study in Phases 2 and 3. In Phase 2, we investigated means of adapting this cycle to the heat output characteristics of an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor. In Phase 3, we are integrating the cycle and reactor into a unified hydrogen production plant. The highlight of this period was that the scheme of processing the HI/I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O phase with phosphoric acid is being considered in addition to the reactive distillation scheme.

Brown, L. C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power for the period November 1, 2001- January 31, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power for the period November 1, 2001-January 31, 2001. Future nuclear reactors will operate at higher efficiencies and, therefore, at higher temperature than current reactors. High temperatures present the potential for generating hydrogen at high efficiency using a thermochemical process. Thermochemical cycles for the generation of hydrogen from water were extensively studied in the 1970s and early 1980s both in the U.S. and abroad. Since that time, thermochemical water-splitting has not been pursued in the U.S. at any significant level. In Phase 1, we reviewed and analyzed all available data to determine the process best suited to hydrogen production from the advanced nuclear reactors expected to be available in the next 20 to 30 years. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle was selected for detailed study in Phases 2 and 3. In Phase 2, we investigated means of adapting this cycle to the heat output characteristics of an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor. In Phase 3, we are integrating the cycle and reactor into a unified hydrogen production plant. The highlight of this period was the size of the nuclear reactor used in the matching has been assumed to be 2400 MWt.

Brown, L. C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power for the period May 1, 2002- July 31, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power for the period May 1, 2002-July 31, 2002. Future nuclear reactors will operate at higher efficiencies and, therefore, at higher temperature than current reactors. High temperatures present the potential for generating hydrogen at high efficiency using a thermochemical process. Thermochemical cycles for the generation of hydrogen from water were extensively studied in the 1970s and early 1980s both in the U.S. and abroad. Since that time, thermochemical water-splitting has not been pursued in the U.S. at any significant level. In Phase 1, we reviewed and analyzed all available data to determine the process best suited to hydrogen production from the advanced nuclear reactors expected to be available in the next 20 to 30 years. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle was selected for detailed study in Phases 2 and 3. In Phase 2, we investigated means of adapting this cycle to the heat output characteristics of an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor. In Phase 3, we are integrating the cycle and reactor into a unified hydrogen production plant. The highlight of this period was that the sulfuric acid processing portion of the flowsheet was completed.

Brown, L.C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power for the period August 1, 2001-October 31, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power for the period August 1, 2001-October 31, 2001. Future nuclear reactors will operate at higher efficiencies and, therefore, at higher temperature than current reactors. High temperatures present the potential for generating hydrogen at high efficiency using a thermochemical process. Thermochemical cycles for the generation of hydrogen from water were extensively studied in the 1970s and early 1980s both in the U.S. and abroad. Since that time, thermochemical water-splitting has not been pursued in the U.S. at any significant level. In Phase 1, we reviewed and analyzed all available data to determine the process best suited to hydrogen production from the advanced nuclear reactors expected to be available in the next 20 to 30 years. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle was selected for detailed study in Phases 2 and 3. In Phase 2, we investigated means of adapting this cycle to the heat output characteristics of an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor. In Phase 3, we are integrating the cycle and reactor into a unified hydrogen production plant. The highlight of this period is that a project coordination meeting was held with Sandia on October 9, 2001.

Brown, L. C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Prospects for and problems of using light-water supercritical-pressure coolant in nuclear reactors in order to increase the efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trends in the development of the power sector of the Russian and world power industries both at present time and in the near future are analyzed. Trends in the rise of prices for reserves of fossil and nuclear fuels used for electricity production are compared. An analysis of the competitiveness of electricity production at nuclear power plants as compared to the competitiveness of electricity produced at coal-fired and natural-gas-fired thermal power plants is performed. The efficiency of the open nuclear fuel cycle and various versions of the closed nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. The requirements on light-water reactors under the scenario of dynamic development of the nuclear power industry in Russia are determined. Results of analyzing the efficiency of fuel utilization for various versions of vessel-type light-water reactors with supercritical coolant are given. Advantages and problems of reactors with supercritical-pressure water are listed.

Alekseev, P. N.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Sedov, A. A., E-mail: sedov@dhtp.kial.ru; Subbotin, S. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.

Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

226

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

227

Glass and glass-derivative seals for use in energy-efficient fuel cells and lamps  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 18 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. From the whole design space, several glasses were ''downselected'' and studied in detail to describe their behaviors in simulated fuel cell environments. One of the glasses was found to outperform all others, including the well-known G18 sealant developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new glass composition showed lower bulk electrical conductivity, excellent sealing and wetting behavior when sealing under applied load, and qualitatively superior performance when exposed to wet hydrogen for 800 hours. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses that were studied in detail. The sol-gel approach was used to synthesize several compositions, but it was found that the glasses crystallized very rapidly during heating, precluding sealing. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. The body of fundamental data provides a platform for future developments for high temperature sealants, and the newly-developed glass compositions appear promising for large-scale testing. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria-alumina-silica system at various silica levels. Functional testing of one of the candidate sealants demonstrated that it performs well in current HID lighting applications. Further testing is required to evaluate its performance in next-generation lamps that operate at higher temperatures, but the baseline phase equilibria and crystallization behavior has been established for additional development. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase.

Scott Misture; Arun Varshineya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

228

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of plutonium from a nuclear weapon to nuclear reactor fuel requires an evaluation of the residual gallium as a potential corrosive material within an operating nuclear fuel element. Homogeneous trace levels of gallium may remain following conversion and have the potential to migrate along the thermal gradient within the fuel and concentrate at the cladding-fuel contact zone. A system to investigate this material transport phenomenon was constructed using small diameter (0.18 inch), indirect electric heaters to simulate the centerline temperatures of operating nuclear fuel in a pressurized water reactor. The heater was inserted into annular surrogate fuel pellets containing depleted uranium, cerium oxide and trace quantities (10 ppm) of gallium to perform an initial study of the gallium migration using non-plutonium fuels and evaluate the performance of the simulation system. Heat was removed from the operating heaters by using an innovative liquid metal heat exchanger. The heaters were of a new design and were required to operate at a nominal temperature of 1000?C and for a minimum of 5000 hours. An evaluation of the expected heater lifetime and the thermal simulation system was needed in order to justify the high expense of a proposed full test using prototypic mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) containing plutonium from converted nuclear weapons. Bayesian reliability analysis methods were used to determine the expected heater failure rate because of the expected short test duration and the small sample size. Results from the operation of the simulation system and lifetime data indicate the current heater design is capable of producing the required temperatures and thermal gradients normally found in operating nuclear fuels. However, a design weakness in the heaters resulted in an unacceptably high failure rate of the heaters. The heaters were determined to have a reliability of 0.83 % at 5000 hours of operation with a Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) of 485 hours. The current heater design would require some modification and further testing prior to beginning a full scale test using prototypic MOX fuel pellets.

