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Sample records for fuel economy performance

  1. Fact #630: July 5, 2010 Fuel Economy vs. Weight and Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 1980 to 2009, there have been significant gains made in automotive technology, but those advancements have been applied toward improved performance and safety rather than fuel economy....

  2. Fact #868: April 13, 2015 Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles

  3. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  4. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  5. 2011 Fuel Economy Guide Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This annual Fuel Economy Guide provides consumers with information about estimated mileage and fuel costs

  6. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  7. Fuel Economy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fuel Economy Ltd. Place: United Kingdom Product: Fuel Economy Ltd is perhaps better known by their core product 'Savastat', the highly...

  8. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  11. Fact #868: April 13, 2015 Automotive Technology Has Improved Performance and Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Despite a 124% increase in horsepower and 47% decrease in 0-60 time from 1980 to 2014, the fuel economy of vehicles improved 27%. All of these data series are sales-weighted averages. The weight of...

  12. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  20. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  1. Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency ToolSet Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet AgencyCompany Organization: FIA...

  2. Fuel Economy and Performance of Mild Hybrids with Ultracapacitors: Simulations and Vehicle Test Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2009-06-01

    NREL worked with GM and demonstrated equivalent performance in the Saturn Vue Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrid vehicle whether running with its stock batteries or a retrofit ultracapacitor system.

  3. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  4. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

  5. 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    09 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov October 24, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With energy costs looming as winter approaches, saving money is on everyone's minds these days. Fortunately, improving your vehicle's fuel economy is both economically and environmentally smart. In the winter, one of the easiest ways to decrease gasoline consumption is to warm up your engine for no more than 30

  6. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For more detailed information, see supporting information below. Final MY 2011-2016 Light Truck Fuel Economy Targets Line graph showing the fuel economy targets for light trucks ...

  7. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI ...

  8. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity Fact 659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity The ...

  9. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Fact 589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards On ...

  10. EPA-Fuel Economy Guide | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA-Fuel Economy Guide Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy Guide AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  11. Technological trends for improving automobile fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, K.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first oil embargo in 1973, energy conservation has been receiving greater attention. In the field of automobiles, the last decade has seen significant improvement in vehicle fuel economy attained by inter-industries comprehensive efforts. Today the theme of ''Age of Unlimited Fuel Economy Competition'' or ''Age of Unlimited MPG Competition'' is often heard and the development of super fuel economy vehicles is being pursued actively. For example, it should be noted that the VW experimental vehicle with a direct-injection diesel engine has already exceeded 80 mpg in the U.S. test cycle. This paper will discuss the recent technological approach, especially from the standpoint of engine design, to achieve further improvements in vehicle fuel economy and its impacts on the properties of fuel and lubricants.

  12. Fact #684: July 18, 2011 Fuel Economy versus Fuel Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An increase in fuel economy by 5 miles per gallon (mpg) does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount. Thus, trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save...

  13. Global Fuel Economy Initiative: 50by50 Prospects and Progress...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentglobal-fuel-economy-initiative-50by50 Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Fuel Efficiency Standards,Mandates...

  14. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  15. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel ...

  16. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy ...

  17. Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy.gov - Mobile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector:...

  18. Fuel Economy Valentines | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Valentines Fuel Economy Valentines February 14, 2012 - 10:05am Addthis Amanda McAlpin What's more romantic this Valentine's Day than taking a drive with your sweetheart? In fact, for most people this holiday, the plans will include some kind of travel, to a restaurant, show, or weekend getaway. Anytime spent on the road can be a great time to track your vehicle's fuel economy, and fueleconomy.gov has a tool to help you do just that! Once you enter the Your MPG tool and select the make and model

  19. 2010 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available 2010 Annual Fuel Economy Guide Now Available October 15, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy today unveiled the 2010 Fuel Economy Guide, which gives consumers important information about estimated fuel costs and mileage standards for model year 2010 vehicles. "Every year, consumers use the Fuel Economy Guide to find clean, efficient, cost-effective vehicles that meets their

  20. Fact #568: April 27, 2009 For Modern Cars, Replacing an Air Filter Will Improve Performance but Not Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A February 2009 study conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that for modern computer-controlled, fuel-injected engines, changing a clogged air filter has no measurable affect on fuel...

  1. Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and Light Trucks Fact 692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and Light Trucks Nearly 64% of ...

  2. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly January 18, 2011 - 1:45pm Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With the North American ...

  3. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms. | Photo...

  4. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms....

  5. 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles 2016 Fuel Economy Guide Highlights Fuel-Efficient Vehicles November 5, 2015 - 1:07am Addthis Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Photo by Kristy Keel-Blackmon of East Tennessee Clean Fuels Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The 2016 Fuel Economy Guide is now available. It provides fuel economy, greenhouse gas emission, and projected fuel cost information on model year

  6. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle January 8, 2014 - ...

  7. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis Photo of a man hooking up test instruments to an engine mounted on an engine dynamometer. An NREL engineer maintains an engine fuel economy and emissions test stand at the ReFUEL Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's emissions and fuel economy testing and analysis projects help address greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions by advancing the development of new fuels and engines that deliver both high efficiency and reduced emissions. Emissions that

  8. NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy September 11, 2012 A performance evaluation of Class 8 hybrid electric tractor trailers compared with similar conventional vehicles by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) shows significant improvements in fuel economy. "During our 13-month study, the hybrid tractors demonstrated 13.7 percent higher fuel economy than the conventional tractors, resulting in a 12 percent

  9. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  10. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    07-01-3994 Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol- Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Brian H. ... use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. ...

  11. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4 ...

  12. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise Fact 813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise The sales-weighted fuel economy ...

  13. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation July 29, 2011 - 1:48pm Addthis President Barack Obama delivers remarks on fuel efficiency standards for 2017-2025 model year cars and light-duty trucks during an event at the Washington Convention Center in Washington, D.C., July 29, 2011. Seated behind the President are at left are auto industry executives and Transportation Secretary

  14. The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle | Department of Energy The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle The 2014 Fuel Economy Guide Can Help You Choose Your Next Fuel-Efficient Vehicle January 8, 2014 - 1:10pm Addthis Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Thomas_EyeDesign Read the 2014 Fuel Economy Guide to inform your new car purchase this year. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/Thomas_EyeDesign Jason

  15. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  16. New Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Will Continue to Inspire Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sets aggressive new fuel-economy standards for cars and light-duty trucks. A number of Energy Department projects and investments are unleashing innovation that will create jobs...

  17. Biomass Fueling America’s Growing Clean Energy Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass is the most abundant biological material on the planet. It is renewable; it grows almost everywhere; and it provides fuel, power, chemicals, and many other products. Find out how biomass is helping grow America's clean energy economy.

  18. The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Heavy duty diesel engine fuel economy is improved by lowering the viscosity of engine lubricant, especially when engine speed is increased or load is decreased, as in long distance on-highway driving

  19. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that model year 2012 vehicles achieved an all-time high fuel economy average of 23.6 miles per gallon.

  20. "Table 11. Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy, Selected Survey Years (Miles Per Gallon)" ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",15.1,16.1,18.3,19.3,19.8,20.2 "Household Characteristics" "Census...

  1. Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort March 2, 2006 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that ventilated automotive seats not only can improve passenger comfort but also a vehicle's fuel economy. That's because ventilated seats keep drivers and passengers cooler, so they need less air conditioning to be comfortable. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team has been

  2. Chapter 4. Fuel Economy, Consumption and Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    national concerns about dependence on foreign oil and the deleterious effect on the environment of fossil fuel combustion, residential vehicle fleet fuel consumption was...

  3. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  4. Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly January 19, 2011 - 5:06pm Addthis Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Fuel Economy information at your fingertips Cross Post from the Energy Savers Blog. Written by Shannon Brescher Shea. With the North American International Auto Show in Detroit kicking off the auto-show circuit last week, manufacturers are unveiling their future models. If you're inspired and in the market for a new

  5. Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy Fueling South Carolina's Clean Energy Economy June 6, 2012 - 4:15pm Addthis Pure Power, LLC makes products that allow truck engines to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy. The company has increased their energy efficiency and hired new employees. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/clatiek/47587765/">Flickr user ClatieK</a>. Pure Power, LLC makes products that allow truck engines to reduce emissions and

  6. The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Effects of Impurities of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC ...

  7. California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional buses.

  8. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The graph below shows the range of the lowest and highest fuel economy for each vehicle class, along with the lowest and highest annual fuel cost (in parentheses). For example, the two-seater model...

  9. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  10. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  11. Global Fuel Economy Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & North America, Europe, Latin America & Caribbean, Africa & Middle East Related Tools Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center - Fleet Experiences Turn Down the...

  12. Fuel Economy Fact and Fiction | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fact and Fiction Fuel Economy Fact and Fiction April 4, 2011 - 1:01pm Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With gas prices soaring higher than ever, there's a lot of information-true and false-floating around about fuel economy. From well-intentioned friends to salespeople trying to make a buck, everyone has an opinion on how you can use less gas. Thankfully, the Department of Energy has solid facts based on data that will help you sort out the reality from

  13. Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Such non-engine losses can account for about a 45% decrease in efficiency. The need for technologies to reduce these parasitic losses has gained significant attention as fuel costs ...

  14. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  15. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be more effective. The chapter explores the roles of uncertainty and loss-aversion in the market for automotive fuel economy. The focus is on the determination of the technical efficiency of the vehicle rather than consumers choices among vehicles. Over the past three decades, changes in the mix of vehicles sold has played little if any role in raising the average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles from 13 miles per gallon (mpg) in 1975 to 21 mpg today (Heavenrich, 2006). Over that same time period, average vehicle weight is up 2 percent, horsepower is up 60 percent, passenger car interior volume increased by 2 percent and the market share of light trucks grew by 31 percentage points. Historically, at least, increasing light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States has been a matter of manufacturers decisions to apply technology to increase the technical efficiency of cars and light trucks. Understanding how efficiently the market determines the technical fuel economy of new vehicles would seem to be critical to formulating effective policies to encourage future fuel economy improvement. The central issue is whether or not the market for fuel economy is economically efficient. Rubenstein (1998) lists the key assumptions of the rational economic decision model. The decision maker must have a clear picture of the choice problem he or she faces. He should be fully aware of the set of alternatives from which to choose and have the skill necessary to make complicated calculations needed to discover the optimal course of action. Finally, the decision maker should have the unlimited ability to calculate and be indifferent to alternatives and choice sets.

  16. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  17. New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Dabbs, Kathryn; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

  18. Fact #629: June 28, 2010 Top Ten Misconceptions about Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Economy Guide Web site, sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, displays a list of misconceptions about fuel economy. Knowing the facts on...

  19. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines February ...

  20. Fact #692: September 12, 2011 Fuel Economy Distribution for New Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 64% of new cars sold in model year (MY) 1975 had combined highway/city fuel economy of 15 miles per gallon (mpg) or less [blue shading]. By 2010, 63% of cars had fuel economy of 25 mpg or...

  1. DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More August 6, 2015 - 8:30am Addthis ...

  2. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    track your own fuel economy and compare it to that of other users and to the test ratings. ... How does your fuel economy compare to the test ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? Each Thursday, ...

  3. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG ...

  4. Fact #818: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Winter driving conditions and cold temperatures can have a significant effect on a vehicle’s fuel economy. For a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle, fuel economy at 20°F is about 12% lower than...

  5. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the ...

  6. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle Fact 680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle A June 2011 survey asked the ...

  7. Fact #657: January 10, 2011 Record Increase for New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sales-weighted fuel economy average of all light vehicles sold in model year (MY) 2009 was 1.4 miles per gallon (mpg) higher than MY2008. This is the largest annual increase in fuel economy...

  8. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for Retrofit of In-Use Trucks Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by ...

  9. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight...

  10. 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA 2012 Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sets Record High: EPA December 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The U.S. Environmental...

  11. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  12. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seven vehicles were tested by Consumer Reports recently to determine the fuel economy of the vehicles at a given speed. For these vehicles, the decline in fuel economy from a speed of 55 miles per...

  13. DOE and EPA Release 2011 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Annual Fuel Economy Guide DOE and EPA Release 2011 Annual Fuel Economy Guide November 3, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) today released the 2011 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with information about estimated mileage and fuel costs for model year 2011 vehicles. Choosing the most fuel efficient vehicle in a class will save consumers money and reduce carbon pollution. "Increasing fuel efficiency

  14. Fact #772: March 25, 2013 Fuel Economy by Speed: Slow Down to Save Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A recent study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory shows that the fuel economy of cars and light trucks in the study decreases rapidly at speeds above 50 miles per hour (mph). The study of 74 light...

  15. Fuel Economy Coach | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    driving performance - green means you are doing well, yellow means you are average and red means you are being inefficient. An audible tone will be played by the app when you are...

  16. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with much strengthened language about the probability and severity of climate change and man's influence on it, and a recent Supreme Court decision rejecting the Environmental Protection Agency's assertion that it has no authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. New fuel economy standards will represent an ambitious and expensive undertaking on the part of the automobile industry and the nation, and proposals for new standards deserve careful congressional and public scrutiny.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Economy Information Project- Research, Data Validation, and Technical Assistance Related to Collecting, Analyzing, and Disseminating Accurate Fuel Economy Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel economy...

  18. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The fuel economy of a vehicle is dependent on many things, one of which is the fuel used in the vehicle. Two National Laboratories recently studied the effects that ethanol blends have on the fuel...

  19. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected during this period lead to the conclusion that the BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are likely the cleanest combustion engine vehicles ever tested at Argonne's APRF.

  20. How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? How Does Your Fuel Economy Compare to the Test Ratings on Fueleconomy.gov? November 12, 2009 - 8:36am Addthis On Monday, you read about the resources on Fueleconomy.gov and how they can help you compare the fuel economy of vehicles. Fueleconomy.gov also offers a tool called Your MPG, where you can track your own fuel economy and compare it to that of other users and to the test ratings. Many factors

  1. What Steps Do You Take to Improve Your Fuel Economy? | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improve Your Fuel Economy? What Steps Do You Take to Improve Your Fuel Economy? April 7, 2011 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Shannon told you some facts about fuel economy and how you can use less gas and save money at the pump. What steps do you take to improve your fuel economy? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please e-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov.

  2. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Greene, David; Gibson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  3. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle systems simulations using experimental data demonstrate improved modeled fuel economy of 15% for passenger vehicles solely from powertrain efficiency relative to a 2009 PFI gasoline baseline.

  4. Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews techniques used to characterize plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fuel economy, discussing their merits, limitations, and best uses.

  5. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historically, manual transmissions have delivered better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. However, improvements in the efficiency of automatic transmissions have closed that gap in recent...

  6. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuels Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Performance Photo of a man working with laboratory equipment. NREL fuel performance chemists evaluate a broad range of performance criteria, including storage stability. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's applied fuels performance research takes a whole-vehicle-systems approach, examining not just co-optimization of low-carbon fuels and internal combustion engines, but also fuel production, infrastructure, handling, combustion, and emissions. Putting more energy-efficient vehicles on

  7. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Fuel Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The relationship between gallons used over a given distance and miles per gallon (mpg) is not linear. Thus, an increase in fuel economy by 5 mpg does not translate to a constant fuel savings amount...

  8. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  9. Fact #813: January 20, 2014 New Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The sales-weighted fuel economy average of all light vehicles sold in model year (MY) 2013 was 1.6 miles per gallon (mpg) higher than MY 2011. This increase brings the new light vehicle fuel...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Improve Fuel Economy through Formulation Design and Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ashland Inc. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about improve fuel economy through...

  11. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  12. DOE and EPA Release 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Annual Fuel Economy Guide DOE and EPA Release 2012 Annual Fuel Economy Guide November 16, 2011 - 2:37pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are releasing the 2012 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with information that can help them choose a more efficient new vehicle that saves them money and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. While fuel efficient vehicles come in a variety of fuel types, classes, and sizes, many

  13. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the recently released BioPower engines. PDF icon analysis_saab2007.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending

  14. Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels ...

  15. Analysis of In-Use Fuel Economy Shortfall Based on Voluntarily Reported MPG Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Goeltz, Rick; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Tworek, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The usefulness of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) passenger car and light truck fuel economy estimates has been the subject of debate for the past three decades. For the labels on new vehicles and the fuel economy information given to the public, the EPA adjusts dynamometer test results downward by 10% for the city cycle and 22% for the highway cycle to better reflect real world driving conditions. These adjustment factors were developed in 1984 and their continued validity has repeatedly been questioned. In March of 2005 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and EPA's fuel economy information website, www.fueleconomy.gov, began allowing users to voluntarily share fuel economy estimates. This paper presents an initial statistical analysis of more than 3,000 estimates submitted by website users. The analysis suggests two potentially important results: (1) adjusted, combined EPA fuel economy estimates appear to be approximately unbiased estimators of the average fuel economy consumers will experience in actual driving, and (2) the EPA estimates are highly imprecise predictors of any given individual's in-use fuel economy, an approximate 95% confidence interval being +/-7 MPG. These results imply that what is needed is not less biased adjustment factors for the EPA estimates but rather more precise methods of predicting the fuel economy individual consumers will achieve in their own driving.

  16. Examining the potential for voluntary fuel economy standards in the United States and Canada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S.; Greene, D.; Duleep, K.

    2003-03-19

    This report is designed to assist the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. government in general, and Natural Resources Canada with understanding the potential for voluntary fuel economy standards designed to increase the fuel economy of the North American fleet of light-duty vehicles (LDVs-passenger cars and light trucks) within a 10-15-year timeframe. The approach of this study has been: First, to examine and evaluate recent fuel economy initiatives taken in Japan and Europe; Second, to review the technologies available to improve fuel economy in the U.S. (and Canadian) fleets, focusing on their costs and fuel economy improvement potential; Third, to identify and broadly evaluate some alternatives to the current U.S. and Canadian Corporate Average Fuel Economy system of specifying uniform fuel economy targets (27.5 mpg for cars, 20.7 mpg for light trucks) for individual companies; and Fourth, to try to determine an approximate level of fuel economy increase and form of company agreements that would be conducive to a voluntary agreement, based on the assumption that an acceptable voluntary standard would impose an equitable burden on each manufacturer and would be approximately cost-effective from consumers' private perspectives.

  17. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  18. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yield the Greatest Savings - Dataset | Department of Energy 25: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings - Dataset Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings File fotw#925_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #916: March 14, 2016 Fuel Savings/Emissions Reduction

  19. DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models DOE and EPA Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2013 Models December 6, 2012 - 5:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the 2013 Fuel Economy Guide, giving consumers clear and easy-to-read information to help them choose the most fuel efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. The 2013

  20. EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers EPA, DOE Release 2015 Fuel Economy Guide for Car Buyers November 6, 2014 - 12:07pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT 202-586-4940 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) today released the 2015 Fuel Economy Guide, providing consumers with a valuable resource to help them choose the most fuel-efficient and low greenhouse gas emitting vehicles that meet their needs. In comparison to previous

  1. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  2. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, only three percent of all new cars had a fuel economy above 25 miles per gallon (mpg), but by 2014, 73% did. Great improvements were made in the fuel economy of cars from 1975 to 1985, so...

