National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel cost combustion

  1. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  2. Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission...

  3. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

  4. Experience in preparing fuel for combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rude, J.

    1995-09-01

    The key phase seems to be that wood is the ORIGINAL FUEL. Certainly as man discovered fire, it was the most obvious as well as abundantly available fuel and it burned very well because man was smart enough to select the dry wood once he understood the basics of combustion. As the needs started to go beyond the most elementary, designs for burning ideal fuels were pretty well perfected, however, the burning of less ideal fuels still remain a challenge. To provide plant steam requirements by burning waste that must be disposed of anyway can reduce operating cost considerably. For most of us involved in producing steam, the experience we have with fuels such as bark, wood waste, sludge, and miscellaneous forms of solid combustible waste material, are a result of burning these fuels in an existing boiler supposedly designed for wood waste or possibly a combination of wood and other fuels such as coal, oil, or gas. For a supplier of fuel preparation systems, the typical application involves the sizing, cleaning, and drying of wood waste, and sludge from a pulp and/or paper mill. Other forms of combustible waste are dealt with occasionally and after proper preparation fired in the combustion system for the purpose of generating hot gas and/or steam for the plant process.

  5. Advanced Combustion and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  7. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  8. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  9. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  10. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  11. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  12. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  13. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in...

  14. Fluidized-bed combustion fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, J.W. Jr.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

  15. Fuel injector nozzle for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klomp, E.D.; Peters, B.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a nozzle body with at least one fuel flow opening therethrough for feed fuel to the chamber, a resilient diaphragm normally sealing the opening and having orifice means therein for further atomizing and directing the pulses into the chamber, fastening means for fixing the diaphragm to the body so that diaphragm can deflect by a predetermined amount under low engine load operating conditions so that a wide angle cone of atomized fuel is injected into and generally at one end of the combustion chamber for the stratified charge thereof and deflect by an amount greater than the first amount of deflection under high engine load operating conditions. A narrow spray cone of atomized fuel is injected in a deeper pattern into and throughout the combustion chamber for optimizing the charge thereof and fuel burns under the low and high load engine operating conditions.

  16. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  17. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel...

  18. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine...

  19. Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using...

  20. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004...

  1. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combustion, Control, and Fuel...

  2. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  3. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  4. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  5. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact...

  6. Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

  7. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 28152820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, Elisha

    2815 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2815≠2820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION: THE CHARACTERISTIC SCALES OF THE DEVELOPED STATE ORY ZIK, Israel We present new results on the fingering instability in solid fuel combustion. The instability

  8. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  9. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated...

  10. PhD Thesis: Control issues in oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    carbon intensive fuels, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and combustion with CO2 capture. The use as it costs energy to capture the CO2. Thus it is important to maximize the eciency in such plants. One;#12;Summary Combustion of fossil fuels is the major energy source in todays society. While the use of fossil

  11. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

  12. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Research on future fuels chemistry and effects on combustion in advanced internal combustion engines

  13. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced combustion and fuels.

  15. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modulesó23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  16. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modulesó24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modulesó23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  18. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (IEA, 2013). Olivier, J.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,Associated Rocks And Coal Combustion Products Collected For

  19. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  20. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Shen, Ming-shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  1. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  2. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a...

  3. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing...

  4. GRH 12-01 Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion Poster 0108

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    The goals are to: (1) Achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture at no more than a 35% increase in levelized cost of electricity of post-combustion capture for new and existing conventional coal-fired power plants; (2) Provide high-temperature corrosion information to aid in materials development and selection for oxy-fuel combustion; and (3) Identify corrosion mechanism and behavior differences between air- and oxy-firing.

  5. Effect of air distribution on solid fuel bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, J.T.; Hsu, W.S.; Yo, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    One important aspect of refuse mass-burn combination control is the manipulation of combustion air. Proper air manipulation is key to the achievement of good combustion efficiency and reduction of pollutant emissions. Experiments, using a small fix-grate laboratory furnace with cylindrical combustion chamber, were performed to investigate the influence of undergrate/sidewall air distribution on the combustion of beds of wood cubes. Wood cubes were used as a convenient laboratory surrogate of solid refuse. Specifically, for different bed configurations (e.g. bed height, bed voidage and bed fuel size, etc.), burning rates and combustion temperatures at different bed locations were measured under various air supply and distribution conditions. One of the significant results of the experimental investigation is that combustion, with air injected from side walls and no undergrate air, provide the most efficient combustion. On the other hand, combustion with undergrate air achieves higher combustion rates but with higher CO emissions. A simple one-dimensional model was constructed to derive correlations of combustion rate as functions of flue gas temperature and oxygen concentration. Despite the fact that the model is one dimensional and many detailed chemical and physical processes of combustion are not considered, comparisons of the model predictions and the experimental results indicate that the model is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bed burning rates.

  6. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  8. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  9. Predicting combustion properties of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Claude Franklin, III

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I applied computational quantum chemistry to improve the accuracy of kinetic mechanisms that are used to model combustion chemistry. I performed transition state theory calculations for several reactions ...

  10. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  11. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Advanced Combustion Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  12. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Merit review of DOE FCVT combustion, emission...

  13. FEATURE FOCUS: Fuels & Combustion a new dawn for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEATURE FOCUS: Fuels & Combustion a new dawn for diesel Will Americans pay the price to put light diesels of 30 years ago. Taking advantage of electronic controls and advances in fuel injection, today's light-duty diesels are quiet and clean, and they provide excellent low-end torque and superior fuel

  14. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  16. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    direct - - injection HECC injection HECC Establish fundamental understanding of fuel effects necessary Establish fundamental understanding of fuel effects necessary for...

  17. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  18. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  19. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  20. Aalborg Universitet Modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chungen

    implementation into CFD simulations of various oxy- fuel combustion processes and experimental validation. Result-fuel flames (Yin et al., 2010). ∑ Various combustion mechanisms implemented in CFD of oxy-fuel combustion of gray gases model applicable to CFD modeling of oxy-fuel combustion: Derivation, validation

  1. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  2. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  3. Evaluation of Stationary Fuel Cell Deployments, Costs, and Fuels (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's technology validation of stationary fuel cell systems and presents data on number of deployments, system costs, and fuel types.

  4. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A single-cylinder engine was used to study how selected oxygenated fuels affect combustion and emissions in a modern diesel engine during conventional combustion and low-temperature combustion (LTC).

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  6. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  7. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todayís engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  8. FEATURE FOCUS: Fuels & Combustion a new dawn for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and a gap between the price of diesel and more expensive gasoline. Diesel engines are more expensive than gasoline engines and the lower fuel prices in FEATURE FOCUS: Fuels & Combustion a new dawn for diesel Will Americans pay the price to put light

  9. OXIDATION OF FUELS IN THE COOL FLAME REGIME FOR COMBUSTION AND REFORMING FOR FUEL CELLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NAIDJA,A.; KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.; MAHAJAN,D.

    2002-08-01

    THE REVIEW INTEGRATES RECENT INVESTIGATIONS ON AUTO OXIDATION OF FUEL OILS AND THEIR REFORMING INTO HYDROGEN RICH GAS THAT COULD SERVE AS A FEED FOR FUEL CELLS AND COMBUSTION SYSTEMS.

  10. Alcohol Fuels - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustinAlcohol Fuels Alcohol

  11. Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

  12. Apparatus and method for combusting low quality fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brushwood, John Samuel; Pillsbury, Paul; Foote, John; Heilos, Andreas

    2003-11-04

    A gas turbine (12) capable of combusting a low quality gaseous fuel having a ratio of flammability limits less than 2, or a heat value below 100 BTU/SCF. A high quality fuel is burned simultaneously with the low quality fuel to eliminate instability in the combustion flame. A sensor (46) is used to monitor at least one parameter of the flame indicative of instability. A controller (50) having the sensor signal (48) as input is programmed to control the relative flow rates of the low quality and high quality fuels. When instability is detected, the flow rate of high quality fuel is automatically increased in relation to the flow rate of low quality fuel to restore stability.

  13. Foundation Fuels - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServicesAmes LaboratoryFormsDepartment

  14. Dynamic stability, blowoff, and flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shroll, Andrew Philip

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising technology to implement carbon capture and sequestration for energy conversion to electricity in power plants that burn fossil fuels. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to ...

  15. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}ĖC{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  16. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, G.H.; Jung. K.; Mu, N.; Yanar, N.M.; Pettit, F.S.

    2012-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

  17. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  18. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department ofSUPPLEMENT NOVEMBERSupporting aSusan Convention Center

  19. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  20. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  1. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  2. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  3. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NO x Larry W. Horowitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NO x Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12; Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion of fossil fuel combustion on the global distribution of NO x . In the model, we tag fossil fuel NO x and its

  4. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementwith CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,

  5. Modelin combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets: formulation and application to transportation fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittilapuram Subramanian, Kannan

    2006-04-12

    The quasi-steady, spherically symmetric combustion of multicomponent isolated fuel droplets has been modeled using modified Shvab-Zeldovich variable mechanism. Newly developed modified Shvab-Zeldovich equations have been used to describe the gas...

  6. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  7. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  8. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  9. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  10. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1 DOEEnergy 2Integratedin Gas

  11. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  12. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. ft004mueller2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Advanced...

  13. Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Six different fuels were investigated to study the...

  14. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study Program, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12;Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion is the largest global source-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and transport to study the impact of fossil fuel combustion

  15. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum form 27 July 2010 Accepted 3 September 2010 Keywords: High-energy-density fuels Droplet combustion n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion

  16. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  17. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

  18. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

  19. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from California Go?Figure 1. 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fuel CombustionImproving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the

  20. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  1. Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosky, M.K.

    1996-09-01

    EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    - combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion combustion technologies that can capture at least 90 % of a power plant's CO2 emissions with less than a 35 fossil fuels in O2, often in combination with recirculated flue gas, rather than in air. An optimized oxy

  3. Paper Number 15736-PA Title Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    Paper Number 15736-PA Title Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion Authors Abu believed to cause fuel formation for in-situ combustion have been studied and modeled. A thin, packed bed the approach of a combustion front. Analysis of gases produced from the reaction cell revealed that pyrolysis

  4. Ignition and Combustion of Fuel Pockets Moving in an Oxidizing Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Ignition and Combustion of Fuel Pockets Moving in an Oxidizing Atmosphere JOEL DAOU Dpto, Spain. E-mail: daou@tupi.dmt.upm.es Ignition and combustion of an initially spherical pocket of fuel, the results provide a good appreciation of the dynamics of the combustion process. For example, it is found

  5. Fuel, lubricant and additive effects in combustion chamber deposit formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Homan, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    CCD causes octane requirement increase (ORI) and can potentially contributes to exhaust emissions and combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI). Experiments were conducted to identify the separate fuel, lubricant and additive contributions to the amount and composition of CCD. CCD originates from multiple sources. Gasoline hydrocarbon components, gasoline additives, engine lubricant, and atmospheric nitrogen contribute to CCD in different ways. With some fuels the engine lubricant is the main contributor to CCD and this is shown by the high ash level in the CCD. For other fuels CCD is predominantly organic. Significant amounts of nitrogen were found in the CCD even when the fuel and lubricant were nitrogen free. The pyrolysis reactivity of different CCDs was studied to gain an understanding about the transformations that potentially happen over longer times and lower temperatures on the combustion chamber walls. In all cases during mild pyrolysis (375{degrees}C) there was a substantial increase in the level of aromatic carbon and a decrease in the level of organic oxygen. The largest increases in the amount of aromatic carbon occurred for CCDs that were the least aromatic.