O'Kelly, David Sean

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 1b. Fuel Consumption for Selected Industries,  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b b Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 1b. End Uses of Fuel Consumption (Site Energy) for Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998 2002 2006 311 Food 1,044 1,116 1,186 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 108 104 109 313 Textile Mills 254 205 178 314 Textile Product Mills 49 60 72 315 Apparel 48 30 14 316 Leather and Allied Products 8 7 3 321 Wood Products 504 375 445 322 Paper 2,744 2,361 2,354 323 Printing and Related Support 98 98 85 324 Petroleum and Coal Products 3,622 3,202 3,396 325 Chemicals 3,704 3,769 3,195 326 Plastics and Rubber Products 327 348 336 327 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 969 1,052 1,105 331 Primary Metals 2,576 2,123 1,744 332 Fabricated Metal Products 441 387 397

230

EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 2b. Primary Fuel Consumption for Selected  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b b Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 2b. End Uses of Fuel Consumption (Primary 1 Energy) for Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Trillion Btu) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998 2002 2006 311 Food 1,468 1,572 1,665 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 156 156 166 313 Textile Mills 457 375 304 314 Textile Product Mills 85 94 110 315 Apparel 84 54 27 316 Leather and Allied Products 14 11 5 321 Wood Products 647 518 619 322 Paper 3,221 2,803 2,833 323 Printing and Related Support 199 197 171 324 Petroleum and Coal Products 3,873 3,454 3,657 325 Chemicals 4,851 4,803 4,181 326 Plastics and Rubber Products 691 707 683 327 Nonmetallic Mineral Products 1,235 1,331 1,385 331 Primary Metals 3,660 3,100 2,617 332 Fabricated Metal Products 791 706 670 333 Machinery 404 341 416 334 Computer and Electronic Products

231

Fuel cells for the '90s  

SciTech Connect

Nontraditional power plants may be needed to help utilities meet the need for additional generating capacity in the late 1980s. Fuel cell power plants can be built in small factory-assembled modules and installed in just 2 or 3 years. Because the fuel cell converts fuel-oil, gas, even coal distillates and other synthetic fuels-directly to electricity without combustion, it has almost no sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions. With no harmful emissions, fuel cells can be sited in populated areas. And because there is no combustion cycle to waste much of the fuel's energy, fuel cells have potentially higher efficiencies than thermal power plants. As a result of 12 years of intensive development by EPRI, DOE, utilities, manufacturers, and a fuel cell users group, the fuel cell technology will be ready when it is needed.

Lihach, N.; Fickett, A.; Gillis, E.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

233

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

offering cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil fuels. Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal-combustion engine in...

234

GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and will be analyzed during year 2 of the contract.

Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Beryllium Impregnation of Uranium Fuel: Thermal Modeling of Cylindrical Objects for Efficiency Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With active research projects related to nuclear waste immobilization and high conductivity nuclear fuels, a thermal model has been developed to simulate the temperature profile within a heat generating cylinder in order to imitate the behavior of each design. This work is being done so that it may be used in future research projects to represent how heat is being stored or dissipated in a material that has a uniformly distributed heat source from fission or radiation deposition. The model has been built to have a 2-D visual representation of the temperature distribution. A nodal system is employed for this model so that the user chooses the size of the mesh that will develop an accurate reading for their purposes. The model uses fundamental heat transfer equations and heat conduction properties for different metals. The heat transfer equations that will be used are fundamental and used at each point in the mesh developed by the user to ensure accuracy of the calculation. Below is such an example of an equation that will be used to model the temperature distribution in the cylindrical samples. By choosing the thermal properties associated with the material that is being researched, certain parameters are imposed in the equations automatically. This provides an easy method to see changes in the temperature distribution due to the improvements that have been made. Such parameters are the thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity along with others such as the material specific heat. The model will incorporate color variations in the display in order to allow larger meshes to be used while not diminishing the appearance of the results. The color variation will be due to a gradient from red to blue to represent hot to cold.

Lynn, Nicholas

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

236

The Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell program: Clean, efficient energy for the future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology and field testing program. The development program for the field testing was initiated in 1986 with a 400 W unit. This program has progressed to the installation and start-up in early 1992 of the 25 kill field unit at Rokko Island in Japan. In mid-1992 the second 25 kill field unit, a cogeneration system producing both ac electric power and intermediate pressure steam, will be delivered to the Joint Gas Utilities, a consortium of the Tokyo Gas Company and the Osaka Gas Company. This will be followed by the 20 kill SOFC unit to be supplied to Southern California Edison in early 1993. Future plans include the 100 kill Cogeneration Proof-of-Concept unit for the Southern California Gas Company which is scheduled for delivery in late 1993. Applications for SOFC technology range from on-site power generation for commercial second small industrial applications to dispersed generating plants and central station electric power generation. The design studies have included integrated coal gasification SOFC-steam turbine power plants. Installed capital costs of a 250 MW plant of this configuration compares favorably with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle plants.

Gockley, G.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell program: Clean, efficient energy for the future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology and field testing program. The development program for the field testing was initiated in 1986 with a 400 W unit. This program has progressed to the installation and start-up in early 1992 of the 25 kill field unit at Rokko Island in Japan. In mid-1992 the second 25 kill field unit, a cogeneration system producing both ac electric power and intermediate pressure steam, will be delivered to the Joint Gas Utilities, a consortium of the Tokyo Gas Company and the Osaka Gas Company. This will be followed by the 20 kill SOFC unit to be supplied to Southern California Edison in early 1993. Future plans include the 100 kill Cogeneration Proof-of-Concept unit for the Southern California Gas Company which is scheduled for delivery in late 1993. Applications for SOFC technology range from on-site power generation for commercial second small industrial applications to dispersed generating plants and central station electric power generation. The design studies have included integrated coal gasification SOFC-steam turbine power plants. Installed capital costs of a 250 MW plant of this configuration compares favorably with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle plants.

Gockley, G.B.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Federal Support for Energy Efficiency in U.S. Industry: Collaboratively Addressing Energy Management in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. industrial sector consumes about one-third of energy in the United States each year. Improving energy efficiency in an industrial environment may come with a host of benefits to the facility owner, including a reduction in annual energy expenses, lower maintenance costs, increased productivity, and improved profitability; but sector-wide improvements in industrial energy efficiency represent even greater advancements to a collective federal agenda relating to the economy, energy, and the environment. Multiple federal agencies-U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Small Business Administration-have taken a keen interest in industrial energy efficiency due to its clear links to the creation and retention of quality jobs, U.S. economic competitiveness, domestic energy security and global climate change. This paper explores successful industrial energy efficiency programs established by various federal agencies, as well as emerging collaborative initiatives designed to enhance energy efficiency across U.S. small- and medium-sized manufacturers (SMMs). Authors investigate which of these programs have experienced traction and success among SMMs, as well as the best methods to engage SMMs at the local level. Additionally, this paper identifies existing barriers hindering energy efficiency within SMMs and discusses interagency opportunities to expand the reach and efficacy of federal energy-efficiency resources.

Bostrom, P.; Lung, R. B.; Harris, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.''

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.''

BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

243

Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers  

SciTech Connect

Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

Hale, Steve

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

244

Evaluating Interventions in the U.S. Electricity System: Assessments of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Small-­?Scale Cogeneration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is growing interest in reducing the environmental and human-­?health impacts resulting from electricity generation. Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and energy conservation are all commonly… (more)

Siler-Evans, Kyle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

246

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

247

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section...

248

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

249

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

250

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

251

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section...

252

Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

253

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section...

254

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

255

Energy Efficiency in Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms: Order Effects and the Adoption of Process Improvement Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many manufacturing operations, profitable energy efficiency opportunities remain unexploited. Although previous studies have tried to explain the underinvestment, we focus on how the way in which a portfolio of opportunities is presented in a list ... Keywords: behavioral operations, econometric analysis, empirical research, energy efficiency, energy-related operations, environmental operations, order effects, process improvement

Suresh Muthulingam, Charles J. Corbett, Shlomo Benartzi, Bohdan Oppenheim

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Efficient Numerical Methods for an Anisotropic, Nonisothermal, Two-Phase Transport Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We carry out model and numerical studies for a three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, two-phase steady state transport model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in this paper. Besides fully addressing the conservation equations of mass, ... Keywords: Anisotropy, Combined finite element-upwind finite volume, Kirchhoff transformation, Newton's linearization, Nonisothermality, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), Two-phase transport

Pengtao Sun

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Fuel comsumption of heavy-duty trucks : potential effect of future technologies for improving energy efficiency and emission.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of an analysis of heavy-duty truck (Classes 2b through 8) technologies conducted to support the Energy Information Administration's long-term projections for energy use are summarized. Several technology options that have the potential to improve the fuel economy and emissions characteristics of heavy-duty trucks are included in the analysis. The technologies are grouped as those that enhance fuel economy and those that improve emissions. Each technology's potential impact on the fuel economy of heavy-duty trucks is estimated. A rough cost projection is also presented. The extent of technology penetration is estimated on the basis of truck data analyses and technical judgment.