  3. EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain | Department of Energy FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain March 7, 2016 - 10:57am Addthis EERE Success Story—FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain EERE Success Story—FCA and Partners Achieve 25%

  4. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight materials, such as high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber can help improve fuel economy in future vehicles. This is a carbon fiber from microwave-assisted plasma unit -- a unit that is part of the process to transform precursor fibers into carbon fibers that can be used in vehicles. | Photo courtesy

  5. Fact #773: April 1, 2013 Fuel Economy Penalty at Higher Speeds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Each vehicle reaches an optimal fuel economy at a different speed or range of speeds. A recent study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory illustrates that point with a wide range of data collected on...

  6. Fact #696: October 10, 2011 Top Ten "Real World" Fuel Economy Leaders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel economy ratings on the window stickers of new cars are based on strict test cycles conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. These official EPA...

  7. Energy Department and Environmental Protection Agency Release Fuel Economy Tool for Used Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Energy Department and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a new label that features EPA fuel economy estimates and CO2 estimates for used vehicles sold in the United States since 1984.

  8. Fact #658: January 17, 2011 Increasing Use of Vehicle Technologies to Meet Fuel Economy Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle manufacturers are turning to vehicle technologies to improve efficiency and meet strict fuel economy requirements. Over the last 10 years, the use of engine technologies like multi-valves...

  9. Fact #804: November 18, 2013 Tool Available to Print Used Vehicle Fuel Economy Window Stickers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Because used vehicle sales outnumber new vehicle sales by about three to one, a new tool has been developed that allows those selling used vehicles to produce a fuel economy label for the vehicle....

  10. Fact #586: August 31, 2009 New Vehicle Fuel Economies by Vehicle Type

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average fuel economy for new cars climbed to over 30 miles per gallon (mpg) in 2008 while the average for new pickup trucks stayed around 20 mpg. For new vans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)...

  11. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute A 2014 survey asked a sample of the U.S. population the question "Which one of the following ...

  12. Fact #626: June 7, 2010 Fuel Economy for Light and Heavy Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In the next few years it is expected that fuel economy standards will be imposed on new medium and heavy trucks sold in the U.S. Currently, the estimates of the medium and heavy truck population...

  13. New Find-a-Car App Brings Fuel Economy Right to Your Phone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With more car buyers than ever using the Internet to research their future vehicles, accessing information on fuel economy needs to be simple and convenient. To make searching easier on mobile...

  14. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles Operating on Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Protection Agency has developed a new methodology for determining how fuel economy information will be displayed on the window sticker of a vehicle that operates on electricity....

  15. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program – Fuel Economy Improvement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Car Allowance Rebate System (CARS), also known as the Cash for Clunkers Program, provided Federal rebate money for consumers who traded old vehicles with an EPA combined fuel economy of 18...

  16. Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A June 2011 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low...

  17. Fact #724: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Gas Guzzler Tax" is collected from the public for each new car purchased with fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon (mpg). The Gas Guzzler Tax does not apply to light trucks, only cars....

  18. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently conducted a study that measured the effect of tire pressure on fuel economy at speeds ranging from 40 to 80 miles per hour. The figure below...

  19. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection- A Fuel Economy Solution for The US

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid.

  20. EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EPA and DOE Release Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 ... and the Department of Energy (DOE) are releasing the ... like air conditioning usage and a variety of speed and ...

  1. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  2. DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources, and More | Department of Energy H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More DOE Announces Webinars on H-Prize Safety Guidelines, Fuel Economy Resources, and More August 6, 2015 - 8:30am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch

  3. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficiently solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.

  4. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficientlymore » solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.« less

  5. Feebates and Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts on Fuel Use in Light-Duty Vehicles and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of a national feebate system, a market-based policy that consists of graduated fees on low-fuel-economy (or high-emitting) vehicles and rebates for high-fuel-economy (or lowemitting) vehicles. In their simplest form, feebate systems operate under three conditions: a benchmark divides all vehicles into two categories-those charged fees and those eligible for rebates; the sizes of the fees and rebates are a function of a vehicle's deviation from its benchmark; and placement of the benchmark ensures revenue neutrality or a desired level of subsidy or revenue. A model developed by the University of California for the California Air Resources Board was revised and used to estimate the effects of six feebate structures on fuel economy and sales of new light-duty vehicles, given existing and anticipated future fuel economy and emission standards. These estimates for new vehicles were then entered into a vehicle stock model that simulated the evolution of the entire vehicle stock. The results indicate that feebates could produce large, additional reductions in emissions and fuel consumption, in large part by encouraging market acceptance of technologies with advanced fuel economy, such as hybrid electric vehicles.

  6. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  7. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  8. Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yield the Greatest Savings | Department of Energy Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings Fact #925: May 16, 2016 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low-MPG Vehicles Yield the Greatest Savings SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The relationship between gallons used over a given distance and miles per gallon (mpg) is not linear. Trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a

  9. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  10. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Vehicle Mass Impact on Vehicle Losses and Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Hwang, Ho-Ling; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2013-01-01

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  13. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  14. Draft Funding Opportunity Announcement for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Proposed statement of work for the upcoming solicitation for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy.

  15. EERE Success Story- Chrysler and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy Improvement in Light-Duty Advanced Technology Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Internal combustion engines have the potential to become substantially more efficient, with laboratory tests indicating that new technologies could increase passenger vehicle fuel economy by more...

  16. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

  17. The Effect of Driving Intensity and Incomplete Charging on the Fuel Economy of a Hymotion Prius PHEV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Barney Carlson

    2009-10-01

    On-road testing was conducted on a Hymotion Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) at the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation in Phoenix, Arizona. The tests were comprised of on-road urban and highway driving during charge-depleting and charge-sustaining operation. Determining real-world effectiveness of PHEVs at reducing petroleum consumption in real world driving was the main focus of the study. Throughout testing, several factors that affect fuel consumption of PHEVs were identified. This report discusses two of these factors: driving intensity (i.e., driving aggressiveness) and battery charging completeness. These two factors are unrelated, yet both significantly impact the vehicles fuel economy. Driving intensity was shown to decrease fuel economy by up to half. Charging completeness, which was affected by human factors and ambient temperature conditions, also showed to have great impact on fuel economy for the Hymotion Prius. These tests were performed for the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, part of the U.S. Department of Energys Vehicle Technology Program, is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation.

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  19. Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

  20. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statistical models developed from designed esperiments (varying fuel properties and engine control parameters) were used to optimize fuel consumption subject to emissions and engine performance constraints.

  1. We Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards We Can't Wait: Driving Forward with New Fuel Economy Standards November 16, 2011 - 4:04pm Addthis The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car lot. | Photo by Kino Praxis. The Vehicle Cost Calculator helps consumers go beyond the sticker price of a vehicle and determine the lifetime cost when they head to the car

  2. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  3. The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon rocheleau_uhawaii_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Effects of Impurities of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effect of System and Air Contaminants on

  4. Annual Fuel Economy Guide with 2014 Models Released | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Energy ... including an estimated annual fuel cost for each vehicle. ... like air conditioning usage and a variety of speed and ...

  5. Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy ...

  6. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  7. National Labs Work to Settle PHEV Fuel Economy Conundrum - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL National Labs Work to Settle PHEV Fuel Economy Conundrum NREL-developed methodology shows promise for estimating real-world energy use September 28, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently joined forces with researchers from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to take the lead in developing and testing a new method for predicting the real-world fuel and electricity consumption of plug-in hybrid

  8. Real-World PHEV Fuel Economy Prediction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss047_gonder_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Light Duty Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Systems Analysis Defining Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluations Analysis of maximizing the Synergy between PHEVs/EVs and PV

  9. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design ...

  10. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  11. 2004 FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE BEST IN CLASS | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 3 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations 2003 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations August 24-28, 2003 Newport, Rhode Island The following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Plenary Session: A View from the Bridge Session 6: Environmentally Concerned Public Sector Organization Panel Session 1: Emerging Diesel Technologies Session 7: Combustion and HCCI Regimes Session 2: Fuels and

  12. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuels characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the projects objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  13. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  14. Fuel Performance Annual Report for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W. J.; Rising, K. H.; Tokar, M.

    1981-12-01

    This annual report, the third in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance in conmercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel surveillance programs and operating experience, fuel performance problems, and fuel design changes are provided. References to additional, more detailed, information and related NRC evaluation are included.

  15. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy This study presents full quantification of biodiesels impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events. PDF icon p-21_williams.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution

  16. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting “raw” fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such “raw” PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  17. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  18. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.

    2008-07-01

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  19. Fuel performance annual report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M. ); Wu, S. . Div. of Systems Technology)

    1992-06-01

    This annual report, the twelfth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1989 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included.

  20. Fuel performance annual report for 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1988-03-01

    This annual report, the ninth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1986 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 550 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Fuel performance: Annual report for 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Wu, S.

    1989-03-01

    This annual report, the tenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1987 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulator Commission evaluations are included. 384 refs., 13 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Proposed Revisions to Light Truck Fuel Economy Standard (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    In August 2005, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published proposed reforms to the structure of CAFE standards for light trucks and increases in light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model years 2008 through 201. Under the proposed new structure, NHTSA would establish minimum fuel economy levels for six size categories defined by the vehicle footprint (wheelbase multiplied by track width), as summarized in Table 3. For model years 2008 through 2010, the new CAFE standards would provide manufacturers the option of complying with either the standards defined for each individual footprint category or a proposed average light truck fleet standard of 22.5 miles per gallon in 2008, 23.1 miles per gallon in 2009, and 23.5 miles per gallon in 2010. All light truck manufacturers would be required to meet an overall standard based on sales within each individual footprint category after model year 2010.

  3. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    driving cycles and interstate roads | Department of Energy Compares simulated fuel economy and emissions fro conventional and hybrid Class 8 heavy trucks PDF icon p-12_gao.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced HD Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Heavy-Duty Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling

  4. Fact #730: June 4, 2012 Fuel Economy of New Light Vehicles is Up 19% from 1980 to 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to a 120% increase in horsepower and 35% decrease in 0-60 time from 1980 to 2011, the fuel economy of vehicles improved nearly 19%. All of these data series are sales-weighted averages...

  5. Multi-Mode RCCI Has Great Potential to Improve Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multi-mode RCCI (Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition), a promising advanced combustion process, has the potential to improve fuel economy of passenger cars by at least 15%, according to a...

  6. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the worlds major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The best available technology (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  7. Fuel Performance Experiments on the Atomistic Level, Studying Fuel Through Engineered Single Crystal UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgett, Eric; Deo, Chaitanya; Phillpot, Simon

    2015-05-08

    Fuel Performance Experiments on the Atomistic Level, Studying Fuel Through Engineered Single Crystal UO2

  8. Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev

    2007-03-01

    One of the objectives of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is to facilitate the licensing and operation of Advanced Recycle Reactors (ARRs) for transmutation of the transuranic elements (TRU) present in spent fuel. A fuel performance code will be an essential element in the licensing process ensuring that behavior of the transmutation fuel elements in the reactor is understood and predictable. Even more important in the near term, a fuel performance code will assist substantially in the fuels research and development, design, irradiation testing and interpretation of the post-irradiation examination results.

  9. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared tomore » current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.« less

  10. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared to current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.

  11. Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #848: November 24, 2014 Nearly Three-Fourths of New Cars have Fuel Economy above 25 Miles per Gallon

  12. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  13. Verification of the BISON fuel performance code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Perez; R. J. Gardner; J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; G. Pastore; B. W. Spencer; R. L. Williamson

    2014-09-01

    BISON is a modern finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at Idaho National Labo- ratory (USA) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior and is used to analyze 1D spherical, 2D axisymmetric, or 3D geometries. BISON has been applied to a variety of fuel forms including LWR fuel rods, TRISO-coated fuel particles, and metallic fuel in both rod and plate geometries. Code validation is currently in progress, principally by comparison to instrumented LWR fuel rods and other well known fuel performance codes. Results from several assessment cases are reported, with emphasis on fuel centerline temperatures at various stages of fuel life, fission gas release, and clad deformation during pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI). BISON comparisons to fuel centerline temperature measurements are very good at beginning of life and reasonable at high burnup. Although limited to date, fission gas release comparisons are very good. Comparisons of rod diameter following significant power ramping are also good and demonstrate BISONs unique ability to model discrete pellet behavior and accurately predict clad ridging from PCMI.

  14. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  15. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  16. A Correlation of Diesel Engine Performance with Measured NIR Fuel Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results indicate a strong tradeoff between maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise (which also correlates to NOx and peak cylinder pressure) and fuel economy for 21 tested fuels.

  17. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clemson.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of ...

  18. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Highly Dispersed Alloy ...

  19. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Advanced Cathode ...

  20. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of ...

  1. Fuel performance annual report for 1990. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preble, E.A.; Painter, C.L.; Alvis, J.A.; Berting, F.M.; Beyer, C.E.; Payne, G.A.; Wu, S.L.

    1993-11-01

    This annual report, the thirteenth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1990 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience and trends, fuel problems high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided . References to additional, more detailed information, and related NRC evaluations are included where appropriate.

  2. Fuel performance annual report for 1981. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Tokar, M.

    1982-12-01

    This annual report, the fourth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1981 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel operating experience, fuel problems, fuel design changes and fuel surveillance programs, and high-burnup fuel experience are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included.

  3. Fuel performance annual report for 1983. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Dunenfeld, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    This annual report, the sixth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1983 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included.

  4. Advances in HTGR fuel performance models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansfield, O.M.; Goodin, D.T.; Hanson, D.L.; Turner, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Fuel performance models based on empirical evidence are used to predict particle failure and fission product release in the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Advances in HTGR fuel performance models have improved the agreement between observed and predicted performance and contributed to an enhanced position of the HTGR with regard to investment risk and passive safety. Heavy metal contamination is the source of about 55% of the circulating activity in the HTGR during normal operation, and the remainder comes primarily from particles which failed because of defective or missing buffer coatings. These failed particles make up about 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction of the total core inventory. In addition to prediction of fuel performance during normal operation, the models are used to determine fuel failure and fission product release during core heat-up accident conditions. The mechanistic nature of the models, which incorporate all important failure modes, permits the prediction of performance from the relatively modest accident temperatures of a passively safe HTGR to the much more severe accident conditions of the larger 2240-MW(t) HTGR.

  5. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Davidson, Diane

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel efficiency slightly. Fuel efficiency also decreases significantly with speed, but only for light and medium loads. For medium-heavy and heavy, FE is almost constant for speeds ranging from 57 to about 66 mph. For speeds higher than 66 mph, the FE decreases with speed, but at a lower rate than for light and medium loads. Statistical analyses that compared the fuel efficiencies obtained when the vehicles were traveling at 59 mph vs. those achieved when they were traveling at 65 mph or 70 mph indicated that the former were, on average, higher than the latter. This result was statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level (note: the Type II error i.e., the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true was 18% and 6%, respectively).

  6. Method for improving fuel cell performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas

    2003-10-21

    A method is provided for operating a fuel cell at high voltage for sustained periods of time. The cathode is switched to an output load effective to reduce the cell voltage at a pulse width effective to reverse performance degradation from OH adsorption onto cathode catalyst surfaces. The voltage is stepped to a value of less than about 0.6 V to obtain the improved and sustained performance.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  8. Fuel performance during severe accidents. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buescher, B.J.; Gruen, G.E.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. This program is underway in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In preparation for the first test, predictions have been performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer. This paper presents the calculated results showing a slow heatup to 2400 K over 5 hours, and the analysis includes accelerated oxidation of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1850 K.

  9. Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Light water reactors (CASL). ... capability of nuclear fuel performance can enable increased power output and lifetime ... to designing safety margins into fuel ...

  10. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characteriz...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing ... More Documents & Publications Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and ...

  11. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  12. Fuels Performance Group: Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    Describes R&D and analysis in advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum-based transportation fuels done by NREL's Fuels Performance Group.

  13. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell performance and durability, was given by James Goodwin of Clemson Univeristy at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  14. Fact #777: April 29, 2013 For the Second Year in a Row, Survey Respondents Consider Fuel Economy Most Important When Purchasing a Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 2012 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low price,...

  15. Effects of Fuel and Air Impurities on PEM Fuel Cell Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on PEM fuel cell performance, was given by Fernando Garzon of LANL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  16. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real-world driving. The program test results provide information on the veracity of these claims.

  17. EERE Success Story-FCA and Partners Achieve 25% Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "full power mode," this vehicle only used more efficient stoichiometric fueling, when the engine injects an even mixture of fuel and air during the piston's intake stroke. ...

  18. FC-PAD: Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability (FC-PAD) will aid in the understanding of—and lead to significant improvements in—fuel cell performance and durability.

  19. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Membrane ... durability considerations for proton exchange membranes Integration of ...

  20. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been

  1. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket This study focused on

  2. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket × You are accessing a

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Economy Guide and fueleconomy.gov Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the fuel...

  4. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing ...

  5. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils 2003 DEER Conference ...

  6. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  7. Fuel performance annual report for 1991. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Painter, C.L.; Alvis, J.M.; Beyer, C.E.; Marion, A.L.; Payne, G.A.; Kendrick, E.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the fourteenth in a series that provides a compilation of information regarding commercial nuclear fuel performance. The series of annual reports were developed as a result of interest expressed by the public, advising bodies, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for public availability of information pertaining to commercial nuclear fuel performance. During 1991, the nuclear industry`s focus regarding fuel continued to be on extending burnup while maintaining fuel rod reliability. Utilities realize that high-burnup fuel reduces the amount of generated spent fuel, reduces fuel costs, reduces operational and maintenance costs, and improves plant capacity factors by extending operating cycles. Brief summaries of fuel operating experience, fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, high-burnup experience, problem areas, and items of general significance are provided.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Integrated Boosting and Hybridization for Extreme Fuel Economy and Downsizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Eaton at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about integrated boosting and hybridization...

  9. Fuel Economy Sticker Revs Up Used Car Sales | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fuel-efficient model and save money at the pump. | Photo by the Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public ...

  10. Effects of Impurities of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell performance and durability, was given by Trent Molter of the University of Connecticut at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  11. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel ...

  12. Early User Experience with BISON Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Perez

    2012-08-01

    Three Fuel Modeling Exercise II (FUMEX II) LWR fuel irradiation experiments were simulated and analyzed using the fuel performance code BISON to demonstrate code utility for modeling of the LWR fuel performance. Comparisons were made against the BISON results and the experimental data for the three assessment cases. The assessment cases reported within this report include IFA-597.3 Rod 8, Riso AN3 and Riso AN4.