  6. Effect of market fuel variation and cetane improvers on CAI combustion in a GDI engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2010-01-01

    There is continued interest in improving the fuel conversion efficiency of internal combustion engines and simultaneously reducing their emissions. One promising technology is that of Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. ...

  7. Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:† ace011_ciatti_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Steve CiattiPresenting Organization: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

  8. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  10. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  11. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  12. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Meier, Gerald H [University of Pittsburgh; Lutz, Bradley [University of Pittsburgh; Jung, Keeyoung [Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Korea; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M [University of Pittsburgh; Pettit, Frederick S [University of Pittsburgh; Zhu, Jingxi [Carnegie Mellon University; Wise, Adam [Carnegie Mellon University; Laughlin, David E. [Carnegie Mellon University; Sridhar, Seetharaman [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-11-25

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air for ease of capture of CO2 from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N2 with CO2 and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model FeĖCr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions. Evidence was found for a hreshold for severe attack between 10-4 and 10-3 atm of SO3 at 700ļC.

  13. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  14. Control-relevant Modelling and Linear Analysis of Instabilities in Oxy-fuel Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Control-relevant Modelling and Linear Analysis of Instabilities in Oxy-fuel Combustion Dagfinn combustion have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gas turbine cycles for achieving CO2-capture for CO2 sequestration purposes. While combustion instabilities is a problem in modern conventional gas

  15. HIWI-Stelle On Oxy-Fuel Combustion Coal combustion accounts for over 40% of the global electricity supply and is likely to continue to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    HIWI-Stelle On Oxy-Fuel Combustion Coal combustion accounts for over 40% of the global electricity-effective technologies to capture CO2 is becoming increasingly important, particularly for the coal combustion processes for carbon capture while producing electricity is oxy-combustion of coal. In the process of oxy

  16. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT,...

  17. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  18. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a...

  19. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured...

  20. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  1. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    dioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emissionP. P. : Linking emissions of fossil fuel CO 2 and other

  2. Ignition and Combustion of Fuel Pockets Moving in an Oxidizing Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heil, Matthias

    velocity of the fuel kernel v velocity vector (in a frame at rest with the fluid at infinity) x coordinateIgnition and Combustion of Fuel Pockets Moving in an Oxidizing Atmosphere JOEL DAOU Dpto, Spain. E-mail: daou@tupi.dmt.upm.es Ignition and combustion of an initially spherical pocket of fuel

  3. DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental Chemistry of the United States Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016. #12;Schwartz--Fossil Fuel--Fri, Dec 1, 2006 DOES FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING? Stephen E. Schwartz Environmental

  4. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  5. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion Engines Bunting, Bruce G ORNL; Bunce, Michael ORNL 02 PETROLEUM; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; BIOFUELS;...

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate,surrogates for diesel and biodiesel fuels, Combustion andas model compounds for biodiesel, Proceed- ings of the

  7. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

  8. Diesel engine combustion and emissions from fuel to exhaust aftertreatment. SP-1113

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    There are many dimensions involved in any study of Diesel Engine Emissions. These dimensions include: the fuel used, how the fuel is presented into the combustion chamber, how the air is presented into the combustion chamber, the actual process of combustion and emissions formation, the treatment of the emissions after combustion, and the test methods used to quantify the emissions. All of these dimensions are covered in this publication. The fuel topics include: plant oil based fuels and gas dissolved in fuel oil. The air delivery to the combustion chamber is effected by both port performance and geometry and ambient conditions and these topics are included. The thermodynamics of the combustion process and modeling are included in this publication. Aftertreatment is included with a paper on particulate filters. A correlation study using the ISO8178 testing method is also included. All nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  9. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Combustion of refuse derived fuel in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piao, Guilin; Aono, Shigeru; Mori, Shigekatsu; Deguchi, Seiichi; Fujima, Yukihisa; Kondoh, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Masataka

    1998-12-31

    Power generation from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is an attractive utilization technology of municipal solid waste. To explain the behavior of RDF-fired fluidized bed incinerator, the commercial size RDF was continuously burnt in a 30 x 30 cm bubbling type fluidized-bed combustor. It was found that 12 kg/h of RDF feed rate was too high feed for this test unit and the Co level was higher than 500 ppm. However, 10 kg/h of RDF was a proper feed rate and the Co level was kept under 150 ppm. Secondary air injection and changing air ratio from the pipe grid were effective for the complete combustion of RDE. It was also found that HCl concentration in flue gas was controlled by the calcium component contained in RDF and its level was decreased with decreasing the combustor temperature.

  11. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO{sub x} and CO levels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, J.O.; Bramlette, T.T.; Barr, P.K.

    1996-07-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for safely combusting a fuel in such a manner that very low levels of NO{sub x} and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line containing a fuel and an inlet line containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line and to the oxidant line is a mixing means for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure, into a combustion region. Coupled to the combustion region is a means for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor, a rotating band, or a rotating cylinder within an acoustic chamber positioned upstream or downstream of the region of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve; a rotating cylinder; a rotating band having slots that expose open ends of said fuel inlet line and said oxidant inlet line simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli and oxidizer annuli. The means for producing a periodic flow field may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion. 14 figs.

  12. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D. [Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Yim, M.S. [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC.

  13. Combustion rates of chars from high-volatile fuels for FBC application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masi, S.; Salatino, P.; Senneca, O.

    1997-12-31

    The fluidized bed combustion of high volatile fuels is often associated with huge occurrence of comminution phenomena. These result into in-bed generation of substantial amounts of carbon fines which further undergo competitive processes of combustion and elutriation. The small size of carbon fines generated by comminution is such that their further combustion is largely controlled by the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation, alone or in combination with intraparticle diffusion. The competition between fine combustion and elutriation strongly affects the efficiency of fixed carbon conversion and calls for thorough characterization of the combustion kinetics and of residence times of fines in a fluidized bed of coarse solids. In this paper a collection of intrinsic combustion kinetic and porosimetric data for chars from three high-volatile fuels suitable for FBC application is presented. Chars from a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass (Robinia Pseudoacacia) are obtained from devolatilization, in fluidized bed, of fuel samples. Thermogravimetric analysis, mercury porosimetry and helium pycnometry are used to characterize the reactivity and the pore structure of the chars. Combustion rates are characterized over a wide range of temperatures (320--850 C) and oxygen partial pressures, covering the entire range of interest in fluidized bed combustion. Analysis of thermogravimetric and porosimetric data is directed to obtaining the parameters (pre-exponential factors, reaction orders, activation energies, intraparticle diffusivities) of combustion kinetic submodels for application in fluidized bed combustor modeling.

  14. Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Six different fuels were investigated to study the influence of fuel properties on engine out emissions and performance of low temperature premixed compression ignition combustion light-duty HSDI engines

  15. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of ďopportunityĒ gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burnerís aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeecoís offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the projectís burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the projectís technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  16. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes Fact 594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes The graph...

  17. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  18. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

  19. The history of mercury emissions from fuel combustion in Maritime Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunderland, Elsie M.

    combustion of wood, coal and reģned petroleum products in Maritime Canada. The pattern of emissions (high) kg per year, coinciding with the period of most intensive coal use in Maritime Canada. In 1995The history of mercury emissions from fuel combustion in Maritime Canada E.M. Sunderlanda, *, G

  20. Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice Injector for Low Cost High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PCCI A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines...

  1. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01

    alternative fuels, including alcohols (ethanol and methanol), aviation fuel (Alternative fuels and their potential impact on aviation.

  2. Synthetic fuel aromaticity and staged combustion. First quarterly technical progress report, September 23-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Arthur; Longanbach, James R.; Chan, Lisa K.

    1981-01-28

    Synthetic liquid fuels, otherwise referred to as synfuels or coal-derived liquids, are probably best characterized from a combustion-environmental point of view as low in hydrogen, low in sulfur, high in nitrogen, and high in aromatics. As a consequence two of the more critical problems in synfuel combustion are NO/sub x/ formation and soot formation (and polycyclic organic matter). This program is directed to these two issues. At first hand the solutions to burning synfuels high in aromatics and fuel-bound nitrogen are diametrically opposed, i.e., high temperature and excess air keep soot levels down, low temperatures and vitiated air keep nitrogen oxide levels down. Staged combustion however offers a logical solution to the above. This program separates and analyzes the synfuel combustion problem via its component parts and then puts them together again phenomenologically via the stage combustion process.

  3. High-bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mixing Lean Premix Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Melzak; Tim Lieuwen; Adel Mansour

    2012-01-31

    The goal of this program was to develop and demonstrate fuel injection technologies that will facilitate the development of cost-effective turbine engines for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, while improving efficiency and reducing emissions. The program involved developing a next-generation multi-point injector with enhanced stability performance for lean premix turbine systems that burn hydrogen (H2) or synthesis gas (syngas) fuels. A previously developed injector that demonstrated superior emissions performance was improved to enhance static flame stability through zone staging and pilot sheltering. In addition, piezo valve technology was implemented to investigate the potential for enhanced dynamic stability through high-bandwidth modulation of the fuel supply. Prototype injector and valve hardware were tested in an atmospheric combustion facility. The program was successful in meeting its objectives. Specifically, the following was accomplished: Demonstrated improvement of lean operability of the Parker multi-point injector through staging of fuel flow and primary zone sheltering; Developed a piezo valve capable of proportional and high-bandwidth modulation of gaseous fuel flow at frequencies as high as 500 Hz; The valve was shown to be capable of effecting changes to flame dynamics, heat release, and acoustic signature of an atmospheric combustor. The latter achievement indicates the viability of the Parker piezo valve technology for use in future adaptively controlled systems for the mitigation of combustion instabilities, particularly for attenuating combustion dynamics under ultra-lean conditions.

  4. Chemical kinetic modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of sour gas, a mixture of natural gas (primarily methane (CH 4 )), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), could enable the utilization of large natural gas resources, especially when ...

  5. Techno-economic analysis of pressurized oxy-fuel combustion power cycle for CO? capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Jongsup

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new ...

  6. Modeling the Effects of Steam-Fuel Reforming Products on Low Temperature Combustion of n-Heptane

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The effects of blends of base fuel (n-heptane) and fuel-reformed products on the low-temperature combustion process were investigated.

  7. Fuel combustion exhibiting low NO.sub.x and CO levels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jay O. (3534 Brunell Dr., Oakland, CA 94602); Bramlette, T. Tazwell (2105 Canyon Lakes Dr., San Ramon, CA 94583); Barr, Pamela K. (294 Joyce St., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for safely combusting a fuel in such manner that very low levels of NO.sub.x and CO are produced. The apparatus comprises an inlet line (12) containing a fuel and an inlet line (18) containing an oxidant. Coupled to the fuel line (12) and to the oxidant line (18) is a mixing means (11,29,33,40) for thoroughly mixing the fuel and the oxidant without combusting them. Coupled to the mixing means (11,29,33,40) is a means for injecting the mixed fuel and oxidant, in the form of a large-scale fluid dynamic structure (8), into a combustion region (2). Coupled to the combustion region (2) is a means (1,29,33) for producing a periodic flow field within the combustion region (2) to mix the fuel and the oxidant with ambient gases in order to lower the temperature of combustion. The means for producing a periodic flow field can be a pulse combustor (1), a rotating band (29), or a rotating cylinder (33) within an acoustic chamber (32) positioned upstream or downstream of the region (2) of combustion. The mixing means can be a one-way flapper valve (11); a rotating cylinder (33); a rotating band (29) having slots (31) that expose open ends (20,21) of said fuel inlet line (12) and said oxidant inlet line (18) simultaneously; or a set of coaxial fuel annuli (43) and oxidizer annuli (42,44). The means for producing a periodic flow field (1, 29, 33) may or may not be in communication with an acoustic resonance. When employed, the acoustic resonance may be upstream or downstream of the region of combustion (2).