Saricks, C. L.; Vyas, A. D.; Stodolsky, F.; Maples, J. D.; Energy Systems; USDOE

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fermentation guide for potatoes. A step-by-step procedure for small-scale ethanol fuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guide describes the steps involved in the successful batch starch conversion and fermentation of potatoes for the production of fuel grade ethanol. The first part of this manual provides an overview of ethanol production from feedstock to fermentation. The second part of the manual is a recipe section that gives step-by-step procedures necessary for successful fermentation. Chapter titles are: major steps in ethanol production; equipment and chemicals; water testing and treatment; feedstock cleaning and crushing; precooking; hydration and dextrinization; cooking; choosing the best enzymes; fermentation; core and cleaning, step-by-step procedure; refinements; and supplies. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Laws and Incentives for...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative...

260

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Matching Government Needs with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Government Needs with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Matching Government Needs with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

262

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Emissions and Fuel Consumption Impacts of IntelligentTravel Time, Fuel Consumption and Weigh Station Efficiency.EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION - Sustainable Approaches for

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A reduced mechanism for methane and one-step rate expressions for fuel-lean catalytic combustion of small alkanes on noble metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reduced mechanism and a one-step rate expression for fuel-lean methane/air catalytic combustion on an Rh catalyst are proposed. These are developed from a detailed microkinetic model using a computer-aided model reduction strategy that employs reaction path analysis, sensitivity analysis, partial equilibrium analysis, and simple algebra to deduce the most abundant reaction intermediate and the rate-determining step. The mechanism and the one-step rate expression are then tested on Pt catalyst. It is found that the reaction proceeds effectively via the same mechanistic pathway on both noble metals, but the effective reaction orders differ due to the difference in the adsorption strength of oxygen. Based on the homologous series idea, the rate expression is extended to small alkanes (ethane and propane; butane is also briefly discussed) and is found to reasonably describe experimental data. Estimation of the relevant parameters in the rate expression for various fuels and catalysts using the semiempirical bond-order conservation theory, quantum mechanical density functional theory, and/or simple experiments is discussed. Finally, it is proposed that detailed microkinetic models with coverage-dependent parameters can assist in rationalizing the apparent discrepancies between experimental data from various research groups. (author)

Deshmukh, S.R.; Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716-3110 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire, this stove can save 50% fuel for the IDPs. The stove costs less than $10 (US) to produce in Darfur, and saves fuelwood worth $160 annually at local market prices. For programmatic and administrative reasons, the LBNL mission do not recommend a mud-and-dung stove, for which control of quality and dimensional accuracy is expensive and cumbersome to administer, particularly in a rapid large rollout effort. A light metal stove, on the other hand, can be rapidly produced in large numbers locally in Darfur, with good quality control exercised on the material and dimensions of the stoves right at the workshop where it is produced. LBNL mission also recommends immediate trials of 50 Tara stoves in a pilot technical rollout, 500 Tara stoves in a pilot social rollout, in parallel with a technical effort to modify the Tara design to make it better suited for Darfur camp conditions. The mission also recommends a program for manufacturing, disseminating the metal stoves, and educating the IDPs in fuel-efficient cooking practices. Monitoring of the stove quality, dissemination effort and training should be an integral part of the program, with systematic summaries planned with 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 stoves have been disseminated. In the above pilot rollouts as well as in the final implementation, it is important to continue to pay attention to training of the cooks in tending the cooking fire in the stoves, and offer continued social reinforcement to this training (e.g., through periodic competitions to cook normal meals with the least fuelwood use.)

Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

266

User`s guide to EAGLES Version 1.1: An electric- and gasoline-vehicle fuel-efficiency software package  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

EAGLES is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of fuel efficiency in electric-vehicle (EV) applications or the estimation of fuel economy for a gasoline vehicle. The principal objective of the EV analysis is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The EV model included in the software package provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. The capability of the battery is modeled by an algorithm that relates the battery voltage to the withdrawn (or charged) current, taking into account the effect of battery depth-of-discharge. Alternatively, the software package can be used to determine the size of the battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements. For gasoline vehicles, a generic fuel-economy model based on data from EPA Test Car List 1991 is included in the software package. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance, including range penalty for EVs, can be studied. Also available is an option to estimate the time needed by a specified vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a constant power and an option to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a driving cycle at speeds exceeding a specified value. Certain parameters can be changed interactively prior to a run.

Marr, W.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water electricity. Here we show that this approach can also be used as a technique to generate spherical nano

268

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Multimedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

269

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Budget  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

270

Comparison of the efficiency of a thermo-chemical process to that of a fuel cell process when both involve the same chemical reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work assesses if a plausible theoretical thermo-chemical scheme can be conceived of, that is capable of extracting work from chemical reactants which can be compared with work produced by a fuel cell, when both processes are supplied with the same reactants. A theoretical process is developed to convert heat liberated from a chemical reaction to work. The hypothetical process is carried over a series of isothermal chemical reactor - heat engine combinations. Conducting the chemical reaction and work extraction over a series of temperature steps minimizes irreversibilities that result from the chemical reaction and heat transfer. Results obtained from the numerical calculations on the scheme confirm that when a large number of reactors-engine combinations are used, irreversibility of the proposed hypothetical reactor-engine combination can be reduced to zero. It is concluded from the results, that the theoretical model is as efficient as a fuel cell when both have the same chemical reaction under identical conditions. The effect of inert gas chemistry on the process has also been observed. It is determined from the results that the chemistry of the inert gas does not affect the proposed process. It is determined from results of a parametric study on the composition of inert gas, that the reduction of inert gas does not significantly improve the efficiency of the proposed process.

Bulusu, Seshu Periah

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fuel cell systems multi-year program plan, fiscal years 1995 to 2000  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell power systems are emerging power generation technologies for the efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable production of electricity. In some applications the by-product heat can also be efficiently used in cogeneration. Fuel cells produce electricity through the electrochemical oxidation of a fuel. They can be operated on a variety of fuels, including natural gas, coal gas, land fill gas and renewable fuels. First market entry units are fueled by natural gas. Fuel cells offer the opportunity for a major new manufacturing industry. System studies have shown that fuel cell power plants can be designed with overall system efficiencies in the 50 to 60 percent range (higher heating value basis) (55 to 65 percent on lower heating value basis). Fuel cell power plants are unique in that they offer high efficiency and low emissions even at part-load and in small sizes. Because of their efficiency, fuel cells will help in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Additional benefits are the environmentally desirable operating characteristics offered by fuel cells. Because electricity is produced through an electrochemical reaction rather than by combustion, fuel cells generate very little NO{sub x} and are extremely quiet. This combination of operating characteristics and high efficiency make fuel cells attractive for future electric utility applications. On-site industrial and commercial applications where the by-product heat can be utilized are also attractive. The DOE Office of Fossil Energy, the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are cooperatively sponsoring the development of fuel cell systems for applications in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Funding of development and demonstration is also provided by fuel cell developers and potential users. This document describes the fuel cell program of the DOE Office of Fossil Energy and its coordination with other fuel cell activities.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

273

EAGLES 1.1: A microcomputer software package for analyzing fuel efficiency of electric and gasoline vehicles  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s electric/hybrid vehicle research program, Argonne National Laboratory has developed a computer software package called EAGLES. This paper describes the capability of the software and its many features and potential applications. EAGLES version 1.1 is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of battery performance in electric-vehicle applications, or the estimation of fuel economy for a gasoline vehicle. The principal objective of the electric-vehicle analysis is to enable the prediction of electric-vehicle performance (e.g., vehicle range) on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile, taking into consideration the effects of battery depth-of-discharge and regenerative braking. Alternatively, the software package can be used to determine the size of the battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., range and driving patterns). For gasoline-vehicle analysis, an empirical model relating fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving-cycle characteristics is included in the software package. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be simulated. The software package includes many default data sets for vehicles, driving cycles, and battery technologies. EAGLES 1.1 is written in the FORTRAN language for use on IBM-compatible microcomputers.