  13. Emissions and fuel economy of a Comprex pressure wave supercharged diesel. Report EPA-AA-TEB-81-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, E.A.; Burgenson, R.N.

    1980-10-01

    In order to increase public interest in vehicles equipped with diesel engines, methods of improving diesel-fueled engine performance, as compared to current gasoline-fueled counterparts, are being investigated. One method to increase performance is to supercharge or turbocharge the engine. This report details an EPA assessment of a supercharging technique previously evaluated, however, since that evaluation, specific areas of operation have been refined.

  14. Fact #793: August 19, 2013 Improvements in Fuel Economy for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trading a low-mpg car or truck for one with just slightly better mpg will save more fuel than trading a high-mpg car or truck for one that is even higher. For example, trading a truck ...

  15. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Carlson, R.; Smart, J.

    2009-08-01

    Explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to raw plug-in hybrid vehicle dynamometer test results to better estimate PHEVs' in-use fuel and electricity consumption.

  16. Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 2014 survey asked a sample of the U.S. population the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel...

  17. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  18. High Performance Fuel Desing for Next Generation Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujid S. Kazimi; Pavel Hejzlar

    2006-01-31

    The use of internally and externally cooled annular fule rods for high power density Pressurized Water Reactors is assessed. The assessment included steady state and transient thermal conditions, neutronic and fuel management requirements, mechanical vibration issues, fuel performance issues, fuel fabrication methods and econmic assessment. The investigation was donducted by a team from MIT, Westinghouse, Gamma Engineering, Framatome ANP, and AECL. The analyses led to the conclusion that raising the power density by 50% may be possible with this advanced fuel. Even at the 150% power level, the fuel temperature would be a few hundred degrees lower than the current fuel temperatre. Significant economic and safety advantages can be obtained by using this fuel in new reactors. Switching to this type of fuel for existing reactors would yield safety advantages, but the economic return is dependent on the duration of plant shutdown to accommodate higher power production. The main feasiblity issue for the high power performance appears to be the potential for uneven splitting of heat flux between the inner and outer fuel surfaces due to premature closure of the outer fuel-cladding gap. This could be overcome by using a very narrow gap for the inner fuel surface and/or the spraying of a crushable zirconium oxide film at the fuel pellet outer surface. An alternative fuel manufacturing approach using vobropacking was also investigated but appears to yield lower than desirable fuel density.

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline direct injection piston with injector. NREL studies the effects of new fuel properties on performance and emissions in advanced engine technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's combustion research and development bridges fundamental chemical kinetics and applied engine research to investigate how new engine technologies can be co-developed with fuels and lubricants to maximize energy-efficient vehicle performance. Through

  20. NREL UL Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

    2011-01-01

    Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

  1. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement An ...

  2. IRRADIATION PERFORMANCE OF U-Mo MONOLITHIC FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.K. Meyer; J. Gan; J.-F. Jue; D.D. Keiser; E. Perez; A. Robinson; D.M. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G.L. Hofman; Y.-S. Kim

    2014-04-01

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. UMo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  3. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift -Clean Cities Fleet Experiences -

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids.

  4. Improving fuel-rod performance. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocken, H.; Knott, S.

    1981-03-01

    To reduce the risk of fuel-rod failures, utilities operate their nuclear reactors within conservative limits on power increases proposed by nuclear-fuel vendors. Of particular concern to US utilities is that adopting these limits results in an industrywide average plant capacity loss of 3% in BWR designs and 0.3% in PWR designs. To replace lost BWR capacity by other generating means currently costs the utilities $150 million annually, and losses for PWRs are about $20 million. Efforts are therefore being made to identify the factors responsible for Zircaloy degradation under PCI condition and to improve nuclear-fuel-rod design and reactor operation.

  5. Performance limit analysis of a metallic fuel for Kalimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Cheon, J.S.; Lee, C.B.

    2007-07-01

    A metallic fuel is being considered as the fuel for SFR in Korea. The metal fuel development for SFR in Korea started in 2007 in the areas of metal fuel fabrication, cladding materials and fuel performance evaluation. The MACSIS code for a metallic fuel has been developed as a steady-state performance computer code. Present study represents the preliminary parametric results for evaluating the design limits of the metal fuel for SFR in Korea. The operating limits were analyzed by the MACSIS code. The modules of the creep rupture strength for the Mod.HT9 and the barrier cladding were inserted. The strain limits and the CDF limit were analyzed for the HT9, and the Mod.HT9. To apply the concept of a barrier cladding, the burnup limit of the barrier cladding was analyzed. (authors)

  6. Hybrid Taxis Give Fuel Economy a Lift, Clean Cities, Fleet Experiences, April 2009 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    Clean Cities helped Boston, San Antonio, and Cambridge create hybrid taxi programs. The hybrid taxis are able to achieve about twice the gas mileage of a conventional taxi while helping cut gasoline use and fuel costs. Tax credits and other incentives are helping both company owners and drivers make the switch to hybrids. Program leaders have learned some important lessons other cities can benefit from including learning a city's taxi structure, relaying benefits to drivers, and understanding the needs of owners.

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid drivetrains have shown signifcant promise as part of an overall petroleum reduction feet strategy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Hybrid drivetrains consist of an energy storage device and a motor integrated into a traditional powertrain and offer the potential fuel savings by capturing energy normally lost during deceleration through the application of regenerative braking. Because hybrid technologies, especially hydraulic hybrids, have low adoption rates in the medium-duty vehicle segment and

  8. An evaluation of the nuclear fuel performance code BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, D. M.; Williamson, R. L.; Novascone, S. R.; Larson, T. K.; Hales, J. D.; Spencer, B. W.; Pastore, G.

    2013-07-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior and is used to analyze either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. BISON has been applied to a variety of fuel forms including LWR fuel rods, TRISO-coated fuel particles, and metallic fuel in both rod and plate geometries. Code validation is currently in progress, principally by comparison to instrumented LWR fuel rods and other well known fuel performance codes. Results from several assessment cases are reported, with emphasis on fuel centerline temperatures at various stages of fuel life, fission gas release, and clad deformation during pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI). BISON comparisons to fuel centerline temperature measurements are very good at beginning of life and reasonable at high burnup. Although limited to date, fission gas release comparisons are very good. Comparisons of rod diameter following significant power ramping are also good and demonstrate BISON's unique ability to model discrete pellet behavior and accurately predict clad ridging from PCMI. (authors)

  9. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF +

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrated-EGRŽ System for Retrofit of In-UseŽ Trucks | Department of Energy Reports on truck fleet emission test results obtained from retrofitting in-useŽ old class-8 trucks with IMETs GreenPower’ DPF-Hydrated-EGR system PDF icon p-24_rim.pdf More Documents & Publications GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System GreenPowerTM Trap-Muffler System DPF -"Hydrated EGR" Fuel Saver System

  10. Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DE-FOA-0001000) | Department of Energy This funding opportunity is closed Through this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) the Building Technologies Office (BTO) seeks to establish a performance rating mechanism for assessing the energy performance of fenestration attachments. DOE and the fenestration attachments industry have identified accurate and objective performance data as a critical need for product adoption. The selected applicant to the Craft FOA will provide a third-party

  11. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... with future high compression, downspeeded engine achieves 28.5 mpg. 12 Managed by ... Fuel Economy and GHG * Increased Ethanolbiofuel Utilization * High Performance Vehicles ...

  12. PWR fuel performance program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunishi, H.; Miller, R.S.; Roberts, E.

    1985-09-01

    Tests of 15 x 15 and 17 x 17 fuel assemblies, irradiated at burnup levels well beyond the standard 33 GWd/MtU, showed that no inherent material limitations stand in the way of such assemblies achieving average burnups of approximately 55 GWd/MtU. The study also showed that cladding waterside corrosion can be minimized by controlling the lithium-to-boron ratio in the coolant to reduce crud deposition.

  13. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  14. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth ...

  15. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  16. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of inherent safety concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and thermophysical properties of the fuel and their compatibility with the reactor coolant, with corresponding differences in the challenges presented to the reactor developers. Accident phenomena are discussed for the sodium-cooled fast reactor based on the mechanistic progression of conditions from accident initiation to accident termination, whether a benign state is achieved or more severe consequences are expected. General principles connecting accident phenomena and fuel properties are developed from the oxide and metal fuel safety analyses, providing guidelines that can be used as part of the evaluation for selection of fuel type for the sodium-cooled fast reactor.

  17. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano; Terrani, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be superior to the conventional oxide fuel since PCMI and rod burst, respectively, have been mitigated. Under beyond design basis accident scenarios where the fuel is exposed to high temperature steam for prolonged periods, larger inventory of zirconium metal in the core could negatively affect the accident progression. A thin steam resistant layer (e.g. alumina forming alloy steel), integrated into the solid rod during fabrication by co-extrusion or hot-isostatic-pressing, offers the potential to provide additional fuel protection from steam interaction: blanketing under a range of boiling regimes and under severe accident conditions up to high temperatures well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional fuel. A crucial aspect to the viability of M3 fuel in light water reactors is the reduced heavy metal load compared to standard pellet fuel. This study evaluated the design requirements to operate a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with M3 fuel in order to obtain fuel cycle length, reactivity coefficients, and power peaking factors comparable to that of standard fuel.

  18. EHRS Impact on Engine Warm-up and Fuel Economy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon EGS Infographic.pdf More Documents & Publications Calpine Staff Run Tests at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant in California Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Infographic FORGE Infographic Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12

    Presents an investigation performed on a Toyota Prius III with the objective to quantify and demonstrate the benefits of current exhaust heat recovery technologies PDF icon deer11_barrieu.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle

  19. High performance fuel element with end seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Gary E.; Zogg, Gordon J.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprising an elongate block of refractory material having a generally regular polygonal cross section. The block includes parallel, spaced, first and second end surfaces. The first end surface has a peripheral sealing flange formed thereon while the second end surface has a peripheral sealing recess sized to receive the flange. A plurality of longitudinal first coolant passages are positioned inwardly of the flange and recess. Elongate fuel holes are separate from the coolant passages and disposed inwardly of the flange and the recess. The block is further provided with a plurality of peripheral second coolant passages in general alignment with the flange and the recess for flowing coolant. The block also includes two bypasses for each second passage. One bypass intersects the second passage adjacent to but spaced from the first end surface and intersects a first passage, while the other bypass intersects the second passage adjacent to but spaced from the second end surface and intersects a first passage so that coolant flowing through the second passages enters and exits the block through the associated first passages.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Economy Test Procedures and Labeling The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for motor vehicle fuel economy testing. Manufacturers test their own ...

  1. Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR Electrocatalysts Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR Electrocatalysts Fuel cell testing...

  2. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  3. Final assessment of MOX fuel performance experiment with Japanese PWR specification fuel in the HBWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Hajime; Teshima, Hideyuki; Kanasugi, Katsumasa; Kosaka, Yuji; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain high burn-up MOX fuel irradiation performance data, SBR and MIMAS MOX fuel rods with Pu-fissile enrichment of about 6 wt% had been irradiated in the HBWR from 1995 to 2006. The peak burn-up of MOX pellet achieved 72 GWd/tM. In this test, fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length and cladding length were measured for MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel as reference. MOX fuel temperature is confirmed to have no significant difference in comparison with UO{sub 2}, taking into account of adequate thermal conductivity degradation due to PuO{sub 2} addition and burn-up development. And the measured fuel temperature agrees well with FINE code calculation up to high burn-up region. Fission gas release of MOX is possibly greater than UO{sub 2} based on temperature and pressure assessment. No significant difference is confirmed between SBR and MIMAS MOX on FGR behavior. MOX fuel swelling rate agrees well with solid swelling rate in the literature. Cladding elongation data shows onset of PCMI in high power region. (authors)

  4. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHP and CHHP Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.

    2010-03-30

    This presentation describes the fuel cell power model for CHP and CHHP economics and performance analysis.

  5. The manufacture and performance of homogeneous microstructure SBR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Matthew A.; Stephenson, Keith; Weston, Rebecca

    2007-07-01

    In the early 1980's, British experience in the manufacture of mixed-oxide fast reactor fuel was used to develop a new thermal MOX manufacturing route called the Short Binder-less Route (SBR). Laboratory- scale development led to the manufacture of commercial PWR fuel in a small pilot plant, and the construction of the full-scale dual-line Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). SMP's first MOX assemblies are now under irradiation. SBR MOX is manufactured with 100% co-milled feedstock, leading to a microstructure dominated by a solid solution of (U,Pu)O{sub 2} at the nominal enrichment. A comprehensive fuel performance research programme has demonstrated the benign performance of SBR MOX up to 54 MWd/kgHM. In particular, the homogeneous microstructure is believed to be instrumental in the favourable fission gas retention and PCI resistance properties. (authors)

  6. Advanced Multiphysics Coupling for LWR Fuel Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Hales; M. R. Tonks; F. N. Gleicher; B. W. Spencer; S. R. Novascone; R. L. Williamson; G. Pastore; D. M. Perez

    2015-10-01

    Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics, particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is possible to use lower length scale models such as those used in the mesoscale MARMOT code to compute average properties, e.g. swelling or thermal conductivity. These may then be used by an engineering-scale model. Examples of this type of multiscale, multiphysics modeling are shown.

  7. Advanced multiphysics coupling for LWR fuel performance analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B. W.; Novascone, S. R.; Williamson, R. L.; Pastore, G.; Perez, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    Even the most basic nuclear fuel analysis is a multiphysics undertaking, as a credible simulation must consider at a minimum coupled heat conduction and mechanical deformation. The need for more realistic fuel modeling under a variety of conditions invariably leads to a desire to include coupling between a more complete set of the physical phenomena influencing fuel behavior, including neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and mechanisms occurring at lower length scales. This paper covers current efforts toward coupled multiphysics LWR fuel modeling in three main areas. The first area covered in this paper concerns thermomechanical coupling. The interaction of these two physics,more » particularly related to the feedback effect associated with heat transfer and mechanical contact at the fuel/clad gap, provides numerous computational challenges. An outline is provided of an effective approach used to manage the nonlinearities associated with an evolving gap in BISON, a nuclear fuel performance application. A second type of multiphysics coupling described here is that of coupling neutronics with thermomechanical LWR fuel performance. DeCART, a high-fidelity core analysis program based on the method of characteristics, has been coupled to BISON. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during a depletion or a fast transient simulation. Two-way coupling between these codes was achieved by mapping fission rate density and fast neutron flux fields from DeCART to BISON and the temperature field from BISON to DeCART while employing a Picard iterative algorithm. Finally, the need for multiscale coupling is considered. Fission gas production and evolution significantly impact fuel performance by causing swelling, a reduction in the thermal conductivity, and fission gas release. The mechanisms involved occur at the atomistic and grain scale and are therefore not the domain of a fuel performance code. However, it is possible to use lower length scale models such as those used in the mesoscale MARMOT code to compute average properties, e.g. swelling or thermal conductivity. These may then be used by an engineering-scale model. Examples of this type of multiscale, multiphysics modeling are shown.« less

  8. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  9. Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, John

    2016-04-05

    A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years (MY) 2016 through 2025 passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the needed rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the MY 2004 USmore » light-duty vehicle fleet to the MY 2014 fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 28% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of needed vehicle rate-of-change. A set of 40 same-model vehicle pairs for MY 2005 and MY 2015 is compared to examine changes in energy use and related technological change over the 10 year period. Powertrain improvements measured as increased vehicle efficiency, and vehicle mass-glider improvements measured as decreased tractive work requirements are quantified. The focus is first on conventional gasoline powertrain vehicles which currently dominate the market, with hybrids also examined due to their high potential importance for CAFE compliance. Most hybrid vehicles with significant sales in 2014 were represented in the study. Results show 10 years of progress for the studied vehicle set includes lowered tractive effort of about 5.6% and improved powertrain efficiency of about 16.5%. Further analysis shows that this high rate of past progress must increase by about 50% in order to meet the 2025 CAFE standards. Examination of where certain MY 2015 vehicle compare to CAFE regulations is offered as well as some simple conjecture on what is needed to meet regulations under reasonable assumptions.« less

  10. Predictive Bias and Sensitivity in NRC Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.; Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lanning, Donald D.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2009-10-01

    The latest versions of the fuel performance codes, FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN were examined to determine if the codes are intrinsically conservative. Each individual model and type of code prediction was examined and compared to the data that was used to develop the model. In addition, a brief literature search was performed to determine if more recent data have become available since the original model development for model comparison.

  11. Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. NUHOMS modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strope, L.A.; McKinnon, M.A. ); Dyksterhouse, D.J.; McLean, J.C. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant (HBR) near Hartsville, South Carolina. The demonstration included testing of three modules, first with electric heaters and then with spent fuel. The results indicated that the system was conservatively designed, with all heat transfer and shielding design criteria easily met. 5 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Supporting a Hawaii...

  14. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  15. Assessment of MARMOT. A Mesoscale Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, M. R.; Schwen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Chakraborty, P.; Bai, X.; Fromm, B.; Yu, J.; Teague, M. C.; Andersson, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    MARMOT is the mesoscale fuel performance code under development as part of the US DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Program. In this report, we provide a high level summary of MARMOT, its capabilities, and its current state of validation. The purpose of MARMOT is to predict the coevolution of microstructure and material properties of nuclear fuel and cladding. It accomplished this using the phase field method coupled to solid mechanics and heat conduction. MARMOT is based on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), and much of its basic capability in the areas of the phase field method, mechanics, and heat conduction come directly from MOOSE modules. However, additional capability specific to fuel and cladding is available in MARMOT. While some validation of MARMOT has been completed in the areas of fission gas behavior and grain growth, much more validation needs to be conducted. However, new mesoscale data needs to be obtained in order to complete this validation.

  16. BISON and MARMOT Development for Modeling Fast Reactor Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence; Williamson, Richard L.; Schwen, Daniel; Zhang, Yongfeng; Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Medvedev, Pavel G.

    2015-09-01

    BISON and MARMOT are two codes under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for engineering scale and lower length scale fuel performance modeling. It is desired to add capabilities for fast reactor applications to these codes. The fast reactor fuel types under consideration are metal (U-Pu-Zr) and oxide (MOX). The cladding types of interest include 316SS, D9, and HT9. The purpose of this report is to outline the proposed plans for code development and provide an overview of the models added to the BISON and MARMOT codes for fast reactor fuel behavior. A brief overview of preliminary discussions on the formation of a bilateral agreement between the Idaho National Laboratory and the National Nuclear Laboratory in the United Kingdom is presented.