  8. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  9. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  10. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  11. Non-Petroleum-Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergy Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

  12. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  13. Biomass Fuel Characterization : Testing and Evaluating the Combustion Characteristics of Selected Biomass Fuels : Final Report May 1, 1988-July, 1989.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Haluzok, Charles; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas

    1990-04-01

    Results show that two very important measures of combustion efficiency (gas temperature and carbon dioxide based efficiency) varied by only 5.2 and 5.4 percent respectively. This indicates that all nine different wood fuel pellet types behave very similarly under the prescribed range of operating parameters. The overall mean efficiency for all tests was 82.1 percent and the overall mean temperature was 1420 1{degree}F. Particulate (fly ash) ad combustible (in fly ash) data should the greatest variability. There was evidence of a relationship between maximum values for both particulate and combustible and the percentages of ash and chlorine in the pellet fuel. The greater the percentage of ash and chlorine (salt), the greater was the fly ash problem, also, combustion efficiency was decreased by combustible losses (unburned hydrocarbons) in the fly ash. Carbon monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen showed the next greatest variability, but neither had data values greater than 215.0 parts per million (215.0 ppm is a very small quantity, i.e. 1 ppm = .001 grams/liter = 6.2E-5 1bm/ft{sup 3}). Visual evidence indicates that pellets fuels produced from salt laden material are corrosive, produce the largest quantities of ash, and form the only slag or clinker formations of all nine fuels. The corrosion is directly attributable to salt content (or more specifically, chloride ions and compounds formed during combustion). 45 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. PEM fuel cell cost minimization using ``Design For Manufacture and Assembly`` techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomax, F.D. Jr.; James, B.D.; Mooradian, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells fueled with direct hydrogen have demonstrated substantial technical potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines (ICE`s) in light duty vehicles. Such a transition to a hydrogen economy offers the potential of substantial benefits from reduced criteria and greenhouse emissions as well as reduced foreign fuel dependence. Research conducted for the Ford Motor Co. under a US Department of Energy contract suggests that hydrogen fuel, when used in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), can achieve a cost per vehicle mile less than or equal to the gasoline cost per mile when used in an ICE vehicle. However, fuel cost parity is not sufficient to ensure overall economic success: the PEM fuel cell power system itself must be of comparable cost to the ICE. To ascertain if low cost production of PEM fuel cells is feasible, a powerful set of mechanical engineering tools collectively referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) has been applied to several representative PEM fuel cell designs. The preliminary results of this work are encouraging, as presented.

  15. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyatt Jaeglť

    combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions Lyatt Jaegleī ,a Linda Steinberger,a Randall V. Martinbc anthropogenic emissions, mostly resulting from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, are superimposed estimates are 25% larger than a priori. A posteriori fuel combustion emissions are aseasonal

  16. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and fossil fuel combustion S. A. Guazzotti,1 D. T. Suess,2 K. R. Coffee,2,3 P. K. Quinn,4 T. S. Bates,4 A concentration of submicrometer carbon-containing particles with potassium (indicative of combustion sources the Arabian Peninsula, where dominance of fossil fuel combustion is suggested by results from single

  17. 1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    /biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion 3 S. A. Guazzotti,1 D. T. Suess,1,2 K. R. Coffee,1,3 P. K. Quinn,4 T. S with potassium 17 (indicative of combustion sources), and mass concentration of submicrometer non-sea- 18 salt Peninsula, where dominance of fossil fuel combustion is suggested by 30 results from single

  18. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Key characteristics of variable orifice fuel injector are described that will extend the operation maps of early PCCI combustion and enable dual-mode combustion over full operating maps.

  19. Parametric examination of the destruction of availability due to combustion for a range of conditions and fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavannavar, Praveen Shivshankar

    2005-11-01

    A comprehensive second law analysis of combustion for a range of conditions and fuels was completed. Constant pressure, constant volume and constant temperature combustion processes were examined. The parameters studied were reactant temperature...

  20. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?relative combustion phasing√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬į to 60√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įBTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  1. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NREL Advanced PetroleumDepartment|Department

  2. Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on in market entry process ! #12;Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite batteries and diesel generators #12;PFM vs. PEM stack- Cost Analysis per kW at 10^3 unit volumes 6 PFM

  3. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    safe, reliable, efficient, and low-emission operation across a broad range of fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas. Displacing...

  4. Fuel Cell System Cost for Transportation-2008 Cost Estimate (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Independent review prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Manager.

  5. Fuel injection characteristics and combustion behavior of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balles, E.N.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    High levels of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation keep the direct injection stratified charge engine from commercial application. Previous analytical work has identified several possible hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms which can result from poor in-cylinder fuel distribution. Poor fuel distribution can be caused by erratic fuel injection. Experiments conducted on a single cylinder disc engine show a dramatic increase in the cycle to cycle variation in injection characteristics as engine load decreases. This is accompanied by an increase in cycle to cycle variation in combustion behavior suggesting that degradation in combustion results from the degradation in the quality of the injection event. Examination of combustion and injection characteristics on a cycle by cycle basis shows that, at light load, IMEP and heat release do not correlate with the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. There are strong indications that individual cycles undergo partial or complete misfire.

  6. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  7. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  8. State Grid Biomass Fuel and Combustion Technology Laboratory | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jumpand Maintenance Geothermal Project | Open

  9. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clean, in-cylinder combustion can be enabled by a micro-variable circular orifice, dual mode PCCI, dew film combustion, and a novel combustion chamber design

  10. Fine and ultrafine particles generated during fluidized bed combustion of different solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urciuolo, M.; Barone, A.; D'Alessio, A.; Chirone, R.

    2008-12-15

    The paper reports an experimental study carried out with a 110-mm ID fluidized bed combustor focused on the characterization of particulates formation/emission during combustion of coal and non-fossil solid fuels. Fuels included: a bituminous coal, a commercial predried and granulated sludge (GS), a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and a biomass waste (pine seed shells). Stationary combustion experiments were carried out analyzing the fate of fuel ashes. Fly ashes collected at the combustor exhaust were characterized both in terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition, with respect to both trace and major elements. Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TM-AFM) technique and high-efficiency cyclone-type collector devices were used to characterize the size and morphology of the nanometric-and micronic-size fractions of fly ash emitted at the exhaust respectively. Results showed that during the combustion process: I) the size of the nanometric fraction ranges between 2 and 65 nm; ii) depending on the fuel tested, combustion-assisted attrition or the production of the primary ash particles originally present in the fuel particles, are responsible of fine particle generation. The amount in the fly ash of inorganic compounds is larger for the waste-derived fuels, reflecting the large inherent content of these compounds in the parent fuels.

  11. Webinar: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis, originally presented on April 16, 2013.

  12. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Roster of Participants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Roster of Participants Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Roster of Participants This is the list of attendees from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative...

  13. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNaturalState InformationToolsTools

  15. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  16. Fuels For Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels &For

  17. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|2 DOE

  18. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|2 DOE1

  19. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|2 DOE10

  20. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Fuel-air mixing and combustion in a two-dimensional Wankel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, T.I.P.; Schock, H.J.; Ramos, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mixture stratification at the intake port and gaseous fuel injection on the flow field and fuel-air mixing in a two-dimensional rotary engine model have been investigated by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, an algebraic grid generation method and an approximate factorization time-linearized numerical technique. It is shown that the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber is a function of the air-fuel mixture fluctuations at the intake port. The fuel is advected by the flow field induced by the rotor and is concentrated near the leading apex during the intake stroke. During compression, the fuel concentration is highest near the trailing apex and lowest near the rotor. The penetration of gaseous fuel injected into the combustion chamber during the compression stroke increases with the injection velocity.

  2. Fuel costs and the retirement of capital goods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, Austan Dean

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effect that energy prices and market conditions have on the retirement rates of capital goods using new micro data on aircraft lifetimes and fuel costs. The oil shocks of the 1970s made fuel intensive ...

  3. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  4. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency An advanced engine design that is 15 percent more efficient than diesel, pollution free, and uses any fuel. deer08zajac.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact...

  5. Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. MJG:TTM, 3/01 Plasma Fueling Program FIRE Fueling and Pumping Cost and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control FuelStorage FUELING SYSTEM Tritium System Gas Supply Secondary Containment Vacuum FIRE #12;PWF:6 Storage Includes: ∑ Fuel storage skid near torus ∑ Valve manifold to distribute gas to torus fueling;PWF:6/6/01 Review Plasma Fueling Program 2 Outline ∑ Fueling System Cost Estimate ≠ Fuel Storage

  8. Study of the combustion of various alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barfield, B.F.; Acker, G.J. Jr.; Lindsay, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    This research project used two methods for studying the problems facing alternate fuels. The first method studied the use of chemicals to improve fuel characteristics without changing the basic engine design. The second method was to make engine modifications to suit characteristics of the alternate fuel. The result of the two methods studied is a two-part report. Alcohols, solvent-refined coal (SRC-II), vegetable oils, and mixtures of these with diesel fuels and with each other are the alternative fuels discussed and tested. 21 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTSWorking With Us NRELVehicleResearchFleetFuel

  10. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEATCNAA Jump to:Emissions from

  11. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  12. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  13. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01

    to gasoline. Rogowski and Taylor (1941) showed that alcohol could be used as an anti-knock agent for gasoline, but that alcohol could not compete economically with petroleum fuels as an engine fuel. These and many other studies show the potential... been identified in conversion of diesel engines of farm tractors for using alcohol fuels. Distillation at atmospheric pressure does not yield 200 proof ethanol, (Winston, 1981), so with present technology, ethanol produced on farms is aqueous. A...

  14. Dual fuel combustion in a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Newlyn, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a turbocharged diesel engine to a dual-fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The effect of the gaseous fuel in a turbo-charged diesel engine has been investigated by means of a heat release study and a computer program already developed at Leicester Polytechnic. It is used in order to examine the rate of heat released under any operational condition.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SMALL AND MODULAR REACTOR NUCLEAR FUEL COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pannier, Christopher 1992-

    2012-05-03

    INCAS INtegrated model for the Competitiveness Analysis of Small modular reactors LWR Light Water Reactor NEI Nuclear Energy Institute PWR Pressurized Water Reactor PHWR Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor SEMER SystŤme dí…valuation et de Modťlisation... ...................................................... 27 8 LWR Fuel Cost ..................................................................................................... 28 9 SMR Fuel Cost ..................................................................................................... 29...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Combustion and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about advanced...

  17. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctoberConsumption (MillionOtherOwen Chamberlain DataInnovation

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedofDepartmentVOICESEnergyAboutDepartment of

  19. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  20. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA IMarylandOrleansRental Cars GoVehicle

  2. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  3. Municipal waste combustion assessment: Fossil fuel co-firing. Final report, October 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landrum, V.J.; Barton, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; and describes the population of coal fired boilers that currently co-fire RDF, have previously co-fired RDF but have ceased to do so, and have been used in RDF co-firing demonstrations. (Fossil fuel co-firing, defined as the combustion of RDF with another fuel (usually coal) in a device designed primarily to burn the other fuel, is generally confined to commercial and utility boilers.) Model plants are developed and good combustion practices are recommended.