Marr, W.M.

1994-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

A fuel cell overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an overview of the fuel cell as an efficient and environmentally benign energy conversion technology. The topics of the paper include their physical arrangement, types of fuel cells, status of commercial development, applications of the fuel cell power plants and comparison with existing alternatives, and good design practice for fuel cell safety.

Krumpelt, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Reiser, C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy /  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

277

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

278

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section...

279

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

280

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy /  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

282

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy /  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

283

Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

284

Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section...

285

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

286

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

287

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

288

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

289

Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

290

Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

291

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

292

Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section...

293

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

294

RE fuel Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RE fuel Technology Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name RE-fuel Technology Ltd Place Wiltshire, United Kingdom Sector Efficiency Product RE-Fuel is developing high efficiency redox...

295

FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Analysis of Fuel Cell Vehicle Hybridization and Implications for Energy Storage Devices: June 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper addresses the impact of fuel efficiency characteristics on vehicle system efficiency, fuel economy from downsizing different fuel cells, as well as the energy storage system.

Zolot, M.; Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Modeling & Simulation - Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GCTool Computer Model Helps Focus Fuel Cell Vehicle Research Somewhere near Detroit, an automotive engineer stares at the ceiling, wondering how to squeeze 1% more efficiency out...

299

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cap would be placed on oil refineries and would require themwith the fuels. The refineries would be able to tradeto improve the efficiency of refineries and introduce low-

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Canada Small Business Financing Program (Canada) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Canada Small Business Financing Program (Canada) Canada Small Business Financing Program (Canada) Eligibility Institutional Fuel Distributor Savings For Solar Buying & Making...

302

Small Modular Biomass Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet that provides an introduction to small modular biomass systems. These systems can help supply electricity to rural areas, businesses, and people without power. They use locally available biomass fuels such as wood, crop waste, and animal manures.

Not Available

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Small gas-turbine-engine technology  

SciTech Connect

Performance of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1000 hp size range is significantly lower than that of large engines. Engines of this size are typically used in rotorcraft, commutercraft, general aviation, and cruise missile applications. Principal reasons for lower efficiencies of smaller engines are well known: Component efficiencies are lower by as much as 8 to 10 percentage points because of size effects. Small engines are designed for lower cycle pressures and temperatures because of smaller blading and cooling limitations. The highly developed analytical and manufacturing techniques evolved for large engines are not directly transferrable to small engines. Thus, it has been recognized that a focused effort addressing technologies for small engines was needed and could significantly impact their performance. Recently, in-house and contract studies were undertaken to identify advanced engine cycle and component requirements for substantial performance improvement of small gas turbines for projected year 2000 applications. This paper presents results of both in-house research and contract studies, conducted with Allison, AVCO Lycoming, Garrett, Teledyne CAE, and Williams International Rotorcraft results are emphasized. Projected fuel savings of 22-42% could be attained. Accompanying direct operating cost reductions of 11-17%, depending on fuel cost, were also estimated. High payoff technologies are identified for all engine applications, and recent results of experimental research to evolve the high payoff technologies are described.

Niedwiecki, R.W.; Meitner, P.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Colorado Leads in Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Leads in Alternative Fuel Use and Public Transit Efficiency on

305

Alcohol fired alcohol fuel still  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The best method for using alcohol as the base for alcohol fuel distillation would be in the conservation of the initial heat input. In other words, the 20 gallon system would, at the end of a load, in effect waste a full gallon of alcohol fuel with each batch. Therefore either a continual feed system needs to be developed which would serve the 20 gallon heater or heat exchangers of some type should be designed to salvage a great portion of the heat. If, on the other hand, large amounts of fuel are not required, a large single batch still fired by alcohol would not be too wasteful. It would be adviseable that some form of alcohol fuel research both small and large scale be continued. While not necessarily an important part of the energy picture now, it may well be in the future. It could also open up overseas markets where fuels in liquid form are scarce, yet raw materials are not. Lastly, this project, while accomplishing muon, needs further study to make the system more efficient in fuel economy.

Johnson, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's buildings and will provide hot water. Table 7: Summary of UTC Power 2009 Projects Source: Fuel Cells 2000Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2009 FUEL CELL MARKET REPORT NOVEMBER 2010 #12;Authors was the result of hard work and valuable contributions from government staff and the fuel cell industry

307

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

AFDC AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Alternative Fuels Data Center: Page Not Found Skip to Content Eere_header_logo U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Alternative Fuels Data Center Search Search Help Alternative Fuels Data Center Fuels & Vehicles Biodiesel | Diesel Vehicles

308

Overview of DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diversity Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use diverse fuels and energy sources. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air Pollution: Fuel cells can be powered by...

309

Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than...

310

Advanced Fuels Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuels Synthesis Advanced Fuels Synthesis Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal/biomass mixtures, supports the development and demonstration of advanced separation technologies, and sponsors research on novel technologies to convert coal/biomass to liquid fuels. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Fischer-Tropsch fuels synthesis Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal/Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery

311

Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program <...

313

Energy Efficient Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficient Technologies Energy Efficient Technologies Energy efficient technologies are available now! Many of the vehicles currently on display in dealer showrooms boast new performance-enhancing, fuel-saving technologies that can save you money. Engine Technologies Transmission Technologies All Engine Technology Average Efficiency Increase Variable Valve Timing & Lift improve engine efficiency by optimizing the flow of fuel & air into the engine for various engine speeds. 5% Cylinder Deactivation saves fuel by deactivating cylinders when they are not needed. 7.5% Turbochargers & Superchargers increase engine power, allowing manufacturers to downsize engines without sacrificing performance or to increase performance without lowering fuel economy. 7.5% Integrated Starter/Generator (ISG) Systems automatically turn the engine on/off when the vehicle is stopped to reduce fuel consumed during idling. 8%

314

Vented nuclear fuel element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

Grossman, Leonard N. (Livermore, CA); Kaznoff, Alexis I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The feasibility study of small long-life gas cooled fast reactor with mixed natural Uranium/Thorium as fuel cycle input  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme has been performed. In this study, design GCFR with Helium coolant which can be continuously operated by supplying mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium without fuel enrichment plant or fuel reprocessing plant. The active reactor cores are divided into two region, Thorium fuel region and Uranium fuel region. Each fuel core regions are subdivided into ten parts (region-1 until region-10) with the same volume in the axial direction. The fresh Natural Uranium and Thorium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh natural Uranium/Thorium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all regions in both cores area, i.e. shifted the core of i{sup th} region into i+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. For the next cycles, we will add only Natural Uranium and Thorium on each region-1. The calculation results show the reactivity reached by mixed Natural Uranium/Thorium with volume ratio is 4.7:1. This reactor can results power thermal 550 MWth. After reactor start-up the operation, furthermore reactor only needs Natural Uranium/Thorium supply for continue operation along 100 years.

Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal,; Monado, Fiber; Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134, Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Department of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Department of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134, Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Reserach of Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

316

Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cost of steam has become a very real part of Product cost. U.S. Industry strives to become more fuel efficient, while increasing productivity. At the same time it must adhere to stringent emission regulations. The plant manager is faced with a bewildering number of avenues to explore to achieve efficiency improvements through the use of the widest conceivable array of products. These range from simple fuel additives to highly sophisticated Computer Programs. Each has merit. This paper recognizes that only a small percentage of plant managers have an in-depth understanding of combustion processes and presents simple yet factual measurements for the determination of boiler combustion, operating and maintenance efficiencies.