  17. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  18. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  19. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  20. Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wear | Department of Energy Results of completed study on the effect of four exhaust gas recirculation levels on diesel engine oil during standard test with an API Cummins M-11 engine. PDF icon deer08_ajayi.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear AVTA: Oil Bypass Filter Specifications and Test Procedures of

  1. Severe fuel-damage scoping test performance. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, G.E.; Buescher, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. The first test of Phase I of this series has been successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Following the first test, calculations were performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code with actual experimental boundary conditions. This paper discusses the test conduct and performance and presents the calculated and measured test bundle results. The test resulted in a slow heatup to 2000 K over about 4 h, with an accelerated reaction of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1600 K in the lower part or the bundle and 2000 K in the upper portion of the bundle.

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly insertion into a commercial reactor within the desired timeframe (by 2022).

  3. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

  4. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Fuel Cells and Renewable Portfolio Standards, June 9, 2011. PDF icon infocalljun911_valente.pdf More Documents & Publications Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative Raising H2 and Fuel Cell Awareness in Ohio State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2014

    Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing fuel cell technologies. PDF icon Fuel Cells Fact Sheet More Documents & Publications

  5. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  6. TRU-fueled VHTRs: design, performance, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Ames, David E. II; Pritchard, Megan L.; Alajo, Ayodeji B.; Lewis, Tom G. III

    2007-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the nearest Generation IV concept. This paper presents results of the U.S. DOE NERI Project on utilization of higher actinides (TRUs and partitioned MAs) as a fuel component for extended-life VHTR configurations. The idea is to approach autonomous operation on a single fuel loading that would allow marketing power units with VHTRs as nuclear batteries for worldwide deployment. The research focus is on possible designs and their advantages and limitations. The project is currently within its third year of studies. Although indicating some technical limitations and challenges, studies of VHTRs with TRUs/MAs definitely suggest promising performance and possibility to utilize the core configurations with TRUs/MAs gaining prolonged operation and self-sustainability. (authors)

  7. Emissions and fuel economy of a vehicle with a spark-ignition, direct-injection engine : Mitsubishi Legnum GDI{trademark}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

    1999-04-08

    A 1997 Mitsubishi Legnum station wagon with a 150-hp, 1.8-L, spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engine was tested for emissions by using the FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 test cycles and four different fuels. The purpose of the tests was to obtain fuel-economy and emissions data on SIDI vehicles and to compare the measurements obtained with those of a port-fuel-injection (PFI) vehicle. The PFI vehicle chosen for the comparison was a 1995 Dodge Neon, which meets the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) emissions goals of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) less than 0.125 g/mi, carbon monoxide (CO) less than 1.7 g/mi, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) less than 0.2 g/mi, and particulate matter (PM) less than 0.01 g/mi. The Mitsubishi was manufactured for sale in Japan and was not certified to meet current US emissions regulations. Results show that the SIDI vehicle can provide up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI vehicle does, with correspondingly lower greenhouse gas emissions. The SIDI vehicle as designed does not meet the PNGV goals for NMHC or NO{sub x} emissions, but it does meet the goal for CO emissions. Meeting the goal for PM emissions appears to be contingent upon using low-sulfur fuel and an oxidation catalyst. One reason for the difficulty in meeting the NMHC and NO{sub x} goals is the slow (200 s) warm-up of the catalyst. Catalyst warm-up time is primarily a matter of design. The SIDI engine produces more NMHC and NO{sub x} than the PFI engine does, which puts a greater burden on the catalyst to meet the emissions goals than is the case with the PFI engine. Oxidation of NMHC is aided by unconsumed oxygen in the exhaust when the SIDI engine operates in stratified-charge mode, but the same unconsumed oxygen inhibits chemical reduction of NO{sub x} . Thus, meeting the NO{sub x} emissions goal is likely to be the greatest challenge for the SIDI engine.

  8. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  9. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for petroleum based fuel increases and the price of these fuels rises

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November 2004 Structural Studies of Catalytically Stabilized Industrial Hydrotreating Catalysts Myriam Perez De la Rosa 1 , Gilles Berhault 2 , Apurva Mehta 3 , Russell R. Chianelli 1 1 University of Texas at El Paso, Materials Research Technology Institute, El Paso, TX 2 Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, Villeurbanne cedex, France 3 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA Figure 1: MoS 2 layered structure. As the world economy continues to expand the demand for

  10. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Performance Composite Data Products: Fall 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve; Peters, Mike

    2015-11-01

    This publication includes 53 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Fall 2015 for fuel cell electric vehicle performance.

  11. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a ...

  12. Irradiation performance of AGR-1 high temperature reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Charles A. Baldwin; Philip L. Winston; Jason M. Harp; Scott A. Ploger; Tyler Gerczak; Isabella J. van Rooyen; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva

    2014-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment contained 72 low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts in six capsules irradiated to burnups of 11.2 to 19.5% FIMA, with zero TRISO coating failures detected during the irradiation. The irradiation performance of the fuelincluding the extent of fission product release and the evolution of kernel and coating microstructureswas evaluated based on detailed examination of the irradiation capsules, the fuel compacts, and individual particles. Fractional release of 110mAg from the fuel compacts was often significant, with capsule-average values ranging from 0.01 to 0.38. Analysis of silver release from individual compacts indicated that it was primarily dependent on fuel temperature history. Europium and strontium were released in small amounts through intact coatings, but were found to be significantly retained in the outer pyrocrabon and compact matrix. The capsule-average fractional release from the compacts was 110 4 to 510 4 for 154Eu and 810 7 to 310 5 for 90Sr. The average 134Cs release from compacts was <310 6 when all particles maintained intact SiC. An estimated four particles out of 2.98105 experienced partial cesium release due to SiC failure during the irradiation, driving 134Cs release in two capsules to approximately 10 5. Identification and characterization of these particles has provided unprecedented insight into the nature and causes of SiC coating failure in high-quality TRISO fuel. In general, changes in coating morphology were found to be dominated by the behavior of the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC), and infrequently observed SiC layer damage was usually related to cracks in the IPyC. Palladium attack of the SiC layer was relatively minor, except for the particles that released cesium during irradiation, where SiC corrosion was found adjacent to IPyC cracks. Palladium, silver, and uranium were found in the SiC layer of irradiated particles, and characterization of these elements within the SiC microstructure is the subject of ongoing focused study.

  13. Overview of the BISON Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. M. Perez; G. Pastore; R. C. Martineau

    2013-10-01

    BISON is a modern multidimensional multiphysics finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. A brief background is provided on the codes computational framework (MOOSE), governing equations, and material and behavioral models. Ongoing code verification and validation work is outlined, and comparative results are provided for select validation cases. Recent applications are discussed, including specific description of two applications where 3D treatment is important. A summary of future code development and validation activities is given. Numerous references to published work are provided where interested readers can find more complete information.

  14. Fuel Additivies for Improved Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Impact of Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment ... system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and ...

  15. Simulating the Impact of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions of Particulates and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the effect of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated engine is capable of both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) over real transient driving cycles. Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results demonstrate that, in the simulated conventional vehicle, PCCI can significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing the need for LNT and DPF regeneration. However, the opportunity for PCCI operation in the simulated HEV is limited because the engine typically experiences higher loads and multiple stop-start transients that are outside the allowable PCCI operating range. Thus developing ways of extending the PCCI operating range combined with improved control strategies for engine and emissions control management will be especially important for realizing the potential benefits of PCCI in HEVs.

  16. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport – Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and transport (NCT).

  17. Validation of the BISON 3D Fuel Performance Code: Temperature Comparisons for Concentrically and Eccentrically Located Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez; R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer

    2013-03-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The code is applicable to both steady and transient fuel behaviour and is used to analyse either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. BISON has been applied to a variety of fuel forms including LWR fuel rods, TRISO-coated fuel particles, and metallic fuel in both rod and plate geometries. Code validation is currently in progress, principally by comparison to instrumented LWR fuel rods. Halden IFA experiments constitute a large percentage of the current BISON validation base. The validation emphasis here is centreline temperatures at the beginning of fuel life, with comparisons made to seven rods from the IFA-431 and 432 assemblies. The principal focus is IFA-431 Rod 4, which included concentric and eccentrically located fuel pellets. This experiment provides an opportunity to explore 3D thermomechanical behaviour and assess the 3D simulation capabilities of BISON. Analysis results agree with experimental results showing lower fuel centreline temperatures for eccentric fuel with the peak temperature shifted from the centreline. The comparison confirms with modern 3D analysis tools that the measured temperature difference between concentric and eccentric pellets is not an artefact and provides a quantitative explanation for the difference.

  18. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Jr., Lee T.; Boggess, Ronald J.; Carson, Ronald J.; Falkenberg, Virginia P.; Flanagan, Patrick; Hettinger, Jr., William P.; Kimel, Kris; Kupchella, Charles E.; Magid, Lee J.; McLaughlin, Barbara; Royster, Wimberly C.; Streepey, Judi L.; Wells, James H.; Stencel, John; Derbyshire, Frank J.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Magid, Lee J.; McEllistrem, Marc T.; Riley, John T.; Steffen, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  19. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  20. Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Performance Studies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel cell bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural gassolid oxide fuel cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) novel power plant ...

  1. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 231 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions | Department of Energy Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

  4. Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrocatalysts | Department of Energy Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR Electrocatalysts Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR Electrocatalysts Fuel cell testing protocol developed by the DOE Durability Working Group in 2011 for measuring performance and durability of non-platinum group metal (PGM) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts. PDF icon Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR

  5. Draft Funding Opportunity Announcement for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013, the Department of Energy (Department or DOE), has produced an Agency Financial Report, and will provide an Annual Performance Report and a Summary of Performance and Financial Information, pursuant to OMB Circular A-136. They will be available at the website below, as each report is completed. This reporting approach simplifies and streamlines the performance presentations. T Agency Financial Report (AFR) - The AFR is organized by three major sections.  Management's Discussion and

  6. Investigating Microbial Fuel Cell Bioanode Performance Under Different Cathode Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Aaron, D; Tsouris, Costas

    2009-01-01

    A compact, three-in-one, flow-through, porous, electrode design with minimal electrode spacing and minimal dead volume was implemented to develop a microbial fuel cell (MFC) with improved anode performance. A biofilm-dominated anode consortium enriched under a multimode, continuous-flow regime was used. The increase in the power density of the MFC was investigated by changing the cathode (type, as well as catholyte strength) to determine whether anode was limiting. The power density obtained with an air-breathing cathode was 56 W/m3 of net anode volume (590 mW/m2) and 203 W/m3 (2160 mW/m2) with a 50-mM ferricyanide- based cathode. Increasing the ferricyanide concentration and ionic strength further increased the power density, reaching 304 W/m3 (3220 mW/m2, with 200 mM ferricyanide and 200 mM buffer concentration). The increasing trend in the power density indicated that the anode was not limiting and that higher power densities could be obtained using cathodes capable of higher rates of oxidation. The internal solution resistance for the MFC was 5 6 X, which supported the improved performance of the anode design. A new parameter defined as the ratio of projected surface area to total anode volume is suggested as a design parameter to relate volumetric and area-based power densities and to enable comparison of various MFC configurations.

  7. Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L.; Gellene, G.I.

    1999-05-01

    Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.

  8. Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent Molter

    2012-08-18

    This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

  9. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engine Oils | Department of Energy 3 DEER Conference Presentation: ChevronTexaco Technology PDF icon 2003_deer_kaufman.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet Vehicles

  10. Fuel Additivies for Improved Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2 DEER Conference Presentation: Ethyl PDF icon 2002_deer_human.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and Ceria-based fuel-borne catalysts for improvement and simplification of the Diesel Particulate Filter System in serial applications

  11. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  12. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix ...

  13. Performance of breached LMFBR fuel pins during continued operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Gross, K.C.; Hofman, G.L.; Colburn, R.P.; Adamson, M.G.; Ukai, S.

    1985-01-01

    Four EBR-II tests were used to scope the behavior of breached mixed-oxide pins. After release of stored fission gas, delayed-neutron signals were large and easily detected, although not readily correlated with exposed fuel area. No problems were met during reactor operation or fuel handling. Fuel-sodium reaction caused only narrow breaches which released minute amounts of fuel and fission products; the reaction product appeared dense and non-friable. These initial results indicated LMFBR oxide pins could have considerable potential for operating in the breached mode.

  14. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model used to analyze the economics and performance of combined heat, hydrogen, and power (CHHP) systems.

  15. NREL UL E15 Fuel Dispensing Infrastructure Intermediate Blends Performance Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, K.; Clark, W.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation provides an overview of NREL's project to determine compatibility and safe performance of installed fuel dispensing infrastructure with E15.

  16. Cold-Start and Warm-Up Driveability Performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Evans, B.; Wright, K.

    2003-11-01

    Provides analysis and results of the driveability performance testing from four hybrid electric vehicles--Honda Civic, Toyota Prius, and two Honda Insights--that used oxygenated fuels.

  17. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

  18. An in-pile testing program to study the performance characteristics of coated particle fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in testing coated particle nuclear fuels for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program managed by Phillips Laboratory. The testing program integrates the results of numerous in-pile and out-of-pile tests with modeling efforts to qualify fuel and fuel elements for the SNTP program. This paper briefly describes the capabilities of the Annular Core Research Reactor (in which the experiments are performed), the major in-pile tests, and the models used to determine the performance characteristics of the fuel and fuel elements. 6 refs.

  19. Influence of Nuclear Fuel Cycles on Uncertainty of Long Term Performance of Geologic Disposal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development and implementation of future advanced fuel cycles including those that recycle fuel materials, use advanced fuels different from current fuels, or partition and transmute actinide radionuclides, will impact the waste management system. The UFD Campaign can reasonably conclude that advanced fuel cycles, in combination with partitioning and transmutation, which remove actinides, will not materially alter the performance, the spread in dose results around the mean, the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the performance assessment, or the characterization of uncertainty associated with a geologic disposal system in the regulatory environment of the US.

  20. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  1. Performance Evaluation and Optimization of Diesel Fuel Properties and Chemistry in an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Eaton, Scott J; Crawford, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The nine CRC fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE fuels) have been evaluated in a simple, premixed HCCI engine under varying conditions of fuel rate, air-fuel ratio, and intake temperature. Engine performance was found to vary mainly as a function of combustion phasing as affected by fuel cetane and engine control variables. The data was modeled using statistical techniques involving eigenvector representation of the fuel properties and engine control variables, to define engine response and allow optimization across the fuels for best fuel efficiency. In general, the independent manipulation of intake temperature and air-fuel ratio provided some opportunity for improving combustion efficiency of a specific fuel beyond the direct effect of targeting the optimum combustion phasing of the engine (near 5 CAD ATDC). High cetane fuels suffer performance loss due to easier ignition, resulting in lower intake temperatures, which increase HC and CO emissions and result in the need for more advanced combustion phasing. The FACE fuels also varied in T90 temperature and % aromatics, independent of cetane number. T90 temperature was found to have an effect on engine performance when combined with high centane, but % aromatics did not, when evaluated independently of cetane and T90.

  2. Software Design Document for the AMP Nuclear Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Bobby; Clarno, Kevin T; Cochran, Bill

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the design of the AMP nuclear fuel performance code. It provides an overview of the decomposition into separable components, an overview of what those components will do, and the strategic basis for the design. The primary components of a computational physics code include a user interface, physics packages, material properties, mathematics solvers, and computational infrastructure. Some capability from established off-the-shelf (OTS) packages will be leveraged in the development of AMP, but the primary physics components will be entirely new. The material properties required by these physics operators include many highly non-linear properties, which will be replicated from FRAPCON and LIFE where applicable, as well as some computationally-intensive operations, such as gap conductance, which depends upon the plenum pressure. Because there is extensive capability in off-the-shelf leadership class computational solvers, AMP will leverage the Trilinos, PETSc, and SUNDIALS packages. The computational infrastructure includes a build system, mesh database, and other building blocks of a computational physics package. The user interface will be developed through a collaborative effort with the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Capability Transfer program element as much as possible and will be discussed in detail in a future document.

  3. Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01

    This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N,N-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.

  4. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold; Geelhood, Ken; Koeppel, Brian; Coleman, Justin; Bignell, John; Flores, Gregg; Wang, Jy-An; Sanborn, Scott; Spears, Robert; Klymyshyn, Nick

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  5. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-041 Kick-Off Meeting for New Fuel Cell Projects CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities ...

  6. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-05bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Combustion, Efficiency, ...

  7. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE Advanced Fuels Campaign. The LWRS Program considers SiC ...

  8. Experimental Evaluation of DOC Performance Using Secondary Fuel Injection |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_Yetkin.pdf More Documents & Publications Engine Tests of an Active PM Filter Regeneration System Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group

  9. Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Semiannual progress report, October 1979-March 1980. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Progress on the Fuel Performance Improvement Program's fuel design tests and demonstration irradiations for October 1979 through March 1980 is reported. Included are the results of out-of-reactor experiments with Zircaloy cladding using a device that simulates the interaction between fuel and cladding. Also included are reports on the irradiation of the advanced LWR fuel designs in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor and in Consumers Power Company's Big Rock Point Reactor. The establishment of the technical bases and licensing requirements for the advanced fuel concepts are also described.

  10. FRAPCON-3: Modifications to fuel rod material properties and performance models for high-burnup application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanning, D.D.; Beyer, C.E.; Painter, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    This volume describes the fuel rod material and performance models that were updated for the FRAPCON-3 steady-state fuel rod performance code. The property and performance models were changed to account for behavior at extended burnup levels up to 65 Gwd/MTU. The property and performance models updated were the fission gas release, fuel thermal conductivity, fuel swelling, fuel relocation, radial power distribution, solid-solid contact gap conductance, cladding corrosion and hydriding, cladding mechanical properties, and cladding axial growth. Each updated property and model was compared to well characterized data up to high burnup levels. The installation of these properties and models in the FRAPCON-3 code along with input instructions are provided in Volume 2 of this report and Volume 3 provides a code assessment based on comparison to integral performance data. The updated FRAPCON-3 code is intended to replace the earlier codes FRAPCON-2 and GAPCON-THERMAL-2. 94 refs., 61 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

    2013-12-31

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.  Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application.  Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm).  CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching.  CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer.  Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts.  Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nation’s energy independence.

  12. Irradiation performance of U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, H.; Cohen, A.B.; Billone, M.C.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses a fuel system utilizing metallic U-Pu-Zr alloys which has been developed for advanced liquid metal-cooled reactors (LMRs). Result`s from extensive irradiation testing conducted in EBR-II show a design having the following key features can achieve both high reliability and high burnup capability: a cast nominally U-20wt %Pu-10wt %Zr slug with the diameter sized to yield a fuel smear density of {approx}75% theoretical density, low-swelling tempered martensitic stainless steel cladding, sodium bond filling the initial fuel/cladding gap, and an as-built plenum/fuel volume ratio of {approx}1.5. The robust performance capability of this design stems primarily from the negligible loading on the cladding from either fuel/cladding mechanical interaction or fission-gas pressure during the irradiation. The effects of these individual design parameters, e.g., fuel smear density, zirconium content in fuel, plenum volume, and cladding types, on fuel element performance were investigated in a systematic irradiation experiment in EBR-II. The results show that, at the discharge burnup of {approx}11 at. %, variations on zirconium content or plenum volume in the ranges tested have no substantial effects on performance. Fuel smear density, on the other hand, has pronounced but countervailing effects: increased density results in greater cladding strain, but lesser cladding wastage from fuel/cladding chemical interaction.