  4. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01

    tube. The volumetric flowrate Q v on the syringe pump wasvolumetric flowrate Q v was administered with the syringe pumpvolumetric fuel flow rate, Q v , was set using a KDS Model 100 syringe pump.

  5. An Analysis of the Impact of Selected Fuel Thermochemical Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Chakravathy, Kalyana; Daw, C Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In this study we model the effects of 23 different fuels on First and Second Law thermodynamic efficiency of an adiabatic internal combustion engine. First Law efficiency is calculated using lower heating value (LHV) while Second Law efficiency is calculated with exergy, which represents the inherent chemical energy available to produce propulsion. We find that First Law efficiency can deviate by as much as nine percentage points between fuels while Second Law efficiency exhibits a much smaller degree of variability. We also find that First and Second Law efficiency can be nearly the same for some fuels (methane and ethane) but differ substantially for other fuels (hydrogen and ethanol). The differences in First and Second Law efficiency are due to differences in LHV and exergy for a given fuel. In order to explain First Law efficiency differences between fuels as well as the differences between LHV and exergy, we introduce a new term: the molar expansion ratio (MER), defined as the ratio of product moles to reactant moles for complete stoichiometric combustion. We find that the MER is a useful expression for providing a physical explanation for fuel-specific efficiency differences as well as differences between First and Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiency are affected by a number of other fuel-specific thermochemical properties, such as the ratio of specific heat and dissociation of combustion products.

  6. Indonesian fuel consumers shouldering development costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-22

    A graph shows how Indonesia's prices for regular and premium leaded gasolines and diesel fuel compare to the world average price, in US dollars per gallon: USA $0.28 lower for regular leaded gasoline, $0.30 lower for premium leaded, and $0.48 lower for diesel. Such proximity to world averages is of note in the context that Indonesia, a developing country with pressing needs for industrial and social development, does not internally provide the deep consumer subsidies that have long persisted in many such oil-producing countries. Although the other three countries shown on the graph have recently moved to cut internal fuel price subsidies, they still price these three important fuels more deeply below the world average than does Indonesia. A table details Indonesia's internal market price changes over time, by petroleum product. A chart tracks Indonesia's oil exports since 1966. The year of the first world oil price shock, 1973, shows a dramatic increase in exports, but that near-doubling was not repeated during the period of the second price shock, 1978-1979. As of 182, exports (by now including condensates) had fallen to pre-Arab Oil Embargo levels. This issue contains the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for August 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere. Also, beginning with this issue, Energy Detente will appear only in English rather than both English and Spanish, as heretofore.

  7. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergyDuctsDurable Low Cost

  8. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Olson, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    The Hanford Site has been used for the storage of solid waste including transuranic and low-level mixed wastes. The storage and handling of solid waste presents some fire safety questions because most of the solid waste contains combustible components. This report addresses the composition, average fuel loading, and some general observations about performance of steel-drummed solid waste in fire situations.

  9. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  10. A cycle simulation of coal particle fueled reciprocating internal-combustion engines†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosegay, Kenneth Harold

    1982-01-01

    - Summary of Experimental Diesel Engine Operation on Solid Coal Fuels Page Table 2 - Property Data for Coal (Char) Particles . . 23 Table 3 - Summary of the Combustion Model and Reaction Constants 40 Table 4 ? Specifications of the Base Case Engine... Efforts The first attempt to operate a solid particle fueled piston engine was performed nearly a century ago by Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the compression-ignition engine. Since then, at least a dozen separate attempts to oper- ate diesel engines...

  11. Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make6,Energy1Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost

  12. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit

    2011-10-09

    The goal is to develop technologies for pulverized coal boilers with >90% CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration and <35% increase in the cost of electricity. Air-fired power plant experience shows a corrosion loss max at 680-700 C. Low melting point alkali metal trisulfates, such as (K,Na){sub 3}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, become thermally unstable above this temperature range. Some overall conclusions are: (1) CO{sub 2} + 30% H{sub 2}O more corrosive than Ar + 30% H{sub 2}O; (2) Excess O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O can, in some cases, greatly increase oxidation; (3) Coal ash is generally innocuous without SO{sub 3}3 in gas phase; and (4) Long-term exposures are starting to establish differences between air-firing and oxy-firing conditions.

  13. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00 Fuel...

  14. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  15. Chlorinated organic compounds evolved during the combustion of blends of refuse-derived fuels and coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Yang; Napier, J.; Sisk, B.; Wei-Ping Pan; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study was to examine the possible formation of chlorinated organic compounds during the combustion of blends of refuse derived fuels (RDF) and coal under conditions similar to those of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. A series of experiments were conducted using a TGA interfaced to FTIR and MS systems. Additional experiments using a tube furnace preheated to AFBC operating temperatures were also conducted. The combustion products were cryogenically trapped and analyzed with a GUMS system. The chlorination of phenols and the condensation reactions of chlorophenols were investigated in this study. A possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organic; compounds such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, by chlorination and condensation reactions involving phenols, was proposed.

  16. Graphite fuels combustion off-gas treatment options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, R.J.; Lords, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    Scenarios for burning bulk graphite and for burning crushed fuel particles from graphite spent nuclear fuels have been considered. Particulates can be removed with sintered metal filters. Subsequent cooling would then condense semi-volatile fission products into or onto a particulate. These particulates would be trapped by a second sintered metal filter or downstream packed bed. A packed bed scrub column can be used to eliminate most of the iodine-129 and tritium. A molecular sieve bed is proposed to collect the residual {sup 129}I and other tramp radionuclides downstream (Ruthenium, etc.). Krypton-85 can be recovered, if need be, either by cryogenics or by the KALC process (Krypton Adsorption in Liquid Carbon dioxide). Likewise carbon-14 in the form of carbon dioxide could be collected with a caustic or lime scrub solution and incorporated into a grout. Sulfur dioxide present will be well below regulatory concern level of 4.0 tons per year and most of it would be removed by the scrubber. Carbon monoxide emissions will depend on the choice of burner and start-up conditions. Should the system exceed the regulatory concern level, a catalytic converter in the final packed bed will be provided. Radon and its daughters have sufficiently short half-lives (less than two minutes). If necessary, an additional holdup bed can be added before the final HEPA filters or additional volume can be added to the molecular sieve bed to limit radon emissions. The calculated total effective dose equivalent at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory boundary from a single release of all the {sup 3}, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I in the total fuel mass if 0.43 mrem/year.

  17. Combined catalysts for the combustion of fuel in gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anoshkina, Elvira V.; Laster, Walter R.

    2012-11-13

    A catalytic oxidation module for a catalytic combustor of a gas turbine engine is provided. The catalytic oxidation module comprises a plurality of spaced apart catalytic elements for receiving a fuel-air mixture over a surface of the catalytic elements. The plurality of catalytic elements includes at least one primary catalytic element comprising a monometallic catalyst and secondary catalytic elements adjacent the primary catalytic element comprising a multi-component catalyst. Ignition of the monometallic catalyst of the primary catalytic element is effective to rapidly increase a temperature within the catalytic oxidation module to a degree sufficient to ignite the multi-component catalyst.

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2012 Update This report is the sixth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S....

  19. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  20. Cost and Performance Comparison Of Stationary Hydrogen Fueling Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost and Performance Comparison Of Stationary Hydrogen Fueling Appliances Duane B. Myers, Gregory D.directedtechnologies.com/ pubs/DTI_Task2_Report.html. 1 Proceedings of the 2002 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review NREL/CP-610 vehicles (FCV's) and the cost of hydrogen produced by these HFA's. In previous studies we evaluated

  1. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionthe combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionpects of combustion of hydrogen [29], carbon monoxide [29],

  2. Fact #594: October 26, 2009 Fuel Economy and Annual Fuel Cost Ranges for Vehicle Classes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The graph below shows the range of the lowest and highest fuel economy for each vehicle class, along with the lowest and highest annual fuel cost (in parentheses). For example, the two-seater model...

  3. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Is onis3 Annual41 Spring2Costs

  4. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  5. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergyDuctsDurable Low CostDurable,

  6. An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carney, Christopher Mark

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research project was to identify and determine the effect of jet burner operating variables that influence combustion of low-BTU gases. This was done by simulating the combustion of a low-BTU fuel in a jet flame and predicting...

  7. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  8. LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    1 LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. BardMaterials Science and Engineering Program 2 CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANT DIRECT FUEL CELL POWER PLANT Heat power PEMFC: H2 fuel DMFC: Methanol fuel Fuel cells vs. conventional #12;2 3 Fuel cells could change

  9. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  10. Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grout, Ray W

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high- performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

  11. The transition to hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and infrastructure requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Ramback, G.D.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-03-20

    Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range with emissions below one-tenth the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being considered in California as Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicles. These vehicles can also be manufactured with increased but not excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining optimized engines and other advanced components, the overall vehicle efficiency should approach 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to the 3.1 cents/km U.S. vehicle operators pay today while using conventional automobiles. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  12. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  13. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominate an employee forThis formisUsing Low-Cost

  14. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  15. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  16. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  17. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B.; Sidhu, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  18. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L. (Federal Way, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  19. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...

  20. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...

  1. Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Sluder, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

  2. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An advanced engine design that is 15 percent more efficient than diesel, pollution free, and uses any fuel.

  3. BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS -POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS - POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS Senior scientist - "Towards Hydrogen Society" ∑biomass resources - potentials, limits ∑biomass carbon cycle ∑biomass for hydrogen - as compared to other H2- sources and to other biomass paths #12;BIOMASS - THE CARBON CYCLE

  4. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  6. The origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The objective will be met through three steps: (1) qualitative identification of alternative fuel combustion products, (2) quantitative measurement of specific emission levels of these products, and (3) determination of the fate of the combustion products in the atmosphere. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and LP gas. The role of the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) in this project is two-fold. First, fused silica flow reactor instrumentation is being used to obtain both qualitative identification and quantitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. Secondly, a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) apparatus is being used to determine the rates and mechanisms of reaction of selected degradation products under atmospheric conditions. This draft final report contains the results of the second year of the study. The authors initially discuss the results of their flow reactor studies. This is followed by a discussion of the initial results from their LP/LIF studies of the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with methanol and ethanol. In the coming year, they plan to obtain quantitative data on the oxidation of methyl-t-butyl-ether and reformulated gasoline under fuel-lean, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich conditions. They also plan to conduct a mechanistic analysis of the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde and formaldehyde over an extended temperature range.

  7. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did not have the diluent requirements of Prototype-1 and was demonstrated at targeted gas turbine conditions. The TVC combustor, Prototype-2, premixes the syngas with air for low emission performance. The combustor was designed for operation with syngas and no additional diluents. The combustor was successfully operated at targeted gas turbine conditions. Another goal of the program was to advance the status of development tools for syngas systems. In Task 3 a syngas flame evaluation facility was developed. Fundamental data on syngas flame speeds and flame strain were obtained at pressure for a wide range of syngas fuels with preheated air. Several promising reduced order kinetic mechanisms were compared with the results from the evaluation facility. The mechanism with the best agreement was selected for application to syngas combustor modeling studies in Task 6. Prototype-1 was modeled using an advanced LES combustion code. The tools and combustor technology development culminate in a full-scale demonstration of the most promising technology in Task 8. The combustor was operated at engine conditions and evaluated against the various engine performance requirements.