Blakeley, C. P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Maintenance to Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Vehicle Maintenance to Conserve Fuel A comprehensive vehicle maintenance strategy can help fleet managers and

318

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Recovery Act  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

319

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

320

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Market Transformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Related Financial Opportunities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

322

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Technical Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

323

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Webinar Archives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

324

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Market Analysis Reports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Market Analysis Reports Reports about fuel cell and hydrogen technology market analysis...

325

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Information Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

326

Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment is heavy and costly * Slow response time of the fuel cell adversely affects regenerative energy recovery potential and efficiency Barriers to full fuel cell bus...

327

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Educational Publications  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

328

EERE: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Home Page  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

329

Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

or biomass as a feedstock. Beginning Aug. 1, 2010, tax incentives are also available for energy-efficient alternative fuel production facilities and up to five alternative fuel...

330

Beginner's Guide to Aviation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel

331

Integrated fuel processor development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed.

Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

332

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Commercial Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming) < Back...

333

Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are feasible. Safety and logistics force these URFC demonstration units to be small, transportable, and easily set up, hence they already prove the viability of URFC systems for portable applications.

Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fuel injector system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Leonard, Gary L. (Schenctady, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

336

Fuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Safety and Grid Interface Direct Fuel Cell Module: FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct Fuel generation of combined heat andcombined heat and power ­Clean Power with natural gas f lfuel ­Renewable Power with biofuels ·Grid connected power generationgeneration ­High Efficiency Grid support

337

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental impact of small scale pellets boilers in the context of Belgian quality labeling of pellet boilers in standard laboratory and in field conditions. This part had three main targets were identified. Pollutants emissions and efficiency of a multi- fuel boiler was compared

Glineur, François

338

On-line operating adjustment of small biomass fired boilers optimizing CO and NOx emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of combustion conditions in small-scale biomass boilers for heating purposes is a specific task because it must be carried out without any high additional costs. If a basic control of heating water on a desired value is performed by means of ... Keywords: PI temperature control, combustion, efficiency, emission limits, fuel consumption

Jan Hrdlicka; Bohumil Sulc

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

340

Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

Marsh, W.K. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fuel Cells Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION / ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy Pat Davis 2 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Goal : Develop and demonstrate fuel cell power system technologies for transportation, stationary, and portable applications. 3 Fuel Cells Technical Goals & Objectives Objectives * Develop a 60% efficient, durable, direct hydrogen fuel cell power system for transportation at a cost of $45/kW (including hydrogen storage) by 2010. * Develop a 45% efficient reformer-based fuel cell power system for transportation operating on clean hydrocarbon or alcohol based fuel that meets emissions standards, a start-up time of 30 seconds, and a projected manufactured cost of $45/kW by

342

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

system-efficiency Go system-efficiency Go Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1ox6tpc Average Annual Fuel Use of Major Vehicle Categories Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1ox6tpc Comparison of fuel use, miles traveled, and fuel economy among vehicle types Last update April 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1fnxsdr Average Per-Passenger Fuel Economy of Various Travel Modes Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1fnxsdr Comparison of per-passenger fuel economy for various modes of transportation. Last update April 2013 View Graph Graph Download Data Average Annual Fuel Use of Major Vehicle Categories Class 8 Truck Transit Bus Refuse Truck Para. Shuttle Taxi Delivery Truck School Bus Police Light Truck Light-Duty Vehicle Car Motorcycle Annual Fuel Use (GGE) 11500 10063 9876.738 2695 3392 1814 1896.33375 1423.474 853.56725 528.8785 459.4805 33

343

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Databases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Databases The Fuel Cell Technologies Office is developing databases to make it easier for users to find up-to-date...

344

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & Efficiency.

345

Fuel Cells - The Reality of a High Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fuel cell power plant is an energy conversion device which can continuously transform the chemical energy of natural gas into utility grade electricity and usable heat. The characteristics of high electrical conversion efficiencies (40 to 55%), potentially high fuel utilization efficiencies (>80%), excellent AC power quality, environmental compatibility, modular design, and good reliability are some of the reasons why fuel cells have the potential to be one of the best cogeneration devices available. This paper will emphasize the status of phosphoric acid fuel cell technology focusing in on the field test results to date with small 40 Kilowatt (kW) onsite fuel cell power plants being designed, developed, and field tested principally under the support of the Gas Utility Industry. Over 40 units are being installed by 30 gas and combination utility companies throughout the United States to evaluate the operating experience of onsite fuel cell technology. In addition, the paper will briefly provide the status of a similar project, funded by the electric utility industry, to demonstrate multimegawatt-sized fuel cell power plants. Lastly, the paper will try to bring into focus the status of the more advanced carbonate and solid oxide fuel cell technologies.

Cuttica, J. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& & Renewable Energy Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Pete Devlin Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Federal Utility Partnership Working Group April 14 th , 2010 2 * DOE Fuel Cell Market Transformation Overview * Overview of CHP Concept * Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP Applications * Partnering and Financing (Sam Logan) * Example Project Outline 3 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity  Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use diverse fuels and energy sources. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air Pollution:  Fuel cells can be powered by emissions-free fuels that are produced from clean, domestic resources. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power)

347

Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

School Bus * Shuttle Bus * Transit Bus * Refuse Truck * Tractor * Van * Vocational Truck School Bus * Shuttle Bus * Transit Bus * Refuse Truck * Tractor * Van * Vocational Truck Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 2 Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles 3 Table of Contents About the Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Heavy-Duty Vehicle Application Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Heavy-Duty Emission Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Multiple-Stage Construction of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chassis Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

348

BetterBuildings Financing Energy Efficiency Retrofits in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Commercial Energy Efficiency Finance Programs Small Commercial Energy Efficiency Finance Programs Sponsored by State Governments SURVEY OF SURVEY OF SMALL COMMERCIAL ENERGY...

349

Nuclear Fuels | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Fuels Nuclear Fuels Nuclear Fuels A reactor's ability to produce power efficiently is significantly affected by the composition and configuration of its fuel system. A nuclear fuel assembly consists of hundreds of thousands of uranium pellets, stacked and encapsulated within tubes called fuel rods or fuel pins which are then bundled together in various geometric arrangements. There are many design considerations for the material composition and geometric configuration of the various components comprising a nuclear fuel system. Future designs for the fuel and the assembly or packaging of fuel will contribute to cleaner, cheaper and safer nuclear energy. Today's process for developing and testing new fuel systems is resource and time intensive. The process to manufacture the fuel, build an assembly,

350

A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Library, Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Boston, MA, USA.M et al (2008): Energy Efficiency: The First Fuel for a2007): Vermont Electric Energy Efficiency Potential Study -

Blum, Helcio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

Qu, Jun [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Alternative fuels performance and emissions characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report addresses the question of what problems might be caused by the use of non-petroleum based gasolines in a standard throttle body fuel injection closed-loop spark-ignition internal combustion engine. Five fuels were tested in five separate but physically identical engines. The five fuels were, one baseline unleaded gasoline, two oil shale-derived gasolines, and two coal-derived gasolines. The basic testing of a fuel centered around a 5 hour cycle which was repeated daily until 200 hours of operation were accumulated. The 5 hour cycle was run by alternating every 15 minutes between two distinct conditions. During the accumulation of the 200 hours of operation, the engines were disassembled and inspected nine times. Additionally, thermal efficiency, regulated emissions, unburnt hydrocarbon makeup, catalyst pressure drop, and cylinder pressure versus crankshaft position measurements were made. Negligibly small differences were recorded in the behavior of the fuels, in terms of brake thermal efficiency, regulated emissions, effect on oxygen sensor life, and effect on catalyst life. Noteworthy differences in individual unburnt hydrocarbon concentration in the exhaust were recorded. Noteworthy differences in the behavior of the fuels in terms of producing deposits that caused intake valve sticking are presented in this report. Additionally, the fuels behaved differently when operated in the presence of knock producing deposits. (R+M)/2 octane numbers proved to be a poor indicator of the fuels knocking behavior. R-M octane numbers proved to be a better indicator of knocking behavior. 16 refs., 43 figs., 29 tabs.