  13. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed Fact 591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed Seven vehicles were tested by ...

  14. Fact #587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement Fact 587: September 7, 2009 Cash for Clunkers Program - Fuel Economy Improvement The Car Allowance Rebate System ...

  15. International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells in the Economy International Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Economy The United States is a founding member of the International Partnership for Hydrogen ...

  16. Performance Spec. for Fuel Drying and Canister Inerting System for PWR Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies Stored within Shipping Port Spent Fuel Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-03-14

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and basic design requirements imposed on the fuel drying and canister inerting system for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies (BFAs) stored within Shippingport spent fuel (SSFCs) canisters (fuel drying and canister inerting system). This fuel drying and canister inerting system is a component of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Spent Nuclear Fuels Project at the Hanford Site. The fuel drying and canister inerting system provides for removing water and establishing an inert environment for Shippingport PWR Core 2 BFAs stored within SSFCs. A policy established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) states that new SNF facilities (this is interpreted to include structures, systems and components) shall achieve nuclear safety equivalence to comparable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. This will be accomplished in part by applying appropriate NRC requirements for comparable NRC-licensed facilities to the fuel drying and canister inerting system, in addition to applicable DOE regulations and orders.

  17. Energy Economy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adam Sieminski (202) 662-1624 April 2010 Energy and the Economy US EIA & JHU SAIS 2010 Energy Conference April 6, 2010 All prices are those current at the end of the previous trading session unless otherwise indicated. Prices are sourced from local exchanges via Reuters, Bloomberg and other vendors. Data is sourced from Deutsche Bank and subject companies. DISCLOSURES AND ANALYST CERTIFICATIONS ARE LOCATED IN APPENDIX 1. Adam Sieminski, CFA Chief Energy Economist adam.sieminski@db.com +1 202

  18. Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Program's TRISO Particle Fuel Sets A New World Record For Irradiation Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program has achieved a new international record for...

  19. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  20. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion Cars and trucks in the United States burn through 3.2 billion barrels of gasoline each year. Putting more energy-efficient vehicles on the road-to displace oil consumption, decrease greenhouse gases (GHGs), and improve the nation's energy security-requires simultaneous advances in fuel formulation, combustion strategy, and engine design. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100%

  1. Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy" held on December 1, 2015. PDF icon Northeast States' Hydrogen Economy Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Review Presentation Transportation and Stationary

  2. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy" held on July 29, 2014. PDF icon Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications 2010 Smart Grid Peer Review Day One Morning Presentations 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global Commercialization & Development Update Hawaii Hydrogen Energy Park

  3. Advanced Pellet Cladding Interaction Modeling Using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Hales; Various

    2014-06-01

    The US DOEs Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  4. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the cost-effective potential (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  5. Modeling the Integrated Performance of Dispersion and Monolithic U-Mo Based Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Wachs; Douglas E. Burkes; Steven L. Hayes; Karen Moore; Greg Miller; Gerard Hofman; Yeon Soo Kim

    2006-10-01

    The evaluation and prediction of integrated fuel performance is a critical component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The PLATE code is the primary tool being developed and used to perform these functions. The code is being modified to incorporate the most recent fuel/matrix interaction correlations as they become available for both aluminum and aluminum/silicon matrices. The code is also being adapted to treat cylindrical and square pin geometries to enhance the validation database by including the results gathered from various international partners. Additional modeling work has been initiated to evaluate the thermal and mechanical performance requirements unique to monolithic fuels during irradiation.

  6. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  7. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  8. SPEAR-BETA fuel performance code system. Volume 1. General description. Final report. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1982-04-01

    This document provides a general description of the SPEAR-BETA fuel reliability code system. Included is a discussion of the methodology employed and the structure of the code system, as well as discussion of the major components: the data preparation routines, the mechanistic fuel performance model, the mechanistic cladding failure model, and the statistical failure model.

  9. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  10. Assessment of transition fuel cycle performance with and without a modified-open fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, B.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2012-07-01

    The impacts of a modified-open fuel cycle (MOC) option as a transition step from the current once-through cycle (OTC) to a full-recycle fuel cycle (FRC) were assessed using the nuclear systems analysis code DANESS. The MOC of interest for this study was mono-recycling of plutonium in light water reactors (LWR-MOX). Two fuel cycle scenarios were evaluated with and without the MOC option: a 2-stage scenario with a direct path from the current fleet to the final FRC, and a 3-stage scenario with the MOC option as a transition step. The FRC reactor (fast reactor) was assumed to deploy in 2050 for both scenarios, and the MOC reactor in the 3-stage scenario was assumed to deploy in 2025. The last LWRs (using either UOX or MOX fuels) come online in 2050 and are decommissioned by 2110. Thus, the FRC is achieved after 2110. The reprocessing facilities were assumed to be available 2 years prior to the deployment of the MOC and FRC reactors with maximum reprocessing capacities of 2000 tHM/yr and 500 tHM/t for LWR-UOX and LWR-MOX used nuclear fuels (UNFs), respectively. Under a 1% nuclear energy demand growth assumption, both scenarios were able to sustain a full transition to the FRC without delay. For the 3-stage scenario, the share of LWR-MOX reactors reaches a peak of 15% of installed capacity, which resulted in 10% lower cumulative uranium consumption and SWU requirements compared to the 2-stage scenario during the transition period. The peak UNF storage requirement decreases by 50% in the 3-stage scenario, largely due to the earlier deployment of the reprocessing plants to support the MOC fuel cycle. (authors)

  11. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Find alternative fuel vehicle resources. Alternative Fuels Data Center FuelEconomy.gov-Gas Mileage, Emissions, Air Pollution Ratings, and Safety Data National Renewable Energy ...

  12. Performance and emissions characteristics of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.R.; Maxwell, R.L.; Swain, M.N.; Bedsworth, K.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A formal ongoing program to characterize the performance and exhaust characteristics of automotive-type powerplants fueled by conventional and alternative fuels is reported. This report contains the information obtained during the past three years when four alternative fuels and two baseline fuels were evaluated in three engines. The four alternative fuels were a simulated gasoline made to represent coal derived gasoline, methyl aryl ethers blended at the 10% level in an unleaded gasoline, gasoline made from methanol, and a blend of Indolene plus methanol and higher alcohols. The two baseline fuels were, Indolene and Gulf unleaded regular gasoline. The engines tested were a pre-mixed carbureted SI (spark ignition) engine, a carbureted three-valve stratified-charge SI engine and a pre-mixed carbureted SI engine with a closed-loop three-way catalyst emission control system.

  13. A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

  14. Fully-Coupled Metallic Fuel Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, Jack D.; Unal, Cetin

    2015-08-27

    This document is a set of slides intended to accompany a talk at a meeting. The first topic taken up is zirconium redistribution. The rod edge Zr increase is evidently due to the Soret term and temperature gradient. Then metallic fission gas release modeling is considered. Based on a GRSIS/FEAST model, the approach of generating fission gas in the fuel matrix is described. A sensitivity study on parameters is presented, including sodium bond & diffusion coefficient sensitivity along with dt sensitivity. Finally, results of some coupled simulations are shown, with ideas about future work.

  15. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_steward.pdf More Documents & Publications Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Project Reports for Tulalip Tribes - 2003

  16. Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early implementation of SiC cladding fuel performance models in BISON SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) [5-8] are being developed and evaluated internationally as potential LWR cladding options. These development activities include interests within both the DOE-NE LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and the DOE-NE

  17. The performance of 3500 MWth homogeneous and heterogeneous metal fueled core designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turski, R.; Yang, Shi-tien

    1987-11-01

    Performance parameters are calculated for a representative 3500 MWth homogeneous and a heterogeneous metal fueled reactor design. The equilibrium cycle neutronic characteristics, safety coefficients, control system requirements, and control rod worths are evaluated. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics for both configurations are also compared. The heavy metal fuel loading requirements and neutronic performance characteristics are also evaluated for the uranium startup option. 14 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Performance Assessment Analyses Unique to Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loo, Henry Hung Yiu; Duguid, J. O.

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the iterative process of grouping and performance assessment that has led to the current grouping of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The unique sensitivity analyses that form the basis for incorporating DOE fuel into the total system performance assessment (TSPA) base case model are described. In addition, the chemistry that results from dissolution of DOE fuel and high level waste (HLW) glass in a failed co-disposal package, and the effects of disposal of selected DOE SNF in high integrity cans are presented.

  19. Performance assessment analyses unique to Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. H. Loo; J. O. Duguid

    2000-06-04

    This paper describes the iterative process of grouping and performance assessment that has led to the current grouping of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The unique sensitivity analyses that form the basis for incorporating DOE fuel into the total system performance assessment (TSPA) base case model are described. In addition, the chemistry that results from dissolution of DOE fuel and high level waste (HLW) glass in a failed co-disposal package, and the effects of disposal of selected DOE SNF in high integrity cans are presented.

  20. Performance and emissions of non-petroleum fuels in a direct-injection stratified charge Sl engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, L.E.; Chui, G.K.; Roby, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuels derived from coal and shale resources were evaluated using a direct-injection stratified charge engine. The fuels were refined to different degrees which ranged from those typical of gasoline blending components to those similar to current gasoline. Results showed that fuels refined to have properties similar to gasoline performed like gasoline. The less refined fuels were limited in performance. The total carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbon emissions varied with the volatility of the fuels. Most fuels with a higher overall distillation curve generally gave higher hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The NOx emissions increased with the percent aromatics in the fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase with fuel viscosity. Within the range of engine operation, nearly all the fuels evaluated gave satisfactory performance. With some modifications, even the less refined fuels can be potentially suitable for use in this engine.

  1. NREL Evaluates UPS Hybrid-Electric Van Performance - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Evaluates UPS Hybrid-Electric Van Performance New trucks deliver more than 28% fuel savings December 22, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has collected and analyzed fuel economy, maintenance and other vehicle performance data from UPS's first generation hybrid diesel step delivery vans powered by an Eaton Corp. electric hybrid propulsion system. The diesel hybrid delivery vans improved the on-road fuel economy by 28.9 percent resulting

  2. U.S. Department of Energy-Funded Performance Validation of Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-11-01

    This webinar presentation to the UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association summarizes how the U.S. Department of Energy is enabling early fuel cell markets; describes objectives of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center; and presents performance status of fuel cell material handling equipment.

  3. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. EPRI/B and W cooperative program on PWR fuel-rod performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papazoglou, T.P.; Davis, H.H.

    1983-03-01

    Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding specimens were irradiated in a fueled and non-fueled condition for two and four cyles of irradiation, respectively, in the Oconee 2 reactor. The purpose of this long-term surveillance program was to study the in-reactor performance of four Zircaloy-4 cladding types with distinctly different properties, in combination with two types of UO/sub 2/ fuel pellets. The cladding types included Sandvik Special Metals tubing in the cold-worked/stress relieved and cold-worked/recrystallized conditions, and German VDM cladding with two different anneal temperatures. The fuel pellets included a conventional densifying pellet type, and a special (shorter) stable pellet type intended to reduce pellet-clad mechanical interaction. The irradiation growth and creep under compressive stress of the above cladding types were studied and followed up to fluences of 1.3 x 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV).

  5. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  6. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  7. Designing a New Fuel for HFIR-Performance Parameters for LEU Core Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    An engineering design study for a fuel that would enable the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel is ongoing as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration through the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. Given the unique fuel and core design and high power density of the reactor and the requirement that the impact of the fuel change on the core performance and operation be minimal, this conversion study presents a complex and challenging task, requiring improvements in the computational models currently used to support the operation of the reactor and development of new models that would take advantage of newly available simulation methods and tools. The computational models used to search for a fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion study and the results obtained with these models are presented and discussed. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the low enriched uranium fuel core are presented and compared to the corresponding data for the currently operating highly enriched uranium fuel core.

  8. Description and performance characteristics for the neutron Coincidence Collar for the verification of reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1981-08-01

    An active neutron interrogation method has been developed for the measurement of /sup 235/U content in fresh fuel assemblies. The neutron Coincidence Collar uses neutron interrogation with an AmLi neutron source and coincidence counting the induced fission reaction neutrons from the /sup 235/U. This manual describes the system components, operation, and performance characteristics. Applications of the Coincidence Collar to PWR and BWR types of reactor fuel assemblies are described.

  9. A mono-dimensional nuclear fuel performance analysis code, PUMA, development from a coupled approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, C. B.; Yacout, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Multidimensional-multi-physical phenomena in nuclear fuels are treated as a set of mono-dimensional-coupled problems which encompass heat, displacement, fuel constituent redistribution, and fission gas release. Rather than uncoupling these coupled equations as in conventional fuel performance analysis codes, efforts are put into to obtain fully coupled solutions by relying on the recent advances of numerical analysis. Through this approach, a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code) is under development. Although coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was made easily, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is accomplished by introducing one-level Newton scheme through backward differentiation formula. Displacement equations from 1D finite element formulation of the mechanical equilibrium equation are solved simultaneously with stress equation, creep equation, swelling equation, and FGR equations. Calculations was made successfully such that the swelling and the hydrostatic pressure are interrelated each other. (authors)

  10. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  11. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  12. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  13. Simulation studies of diesel engine performance with oxygen enriched air and water emulsified fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.N.; Baker, D. ); Sekar, R.R.; Siambekos, C.T.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation code of a turbocharged, turbocompound diesel engine was modified to study the effects of using oxygen-enriched combustion air and water-emulsified diesel fuels. Oxygen levels of 21 percent to 40 percent by volume in the combustion air were studied. Water content in the fuel was varied from 0 percent to 50 percent mass. Simulation studies and a review and analysis of previous work in this area led to the following conclusions about expected engine performance and emissions: the power density of the engine is significantly increased by oxygen enrichment. Ignition delay and particulate emissions are reduced. Combustion temperatures and No{sub x} emissions are increased with oxygen enrichment but could be brought back to the base levels by introducing water in the fuel. The peak cylinder pressure which increases with the power output level might result in mechanical problems with engine components. Oxygen enrichment also provides an opportunity to use cheaper fuel such as No. 6 diesel fuel. Overall, the adverse effects of oxygen enrichment could be countered by the addition of water and it appears that an optimum combination of water content, oxygen level, and base diesel fuel quality may exist. This could yield improved performance and emissions characteristics compared to a state-of-the-art diesel engine. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  14. A Coupling Methodology for Mesoscale-informed Nuclear Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Dieter Wolf

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes an approach for capturing the effect of microstructural evolution on reactor fuel performance by coupling a mesoscale irradiated microstructure model with a finite element fuel performance code. To achieve this, the macroscale system is solved in a parallel, fully coupled, fully-implicit manner using the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method. Within the JFNK solution algorithm, microstructure-influenced material parameters are calculated by the mesoscale model and passed back to the macroscale calculation. Due to the stochastic nature of the mesoscale model, a dynamic fitting technique is implemented to smooth roughness in the calculated material parameters. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a simple model of a reactor fuel pellet. In the model, INLs BISON fuel performance code calculates the steady-state temperature profile in a fuel pellet and the microstructure-influenced thermal conductivity is determined with a phase field model of irradiated microstructures. This simple multiscale model demonstrates good nonlinear convergence and near ideal parallel scalability. By capturing the formation of large mesoscale voids in the pellet interior, the multiscale model predicted the irradiation-induced reduction in the thermal conductivity commonly observed in reactors.

  15. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance in the Key Early Markets of Material Handling Equipment and Backup Power (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of NREL's analysis of hydrogen fuel cell performance in the key early markets of material handling equipment (MHE) and backup power.

  17. Application of the BISON Fuel Performance Code to the FUMEX-III Coordinated Research Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone

    2012-04-01

    INL recently participated in FUMEX-III, an International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored fuel modeling Coordinated Research Project. A main purpose of FUMEX-III is to compare code predictions to reliable experimental data. During the same time period, the INL initiated development of a new multidimensional (2D and 3D) multiphysics nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. Interactions with international fuel modeling researchers via FUMEX-III played a significant and important role in the BISON evolution, particularly influencing the selection of material and behavioral models which are now included in the code. BISON's ability to model integral fuel rod behavior did not mature until 2011, thus the only FUMEX-III case considered was the Riso3-GE7 experiment, which includes measurements of rod outer diameter following pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) resulting from a power ramp late in fuel life. BISON comparisons to the Riso3-GE7 final rod diameter measurements are quite reasonable. The INL is very interested in participation in the next Fuel Modeling Coordinated Research Project and would like to see the project initiated as soon as possible.

  18. The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Effect of Diesel Fuel Properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions Statistical models developed from designed esperiments (varying fuel properties and ...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of FEAST-Metal Fuel Performance Code: Initial Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelmann, Paul Guy; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2012-06-27

    This memo documents the completion of the LANL milestone, M3FT-12LA0202041, describing methodologies and initial results using FEAST-Metal. The FEAST-Metal code calculations for this work are being conducted at LANL in support of on-going activities related to sensitivity analysis of fuel performance codes. The objective is to identify important macroscopic parameters of interest to modeling and simulation of metallic fuel performance. This report summarizes our preliminary results for the sensitivity analysis using 6 calibration datasets for metallic fuel developed at ANL for EBR-II experiments. Sensitivity ranking methodology was deployed to narrow down the selected parameters for the current study. There are approximately 84 calibration parameters in the FEAST-Metal code, of which 32 were ultimately used in Phase II of this study. Preliminary results of this sensitivity analysis led to the following ranking of FEAST models for future calibration and improvements: fuel conductivity, fission gas transport/release, fuel creep, and precipitation kinetics. More validation data is needed to validate calibrated parameter distributions for future uncertainty quantification studies with FEAST-Metal. Results of this study also served to point out some code deficiencies and possible errors, and these are being investigated in order to determine root causes and to improve upon the existing code models.

  20. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology Fueling the Next Generation of Vehicle Technology February 6, 2013 - 11:20am Addthis Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate Director and Chief Technology Officer of the National Fuel Cell Research Center, points out the tri-generation facility that uses biogas from Orange County Sanitation District’s wastewater treatment plant to produce hydrogen, heat and power. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Professor Jack Brouwer, Associate

  1. Tips: Buying and Driving Fuel Efficient and Alternative Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    vehicle could cut your fuel costs and help the environment. See FuelEconomy.gov's Find a Car tool for more information on buying a new fuel-efficient car or truck. Learn more about...

  2. Spent fuel performance data: An analysis of data relevant to the NNWSI Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oversby, V.M.; Shaw, H.F.