  8. Why the Accuracy of Analytical Instrumentation Affects Boiler Combustion Efficiency†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Combustion trim control systems are utilized to maximize the combustion efficiency of a boiler. The type and cost of a fuel, as well as the size of a boiler, should be considered when selecting the type of combustion trim control system...

  9. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2001 and ending June 30, 2001. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and engineering studies.

  10. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Combustion of Classical and Alternative Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Ulrich

    combustion of hydrogen [29], carbon monoxide [29], methane [30, 31], ethane [32], acetylene [33], propane [

  11. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  12. Combustion characterization of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Lu, Huagang; Hyatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The fundamental thermal behavior of five materials (Illinois coal No. 6, Kentucky coal No. 9, polyvinyl chloride, cellulose, newspaper) has been investigated using the TGA/FTIR/MS system under the condition of combustion. The system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCI, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds during co-firing of coal with refuse derived fuels.

  13. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    benefits to society from investments by DOE (both EERE and cooperative CRF efforts) in laser diagnostic and optical engine technologies and combustion modeling for heavy-duty...

  14. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, Robers; Dryer, Frederick; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  15. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-05-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO{sub 2} from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H{sub 2} concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient g{sub F}) values for CH{sub 4}-O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} flames. The scaling relation (𝐠{sub F} = 𝐜 𝐒{sub 𝐋}{sup 2}/𝛂) for different burner diameters was obtained for various diameter burners. The report shows that results correlated linearly with a scaling value of c =0.0174. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH{sub 4}/21%O{sub 2}/79%N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of CH{sub 4}/air and CH{sub 4}/38%O{sub 2}/72%CO{sub 2} combustion. The velocity fluctuations, turbulence intensities and local propagation velocities along the combustion chamber have been determined. The turbulent intensities increase as we move away from the combustor axis. CH{sub 4}-38%O{sub 2}-72%CO{sub 2} flames have low radial velocity and turbulent intensity distributions at different axial distances when compared with CH{sub 4}-Air flames.

  16. Compression and combustion of non-cryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    Variants of a target with a solid thermonuclear fuel in the form of deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals for an inertial fusion have been proposed. The laser-pulse-induced compression of non-cryogenic targets, as well as ignition and combustion of such targets, has been examined. The numerical calculations show that, despite a decrease in the caloric content of the fuel and an increase in the energy losses on intrinsic radiation in the target containing deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals as compared to the target containing deuterium-tritium ice, the non-cryogenic target can ensure the fusion gain sufficient for its use in the energy cycle of a thermonuclear power plant based on the inertial plasma confinement method.

  17. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01

    Related Works in Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . .of Acoustics on Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  18. Fuel NOx pollution production during the combustion of a low caloric value fuel gas†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraway, John Phillip

    1995-01-01

    incorporates a three-dimensional physical design and is based on an actual industrial combustor. The combustor model utilizes a multi-staged design. Two initial air/fuel ratios are simulated, with three variations each on downstream inlet air. The production...

  19. A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1998-10-02

    In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.

  20. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  1. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  2. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  3. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  4. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  5. Investigation of Fuel Quality Impact on the Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of a Turbo-Charged SI Engine Operated on Low BTU Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research results validate an engine simulation model and provide guidelines for the improved control of combustion stability of SI engines operated on low-BTU gaseous fuels.

  6. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  7. Investigation of the combustion of liquid fuels in Rijke type pulse combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    The synopsis summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract NO. AS04-85AL31881, which investigated the combustion of different liquid fuels in Rijke type pulse combustors. Interest in the development of a Rijke pulse combustor capable of burning liquid fuels was stimulated by earlier studies by the investigators of this program which had demonstrated that various coals can be burned efficiently and with low pollutant emissions in Rijke type pulse combustors. This research program consisted of three tasks. Task A was concerned with the development of a Rijke pulse combustor design capable of burning different liquid fuels, and determination of the performances of uninsulated and insulated versions of the developed Rijke pulse combustor when burning different liquid fuels under different operating conditions. Task B was concerned with the elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for driving the pulsations in the developed combustors, and Task C was concerned with the determination of the dependence of the combustor performance upon the amplitude of pulsations. The results of these studies are briefly discussed in the remainder of this document. 2 figs.

  8. Survey Results and Analysis of the Cost and Efficiency of Various Operating Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, John

    2011-03-05

    Existing Hydrogen Fueling Stations were surveyed to determine capital and operational costs. Recommendations for cost reduction in future stations and for research were developed.

  9. FE's Advanced Combustion R&D Seeks Innovative Ways to Lower Cost...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Learn more about the FE Advanced Combustion R&D. You've probably heard about carbon capture and storage (CCS), a suite of technologies designed to capture and store carbon dioxide...

  10. Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieuwen, Tim; Santavicca, Dom; Yang, Vigor

    2012-03-31

    During the duration of this sponsorship, we broadened our understanding of combustion instabilities through both analytical and experimental work. Predictive models were developed for flame response to transverse acoustic instabilities and for quantifying how a turbulent flame responds to velocity and fuel/air ratio forcing. Analysis was performed on the key instability mechanisms controlling heat release response for flames over a wide range of instability frequencies. Importantly, work was done closely with industrial partners to transition existing models into internal instability prediction codes. Experimentally, the forced response of hydrogen-enriched natural gas/air premixed and partially premixed flames were measured. The response of a lean premixed flame was investigated, subjected to velocity, equivalence ratio, and both forcing mechanisms simultaneously. In addition, important physical mechanisms controlling the response of partially premixed flames to inlet velocity and equivalence ratio oscillations were analyzed. This final technical report summarizes our findings and major publications stemming from this program.

  11. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005...

  13. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

    2005-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be benchmarked with IGCC polygen costs for plants of similar size. Sorbent attrition and lifetime will be addressed via bench-scale experiments that monitor sorbent performance over time and by assessing materials interactions at operating conditions. The product gas from the third reactor (high-temperature vitiated air) will be evaluated to assess the concentration of particulates, pollutants and other impurities relative to the specifications required for gas turbine feed streams. This is the eighteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the Phase II period starting July 01, 2005 and ending September 30, 2005. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including process modeling, scale-up and economic analysis.

  14. Comminution phenomena during the fluidized bed combustion of a commercial refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, U.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R.; D`Anna, G.

    1995-12-31

    A commercial densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF), obtained as pellets from municipal solid wastes, was burned in two laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustors, having an internal diameter of 41 mm. The apparatus were both batchwise operated at 850 C by injecting batches of RDF particles into a bed of silica sand (300--400 {micro}m as size range) fluidized at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s. RDF particles with equivalent mean diameter ranging from 4 to 9 mm were used. Different experimental procedures were set up to separately investigate comminution phenomena of fuel particles. Results were compared with those obtained burning a South African bituminous coal. Results pointed out that RDF particles undergo a strong primary fragmentation phenomenon, with a probability of particle breakage equal to 1 for fuel particles larger than 6 mm. Attrition and char fragmentation phenomena are particularly relevant under both inert and oxidizing conditions, generating a large amount of unburned fines which may affect overall combustion efficiency.

  15. Assessing the Role of Operating, Passenger, and Infrastructure Costs in Fleet Planning under Fuel Price Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    ATA) Quarterly Cost Index: U.S. Passenger Airlines. http://fuel, termed Jet A, and the cost index in cents per gallon.The cost index, as defined by the Air Transportation

  16. On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough April 18, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis NREL Scientist...

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for...

  18. Manufacturing Facility Opened Using EERE-Supported Low-Cost Fuel...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of fuel cells. To accomplish this cost reduction, BASF developed a higher throughput coating process, modeled the impact of defects on fuel cell performance, and developed more...

  19. Optical investigation of the combustion behaviour inside the engine operating in HCCI mode and using alternative diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    In order to understand the effect of both the new homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process and the use of biofuel, optical measurements were carried out into a transparent CR diesel engine. Rape seed methyl ester was used and tests with several injection pressures were performed. OH and HCO radical were detected and their evolutions were analyzed during the whole combustion. Moreover, soot concentration was measured by means the two colour pyrometry method. The reduction of particulate emission with biodiesel as compared to the diesel fuel was noted. Moreover, this effect resulted higher increasing the injection pressure. In the case of RME the oxidation of soot depends mainly from O{sub 2} content of fuel and OH is responsible of the NO formation in the chamber as it was observed for NO{sub x} exhaust emission. Moreover, it was investigated the evolution of HCO and CO into the cylinder. HCO was detected at the start of combustion. During the combustion, HCO oxidizes due to the increasing temperature and it produces CO. Both fuels have similar trend, the highest concentrations are detected for low injection pressure. This effect is more evident for the RME fuel. (author)

  20. Sensitivity of natural gas HCCI combustion to fuel and operating parameters using detailed kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S; Dibble, R; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C K

    1999-07-19

    This paper uses the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to analyze natural gas HCCI combustion in an engine. The HCT code has been modified to better represent the conditions existing inside an engine, including a wall heat transfer correlation. Combustion control and low power output per displacement remain as two of the biggest challenges to obtaining satisfactory performance out of an HCCI engine, and these are addressed in this paper. The paper considers the effect of natural gas composition on HCCI combustion, and then explores three control strategies for HCCI engines: DME (dimethyl ether) addition, intake heating and hot EGR addition. The results show that HCCI combustion is sensitive to natural gas composition, and an active control may be required to compensate for possible changes in composition. The three control strategies being considered have a significant effect in changing the combustion parameters for the engine, and should be able to control HCCI combustion.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Han, Manbae; Wagner, Robert M; Sluder, Scott

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

  2. Optical-Engine Study of a Low-Temperature Combustion Strategy Employing a Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle and Early, Direct Injection of Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insight into mechanisms causing observed sharp emissions increase with diesel fuel injection is gained through experiments in an optical engine employing a similar low-temperature combustion strategy of early, direct injection of diesel fuel.

  3. Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2010-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

  4. LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    conventional and clean coal technologies. This project was primarily directed toward developing concrete technologies. Based on these properties, two sources of both conventional and clean coal ashes were selected technology for high-volume applications of Illinois coal combustion by-products generated by using both

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  6. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal ofof the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & theof battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles

  7. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Comparative Assessment of Fuel Cell Cars, Massachusettselectric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal of PowerTransition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential

  8. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  9. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    cost scenarios for crude oil prices of 25 and 50 Ä /bbl. ForCrude oil, renewable, NG Vehicle energy-use model ADVISOR simulation No formal model No formal model No formal model Vehicle cost Retail price

  10. Studies of the combustion of coal/refuse derived fuels using thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Huagang; Li, Jigui; Lloyd, W.G.

    1995-11-01

    According to a report of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), `Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States`, the total MSW produced in the U.S. increased from 179 million tons in 1988 to 195 million tons in 1990. The EPA predicted that the country would produce about 216 million tons of garbage in the year 2000. The amount of waste generated and the rapidly declining availability of sanitary landfills has forced most municipalities to evaluate alternative waste management technologies for reducing the volume of waste sent to landfills. The fraction of MSW that is processed by such technologies as separation and recycling, composting, and waste-to-energy was forecast to increase from a few percent today to 30-40% by the year 2000. Waste-to-energy conversion of MSW can appear to be attractive because of the energy recovered, the economic value of recycled materials, and the cost savings derived from reduced landfill usage. However, extra care needs to be taken in burning MSW or refuse-derived fuel (RDF) to optimize the operating conditions of a combustor so that the combustion takes place in an environmentally acceptable manner. For instance, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been found in the precipitator fly ash and flue gas of some incinerator facilities in the United States and Europe. The amount of PCDDs and PCDFs occurs only in the parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion range, but these chlorinated organics exhibit very high toxicity (LD{sub 50} < 10 {mu}g/Kg). The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin has been found to be acnegenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. This has slowed or even stopped the construction and operation of waste-to-energy plants.