Swain, M.R.; Swain, M.N.; Blanco, J.A.; Adt, R.R. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Tools Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... Truckstop Electrification Truck Stop Electrification Locator Locate truck stops with electrification sites. Click on a location on the map for site details. A U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Source: Alternative Fuels Data Center dditional Resources View list of electrification sites in the U.S. by state. Learn more about idle reduction techniques.

355

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fuel Rate Reduction...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Skip to Content Eereheaderlogo U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Alternative Fuels Data...

356

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

as high as 90% is achievable. This high efficiency operation saves money, saves energy, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Regenerative or Reversible Fuel Cells This...

358

Alternative Fuel Transportation Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

federal federal register Monday May 17, 1999 Part II Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 10 CFR Part 490 Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; P-series Fuels; Final Rule 26822 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 94 / Monday, May 17, 1999 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 10 CFR Part 490 [Docket No. EE-RM-98-PURE] RIN 1904-AA99 Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; P-Series Fuels AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of final rulemaking. SUMMARY: In response to a petition filed by Pure Energy Corporation, DOE is amending the rules for the statutory program that requires certain alternative fuel providers and State government

359

Distributed Energy Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Fuel Cells Energy Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen DOE Hydrogen and and Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coordination Meeting Fuel Cell Coordination Meeting June 2-3, 2003 Electricity Users Kathi Epping Kathi Epping Objectives & Barriers Distributed Energy OBJECTIVES * Develop a distributed generation PEM fuel cell system operating on natural gas or propane that achieves 40% electrical efficiency and 40,000 hours durability at $400-750/kW by 2010. BARRIERS * Durability * Heat Utilization * Power Electronics * Start-Up Time Targets and Status Integrated Stationary PEMFC Power Systems Operating on Natural Gas or Propane Containing 6 ppm Sulfur 40,000 30,000 15,000 Hours Durability 750 1,250 2,500 $/kWe Cost 40 32 30 % Electrical Efficiency Large (50-250 kW) Systems 40,000 30,000 >6,000 Hours Durability 1,000 1,500 3,000

360

Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Deputy Program Manager & Deputy Program Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Military Energy and Alternative Fuels Conference March 17-18, 2010 San Diego, CA 2 1. Overview, Challenges & Technology Status 2. DOE Program Activities and Progress 3. Market Transformation Outline 3 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity  Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use diverse fuels and energy sources. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air Pollution:  Fuel cells can be powered by emissions-free fuels that are produced from clean, domestic resources. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power) Auxiliary & Portable Power Transportation Benefits * Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Final Report for the Energy Efficient and Affordable Small Commercial and Residential Buildings Research Program -- Project 6.6 - Development of the Assessment Framework  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a methodology for assessing the impacts of potential products related to the buildings end-use energy efficiency program area that may results from projects performed as part of the California Energy Commission’s (CEC’s) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The methodology developed and described in this report applies strictly to new products designed for use in commercial buildings in California. We consider a new product any product or service offering that has an energy efficiency improvement feature or component that can be clearly characterized by either a performance metric or an improvement factor that expresses the improvement potential over the best currently available products or the installed base of the same or similar products. New products could include: new equipment in support of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting, domestic water heating or any other end-uses relevant for commercial buildings; diagnostics, controls, or monitoring service products that either assists in or perform monitoring or control functions of the energy uses or the thermal integrity of the building shell.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Anderson, Dave M.; Hostick, Donna J.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? There is a growing interest in fuel cells for hybrid system. Fuel cells when combined with conventional turbine power plants offer high fuel efficiencies.… (more)

Srivastava, Nischal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Best and Worst Fuel Economy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

You are here: Find a Car - Home > Best and Worst MPG 2013 Most and Least Efficient Vehicles Cars Cars (excluding EVs) Trucks Trucks (excluding EVs) 2013 Most Fuel Efficient Cars by...

364

Small Business Loan Program (Vermont) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vermont) Small Business Loan Program (Vermont) Eligibility Commercial Agricultural Industrial Construction InstallerContractor Retail Supplier Fuel Distributor Savings For...

365

NETL: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Coal and Power Systems Fuel Cells SECA Logo Welcome to NETL's Fuel Cells Webpage. In partnership with private industry, educational institutions and national laboratories, we are leading the research, development, and demonstration of high efficiency, fuel flexible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and coal-based SOFC power generation systems for stationary market large central power plants under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The SECA cost reduction goal is to have SOFC systems capable of being manufactured at $400 per kilowatt by 2010. Concurrently, the scale-up, aggregation, and integration of the technology will progress in parallel leading to prototype validation of megawatt (MW)-class fuel flexible products by 2012 and 2015. The SECA coal-based systems goal is the development of large

366

Fuel Cells Team  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Judith Valerio at one of our 31 single-cell test stands Fuel Cell Team The FC team focus is R&D on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for commercial and military applications. Our program has had ongoing funding in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells since 1977 and has been responsible for enabling breakthroughs in the areas of thin film electrodes and air bleed for CO tolerance. For more information on the history of fuel cell research at Los Alamos, please click here. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power the nation and the world. The FC team is exploring the potential of fuel cells as energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible alternatives that will

367

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Fuel Combustion Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Combustion Lab Fuel Combustion Lab NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on characterizing fuels at the molecular level. This information can then be used to understand and predict the fuel's effect on engine performance and emissions. By understanding the effects of fuel chemistry on ignition we can develop fuels that enable more efficient engine designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the distributed Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory, and the Biofuels activity. Photo of assembled IQT. Ignition Quality Tester The central piece of equipment in the Fuel Combustion Laboratory is the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT(tm)). The IQT(tm) is a constant volume combustion vessel that is used to study ignition properties of liquid

368

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Fuel Economy / Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dist. of Columbia Laws and Incentives for Fuel Economy / Efficiency on

369

Five Kilowatt Fuel Cell Demonstration for Remote Power Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While most areas of the US are serviced by inexpensive, dependable grid connected electrical power, many areas of Alaska are not. In these areas, electrical power is provided with Diesel Electric Generators (DEGs), at much higher cost than in grid connected areas. The reasons for the high cost of power are many, including the high relative cost of diesel fuel delivered to the villages, the high operational effort required to maintain DEGs, and the reverse benefits of scale for small utilities. Recent progress in fuel cell technologies have lead to the hope that the DEGs could be replaced with a more efficient, reliable, environmentally friendly source of power in the form of fuel cells. To this end, the University of Alaska Fairbanks has been engaged in testing early fuel cell systems since 1998. Early tests were conducted on PEM fuel cells, but since 2001, the focus has been on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. In this work, a 5 kW fuel cell was delivered to UAF from Fuel Cell Technologies of Kingston, Ontario. The cell stack is of a tubular design, and was built by Siemens Westinghouse Fuel Cell division. This stack achieved a run of more than 1 year while delivering grid quality electricity from natural gas with virtually no degradation and at an electrical efficiency of nearly 40%. The project was ended after two control system failures resulted in system damage. While this demonstration was successful, considerable additional product development is required before this technology is able to provide electrical energy in remote Alaska. The major issue is cost, and the largest component of system cost currently is the fuel cell stack cost, although the cost of the balance of plant is not insignificant. While several manufactures are working on schemes for significant cost reduction, these systems do not as yet provide the same level of performance and reliability as the larger scale Siemens systems, or levels that would justify commercial deployment.