    1987-08-01

    This paper summarizes the physical and chemical properties of spent light water reactor fuel that might influence its performance as a waste form under geologic disposal conditions at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results obtained on the dissolution testing of spent fuel conducted by the NNWSI Project are presented and discussed. Work published by other programs, in particular those of Canada and Sweden, are reviewed and compared with the NNWSI testing results. An attempt is made to relate all of the results to a common basis of presentation and to rationalize apparent conflicts between sets of results obtained under different experimental conditions.

  3. Results from Tight and Loose Coupled Multiphysics in Nuclear Fuels Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled wont converge and vice versa.

  4. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou

    2011-09-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Reduced Registration Fee for Fuel-Efficient Vehicles A new motor vehicle with a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated average city fuel economy of at least 40 miles per ...

  6. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  7. Fuel FX International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on development and distribution of proprietary products focused on improving fuel economy and reducing environmental emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. References: Fuel...

  8. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  9. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  10. Final Technical Report: Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Hector Colon-Mercado; Kitiya Hongsirikarn; and Jack Z. Zhang

    2011-11-11

    The main objectives of this project were to investigate the effect of a series of potential impurities on fuel cell operation and on the particular components of the fuel cell MEA, to propose (where possible) mechanism(s) by which these impurities affected fuel cell performance, and to suggest strategies for minimizing these impurity effects. The negative effect on Pt/C was to decrease hydrogen surface coverage and hydrogen activation at fuel cell conditions. The negative effect on Nafion components was to decrease proton conductivity, primarily by replacing/reacting with the protons on the Bronsted acid sites of the Nafion. Even though already well known as fuel cell poisons, the effects of CO and NH3 were studied in great detail early on in the project in order to develop methodology for evaluating poisoning effects in general, to help establish reproducibility of results among a number of laboratories in the U.S. investigating impurity effects, and to help establish lower limit standards for impurities during hydrogen production for fuel cell utilization. New methodologies developed included (1) a means to measure hydrogen surface concentration on the Pt catalyst (HDSAP) before and after exposure to impurities, (2) a way to predict conductivity of a Nafion membranes exposed to impurities using a characteristic acid catalyzed reaction (methanol esterification of acetic acid), and, more importantly, (3) application of the latter technique to predict conductivity on Nafion in the catalyst layer of the MEA. H2-D2 exchange was found to be suitable for predicting hydrogen activation of Pt catalysts. The Nafion (ca. 30 wt%) on the Pt/C catalyst resides primarily on the external surface of the C support where it blocks significant numbers of micropores, but only partially blocks the pore openings of the meso- and macro-pores wherein lie the small Pt particles (crystallites). For this reason, even with 30 wt% Nafion on the Pt/C, few Pt sites are blocked and, hence, are accessible for hydrogen activation. Of the impurities studied, CO, NH3, perchloroethylene (also known as tetrachloroethylene), tetrahydrofuran, diborane, and metal cations had significant negative effects on the components in a fuel cell. While CO has no effect on the Nafion, it significantly poisons the Pt catalyst by adsorbing and blocking hydrogen activation. The effect can be reversed with time once the flow of CO is stopped. NH3 has no effect on the Pt catalyst at fuel cell conditions; it poisons the proton sites on Nafion (by forming NH4+ cations), decreasing drastically the proton conductivity of Nafion. This poisoning can slowly be reversed once the flow of NH3 is stopped. Perchloroethylene has a major effect on fuel cell performance. Since it has little/no effect on Nafion conductivity, its poisoning effect is on the Pt catalyst. However, this effect takes place primarily for the Pt catalyst at the cathode, since the presence of oxygen is very important for this poisoning effect. Tetrahydrofuran was shown not to impact Nafion conductivity; however, it does affect fuel cell performance. Therefore, its primary effect is on the Pt catalyst. The effect of THF on fuel cell performance is reversible. Diborane also can significant affect fuel cell performance. This effect is reversible once diborane is removed from the inlet streams. H2O2 is not an impurity usually present in the hydrogen or oxygen streams to a fuel cell. However, it is generated during fuel cell operation. The presence of Fe cations in the Nafion due to system corrosion and/or arising from MEA production act to catalyze the severe degradation of the Nafion by H2O2. Finally, the presence of metal cation impurities (Na+, Ca 2+, Fe3+) in Nafion from MEA preparation or from corrosion significantly impacts its proton conductivity due to replacement of proton sites. This effect is not reversible. Hydrocarbons, such as ethylene, might be expected to affect Pt or Nafion but do not at a typical fuel cell temperature of 80oC. In the presence of large quantities of hydrogen on the anode side, ethylene is converted to ethane which is very nonreactive. More surprisingly, even more reactive hydrocarbons such as formic acid and acetaldehyde do not appear to react enough with the strong Bronsted acid sites on Nafion at such low temperatures to affect Nafion conductivity properties. These results clearly identify a number of impurities which can have a detrimental impact on fuel cell performance, although some are reversible. Obviously, fuel cells exposed to impurities/poisons which are reversible can recover their original performance capabilities once the impurity flow is stopped. Impurities with irreversible effects should be either minimized in the feed streams, if possible, or new catalytic materials or ion conductors will need to be used to minimize their impact.

  11. Irradiation Performance of U-Mo Alloy Based ‘Monolithic’ Plate-Type Fuel – Design Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. B. Robinson; G. S. Chang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; D. M. Wachs; D. L. Porter

    2009-08-01

    A down-selection process has been applied to the U-Mo fuel alloy based monolithic plate fuel design, supported by irradiation testing of small fuel plates containing various design parameters. The irradiation testing provided data on fuel performance issues such as swelling, fuel-cladding interaction (interdiffusion), blister formation at elevated temperatures, and fuel/cladding bond quality and effectiveness. U-10Mo (wt%) was selected as the fuel alloy of choice, accepting a somewhat lower uranium density for the benefits of phase stability. U-7Mo could be used, with a barrier, where the trade-off for uranium density is critical to nuclear performance. A zirconium foil barrier between fuel and cladding was chosen to provide a predictable, well-bonded, fuel-cladding interface, allowing little or no fuel-cladding interaction. The fuel plate testing conducted to inform this selection was based on the use of U-10Mo foils fabricated by hot co-rolling with a Zr foil. The foils were subsequently bonded to Al-6061 cladding by hot isostatic pressing or friction stir bonding.

  12. Performance of Trasuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Interim Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope; Brian Boer; Gilles Youinou; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranice (TRU) in light water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles would be pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code in order assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells containing typical UO2 and MOX fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into a pin without significant quantities of uranium challenges the design from the standpoint of several key reactivity parameters, particularly void reactivity, and to some degree, the Doppler coefficient. These unit cells, while providing an indication of how a whole core of similar fuel would behave, also provide information of how individual pins of TRU-only FCM fuel would influence the reactivity behavior of a heterogeneous assembly. If these FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly with LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance of the TRU-only FCM fuel pins may be preserved. A configuration such as this would be similar to CONFU assemblies analyzed in previous studies. Analogous to the plutonium content limits imposed on MOX fuel, some amount of TRU-only FCM pins in an otherwise-uranium fuel assembly may give acceptable reactivity performance. Assembly calculations will be performed in future work to explore the design options for heterogeneous assemblies of this type and their impact on reactivity coefficients.

  13. Recent Updates to NRC Fuel Performance Codes and Plans for Future Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2011-12-31

    FRAPCON-3.4a and FRAPTRAN 1.4 are the most recent versions of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) steady-state and transient fuel performance codes, respectively. These codes have been assessed against separate effects data and integral assessment data and have been determined to provide a best estimate calculation of fuel performance. Recent updates included in FRAPCON-3.4a include updated material properties models, models for new fuel and cladding types, cladding finite element analysis capability, and capability to perform uncertainty analyses and calculate upper tolerance limits for important outputs. Recent updates included in FRAPTRAN 1.4 include: material properties models that are consistent with FRAPCON-3.4a, cladding failure models that are applicable for loss-of coolant-accident and reactivity initiated accident modeling, and updated heat transfer models. This paper briefly describes these code updates and data assessments, highlighting the particularly important improvements and data assessments. This paper also discusses areas of improvements that will be addressed in upcoming code versions.

  14. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

  15. Regional variations in US residential sector fuel prices: implications for development of building energy performance standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Secrest, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Performance Standards for New Buildings presented life-cycle-cost based energy budgets for single-family detached residences. These energy budgets varied with regional climatic conditions but were all based on projections of national average prices for gas, oil and electricity. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking indicated that further analysis of the appropriateness of various price measures for use in setting the Standards was under way. This part of that ongoing analysis addresses the availability of fuel price projections, the variation in fuel prices and escalation rates across the US and the effects of aggregating city price data to the state, Region, or national level. The study only provides a portion of the information required to identify the best price aggregation level for developing of the standards. The research addresses some of the economic efficiency considerations necessary for design of a standard that affects heterogeneous regions. The first section discusses the effects of price variation among and within regions on the efficiency of resource allocation when a standard is imposed. Some evidence of the extreme variability in fuel prices across the US is presented. In the second section, time series, cross-sectional fuel price data are statistically analyzed to determine the similarity in mean fuel prices and price escalation rates when the data are treated at increasing levels of aggregation. The findings of this analysis are reported in the third section, while the appendices contain price distributions details. The last section reports the availability of price projections and discusses some EIA projections compared with actual prices.

  16. Fuel Performance Experience, Analysis and Modeling: Deformations, Fission Gas Release and Pellet-Clad Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, G.; Hallstadius, L.; Helmersson, S.; Massih, A.R.; Schrire, D.; Kaellstroem, R.; Wikmark, G.; Hellwig, C.

    2007-07-01

    Some basic attributes of light water reactor fuel performance, determined by measurements, are evaluated. In particular, data on fuel volume swelling, cladding creep/growth, fission product gas release and cladding deformation due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction of rods irradiated in power reactors to rod burnups up to about 70 MWd/kgU are presented and appraised. A thermal fuel matrix swelling caused by fission products shows a linear increase in the fuel volume fraction with burnup up to 70 MWd/kgU with a mean rate of 0.76% per 10 MWd/kgU at a best-estimate level. Cladding hoop strain data due to in-reactor creep as a function of burnup from 15 to 70 MWd/kgU for pressurized water reactor (PWR) rods and from 5 to 50 MWd/kgU for boiling water reactor (BWR) rods are presented. The maximum measured cladding creep-down hoop strain in the considered BWR rods is {epsilon}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} -0.5% and in the PWR rods {epsilon}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} -1.25%. Rod growth data on BWR and PWR rods as a function of burnup are presented and discussed. Rod internal free volume data, measured and calculated as a function of burnup, are presented. Recent high burnup (52-70 MWd/kgU) fission product gas release data obtained by destructive methods are evaluated with the STAV7 computer code. Finally, slow power ramp experiments conducted at the Studsvik R2 reactor are simulated with the STAV7 code and it is observed that by accounting the contribution of fuel thermal gaseous swelling, the code describes the clad diameter increase due to pellet-clad mechanical interaction under the power bump satisfactorily. (authors)

  17. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    EAGLES1.1 is PC-based interactive software for analyzing performance (e.g., maximum range) of electric vehicles (EVs) or fuel economy (e.g., miles/gallon) of gasoline vehicles (GVs). The EV model provides a second by second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. It takes into account the effects of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD) and regenerative braking. The GV fuel economy model which relates fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving cycle characteristics, canmore » be used to investigate the effects of changes in vehicle parameters and driving patterns on fuel economy. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be studied. Alternatively, the software can be used to determine the size of battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., maximum range and driving patterns). Options are available to estimate the time necessary for a vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a specified constant power and to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a drivng cycle for speeds exceeding a given value.« less

  18. Webinar December 1: Northeast States’ Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Northeast States’ Hydrogen Economy" on Tuesday, December 1, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. EST. The webinar will focus on state efforts to support the regional development of hydrogen infrastructure for the deployment of fuel cell electric vehicles in the Northeast United States.

  19. Assessment of PCMI Simulation Using the Multidimensional Multiphysics BISON Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen R. Novascone; Jason D. Hales; Benjamin W. Spencer; Richard L. Williamson

    2012-09-01

    Since 2008, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a next-generation nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. BISON is built using INLs Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment, or MOOSE. MOOSE is a massively parallel, finite element-based framework to solve systems of coupled non-linear partial differential equations using the Jacobian-FreeNewton Krylov (JFNK) method. MOOSE supports the use of complex two- and three-dimensional meshes and uses implicit time integration, which is important for the widely varied time scales in nuclear fuel simulation. MOOSEs object-oriented architecture minimizes the programming required to add new physics models. BISON has been applied to various nuclear fuel problems to assess the accuracy of its 2D and 3D capabilities. The benchmark results used in this assessment range from simulation results from other fuel performance codes to measurements from well-known and documented reactor experiments. An example of a well-documented experiment used in this assessment is the Third Ris Fission Gas Project, referred to as Bump Test GE7, which was performed on rod ZX115. This experiment was chosen because it allows for an evaluation of several aspects of the code, including fully coupled thermo-mechanics, contact, and several nonlinear material models. Bump Test GE7 consists of a base-irradiation period of a full-length rod in the Quad-Cities-1 BWR for nearly 7 years to a burnup of 4.17% FIMA. The base irradiation test is followed by a bump test of a sub-section of the original rod. The bump test takes place in the test reactor DR3 at Ris in a water-cooled HP1 rig under BWR conditions where the power level is increased by about 50% over base irradiation levels in the span of several hours. During base irradiation, the axial power profile is flat. During the bump test, the axial power profile changes so that the bottom half of the rod is at approximately 50% higher power than at the base irradiation level, while the power at the top of the rod is at about 20% of the base irradiation power level. 2D BISON simulations of the Bump Test GE7 were run using both discrete and smeared pellet geometry. Comparisons between these calculations and experimental measurements are presented for clad diameter and elongation after the base irradiation and clad profile along the length of the test section after the bump test. Preliminary comparisons between calculations and measurements are favorable, supporting the use of BISON as an accurate multiphysics fuel simulation tool.

  20. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  1. Impact of Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes the effects of seven fuels with significantly different fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty diesel engine. Cetane numbers range between 26 and 76 for the investigated fuels.

  2. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  3. Impact of Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    diesel engine. Cetane numbers range between 26 and 76 for the investigated fuels. PDF icon deer08koehler.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Low Temperature ...

  4. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on cathode supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Yong Wang of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  5. High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Park

    2006-12-01

    High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

  6. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  7. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    29% Share of Energy Consumed by Major Sectors of the Economy, 2010 Fuel Cells can apply to diverse sectors 3 Fuel Cells - An Emerging Global Industry Clean Energy Patent Growth ...

  8. Lowering On-Road Fuel Use: A Component Approach

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lowering On-Road Fuel Use: A Component Approach Alan Meier Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory akmeier@lbl.gov What is the Component Approach? zAddresses two aspects: ‹"Off-test" energy use ‹Energy impacts of aftermarket and replacement products Some Aspects of a Car's Fuel Consumption are Not Captured in Tests z Dynamometer tests Fuel Consumption Not and adjustments Fully Captured in Fuel cannot simulate all Economy Test aspects of on-road performance z Actual consumption depends

  9. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points and clad configurations. The 2-ply sleeve samples show a higher bend momentum compared to those of the 1-ply sleeve samples. This is applicable to both the hybrid mock-up and bare SiC-CMC sleeve samples. Comparatively both the 1- and 2-ply hybrid mock-up samples showed a higher bend stiffness and strength compared with the standard Zr-4 mock-up sample. The characterization of the hybrid mock-up samples showed signs of distress and preliminary signs of fraying at the protective Zr-4 sleeve areas for the 1-ply SiC-CMC sleeve. In addition, the microstructure of the SiC matrix near the cracks at the region of highest compressive bending strain shows significant cracking and flaking. The 2-ply SiC-CMC sleeve samples showed a more bonded, cohesive SiC matrix structure. This cracking and fraying causes concern for increased fretting during the actual use of the design. Tomography was proven as a successful tool to identify open porosity during pre-test characterization. Although there is currently insufficient data to make conclusive statements regarding the overall merit of the hybrid cladding design, preliminary characterization of this novel design has been demonstrated.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Independence and Security Act of 2007 Enacted December 19, 2007 The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) aims to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum. EISA includes provisions to increase the supply of renewable alternative fuel sources by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels annually by 2022. In

  11. KUGEL: a thermal, hydraulic, fuel performance, and gaseous fission product release code for pebble bed reactor core analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Fehrenbach, M.E.

    1981-05-01

    The KUGEL computer code is designed to perform thermal/hydraulic analysis and coated-fuel particle performance calculations for axisymmetric pebble bed reactor (PBR) cores. This computer code was developed as part of a Department of Energy (DOE)-funded study designed to verify the published core performance data on PBRs. The KUGEL code is designed to interface directly with the 2DB code, a two-dimensional neutron diffusion code, to obtain distributions of thermal power, fission rate, fuel burnup, and fast neutron fluence, which are needed for thermal/hydraulic and fuel performance calculations. The code is variably dimensioned so that problem size can be easily varied. An interpolation routine allows variable mesh size to be used between the 2DB output and the two-dimensional thermal/hydraulic calculations.

  12. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Technical accomplishments are listed below: Demonstrated that shutdown air purge is controlled predominantly by the water carrying capacity of the purge stream and the most practical means of reducing the purge time and energy is to reduce the volume of liquid water present in the fuel cell at shutdown. The GDL thermal conductivity has been identified as an important parameter to dictate water accumulation within a GDL. Found that under the normal shutdown conditions most of the GDL-level water accumulation occurs on the anode side and that the mass transport resistance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) thus plays a critically important role in understanding and optimizing purge. Identified two-phase flow patterns (slug, film and mist flow) in flow field channel, established the features of each pattern, and created a flow pattern map to characterize the two-phase flow in GDL/channel combination. Implemented changes to the baseline channel surface energy and GDL materials and evaluated their performance with the ex situ multi-channel experiments. It was found that the hydrophilic channel (contact angle ? ? 10?) facilitates the removal of liquid water by capillary effects and by reducing water accumulation at the channel exit. It was also found that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. Identified a new mechanism of water transport through GDLs based on Haines jump mechanism. The breakdown and redevelopment of the water paths in GDLs lead to an intermittent water drainage behavior, which is characterized by dynamic capillary pressure and changing of breakthrough location. MPL was found to not only limit the number of water entry locations into the GDL (thus drastically reducing water saturation), but also stabilizes the water paths (or morphology). Simultaneously visualized the water transport on cathode and anode channels of an operating fuel cell. It was found that under relatively dry hydrogen/air conditions at lower temperatures, the cathode channels display a similar flow pattern map to the ex-situ experiments under similar conditions. Liquid water on the anode side is more likely formed via condensation of water vapor which is transported through the anode GDL. Investigated the water percolation through the GDL with pseudo-Hele-Shaw experiments and simulated the capillary-driven two-phase flow inside gas diffusion media, with the pore size distributions being modeled by using Weibull distribution functions. The effect of the inclusion of the microporous layer in the fuel cell assembly was explored numerically. Developed and validated a simple, reliable computational tool for predicting liquid water transport in GDLs. Developed a new method of determining the pore size distribution in GDL using scanning electron microscope (SEM) image processing, which allows for separate characterization of GDL wetting properties and pore size distribution. Determined the effect of surface wettability and channel cross section and bend dihedral on liquid holdup in fuel cell flow channels. A major thrust of this research program has been the development of an optimal combination of materials, design features and cell operating conditions that achieve a water management strategy which facilitates fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Based on our various findings, we have made the final recommendation relative to GDL materials, bipolar design and surface properties, and the combination of materials, design featur

  13. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad Ahmed, Iqbal Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul Nadeem, Saad Ali, Shahid

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  14. Dimensional, microstructural and compositional stability of metal fuels. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; Dayananda, M.A.