  11. Combustion/Materials Durability Relationships for Improved Low-Cost Clean Cookstoves

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs |Chart ofClark2012 National| DepartmentCampus -DOE

  12. Future fuels for general aviation; Proceedings of the Symposium on Future Fuels for General Aviation Intermittent Combustion, Baltimore, MD, June 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, K.H.; Gonzalez, C.

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on motor gasoline use in aircraft, alternative fuel use in aircraft, and future fuel requirements. Aircraft field experience with automotive gasoline in the U.S. is considered as well as field experience with type certified civil aircraft operated on motor gasolines and a worldwide survey of motor gasoline characteristics. Attention is also given to the performance of alternative fuels in general aviation aircraft, ethanol and methanol in intermittent combustion engines, and investigations into gasoline/alcohol blends for use in general aviation.

  13. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    gas emissions over the full fuel cycle and vehicle lifetime.are estimated over the full fuel cycle and entire vehicleoperation and maintenance, full fuel-cycle air-pollutant and

  14. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-A WholesaleRetrofit Existing Buildings

  15. Sandia Energy - Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxy-fuel combustion. However, properly designing new pressurized combustion burners and boilers requires accurate data on coal devolatilization and combustion rates...

  16. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Investigation of fuel effects on low-temperature combustion, particularly HCCI PCCI combustion deer09gehrke.pdf More Documents & Publications The Role of Advanced Combustion in...

  17. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energyfuel vehicles as potential solutions to problems such as energypotential but generally requires more energy,Ē and a portfolio of various fuels

  18. Carbon attrition during the circulating fluidized bed combustion of a packaging-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, M.L.; Arena, U.

    1999-05-01

    Cylindrical pellets of a market-available packaging-derived fuel, obtained from a mono-material collection of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, were batchwise fed to a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The apparatus, whose riser was 41 mm ID and 4 m high, was operated under both inert and oxidizing conditions to establish the relative importance of purely mechanical attrition and combustion-assisted attrition in generating carbon fines. Silica sand particles of two size distributions were used as inert materials. For each run, carbon load and carbon particle size distribution in the riser and rates of attrited carbon fines escaping the combustor were determined as a function of time. A parallel investigation was carried out with a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor to point out peculiarities of attrition in CFB combustors. After devolatilization, PET pellets generated fragile aggregates of char and sand, which easily crumbled, leading to single particles, partially covered by a carbon-rich layer. The injected fixed carbon was therefore present in the bed in three phases: an A-phase, made of aggregates of sand and char, an S-phase, made of individual carbon-covered sand particles and an F-phase, made of carbon fines, abraded by the surfaces of the A- and S-phases. The effects of the size of inert material on the different forms under which fixed carbon was present in the bed and on the rate of escape of attrited carbon fines from the combustor were investigated. Features of carbon attrition in CFB and BFB combustors are discussed.

  19. Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States Niven Winchester, Dominic Mc on recycled paper #12;1 Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States Niven Winchester Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation

  20. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation - Steam Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13013: H2 Delivery Cost...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3013: H2 Delivery Cost Projections - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13013: H2 Delivery Cost Projections - 2013 This program record from the U.S. Department of...

  2. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  3. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles decreases with time. * Manufacturing costs associated with batteries and electric machines fall faster than those of conventional technologies (i.e., engine,...

  4. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel FuelgreenDepartment of

  5. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Roster of Participants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs, Before theFebruary 1, 2006of

  6. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs, Before theFebruary 1, 2006ofWorkshop Sustainable Alternative

  7. Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesy of theSolar Power || Department|

  8. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Roster of Participants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department ofSUPPLEMENT NOVEMBERSupporting aSusan Convention

  9. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmission

  10. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  11. Characterization of the Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous Opportunity Fuels, September 2007

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A report addendum and final white paper for the Characterization of the Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

  12. Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    Mandating green: On the design of renewable fuel policies and cost containment mechanisms Gabriel E Energy Efficiency Center Sustainable Transportation Seminar, and the Berkeley Bioeconomy Conference. Lin

  13. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment,...

  14. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  15. Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartmentAuditsDepartment of(TEG)of Energy1

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls on asPublications ¬ĽTestMethodology

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Widget Assumptions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls on asPublications ¬ĽTestMethodologyand

  18. Fundamental aspects of coal-water fuel droplet combustion and secondary atomization of coal-water mixtures. Volume II, final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    This Final Report is issued in two volumes, covering research into the combustion of Coal Water Fuels (CWF). Two separate but related tasks are discussed; Volume I contains results obtained under Task 1 - Fundamental aspects ...

  19. Direct Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine and Its Implications to Flex-Fuel VVT Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel, injection timing, and valve deactivation in a DI optical accessible engine with side-mounted, multi-hole injector are investigated using CFD and high-speed imaging of sprays and combustion.

  20. Fundamental aspects of coal-water fuel droplet combustion and secondary atomization of coal-water mixtures. Volume I, final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarofim, Adel F.

    1987-01-01

    This Final Report is issued in two volumes, covering research into the combustion of coal-water fuels (CWF). Two separate but related tasks are discussed; the present report, Volume I, contains results obtained under Task ...

  1. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and nano-dispersed vanadium, listed in decreasing order of importance. Catalytic effects play a very significant role in the oxidation of most practical solid fuel chars. Some degree of reactivity estimation is possible using only elemental analyses of parent fuels, but only if correlative techniques make use of the existing body of knowledge on the origin, form and dispersion of inorganic matter in various fuel classes. During the past year at BYU, work focused primarily on renovation of the BYU high pressure drop tube reactor (HPDT). This work has included design and testing of a flat-flame burner that can be operated at high pressure. A high-temperature, high-pressure gas profile has been achieved within this high-pressure flat-flame burner (HP-FFB). Detailed descriptions of the design and testing of the HP-FFB are given in this report. In addition, continued char reactivity experiments in the high pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HP-TGA) have been performed on chars produced at different pressures in the HPDT. Results of the HP-TGA reactivity studies on a high-volatile A bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8) char are that intrinsic char activation energy increases with pyrolysis pressure, and that the oxygen order is roughly 0.9. These results are different than previous research on chars produced at atmospheric pressure. These new data show that the rate constant decreases with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the hydrogen content of the new chars produced at elevated pressures was fairly high ({approx}2 wt. %, daf), and char samples produced at higher temperatures are desired. During the next project year, experimental work on oxygen reactivity at high pressure will continue at BYU, and on CO{sub 2} reactivity at high pressure at Brown University. Selected chars produced at BYU under high pressure conditions will also be used at Brown for reactivity studies.

  2. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  3. Dual-Fuel Combustion Turbine Provides Reliable Power to U.S. Navy Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, Mark A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-01-01

    In keeping with a long-standing tradition of running Base utilities as a business, the U.S. Navy Submarine Base New London installed a dual-fuel combustion turbine with a heat recovery boiler. The 5-megawatt (MW) gas- and oil-fired combustion turbine sits within the Lower Base area, just off the shores of the Thames River. The U.S. Navy owns, operates, and maintains the combined heat and power (CHP) plant, which provides power to the Navy?s nuclear submarines when they are in port and to the Navy?s training facilities at the Submarine Base. Heat recovered from the turbine is used to produce steam for use in Base housing, medical facilities, and laundries. In FY00, the Navy estimates that it will save over $500,000 per year as a result of the combined heat and power unit.

  4. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power...

  5. FE's Advanced Combustion R&D Seeks Innovative Ways to Lower Cost of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtrans - Permeation Measurement2 0Press ReleasesCapturing

  6. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  7. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy Technology JumpWilliam County,|ProarkInformation

  8. Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flats 100k.pdf JumpFlemington, New Jersey: Energy

  9. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    cost of motor-vehicle air pollution and vice versa. Here weEffects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution, UCD-ITS-RR-96-3 (by Ozone Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles, UCD-ITS-RR-96-

  10. ICEPT Working Paper Comparison of Fuel Cell and Combustion Micro-CHP under Future Residential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Demand Scenarios June 14th 2007 Adam Hawkes1 Matthew Leach Centre for Energy Policy and Technology and Combustion Micro-CHP under Future Residential Energy Demand Scenarios A.D. Hawkes2 and M.A. Leach Centre for Energy Policy and Technology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Rd, London SW7 2AZ, UK Abstract Energy

  11. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    fuels consumed for international maritime shipping as wellby intrastate marine shipping. Distillate fuel use by ocean-residual fuel, 3.5% was used by interstate marine shipping,

  12. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    by electricity generation/CHP facilities by distillate fuelFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat GenerationFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat Generation

  13. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  14. adopt our eco-driving top tips to reduce fuel costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    adopt our eco-driving top tips to reduce fuel costs and accident risk Drive smoothly ∑ Anticipate this will activate the fuel cut-off switch, reducing fuel flow to virtually zero. Shift up early ∑ When accelerating, when appropriate. Avoid excessive speed High speeds greatly increase fuel consumption. Keep tyres

  15. Life-Cycle Costs of Alternative Fuels: Is Biodiesel Cost Competitve for Urban Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Letter to Science (Original

  16. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    ignition (CI) engines, battery-electric systems, fuel-cellelectric systems, and hybrid electric-engine systems. Recentelectric powertrains generally are quieter than engines.

  17. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    diesel, ethanol, hydrogen and grid electricity ICE, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, battery, fuel cell Feedstocks Crude oil, NG, coal, wind,

  18. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    analysis shows that hybrid and electric cars perform bettercar (4-5 passengers) Fuels Gasoline, CNG, diesel, FT50, methanol, H2 Powertrains ICE, hybrid,

  19. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), synthetic diesel, methanol,FCX Fuels Gasoline, Diesel, CNG, FT diesel, methanol, H2,H2, electricity Gasoline, diesel, CNG, biogas, LPG, ethanol,

  20. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by approximately 50% compared to a simple cycle gas turbine. Because of the electrochemical nature of fuel cells, emissions of criteria...

  1. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992Thousand Cubic(Dollars-1)

  2. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1997

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4Cubic Feet)Cubic1992Thousand Cubic(Dollars-1)7

  3. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy CyberDepartmentonNatural ResoursesImperial

  4. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101Company Level ImportsContango

  5. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  6. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  7. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  8. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-041 Kick-Off Meeting for New Fuel Cell Projects CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe...

  9. Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.

  10. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel

  11. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuelDepartmentUnveiledof

  12. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  13. Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /FreedomCar guidelines. Packaging (Piping, Electrical, .....) Start-up Power (battery); Anode Tailgas Burner Included in DOE PEMFC System Analyzed Fuel Tank ∑ Power Conditioning ∑ Electric Motor ∑ Electric Drive Train ∑ Regenerative Braking System (Battery) Managers (Controllers and Sensors) Air Thermal Water Safety Other: ∑ AC

  14. FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , University of California, 4152 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract This investigation examines the economics of producing electricity from proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems under various of natural gas, electricity prices, fuel cell and reformer system costs, and fuel cell system durability

  15. Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells R. Bashyam and P. Zelenay 1) activity in known-to-date non- precious metal. Fuel cell testing of the composite Figure 2 shows a hydrogen LALP-07-013 Winter 2007 F uel cells, which directly convert a fuel's chemical energy into electricity

  16. Examining the Costs and Benefits of Technology Pathways for Reducing Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Examining the Costs and Benefits of Technology Pathways for Reducing Fuel Use and Emissions from On policy harmonized Tax credits Anti-idling Low Carbon Fuel Standard #12;Lifecycle Emissions Modeled in TOP-HDV 5 Fuel production, refining, and distribution Material acquisition, processing, and vehicle assembly

  17. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  18. Design, operation, and performance of a modern air pollution control system for a refuse derived fuel combustion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, E.H.; Azzinnari, C.