Dennis Witmer; Tom Johnson; Jack Schmid

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Highly Efficient, 5-kW CHP Fuel Cells Demonstrating Durability and Economic Value in Residential and Light Commercial Applications - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report James Petrecky Plug Power 968 Albany Shaker Road Latham, NY 12110 Phone: (518) 782-7700 ext: 1977 Email: james_petrecky@plugpower.com DOE Managers HQ: Jason Marcinkoski Phone: (202) 586-7466 Email: Jason.Marcinkoski@ee.doe.gov GO: Reg Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Vendor: ClearEdge Power, Hillsboro, OR Project Start Date: October 1, 2009 Project End Date: September 15, 2013 Objectives Quantify the durability of proton exchange membrane * (PEM) fuel cell systems in residential and light commercial combined heat and power (CHP) applications in California. Optimize system performance though testing of multiple * high-temperature units through collection of field data.

371

Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Storage Systems Analysis Working...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

373

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: FY 2007 Financial Awards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

374

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Systems Analysis Workshop...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

375

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: DOE Hydrogen Delivery High-Pressure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

376

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: FY 2006 Financial Awards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

377

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Past Events EventsDetail  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

378

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

379

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME...

380

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: DOE Announces New Hydrogen Cost...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Organization Chart and Contacts  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

382

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Early Market Applications for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

383

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Financial Incentives for Hydrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

384

EPA-Fuel Economy Guide | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel Economy Guide Jump to: navigation, search Name Fuel Economy Guide AgencyCompany Organization United States Environmental Protection Agency Focus Area Energy Efficiency,...

385

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Fleet Services - Clean...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Alternative Fuels Data Center Search Search Help Alternative Fuels Data Center...

386

DOE Science Showcase - Fuel Cells Research | OSTI, US Dept of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Environmental Effects Market Needs More Reading - What Exactly Is a Fuel Cell? DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies...

387

Natural Gas Pathways and Fuel Economy Guide Comparison  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I presentation slides: Natural Gas pathways and Fuel economy Guide Comparison Bob Wimmer, Toyota Natural Gas Pathways Toyota estimation Vehicle Total Fuel efficiency Range...

388

Enabling the Use of Hydrogen as a Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... While the burning of fossil fuels produces carbon ... powerful, efficient, and durable fuel-cell designs ... consensus standards that support model building ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

389

Integrated fuel processor development challenges.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the absence of a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, the success of the fuel cell system in the market will depend on fuel processors to enable the use of available fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas, etc. The fuel processor includes several catalytic reactors, scrubbers to remove chemical species that can poison downstream catalysts or the fuel cell electrocatalyst, and heat exchangers. Most fuel cell power applications seek compact, lightweight hardware with rapid-start and load- following capabilities. Although packaging can partially address the size and volume, balancing the performance parameters while maintaining the fuel conversion (to hydrogen) efficiency requires careful integration of the unit operations and processes. Argonne National Laboratory has developed integrated fuel processors that are compact and light, and that operate efficiently. This paper discusses some of the difficulties encountered in the development process, focusing on the factors/components that constrain performance, and areas that need further research and development.

Ahmed, S.; Pereira, Lee, S. H. D.; Kaun, T.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

390

Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells, monolithic solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The MSOFC features of thin ceramic components, small cell size, and 1000{degree}C operating temperature combine to provide very high power densities of about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L for the MSOFC (fuel cell only, coflow version). This very high power density coupled with expected efficiencies of over 50 percent offers the possibility of successful competition with existing electrical generation systems. The ability of the MSOFC to reform hydrocarbon fuels within the fuel channels allows existing fuels and fuel distribution methods to be used with minor modifications for most applications. The power density of the MSOFC is high enough to meet the demands of many diverse applications such as aerospace, transportation, portable power systems, and micro-cogeneration systems, as well as more conventional utilities systems. The primary development challenge is to fabricate the MSOFC structure by co-sintering all four fuel cell materials into the corrugated honeycomb'' structure (stack). The objectives of the cost study are: To assess the manufacturing cost for the MSOFC assuming a nominal production rate of 200 MW/year for coal-based system applications. To define an integrated coal gasification MSOFC system with a potential for reducing plant heat rate and capital costs below 7,100 BTU/kWh and $1,300/kW, respectively.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Assessment of Direct Carbon Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cells have been under development for stationary power applications because of their high fuel efficiency and low emission characteristics. Research and development of direct carbon fuel cells (DCFC) that can use carbon as a fuel have been identified as an emerging option that needs further assessment and test validation. This project is one of several EPRI fuel cell projects that is investigating the technical and performance characteristics of fuel cells and their potential to impact electric util...

2005-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

392

NETL: News Release - Enabling Turbine Technologies for Hydrogen Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 8, 2005 September 8, 2005 Enabling Turbine Technologies for Hydrogen Fuels Turbine Program Advances Ultra-Clean, Coal-Based Systems WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy Turbine Technology R&D Program was recently expanded with the selection of 10 new projects valued at $130 million. The new program will advance turbines and turbine subsystems for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and address the use of hydrogen in small-scale turbines for industrial applications. Resulting technologies will operate cleanly and efficiently when fueled with coal-derived hydrogen or synthesis gas. Turbines can generate electrical power on a large scale-in central power stations sized 250 megawatts and larger-or on a small scale-in local, industrial power systems sized 1-100 megawatts. Small-scale systems also produce mechanical power for jet engines, compressors, heating systems, and other applications.

393

Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

1972-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6, 2010 6, 2010 CX-001948: Categorical Exclusion Determination Municipal Building Efficiency Assessment and Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B2.5, A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 04/26/2010 Location(s): New Jersey, New Jersey Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 26, 2010 CX-001947: Categorical Exclusion Determination Community Partners Initiative CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B1.2, B5.1 Date: 04/26/2010 Location(s): Perth Amboy, New Jersey Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 26, 2010 CX-001819: Categorical Exclusion Determination Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars (Pontiac) CX(s) Applied: B3.6, A9 Date: 04/26/2010 Location(s): Pontiac, Michigan Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

395

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel and Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

396

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

397

Fuel Cell Development Status  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development Status Michael Short Systems Engineering Manager United Technologies Corporation Research Center Hamilton Sundstrand UTC Power UTC Fire & Security Fortune 50 corporation $52.9B in annual sales in 2009 ~60% of Sales are in building technologies Transportation Stationary Fuel Cells Space & Defense * Fuel cell technology leader since 1958 * ~ 550 employees * 768+ Active U.S. patents, more than 300 additional U.S. patents pending * Global leader in efficient, reliable, and sustainable fuel cell solutions UTC Power About Us PureCell ® Model 400 Solution Process Overview Power Conditioner Converts DC power to high-quality AC power 3 Fuel Cell Stack Generates DC power from hydrogen and air 2 Fuel Processor Converts natural gas fuel to hydrogen

398

Alternative Fuel News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

One For All: One For All: Station Cars U. S. D E P A R T M E N T o f E N E R G Y Vol. 5 - No. 2 An Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center From the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy PLUS: Clean Cities Conference Coverage NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY Brings Alternative Fuels, AFVs, and Clean Cities into Focus in Washington NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY Brings Alternative Fuels, AFVs, and Clean Cities into Focus in Washington 2 ear Readers, The landscape for alternative fuels continues to be lush and vibrant. This was most evident as we celebrated the 7th National Clean Cities Conference and Expo in Philadelphia. Alternative fuel stakeholders from across the country-from all over the world, for that matter-spent three robust days in Philadelphia, experiencing "The Alternative Fuels Revolution." The conference

399

Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plants Power Plants Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of stationary fuel Premier developer of stationary fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility products products * 300 KW to 50 MW and beyond FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. g Product Line Based on Stack Building Block Cell Package and Stack Four-Stack Module DFC3000 Two 4-Stack Modules 2.8 MW Single-Stack Module Single Stack Module DFC1500 One 4-Stack Module 1.4 MW DFC300

400

Fuel Type Fuel Treated as of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to Congressional direction included in the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act for FY 2006. The Congressional language states “The Committee directs the Department to undertake a study to evaluate and propose a disposal solution for the entire 62 tons of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and to consider what minimal amount of fuel is needed for future experiments under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI).” The inventory of sodium-bonded spent fuel is stored in Idaho or planned for shipment to Idaho. Because DOE is committed to meeting its agreement with the State (Settlement and Consent order issued on October 17, 1995, in the actions of Public Service Co. of Colorado v. Batt, No. CV 91-0035-S-EJL [D. Id.] and United States v. Batt, No. CV 91-0054-EJL [D. Id]), all spent fuel, including sodium-bonded spent fuel, must leave Idaho by 2035. Sodium-bonded fuel was principally used in three different reactors: Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II), Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant (Fermi-1), and Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The quantity of fuel from each reactor, along with a small quantity that is at Sandia National Laboratory, is shown in the table below.