    1993-03-15

    The projects undertaken were to address two areas of concern for metal-fueled fast reactors: metallurgical compatibility of fuel and its fission products with the stainless steel cladding, and effects of porosity development in the fuel on fuel/cladding interactions and on sodium penetration in fuel. The following studies are reported on extensively in appendices: hot isostatic pressing of U-10Zr by coupled boundary diffusion/power law creep cavitation, liquid Na intrusion into porous U-10Zr fuel alloy by differential capillarity, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel and selected Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, interdiffusion between U-Zr fuel vs selected cladding steels, and interdiffusion of Ce in Fe-base alloys with Ni or Cr.

  15. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  16. Generation IV benchmarking of TRISO fuel performance models under accident conditions. Modeling input data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    This document presents the benchmark plan for the calculation of particle fuel performance on safety testing experiments that are representative of operational accidental transients. The benchmark is dedicated to the modeling of fission product release under accident conditions by fuel performance codes from around the world, and the subsequent comparison to post-irradiation experiment (PIE) data from the modeled heating tests. The accident condition benchmark is divided into three parts: the modeling of a simplified benchmark problem to assess potential numerical calculation issues at low fission product release; the modeling of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis safety testing experiments; and, the comparison of the AGR-1 and HFR-EU1bis modeling results with PIE data. The simplified benchmark case, thereafter named NCC (Numerical Calculation Case), is derived from ''Case 5'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on coated particle fuel technology [IAEA 2012]. It is included so participants can evaluate their codes at low fission product release. ''Case 5'' of the IAEA CRP-6 showed large code-to-code discrepancies in the release of fission products, which were attributed to ''effects of the numerical calculation method rather than the physical model''[IAEA 2012]. The NCC is therefore intended to check if these numerical effects subsist. The first two steps imply the involvement of the benchmark participants with a modeling effort following the guidelines and recommendations provided by this document. The third step involves the collection of the modeling results by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the comparison of these results with the available PIE data. The objective of this document is to provide all necessary input data to model the benchmark cases, and to give some methodology guidelines and recommendations in order to make all results suitable for comparison with each other. The participants should read this document thoroughly to make sure all the data needed for their calculations is provided in the document. Missing data will be added to a revision of the document if necessary.

  17. High performance, high durability non-precious metal fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Schmoeckel, Alison K.

    2016-03-15

    This invention relates to non-precious metal fuel cell cathode catalysts, fuel cells that contain these catalysts, and methods of making the same. The fuel cell cathode catalysts are highly nitrogenated carbon materials that can contain a transition metal. The highly nitrogenated carbon materials can be supported on a nanoparticle substrate.

  18. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willm, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst. Reactions which will be studied include the water gas shift reaction, steam reforming and methane cracking. Extended operation will be performed to detect performance degradation if it exists. The use of methane in these tests may lead to the formation of coke on the catalyst. Methods of removing the coke such as treatment with carbon dioxide or diluted oxygen will be examined.

  19. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  20. Fueling the Economy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Asphalt and road oil consumption, price, and expenditure estimates, 2014 State Asphalt and road oil a Consumption Prices Expenditures Thousand barrels Trillion Btu Dollars per million Btu Million dollars Alabama 2,484 16.5 15.69 258.6 Alaska 1,859 12.3 16.33 201.4 Arizona 2,454 16.3 14.69 239.1 Arkansas 1,884 12.5 15.29 191.2 California 8,646 57.4 15.97 916.3 Colorado 2,398 15.9 15.57 247.8 Connecticut 1,580 10.5 15.69 164.6 Delaware 424 2.8 15.89 44.7 Dist. of Col. 636 4.2 15.93 67.2 Florida

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program and EPA's light-duty vehicle GHG emissions program set standards for passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles. ...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel economy of 22 miles per gallon (as listed at www.fueleconomy.gov) and may not be a sport utility vehicle. Exemptions apply to security, emergency rescue, snow removal, and...

  3. Performance assessment for the geological disposal of Deep Burn spent fuel using TTBX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van den Akker, B.P.; Ahn, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of Deep Burn Modular High Temperature Reactor Spent Fuel (DBSF) is investigated in the Yucca Mountain geological repository (YMR) with respect to the annual dose (Sv/yr) delivered to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) from the transport of radionuclides released from the graphite waste matrix. Transport calculations are performed with a novel computer code, TTBX which is capable of modeling transport pathways that pass through heterogeneous geological formations. TTBX is a multi-region extension of the existing single region TTB transport code. Overall the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is seen to be four orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory threshold for exposure, even under pessimistic scenarios. A number of factors contribute to the favorable performance of DBSF. A reduction of one order of magnitude in the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is observed for every order of magnitude increase in the waste matrix lifetime, highlighting the importance of the waste matrix durability and suggesting graphite's utility as a potential waste matrix for the disposal of high-level waste. Furthermore, we see that by incorporating a higher fidelity far-field model the peak annual dose calculated to be received by the RMEI is reduced by two orders of magnitude. By accounting for the heterogeneities of the far field we have simultaneously removed unnecessary conservatisms and improved the fidelity of the transport model. (authors)

  4. Optimizing immobilized enzyme performance in cell-free environments to produce liquid fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sanat

    2015-02-05

    The overall goal of this project was to optimize enzyme performance for the production of bio-diesel fuel. Enzyme immobilization has attracted much attention as a means to increase productivity. Mesorporous silica materials have been known to be best suited for immobilizing enzymes. A major challenge is to ensure that the enzymatic activity is retained after immobilization. Two major factors which drive enzymatic deactivation are protein-surface and inter-protein interactions. Previously, we studied protein stability inside pores and how to optimize protein-surface interactions to minimize protein denaturation. In this work we studied eh effect of surface curvature and chemistry on inter-protein interactions. Our goal was to find suitable immobilization supports which minimize these inter-protein interactions. Our studies carried out in the frame work of Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) model showed that enzymes immobilized inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are best suited to minimize these inter-protein interactions. Besides, this study is also of biological importance to understand the role of chaperonins in protein disaggregation. Both of these aspects profited immensely with collaborations with our experimental colleague, Prof. Georges Belfort (RPI), who performed the experimental analog of our theoretical works.

  5. Combined Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Processes Determining Cathode Performance in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukla, Maija M.; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Merkle, R.; Mastrikov, Yuri; Maier, J.

    2013-02-11

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are under intensive investigation since the 1980s as these devices open the way for ecologically clean direct conversion of the chemical energy into electricity, avoiding the efficiency limitation by Carnots cycle for thermochemical conversion. However, the practical development of SOFC faces a number of unresolved fundamental problems, in particular concerning the kinetics of the electrode reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction. We review recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the current understanding of the cathode performance by exploring and comparing mostly three materials: (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM), (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (LSCF) and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 (BSCF). Special attention is paid to a critical evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of BSCF, which shows the best cathode kinetics known so far for oxides. We demonstrate that it is the combined experimental and theoretical analysis of all major elementary steps of the oxygen reduction reaction which allows us to predict the rate determining steps for a given material under specific operational conditions and thus control and improve SOFC performance.

  6. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  7. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  8. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Evaluation Results Show Continued

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvements in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Durability, Fuel Economy, Driving Range Evaluation Results Show Continued Improvements in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Durability, Fuel Economy, Driving Range Project Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation Contact Jennifer Kurtz Related Publications FCEV Composite Data Products New composite data products (CDPs) published by NREL's National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC) show that fuel cell durability has

  9. Performance of a palladium membrane reactor using a Ni catalyst for fusion fuel impurities processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willms, R.S.; Wilhelm, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PNM) provides a means to recover hydrogen isotopes from impurities expected to be present in fusion reactor exhaust. This recovery is based on reactions such as water-gas shift and steam reforming for which conversion is equilibrium limited. By including a selectively permeable membrane such as Pd/Ag in the catalyst bed, hydrogen isotopes can be removed from the reacting environment, thus promoting the reaction to complete conversion. Such a device has been built and operated at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the reactions listed above, earlier study with this unit has shown that hydrogen single-pass recoveries approaching 100% can be achieved. It was also determined that a nickel catalyst is a feasible choice for use with a PMR appropriate for fusion fuel impurities processing. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the performance of the PMR using a nickel catalyst over a range of temperatures, feed compositions and flowrates. Reactions which were studied are the water-gas shift reaction and steam reforming.

  10. Analysis of Performance of Selected AFC, ATF Fuels, and Lanthanide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2015-09-29

    We started to look at the performance of ATF concept in LWRs late in FY14 and finish our studies in FY15. The work has been presented in AFC review meetings, ICAPP and TOPFUEL conferences. The final version of the work is accepted for publication in Nuclear Engineering and Science Journal (NES). The copy of ICAPP and NES papers are attached separately to this document as our milestone deliverables. We made an important progress in the modeling of lanthanide transport in FY15. This work produced an ANS Winter Meeting paper and GLOBAL 2015 paper. GLOBAL 2015 paper is also attached as deliverable of FY15. The work on the lanthanide transport is preliminary. We are exploring other potential mechanisms, in addition to “liquid-like” diffusion mechanisms, proposed by Robert Mariani [1] before we analyze data that will be taken by Ohio State University. This year, we concentrate on developing diffusion kernels and principles of modeling. Next year, this work will continue and analyze the Ohio State data and develop approaches to solve multicomponent diffusion. In addition to three papers we attached to this report, we have done some research on coupling and the development of gas release model for metallic fuels in FY15. They are also preliminary in nature; therefore, we give the summary of what we found rather than an extended report that will be done in FY16.

  11. Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In a key step towards advancing a clean energy economy, scientists have engineered a cheap, abundant way to make hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water.

  12. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  13. Performance of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with Thin Bi-Layer Electrolyte by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zigui; Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Fisher, Daniel; Wu, Naijuan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2012-07-15

    Anode-supported yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/samaria doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolytes with uniform thickness and high density were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at 1000 degrees C. Fuel cells with such bi-layer electrolytes were fabricated and tested, yielding open circuit voltages from 0.94 to 1.0 V at 600-700 degrees C. Power densities from 0.4 to 1.0 W cm{sup -2} at 0.7 V were achieved in air at temperatures of 600-700 degrees C. Cell performance was improved in flowing oxygen, with an estimated peak power density of over 2 W cm{sup -2} at 650 degrees C, assuming the same overall resistance over the entire range of current density. The high cell performance was attributed to the very low ohmic resistance of the fuel cell, owing to the small thickness of the electrolyte. Stable performance was also demonstrated in that the voltage of the fuel cell showed very little change at a constant current density of 1 A cm{sup -2} during more than 400 hours of operation at 650 degrees C in flowing oxygen. SEM analysis of the fuel cell after testing showed that the bi-layer electrolyte had retained its chemical and mechanical integrity.

  14. Energy Economy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Energy Economy The clean energy economy continues to grow, creating new job opportunities for tens of thousands of Americans along the way. <a href="/node/385315">Learn more</a> about the growth of America's clean energy economy. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. The clean energy economy continues to grow, creating new job opportunities for tens of thousands of Americans along the way. Learn more about the growth of America's clean energy economy. |

  15. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  16. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.; Green, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  17. Fact #764: January 28, 2013 Model Year 2013 Brings More Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For a consumer purchasing a new large car in 2008, the highest combined cityhighway fuel economy available was 25 miles per gallon (mpg); for 2013, the top fuel economy of the ...

  18. Diesel engine performance and emissions using different fuel/additive combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, D.L.; Rush, M.W.; Richards, P.

    1988-01-01

    It is probable that diesel fuel quality in Europe will fall as the need to blend conversion components into the diesel pool increases. In particular diesel ignition quality and stability could decrease and carbon residue and aromatic content increase. This paper discusses the effects of worsening fuel quality on combustion, injection characteristics and emissions and the efficacy of appropriate additives in overcoming these effects. Both direct injection and indirect injection engines were used in the investigations.

  19. Summary report on the fuel performance modeling of the AFC-2A, 2B irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to determine the fuel and cladding temperature history during irradiation of the AFC-2A, 2B transmutation metallic fuel alloy irradiation experiments containing transuranic and rare earth elements. Addition of the rare earth elements intends to simulate potential fission product carry-over from pyro-metallurgical reprocessing. Post irradiation examination of the AFC-2A, 2B rodlets revealed breaches in the rodlets and fuel melting which was attributed to the release of the fission gas into the helium gap between the rodlet cladding and the capsule which houses six individually encapsulated rodlets. This release is not anticipated during nominal operation of the AFC irradiation vehicle that features a double encapsulated design in which sodium bonded metallic fuel is separated from the ATR coolant by the cladding and the capsule walls. The modeling effort is focused on assessing effects of this unanticipated event on the fuel and cladding temperature with an objective to compare calculated results with the temperature limits of the fuel and the cladding.

  20. Develop Improved Materials to Support the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Michael C. Martin

    2012-07-18

    The Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC) solicited and funded hydrogen infrastructure related projects that have a near term potential for commercialization. The subject technology of each project is related to the US Department of Energy hydrogen economy goals as outlined in the multi-year plan titled, 'Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan.' Preference was given to cross cutting materials development projects that might lead to the establishment of manufacturing capability and job creation. The Edison Materials Technology Center (EMTEC) used the US Department of Energy hydrogen economy goals to find and fund projects with near term commercialization potential. An RFP process aligned with this plan required performance based objectives with go/no-go technology based milestones. Protocols established for this program consisted of a RFP solicitation process, white papers and proposals with peer technology and commercialization review (including DoE), EMTEC project negotiation and definition and DoE cost share approval. Our RFP approach specified proposals/projects for hydrogen production, hydrogen storage or hydrogen infrastructure processing which may include sensor, separator, compression, maintenance, or delivery technologies. EMTEC was especially alert for projects in the appropriate subject area that have cross cutting materials technology with near term manufacturing and commercialization opportunities.

  1. Clean Economy Network Foundation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Economy Network Foundation Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Clean Economy Network Foundation Name: Clean Economy Network Foundation Address: 1301 Pennsylvania Ave NW, Suite...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Acquisition Requirements When purchasing new state vehicles, the North Carolina Department of Administration must give purchase preference to vehicles with fuel economy ratings that rank among the top 15% of comparable vehicles in their class. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 143-341(8)(i)

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maps and Data

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Trend of transportation and residential energy expenditures from 1970-2010 Last update ... between fuel economy and lifetime fuel consumption for LDVs from 8mpg to 120mpg Last ...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: Maximizing Alternative Fuel Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles have a 27 percent lower fuel economy running on E85. Fortunately, designing flexible fuel vehicles to run specifically on E85 rather than gasoline can help close that gap. ...

  5. Performance of a High Speed Indirect Injection Diesel Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine

  6. A Correlation of Diesel Engine Performance with Measured NIR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results indicate a strong tradeoff between maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise (which also correlates to NOx and peak cylinder pressure) and fuel economy for 21 tested fuels. ...

  7. Fuel Injector Holes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the recently released BioPower engines. PDF icon analysis_saab2007.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending

  8. Effect of Creep of Ferritic Interconnect on Long-Term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-08-01

    High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  9. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-07-05

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in [1,2] wherein Verification & Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI [3,4] is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models would be reduced considerably. The authors note that the PMI is primarily intended to provide a high-level, quantitative description of year-to-year (or version-to-version) improvements in numerical models, where these descriptions can be used as a means of justifying funding requests to support further model development research. It is in this context that the present report should be considered: the availability of data from experimental tests should be viewed as a time-dependent variable, where experiments are added to the calibration suite as resources become available. For the present report, the experimental data is of course already available (permitting demonstration of the proposed methodology). Furthermore, the authors are not proposing this methodology as the answer to the question of how to allocate resources for experimental tests, and readers are directed to [5] and the references contained in Section 1 of [5] for additional information on the subject. However, the strength of this methodology is that it offers a means by which to select the sequence of experiments in a pre-arranged experimental campaign (a situation for which the methods discussed in [5] are less appropriate). The report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the methodology employed to formulate the sequences of experiments for the calibrations performed for this study. Section 3 then presents the results associated with two sequences; supplementary results are provided in the Appendix. The report then concludes in Section 4 with a brief summary.

  10. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  11. Transmutation Dynamics: Impacts of Multi-Recycling on Fuel Cycle Performances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; M. Pope; G. Youinou; A. Dumontier; D. Hawn

    2009-09-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain continuous multi-recycle in either thermal or fast reactors. In Fiscal Year 2009, transmutaton work at INL provided important new insight, caveats, and tools on multi-recycle. Multi-recycle of MOX, even with all the transuranics, is possible provided continuous enrichment of the uranium phase to ~6.5% and also limitting the transuranic enrichment to slightly less than 8%. Multi-recycle of heterogeneous-IMF assemblies is possible with continuous enrichment of the UOX pins to ~4.95% and having =60 of the 264 fuel pins being inter-matrix. A new tool enables quick assessment of the impact of different cooling times on isotopic evolution. The effect of cooling time was found to be almost as controlling on higher mass actinide concentrations in fuel as the selection of thermal versus fast neutron spectra. A new dataset was built which provides on-the-fly estimates of gamma and neutron dose in MOX fuels as a function of the isotopic evolution. All studies this year focused on the impact of dynamic feedback due to choices made in option space. Both the equilibrium fuel cycle concentrations and the transient time to reach equilibrium for each isotope were evaluated over a range of reactor, reprocessing and cooling time combinations. New bounding cases and analysis methods for evaluating both reactor safety and radiation worker safety were established. This holistic collection of physics analyses and methods gives improved resolution of fuel cycle options, and impacts thereof, over that of previous ad-hoc and single-point analyses.