    1997-12-01

    The Robbins, Illinois refuse derived fuel combustion facility was recently placed into service. Large and new, the facility is designed to process 1600 tons of waste per day. Twenty-five percent of the waste, or 400 tons per day, is separated out in the fuel preparation process. The remaining 1200 tons per day is burned in two circulating fluidized bed boilers. The system is designed to meet new source performance standards for municipal waste combustion facilities, including total particulate, acid gases (HCl, SO{sub 2}, HF), heavy metals (including mercury), and dioxins. The system utilizes semi-dry scrubbers with lime and activated carbon injected through dual fluid atomizers for control of acid gases. Final polishing of acid gas emissions, particulate control, heavy metals removal, and control of dioxins is accomplished with pulse jet fabric filters. This paper discusses the design of the facility`s air pollution control system, including all auxiliary systems required to make it function properly. Also discussed is the actual operation and emissions performance of the system.

  19. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-08-08

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream.

  20. Standard guide for pyrophoricity/combustibility testing in support of pyrophoricity analyses of metallic uranium spent nuclear fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers testing protocols for testing the pyrophoricity/combustibility characteristics of metallic uranium-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The testing will provide basic data for input into more detailed computer codes or analyses of thermal, chemical, and mechanical SNF responses. These analyses would support the engineered barrier system (EBS) design bases and safety assessment of extended interim storage facilities and final disposal in a geologic repository. The testing also could provide data related to licensing requirements for the design and operation of a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) or independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). 1.2 This guide describes testing of metallic uranium and metallic uranium-based SNF in support of transportation (in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR71), interim storage (in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR72), and geologic repository disposal (in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR60/63). The testing described ...

  1. Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce Carbon

  2. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. Department of

  3. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers |Gamma-Ray Logging VP of2

  4. Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers |Gamma-Ray Logging VP

  5. Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics ¬Ľ USAJobs Search USAJobs Search TheChlamydomonasMaterial from This

  6. Significance of gasification during oxy-fuel combustion of a lignite char in a fluidised bed using a fast UEGO sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saucedo, Marco A.; Butel, Mathias; Scott, Stuart A.; Collings, Nick; Dennis, John S.

    2014-10-29

    -fuel, as the temperature increases, gasification by the high concentrations of CO? present becomes increasingly significant. At low temperatures, e.g. ?1000 K, rates of combustion in oxy-fuel were lower than those in mixtures of O? and N? containing the same mole fraction...

  7. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuelDepartment of Energy 09 DOE

  8. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part IBladeDepartment

  9. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2013-05-28

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oilOil Lubricants Naphtha Petroleum feedstocks Natural Gas Liquids Municipal Solid Waste

  11. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O'Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted Flame Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Ford Motor Company at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel properties to enable...

  13. Viability of waste-based cooking fuels for Developing countries : combustion emissions and field feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banzaert, Amy, 1976-

    2013-01-01

    Biomass-derived cooking fuels are used by three billion people worldwide. The drawbacks of such fuels, typically wood or wood-derived charcoal, include health hazards, negative environmental effects, and perpetuation of ...

  14. Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, N.

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the cost to US airlines of meeting this goal ...

  15. Review of Transportation Issues & Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the inter-regional transportation issues and associated costs for increased distribution of renewable fuels with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the standards.

  16. Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

    2012-09-01

    Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the seventh annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. In this multi-year...

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive...

  19. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive...

  20. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  1. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  2. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fuel, Engines, and Emissions Research Center

  4. Ex-Post Costs and RIN Prices Under the Renewable Fuel Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    particularly on the EPA's methods used to calculate costs of the policy on the US fuel market. We compare, as well as recommend the use of `stress tests' in RIAs to ensure that programs like the RFS2 are designed in ways that can manage high compliance cost scenarios. a Department of Agricultural and Resource

  5. Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics ¬Ľ USAJobs Search USAJobs Search TheChlamydomonasMaterial from ThisEnergy 1 DOE

  6. Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDIT REPORT:FederalEconomicAdmiralsMeeting,AdvancedAdvAnced

  7. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.; Golan, L. [South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center, Clemson, SC (United States); Toma, M.; Mansour, M. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Various technologies are available for the combustion of high-sulfur, high-ash fuels, particularly coal. From performance, economic and environmental standpoints, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is the leading candidate for utilization of high sulfur coals. ThermoChem, Inc., and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center (SCERDC) are installing a hybrid fluidized bed combustion system at Clemson University. This hybrid system, known as the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC), will augment the University`s steam system by providing 50--60,000 lbs/hr of saturated process steam. The PAFBC, developed by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., (MTCI), integrates a pulse combustor with a bubbling-bed-type atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor. The pulse combustion system imparts an acoustic effect that enhances combustion efficiency, SO{sub 2} capture, low NO{sub x} emissions, and heat transfer efficiency in the fluidized bed. These benefits of pulse combustion result in modestly sized PAFBC units with high throughput rates and lower costs when compared to conventional fluidized bed units.

  8. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  10. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from Chinaís cement production: methodologiesfossil fuel consumption and cement production. Geophys. Res.NTNU, 2006). 27. China Cement Association. China Cement

  11. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    1 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuelcycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the Unitedspatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from national

  12. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vegetable oil) from UOP, University of Maine cellulosic biofuel (levulene), and pyrolysis derived fuels from UOP pyrolysis oil, upgraded at University of Georgia. We were...

  13. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORSSeries) |ReplaceThisEngines (Technical

  14. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests of the Little

  15. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collidertransfer (Journal Article) |Programs of

  16. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus...

  17. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  18. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Volume 30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    Papers discussed combustion theory and modelling, turbulent combustion, laser diagnostics and control, chemical kinetics, computational combustion, flames, detonations, droplet combustion, catalysis/materials synthesis, pulse detonations engines, diagnosis, engine combustion, heterogeneous combustion, pollutants (PAH and soot), kinetics, flame diagnosis, propulsion, laminar diffusion flames, lifted turbulent flames, nanoparticles, premixed turbulent flames, solid oxide fuel cells, laminar flames, stationary power systems, and plasma supported flames.

  19. Project Sponsors:UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Project Sponsors:UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu ALTERNATIVE FUELS GAS FUEL INTERCHANGE OVERVIEW Rising utilization and tight supplies of natural gas are leading to higher fuel prices or "opportunity" fuels in an effort to rein in fuel costs. Use of unprocessed natural gas, coal bed methane

  20. Nuclear Fuel Recycling - the Value of the Separated Transuranics and the Levelized Cost of Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    We analyze the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for three different fuel cycles: a Once-Through Cycle, in which the spent fuel is sent for disposal after one use in a reactor, a Twice-Through Cycle, in which the spent ...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I NLoans TheCounty Schools

  2. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About UsEnergyofSoftware EngineeringofCleanDoes Not4.Headquarters Earth2014 |

  3. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional Awards More14 Date: September

  4. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional| Department ofEvaluation42014 |

  5. Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Accurate fuel models with hundreds of species in advanced CFD with reasonable simulation times. Reaction workbench used for surrogate blend formulation and model reduction. FORTE CFD used for HCCI and LTC diesel engine and validated for PRF-ethanol and diesel

  6. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulfates gives increased sintering. At the same time, increased amounts calcium salts in the ash appear to reduce sintering tendency. Thus, the results suggest that a calcium based sorbent for SO{sub 2} and HCl capture might reduce problems related to ash sintering. An extensive literature exists, however, that states otherwise.

  7. Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Fuel injection strategies to extend low temperature combustion...

  8. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  9. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on CleanUpListSummaryDepartment of10GuillermoCost

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the use of low...

  11. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets, Environ.Andres et al. : A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions doi:A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel

  12. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  13. A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  14. Modeling the Fuel Spray and Combustion Process of the Ignition Quality Tester with KIVA-3V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogin, G. E. Jr.; DeFilippo, A.; Chen, J. Y.; Chin, G.; Luecke, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.; Dean, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Discusses the use of KIVA-3V to develop a model that reproduces ignition behavior inside the Ignition Quality Tester, which measures the ignition delay of low-volatility fuels.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  16. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    the case of oil and extraction, consumption of natural gasGas, Crude Oil and Distillates NGLs consumption in CALEBOil and Gas Extraction (Mcf) Re-pressuring Lease Fuel Consumption

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  18. Cost-Optimal Pathways to 75% Fuel Reduction in Remote Alaskan Villages: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpkins, Travis; Cutler, Dylan; Hirsch, Brian; Olis, Dan; Anderson, Kate

    2015-10-28

    There are thousands of isolated, diesel-powered microgrids that deliver energy to remote communities around the world at very high energy costs. The Remote Communities Renewable Energy program aims to help these communities reduce their fuel consumption and lower their energy costs through the use of high penetration renewable energy. As part of this program, the REopt modeling platform for energy system integration and optimization was used to analyze cost-optimal pathways toward achieving a combined 75% reduction in diesel fuel and fuel oil consumption in a select Alaskan village. In addition to the existing diesel generator and fuel oil heating technologies, the model was able to select from among wind, battery storage, and dispatchable electric heaters to meet the electrical and thermal loads. The model results indicate that while 75% fuel reduction appears to be technically feasible it may not be economically viable at this time. When the fuel reduction target was relaxed, the results indicate that by installing high-penetration renewable energy, the community could lower their energy costs by 21% while still reducing their fuel consumption by 54%.

  19. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  20. How Control Improvements Save Process Heater Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukelow, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Steam boilers and process heaters are the two primary combustion processes in petrochemical and petroleum refining plants. There are key differences in the evolution of these processes which resulted from the historical cost of fuel per unit...

  1. How to utilize hedging and a fuel surcharge program to stabilize the cost of fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehadi, Charles A., III (Charles Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at some of these travails as well as the common tools used to approach a volatile priced commodity, diesel fuel. It focuses on the impacts of hedging for companies that are directly impacted through the ...

  2. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  3. Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, William Tristan

    2008-10-14

    Burner Details 164 C.1 Burner Inlet Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 C.2 Emission Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 List of References 173 List of Figures 1.1 SOFC... Steady Laminar Flamelet Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 UDF User De?ned Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73...

  4. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  5. Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dietz, Jeff (The Lubrizol Corp.)

    2005-07-01

    Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.

  6. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  7. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. ); Ruether, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  8. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    blending fuels with different properties can yield small changes in combustion timing. Using fuel components

  9. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Szymkowicz, Patrick G. [General Motors Corporation; Northrop, William F [General Motors Corporation

    2012-01-01

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that although higher CN does not significantly alter ignition delay at moderate to high loads it has a dominant influence on the acceptable injection timing range. Apart from CN effects, fuel oxygen content plays an independent role in reducing some emissions. It is therefore recommended that compensation for fuel ignitability and oxygen content be included in combustion control strategies to optimize emissions and performance of future diesel engines.