Fftf Driver

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High Efficiency, Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

Donald Stanton

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy-efficient solutions. Improving the building envelope (roof or attic system, walls,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency. · ORNL established test facilities to measure essential property values needed by WUFI, enabling Instationär), the model has been validated with data from natural exposure field test facilities in Germany of envelope assemblies. These facilities enable researchers to measure heat, air, and moisture penetration

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

403

Faced with rising fuel costs, building and home owners are looking for energy-efficient solutions. Improving the building envelope (roof or attic system, walls,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-durable products to increase energy efficiency. · ORNL established test facilities to measure essential property Instationär), the model has been validated with data from natural exposure field test facilities in Germany of envelope assemblies. These facilities enable researchers to measure heat, air, and moisture penetration

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

404

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Widgets to someone by Widgets to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on AddThis.com... Widgets The Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) offers widgets about alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. Get these widgets for your website, blog, or social networking site so your readers can access current information from the AFDC. Also find more widgets from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Alternative Fueling Station Locator

405

Toward alternative transportation fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At some time in the future the U.S. will make a transition to alternative fuels for transportation. The motivation for this change is the decline in urban air quality and the destruction of the ozone layer. Also, there is a need for energy independence. The lack of consensus on social priorities makes it difficult to compare benefits of different fuels. Fuel suppliers and automobile manufacturers would like to settle on a single alternative fuel. The factors of energy self-sufficiency, economic efficiency, varying anti-pollution needs in different locales, and global warming indicate a need for multiple fuels. It is proposed that instead of a Federal command-and-control type of social regulation for alternative fuels for vehicles, the government should take an incentive-based approach. The main features of this market-oriented proposal would be averaging automobile emission standards, banking automobile emissions reductions, and trading automobile emission rights. Regulation of the fuel industry would allow for variations in the nature and magnitude of the pollution problems in different regions. Different fuels or fuel mixture would need to be supplied for each area. The California Clean Air Resources Board recently adopted a fuel-neutral, market-oriented regulatory program for reducing emissions. This program will show if incentive-based strategies can be extended to the nation as a whole.

Sperling, D. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Handbook of fuel cell performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

409

Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be more effective. The chapter explores the roles of uncertainty and loss-aversion in the market for automotive fuel economy. The focus is on the determination of the technical efficiency of the vehicle rather than consumers choices among vehicles. Over the past three decades, changes in the mix of vehicles sold has played little if any role in raising the average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles from 13 miles per gallon (mpg) in 1975 to 21 mpg today (Heavenrich, 2006). Over that same time period, average vehicle weight is up 2 percent, horsepower is up 60 percent, passenger car interior volume increased by 2 percent and the market share of light trucks grew by 31 percentage points. Historically, at least, increasing light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States has been a matter of manufacturers decisions to apply technology to increase the technical efficiency of cars and light trucks. Understanding how efficiently the market determines the technical fuel economy of new vehicles would seem to be critical to formulating effective policies to encourage future fuel economy improvement. The central issue is whether or not the market for fuel economy is economically efficient. Rubenstein (1998) lists the key assumptions of the rational economic decision model. The decision maker must have a clear picture of the choice problem he or she faces. He should be fully aware of the set of alternatives from which to choose and have the skill necessary to make complicated calculations needed to discover the optimal course of action. Finally, the decision maker should have the unlimited ability to calculate and be indifferent to alternatives and choice sets.

Greene, David L [ORNL; German, John [Environmental and Energy Analysis; Delucchi, Mark A [University of California, Davis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Improving Reliability and Durability of Efficient and Clean Energy Systems - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 10 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Prabhakar Singh Center for Clean Energy Engineering University of Connecticut (UConn) 44 Weaver Road, Unit 5233 Storrs, CT 06268-5233 Phone: (860) 486-8379 Email: singh@engr.uconn.edu DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: Reginald Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Thomas Benjamin Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: benjamin@anl.gov Contract Number: DE-EE00003226 Project Start Date: August 1, 2010 Project End Date: July 31, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop an understanding of the degradation processes * in advanced electrochemical energy conversion systems.

411

Fuel Cell Meeting Agenda: Matching Federal Government Needs with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Meeting: Matching Federal Government Needs with Energy Efficient Fuel Cells Hosted by the U.S. Fuel Cell Council Hotel Palomar, 2121 P Street, N.W., Washington, DC April...

412

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Use Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

413

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

414

Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction,  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

County Fleet Goes Big County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: County Fleet Goes Big on Idle Reduction, Ethanol Use, Fuel Efficiency on

415

Consumption & Efficiency - Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Alternative Fuels. Includes ... comparisons, analysis, and projections ... Wider use has coincided with much improved energy efficiency standards for AC ...

416

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal and J.create connected nanostructured SOFC electrodes is reviewed.of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A feedback based load shaping strategy for fuel utilization control in SOFC systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are attractive energy conversion devices due to their fuel flexibility and high efficiency. Fuel utilization is a critical variable in SOFC systems that directly impacts efficiency and longevity. In this paper we propose a control ...

Tuhin Das; Ryan Weisman

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fluidic fuel feed system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the development and testing of a fluidic fuel injector for a coal-water slurry fueled diesel engine. The objective of this program was to improve the operating life of coal-water slurry fuel controls and injector components by using fluidic technology. This project addressed the application of fluidic devices to solve the problems of efficient atomization of coal-water slurry fuel and of injector component wear. The investigation of injector nozzle orifice design emphasized reducing the pressure required for efficient atomization. The effort to minimize injector wear includes the novel design of components allowing the isolation of the coal-water slurry from close-fitting injector components. Three totally different injectors were designed, fabricated, bench tested and modified to arrive at a final design which was capable of being engine tested. 6 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Badgley, P.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fuel efficient small" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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Renewables and Efficiency in State Facilities & Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In May 2006, Hawaii’s governor signed HB 2175 addressing renewable energy, energy efficiency, and alternative fuels in state facilities and operations. This legislation also detailed requirements...

423

Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Energy Efficiency...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

energy efficiency and conservation projects and programs designed to: Reduce fossil fuel emissions; Reduce the total energy use of the eligible entities; Improve energy...

424

Cookstove Efficiency and Emissions Testing Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and black carbon. Contacts Ashok Gadgil AJGadgil@lbl.gov (510) 486-7784 Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Electricity Grid Energy Analysis Energy...

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Energy Crossroads: Utility Energy Efficiency Programs Wyoming...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wyoming Energy Crossroads Index Utility Energy Efficiency Programs Index Suggest a Listing Bonneville Power Administration Information for Businesses Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power...

426

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Maine Incentives and Laws Maine Incentives and Laws The following is a list of expired, repealed, and archived incentives, laws, regulations, funding opportunities, or other initiatives related to alternative fuels and vehicles, advanced technologies, or air quality. Transportation Efficiency Fund Repealed: 07/01/2013 The following was repealed by Public Law 2011, Chapter 652: The Transportation Efficiency Fund is a non-lapsing fund managed by the Maine Department of Transportation to increase energy efficiency and reduce reliance on fossil fuels within the state's transportation system. Funding may be used for zero emission vehicles, biofuel and other alternative fuel vehicles, congestion mitigation and air quality initiatives, rail, public transit, and car or van pooling. (Reference Maine Revised Statutes Title