  12. Performance of fast reactor mixed-oxide fuels pins during extended overpower transients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A. ); Asaga, T.; Shikakura, S. )

    1991-02-01

    The Operational Reliability Testing (ORT) program, a collaborative effort between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) of Japan, was initiated in 1982 to investigate the behavior of mixed-oxide fuel pin under various slow-ramp transient and duty-cycle conditions. In the first phase of the program, a series of four extended overpower transient tests, with severity sufficient to challenge the pin cladding integrity, was conducted. The objectives of the designated TOPI-1A through -1D tests were to establish the cladding breaching threshold and mechanisms, and investigate the thermal and mechanical effects of the transient on pin behavior. The tests were conducted in EBR-2, a normally steady-state reactor. The modes of transient operation in EBR-2 were described in a previous paper. Two ramp rates, 0.1%/s and 10%/s, were selected to provide a comparison of ramp-rate effects on fuel behavior. The test pins chosen for the series covered a range of design and pre-test irradiation parameters. In the first test (1A), all pins maintained their cladding integrity during the 0.1%/s ramp to 60% peak overpower. Fuel pins with aggressive designs, i.e., high fuel- smear density and/or thin cladding, were, therefore, included in the follow-up 1B and 1C tests to enhance the likelihood of achieving cladding breaching. In the meantime, a higher pin overpower capability, to greater than 100%, was established by increasing the reactor power limit from 62.5 to 75 MWt. In this paper, the significant results of the 1B and 1C tests are presented. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel-Efficient Green Fleets Policy and Fleet Management Program Development The Alabama Green Fleets Review Committee (Committee) is establishing a Green Fleets Policy (Policy) outlining a procedure for procuring state vehicles based on criteria that includes fuel economy and life cycle costing. State fleet managers must classify their vehicle inventory for compliance with the Policy and submit annual plans for procuring fuel-efficient vehicles. These plans must reflect a 4% annual increase in

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Clean Cities The mission of Clean Cities is to advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the United States by supporting local initiatives to adopt practices that reduce the use of petroleum in the transportation sector. Clean Cities carries out this mission through a network of nearly 100 volunteer coalitions, which develop public/private partnerships to promote alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, fuel blends, fuel economy, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction. Clean

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Advanced Vehicle Acquisition and Biodiesel Fuel Use Requirement All gasoline-powered vehicles purchased with state funds must be flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) or fuel-efficient hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fuel-efficient HEVs are defined as automobiles or light trucks that use a gasoline or diesel engine and an electric motor to provide power and that gain at least a 20% increase in combined U.S. Environmental Protection Agency city-highway fuel economy over the equivalent or most-similar

  16. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  17. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells approaching the two-dimensional limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerman, K. Ramanathan, S.

    2014-05-07

    We model electrochemical kinetics and physical conduction mechanisms for carrier transport in electrolyte membranes to determine the limits of dimensionality reduction (down to 1?nm) on maximum power output of solid oxide fuel cells with symmetric Pt electrodes. Using Y-doped ZrO{sub 2}, we find a minimum thickness of ?6?nm to realize near ideal chemical potential in such fuel cells, which is limited by electronic breakdown when approaching the dielectric breakdown strength. For larger electrolyte thicknesses, the greatest source of electronic leakage influencing power loss is from Ohmic transport of minority carriers and emission of trapped carriers. For porous metallic electrodes, an ideal microstructure with the particle size comparable to particle spacing dimensions is found to accurately model experimental results. The role of electronic trap states in the electrolyte band gap on power density characteristics is highlighted.

  18. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Performance Comparison of Metallic, Actinide Burning Fuel in Lead-Bismuth and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    Various methods have been proposed to incinerate or transmutate the current inventory of trans-uranic waste (TRU) that exits in spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel, and weapons plutonium. These methods include both critical (e.g., fast reactors) and non-critical (e.g., accelerator transmutation) systems. The work discussed here is part of a larger effort at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to investigate the suitability of lead and lead-alloy cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The neutronics of non-fertile fuel loaded with 20 or 30-wt% light water reactor (LWR) plutonium plus minor actinides for use in a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor are discussed in this paper, with an emphasis on the fuel cycle life and isotopic content. Calculations show that the average actinide burn rate is similar for both the sodium and lead-bismuth cooled cases ranging from -1.02 to -1.16 g/MWd, compared to a typical LWR actinide generation rate of 0.303 g/MWd. However, when using the same parameters, the sodium-cooled case went subcritical after 0.2 to 0.8 effective full power years, and the lead-bismuth cooled case ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 effective full power years.

  20. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  1. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  2. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  3. EERE Success Story-California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher | Department of Energy Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher EERE Success Story-California and Connecticut: National Fuel Cell Bus Programs Drive Fuel Economy Higher August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In an EERE-supported study with the Federal Transit Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found the fuel economy of fuel cell powered buses to be up to 2.4 times higher than conventional buses. During this

  4. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  6. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  7. Effect of H/sub 2/S and COS in the fuel gas on the performance of ambient pressure phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this project was to determine in laboratory cells the tolerance of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) to hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulphide impurities in the anode feed gas. The study was conducted in three phases: the first was testing in a small (1 cm/sup 2/) free electrolyte cell to examine the effect of electrode structure on cell tolerance and to determine the ''order of magnitude'' of sulfur causing failure in cells at zero utilization; the second was testing in standard 2'' x 2'' PAFC laboratory hardware at ambient pressure to examine the effect of hydrogen utilization on tolerance and the possible effect of fuel impurities on cathode performance; the final phase was testing with a 2'' x 2'' cell in a pressure vessel to determine the effect of pressurized operation on cell tolerance. The poisoning effect of hydrogen sulfide was characteristically different from the effect carbon monoxide, in that it was not manifested by a marginal (e.g. 0-50 mV) increase in anode potential but either had no effect or caused catastrophic polarization. Therefore, we derived critical levels for hydrogen sulfide as related to cell operating conditions. The poisoning effect of hydrogen sulfide was entirely an anode effect. The effect of carbonyl sulfide was complicated by the thermodynamic instability of COS in a hydrogen rich hydrogen-carbon monoxide gas mixture. We observed conversion of COS to hydrogen sulfide in our test cell by mass spectrometer analysis, but the kinetics of the hydrogenation of COS to H/sub 2/S could not be determined within the limitations of the study. Therefore, we recommend that the sum (total sulfur) be used as the criterion together with a specification on the hydrogen sulfide level. 10 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines. In an ongoing quest to meet ever-more-rigorous fuel economy and emissions requirements, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly turning to gasoline direct injection (GDI) coupled with turbocharging as a cost-effective option for improving the efficiency and performance of gasoline engines. While GDI engines are expected to account for 60% of the U.S. market by 2016, and the technology

  9. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  10. The effect of ultrasonic mixing of fuel and air on the performance of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droughton, J.V.; Deutschman, D.; Usman, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    A carburetor for a 1968 six-cylinder Ford engine was modified to meter gasoline into the engine through an ultrasonic horn. The engine, mounted on a test stand, was loaded by a water dynamometer. The tests were performed with the horn alternately activated and deactivated for two different tip configurations. Engine operating data were taken at five throttle positions and thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption were determined for each of these positions. Marked improvement (5-10%) in these parameters was obtained at an ultrasonic power input of 20 watts.

  11. Assessment of the Effects of Flow Rate and Ionic Strength on Microbial Fuel Cell Performance Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, D; Tsouris, Costas; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2010-01-01

    Impedance changes of the anode, cathode and solution were examined for a microbial fuel cell (MFC) under varying conditions in order to improve its performance. An MFC inoculated with a pre-enriched microbial culture resulted in a startup time of ten days. Over this period, the anode impedance decreased below the cathode impedance, suggesting a cathode limited power output. Decreasing the anode flow rate did not impact the anode impedance significantly, while it increased the cathode impedance by 65% . Reducing the anode-medium ionic strength from 100% to 10% increased the cathode impedance by 48%.

  12. Engine performance comparison associated with carburetor icing during aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel operation. Final report Jan-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavage, W.; Newcomb, J.; Biehl, K.

    1983-05-01

    A comprehensive sea-level-static test cell data collection and evaluation effort to review operational characteristics of 'off-the-shelf' carburetor ice detection/warning devices for general aviation piston engine aircraft during operation on aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel. Presented herein are results, observations and conclusions drawn from over 250 hours of test cell engine operation on 100LL aviation grade fuel, unleaded premium and unleaded regular grade automotive fuel. Sea-level-static test cell engine operations were conducted utilizing a Teledyne Continental Motors 0-200A engine and a Cessna 150 fuel system to review engine operational characteristics of 100LL aviation grade fuel and various blends of automotive grade fuel as well as carburetor ice detectors/warning devices sensitivity/effectiveness during actual carburetor icing. The primary purpose of test cell engine operation was to observe real-time carburetor icing characteristics associated with possible automotive grade fuel utilization by piston-powered light general aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this task, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by various blend of automotive grade fuel prior to imposing carburetor icing conditions and assessing operational characteristics.

  13. Improved Modeling and Understanding of Diffusion-Media Wettability on Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam

    2010-03-05

    A macroscopic-modeling methodology to account for the chemical and structural properties of fuel-cell diffusion media is developed. A previous model is updated to include for the first time the use of experimentally measured capillary pressure -- saturation relationships through the introduction of a Gaussian contact-angle distribution into the property equations. The updated model is used to simulate various limiting-case scenarios of water and gas transport in fuel-cell diffusion media. Analysis of these results demonstrate that interfacial conditions are more important than bulk transport in these layers, where the associated mass-transfer resistance is the result of higher capillary pressures at the boundaries and the steepness of the capillary pressure -- saturation relationship. The model is also used to examine the impact of a microporous layer, showing that it dominates the response of the overall diffusion medium. In addition, its primary mass-transfer-related effect is suggested to be limiting the water-injection sites into the more porous gas-diffusion layer.

  14. Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-10-01

    Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

  15. Material Performance of Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel under Selected LWR Design Basis Scenarios: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; R. S. Sen; M. A. Pope; A. M. Ougouag

    2011-09-01

    The extension to LWRs of the use of Deep-Burn coated particle fuel envisaged for HTRs has been investigated. TRISO coated fuel particles are used in Fully-Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel within a SiC matrix rather than the graphite of HTRs. TRISO particles are well characterized for uranium-fueled HTRs. However, operating conditions of LWRs are different from those of HTRs (temperature, neutron energy spectrum, fast fluence levels, power density). Furthermore, the time scales of transient core behavior during accidents are usually much shorter and thus more severe in LWRs. The PASTA code was updated for analysis of stresses in coated particle FCM fuel. The code extensions enable the automatic use of neutronic data (burnup, fast fluence as a function of irradiation time) obtained using the DRAGON neutronics code. An input option for automatic evaluation of temperature rise during anticipated transients was also added. A new thermal model for FCM was incorporated into the code; so-were updated correlations (for pyrocarbon coating layers) suitable to estimating dimensional changes at the high fluence levels attained in LWR DB fuel. Analyses of the FCM fuel using the updated PASTA code under nominal and accident conditions show: (1) Stress levels in SiC-coatings are low for low fission gas release (FGR) fractions of several percent, as based on data of fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2} kernels. However, the high burnup level of LWR-DB fuel implies that the FGR fraction is more likely to be in the range of 50-100%, similar to Inert Matrix Fuels (IMFs). For this range the predicted stresses and failure fractions of the SiC coating are high for the reference particle design (500 {micro}mm kernel diameter, 100 {micro}mm buffer, 35 {micro}mm IPyC, 35 {micro}mm SiC, 40 {micro}mm OPyC). A conservative case, assuming 100% FGR, 900K fuel temperature and 705 MWd/kg (77% FIMA) fuel burnup, results in a 8.0 x 10{sup -2} failure probability. For a 'best-estimate' FGR fraction of 50% and a more modest burnup target level of 500 MWd/kg ,the failure probability drops below 2.0 x 10{sup -5}, the typical performance of TRISO fuel made under the German HTR research program. An optimization study on particle design shows improved performance if the buffer size is increased from 100 to 120 {micro}mm while reducing the OPyC layer. The presence of the latter layer does not provide much benefit at high burnup levels (and fast fluence levels). Normally the shrinkage of the OPyC would result in a beneficial compressive force on the SiC coating. However, at high fluence levels the shrinkage is expected to turn into swelling, resulting in the opposite effect. However, this situation is different when the SiC-matrix, in which the particles are embedded, is also considered: the OPyC swelling can result in a beneficial compressive force on the SiC coating since outward displacement of the OPyC outer surface is inhibited by the presence of the also-swelling SiC matrix. Taking some credit for this effect by adopting a 5 {micro}mm SiC-matrix layer, the optimized particle (100 {micro}mm buffer and 10 {micro}mm OPyC), gives a failure probability of 1.9 x 10{sup -4} for conservative conditions. During a LOCA transient, assuming core re-flood in 30 seconds, the temperature of the coated particle can be expected to be about 200K higher than nominal temperature (900K). For this event the particle failure fraction for a conservative case is 1.0 x 10{sup -2}, for the optimized particle design. For a FGR-fraction of 50% this value reduces to 6.4 x 10{sup -4}.

  16. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce petroleum consumption by billions of barrels a year Deliver tens of billions of dollars in cost savings annually via improved fuel economy Dramatically decrease ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Alternative Fuels Research and Deployment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... on light-duty vehicles 21st Century Truck Partnership, an industry partnership to dramatically increase heavy-duty vehicle fuel economy while continuing emissions reduction. ...

  18. Integrated Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for Fuel Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heavy-Duty Engine Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations Navistar-Driving efficiency with integrated technology High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck ...

  19. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles In conventional vehicles, most engine operating points ...

  20. INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency INFOGRAPHIC: The Road to Fuel Efficiency November 27, 2012 - 11:01am Addthis This infographic takes a look at fuel economy standards and how recent improvements in these standards will benefit consumers and the U.S. economy. | Infographic by <a href="/node/379579">Sarah Gerrity</a>. This infographic takes a look at fuel economy standards and how recent improvements in these standards will benefit consumers and the U.S. economy. |

  1. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  2. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products (SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10/sup 6/ y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products.

  3. Apex nuclear fuel cycle for production of light water reactor fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Hiroshi, T.; Powell, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed that eliminates all the radioactive fission product (FP) waste effluent and the need for geological age high-level waste storage and provides a longterm supply of fissile fuel for a light water reactor (LWR) economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 yr old) to remove the stable nonradioactive FPs (NRFPs) e.g., lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived FPs (SLFP) (e.g., half-lives of less than or equal to 1 to 2 yr) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived FPs (LLFPs) (e.g., 30-yr half-life cesium and strontium, 10-yr krypton, and 16 X 10/sup 6/-yr iodine) and the transuranics (TUs) (e.g., plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel (FF) are to be supplied through the use of the spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the chelox process, which consists of chopping and leaching with an organic chelating reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and distillation of the organometallic compounds formed for purposes of separating and partitioning the FPs. The stable NRFPs and SLFPs are allowed to decay to background in 10 to 20 yr for final disposal to the environment.

  4. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Cell Motor Vehicle Tax Credit NOTE: This incentive originally expired on December 31, 2014, but was retroactively extended through December 31, 2016, by H.R. 2029. A tax credit of up to $8,000 is available for the purchase of qualified light-duty fuel cell vehicles, depending on the vehicle's fuel economy. Tax credits are also available for medium- and heavy-duty fuel cell vehicles; credit amounts are based on vehicle weight. Vehicle manufacturers must follow the procedures as published in

  6. Boosting Small Engines to High Performance- Boosting Systems and Combustion Development Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview on combustion approaches and challenges for smaller boosted engines to improve vehicle fuel economy, particularly downsizing gasoline engines

  7. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles A. Baldwin; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 degrees C. Release of 85Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 x 10-2 for silver, 1.4 x 10-3 for europium, and 1.1 x 10-5 for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 degrees C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as-irradiated AGR-1 compacts. X-ray imaging of selected particles was performed to examine the internal microstructure. This examination revealed variable irradiation performance of the coating layers, but sufficient statistical sampling is not yet available to identify any possible correlation to variation in individual particle fission product retention.

  8. Modeling of Pressurized Electrochemistry and Steam-Methane Reforming in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and the Effects on Thermal and Electrical Stack Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-03-01

    Summarizes work done to extend the electrochemical performance and methane reforming submodels to include the effects of pressurization and to demonstrate this new modeling capability by simulating large stacks operating on methane-rich fuel under pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. Pressurized operation boosts electrochemical performance, alters the kinetics of methane reforming, and effects the equilibrium composition of methane fuels. This work developed constitutive submodels that couple the electrochemistry, reforming, and pressurization to yield an increased capability of the modeling tool for prediction of SOFC stack performance.

  9. Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Achieving national energy and climate goals will require an ...

  10. Green Economy Toolbox | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy Toolbox Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Green Economy Toolbox AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Sector:...

  11. Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Achieving national energy and climate goals will require an...

  12. Where's the Hydrogen Economy? | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Where's the Hydrogen Economy? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Where's the Hydrogen Economy? AgencyCompany Organization: Canada Library of Parliament...

  13. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per 1000 hours over a

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations Box-type trailers that are at least 53 feet long and the heavy-duty tractors that pull these trailers must be equipped with fuel-efficient tires and aerodynamic trailer devices that improve fuel economy and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Tractors and trailers subject to the regulation must either use U.S. Environmental Protection Agency SmartWay certified tractors and trailers or retrofit existing equipment with SmartWay verified

  15. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS has been widely used in SFR designs and in liquid salt cooled high temperature reactors. The containment cooling system in BWR is another example of volume based decay removal systems. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one in reactor side and another is in environment side. DRACS has the benefits of increasing the power as needed (scalability) and modularity. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance HTGRs passive safety and economy.

  16. Fuel performance improvement program: description and characterization of HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 test rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Barner, J.O.; Welty, R.K.

    1980-03-01

    The fabrication process and as-built characteristics of the HBWR Series H-2 and H-3 test rods, as well as the three packed-particle (sphere-pac) rods in HBWR Series H-4 are described. The HBWR Series H-2, H-3, and H-4 tests are part of the irradiation test program of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. Fifteen rods were fabricated for the three test series. Rod designs include: (1) a reference dished pellet design incorporating chamfered edges, (2) a chamfered, annular pellet design combined with graphite-coated cladding, and (3) a sphere-pac design. Both the annular-coated and sphere-pac designs include internal pressurization using helium.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008-2009 Fuels Technologies R&D Progress Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuels Technologies subprogram supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  18. Webinar: Northeast States’ Hydrogen Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Northeast States’ Hydrogen Economy" on Tuesday, December 1, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST).

  19. Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Blocks for a Hydrogen Economy 1. Policies & Plans 2. Resources 3. Political Will ... Need to make a compelling case Political Will This is a key for early demonstration ...

  20. Impact of Policy on Fuels RD&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gearhart, C.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fuel economy and emissions policy and its relationship with fuel research, development, and deployment (RD&D). Solutions explored include biofuels and increased engine efficiency.