  10. A review of trace element emissions from the combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, G.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The effects of cocombusting refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal on stack emissions of trace elements in the ash stream were reviewed. The large number of variables and uncertainties involved precluded drawing definitive conclusions regarding many of the trace elements. However, it is evident that cocombustion resulted in increased emissions of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. Emissions of As and Ni tended to decrease when RDF was fired with coal. Modeling studies indicated that ambient levels of trace elements during cocombustion should be within acceptable limits. However, periodic monitoring of Cd, Hg, and Pb may be warranted in some instances.

  11. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  12. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct?hydrogen proton ex

  15. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liess, Martin [Rhein Main University of Applied Sciences, RŁsselsheim, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  16. Design and reliability optimization of a MEMS micro-hotplate for combustion of gaseous fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manginell, R. P.

    2012-03-01

    This report will detail the process by which the silicon carbide (SiC) microhotplate devices, manufactured by GE, were imaged using IR microscopy equipment available at Sandia. The images taken were used as inputs to a finite element modeling (FEM) process using the ANSYS software package. The primary goal of this effort was to determine a method to measure the temperature of the microhotplate. Prior attempts to monitor the device's temperature by measuring its resistance had proven to be unreliable due to the nonlinearity of the doped SiC's resistance with temperature. As a result of this thermal modeling and IR imaging, a number of design recommendations were made to facilitate this temperature measurement. The lower heating value (LHV) of gaseous fuels can be measured with a catalyst-coated microhotplate calorimeter. GE created a silicon carbide (SiC) based microhotplate to address high-temperature survivability requirements for the application. The primary goal of this effort was to determine a method to measure the temperature of the microhotplate. Prior attempts to monitor the device's temperature by measuring its resistance had proven to be unreliable due to the non-linearity of the doped SiC's resistance with temperature. In this work, thermal modeling and IR imaging were utilized to determine the operation temperature as a function of parameters such as operation voltage and device sheet resistance. A number of design recommendations were made according to this work.

  17. Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    combustibles in the refuse and help a plant attain emissions compliance requirements that are not always achieved with pollution-control equipment. Combustion catalysts promote the combustion process by lowering the ignition temperature of the fuel, allowing...

  18. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  19. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Universitť d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  20. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  1. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about fuel effects on...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the fuel effects...

  4. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The advantage of these advanced combustion systems is that the high concentration of CO2 in the flue gas reduces the cost and improves the performance of the CO2 capture...

  5. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O'Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  6. Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel...

  7. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis...

  8. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  10. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Vehicle Combustion Engine R&D Investments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct.7,BreakoutRetooling Michigan:Energy Systems | ii iii

  11. Requirements for low cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multi-unit intertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B. Grant; Moir, Ralph; Hoffman, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    Producing Electricity and Hydrogen Fuel" UCRL- ID- 117334,IFE) Plants Producing Hydrogen Fuel," Lawrence LivermoreCost Electricity and Hydrogen Fuel Production from Multi-

  12. Combustion Control†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardi, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    American industry is responding to the challenges of high fuel prices, intense international competition, and a renewed emphasis on quality. To meet these demands, industry has looked at many opportunities--some have been cost effective, some...

  13. Effects of the furnace temperature on the CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from the combustion of pulverized bituminous coal, tire-derived fuel and, for a limited number of runs, waste plastics-derived fuel. The particle size cuts of pulverized coal, tire and plastics were 63--75 {micro}m and 180--300 {micro}m, respectively. Combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale drop-tube furnace at gas temperatures, in the range of 1,300--1,600 K, and several fuel mass loadings in the furnace, expressed in terms of global equivalence ratios in the range of 0.4--2.4. The CO, CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions were monitored continuously with infrared absorption and chemiluminescent instruments. Up to sixty 2-7 ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected by capillary gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Results showed that the PAH emission yields (mg/g fuel introduced) increased drastically with increasing bulk equivalence ratio (in the aforementioned range), at fixed furnace temperatures. This was also true for the CO yields, while the CO{sub 2} yields increased with increasing {o}, reached a maximum around stoichiometry and then decreased mildly. NO{sub x} yields decreased precipitously with increasing equivalence ratio. The CO and, especially, the PAH yields from tire-derived and plastics-derived fuels were much higher than those from coal, but the relative amounts of individual PAH components were remarkably similar in the combustion effluent of all fuels. The CO{sub 2} emissions and, especially, the NO{sub x} emissions from tire crumb were lower than those from coal. The CO{sub 2} emissions from plastics were comparable to those from coal, but their NO {sub x} emissions were much lower than those from tire. At fixed bulk equivalence ratios, however, as the furnace gas temperature increased the PAH yields from coal, tire crumb, and plastics decreased drastically, while the CO emission yields increased. At the highest temperature tested herein, 1,600 K ({approx}1,300 C), the effluent of the combustion of the fuels appeared to be devoid of PAHs. No{sub x} yields increased mildly with temperature. The influence of temperature, in this range, on the CO{sub 2} emissions was not significant. 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  15. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energyís Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over todayís state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle Ė Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include Ė sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  16. Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - options and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.R.; Matos, J.E.; Young, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional impacts, licensing, and scheduling of conversion and standardization of these reactor fuels to use of low-enrichment uranium (LEU) have been assessed. The university reactors span a wide range in form and function, from medium-power intense neutron sources where HEU fuel may be required, to low-power training and research facilities where HEU fuel is unnecessary. Conversion provides an opportunity to standardize university reactor fuels and improve reactor utilization in some cases. The entire program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years. Planning for conversion and standardization is facilitated by the US Department of Energy. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  18. Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

    2009-02-28

    Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

  19. Combustion & Health†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.

    2012-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-12-10-18.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4107 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-KT-12-10-18.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH... Winifred J. Hamilton, PhD, SM Clear Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Galveston, TX October 9?11, 2012 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? Biggest threat to world ecosystems (and to human health) ? Combustion of fossil fuels...

  20. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  1. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins to explore strategies for fuel economy improvements (PCCI and HECC) and redced engine-out NOx emissions.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  3. Climate change and health costs of air emissions from biofuels and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    production and combustion, including feedstock production (crude oil ex, driven by a variety of concerns including volatile oil prices, increased global demand, reliance relative to U.S. population shows regional shifts in health costs dependent on fuel production systems

  4. ?Aceite Vegetal Puro Como Combustible Diesel? (Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? Spanish Version) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Discusses the use of straight vegetable oil as a diesel fuel and the use of biodiesel as a transportation fuel.

  5. Basic combustion and pollutant-formation processes for pulverized fuels. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, 1 July 1981-30 September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germane, G.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1981-10-15

    This contract study of basic combustion and pollutant formation processes for pulverized solid fossil fuels includes coal-water mixtures and chars derived from coal pyrolysis, liquefaction or gasification processes. The factors that affect the physical properties of coal-water mixtures (CWM) have been identified and characterization tests initiated to determine how these variables (e.g., solids loading, particle size, particle size distribution, additives) affect the coal slurries. A bench-scale apparatus consisting of a pressure vessel and an atomizing nozzle was designed and is being fabricated. This apparatus will assist in the development of handling and atomization techniques for the combustion tests. It will also aid in comparing viscosities of slurries of different solids loadings and coal types. Chars were obtained for characterization tests. A series of potential tests to characterize the chars was identified. Grading and sizing of the chars was begun as well as elemental analysis. Samples of the chars were sent to Phillips for CO/sub 2/ reactivity tests to be performed. Coding for incorporation of swirling flows into the two-dimensional coal combustion model (PCGC-2) was completed. Debugging was initiated and sample computations are performed for a gaseous, isothermal system for low swirl numbers. Convergence problems were encountered when attempts were made to complete runs at higher swirl numbers.

  6. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  7. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has s

  8. Reduced No.sub.x combustion method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delano, Mark A. (Briarcliff Manor, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A combustion method enabling reduced NO.sub.x formation wherein fuel and oxidant are separately injected into a combustion zone in a defined velocity relation, combustion gases are aspirated into the oxidant stream prior to intermixture with the fuel, and the fuel is maintained free from contact with oxygen until the intermixture.

  9. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  10. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  11. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  12. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  13. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce engine-out emissions. These approaches could allow advanced diesel combustion or low-temperature combustion strategies with potential for enabling both increased fuel...

  14. High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize engine-out emissions while optimizing fuel economy.

  15. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  16. 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heywood, John B.

    Fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, operation, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Study of fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer ...

  17. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Engine Combustion Research Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion Research 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  18. Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  19. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional| Department ofEvaluation4 Date:

  20. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  1. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  2. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost modeling framework of other studies to include operational costs and life-cycle impact assessment of possible ancillary financial benefits during operation and at...

  3. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Gurpreet

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  4. Sealed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet discusses the benefits of sealed combustion appliance units in order to ensure good indoor air quality.

  5. Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent; Guida, Tracey

    2010-02-01

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  7. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  8. Combustion Air Control†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    to 100%. If the air and fuel controls are on automatic but the flue gas oxygen content cannot be lowered to 4% oxygen without the boiler smoking, burner problems may be suspected. The trouble may be traced to dirty or improperly assembled oil guns..., combustion air distribution problems, vaporizing steam control problems, oil viscosity, or flow control problems. It is very important to have all oil guns operating properly before proceeding with a combustion test. The minimum stack gas oxygen level you...

  9. Combustor technology for broadened-properties fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to increase the availability and reduce the cost of future fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines, it may be necessary to broaden fuel specifications. Anticipated changes in fuel properties, and the effects of these changes on combustion system performance, operating characteristics, durability, and emissions are briefly reviewed, and results to date of a program being conducted to develop and demonstrate combustor technology required to utilize broadened-properties fuels in current and next-generation engines are described. Combustion system design considerations and tradeoffs for burning broadened-properties fuels are discussed, and test experience with several applicable combustor design modifications to the G.E. CF6-80A combustion system is reviewed. Modifications have been demonstrated to improve liner cooling and reduce smoke in the conventional annular combustor, thereby reducing effects of variations in fuel hydrogen content. Advanced staged and variable geometry combustor concepts for burning broadened-properties fuels have also been demonstrated.

  10. Assessing the Role of Operating, Passenger, and Infrastructure Costs in Fleet Planning under Fuel Price Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    the at summer 2008 fuel prices, regional jets have a higherstage lengths and fuel prices, passenger preferences for jetabsence of a fuel price increase, because smaller jets would

  11. Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operating Costs with Engineering and Econometric Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti Ryerson, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft OperatingCapturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operatingsurges in the price of fuel as regional jets have lower fuel

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advancements in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling with High Performance Computing Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advancements in...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advancement in...

  14. Formation mechanisms of combustion chamber deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

    2001-01-01

    Combustion chamber deposits are found in virtually all internal combustion engines after a few hundred hours of operation. Deposits form on cylinder, piston, and head surfaces that are in contact with fuel-air mixture ...

  15. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  16. IR-laser initiated combustion -- A step toward complete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghai, A.; Nabavi, S.H.; Servati, H.B.; Syed, F.

    1996-09-01

    The new global environmental regulations for reducing the engine emissions from both moving and stationary sources, as well as improvement in fuel economy are the major motifs to obtain a perfect combustion process and exhaust aftertreatment methods. Infrared (IR)-Laser initiated combustion provides a very high initial temperature, which produces propagation of a turbulent thermopressure pulse that results in a fast burning and improved combustion. The role of IR is to maximize the heat generation efficiency.

  17. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  18. DOE/BES Workshop on Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BES Workshop on Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels DOEBES Workshop on Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels...

  19. Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA bIFP Energies, France Abstract-- Concern over the availability of fossil fuels and energy usage have produced

  20. Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid

    2014-01-01

    The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...