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Sample records for fuel capable gasoline

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology For Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Pump Components The components for the gasoline and diesel fuel pumps are calculated in the following manner in cents per gallon and then...

  2. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion | Department of Energy The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance. PDF icon p-05_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx

  3. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Sampling Methodology The sample for the Motor Gasoline Price Survey was drawn from a frame of approximately 115,000 retail gasoline outlets. The gasoline outlet frame was...

  4. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Gasoline price data collection procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by...

  5. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    February 16, 2016 Reformulated Gasoline States in each PADD Region Procedures & Methodology Gasoline Data collection procedures Sampling methodology Coefficient of variation...

  6. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Detailed Price and CV Report Motor Gasoline Prices & Coefficients of Variation Spreadsheet

  7. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Learn more... Price trends and regional differences What causes fluctuations in motor gasoline prices? Retail gasoline prices are mainly affected by crude oil prices and the level of gasoline supply relative to demand. Strong and increasing demand for gasoline and other petroleum products in the United States and the rest of the world at times places intense pressure on available supplies. Even when crude oil prices are stable... read more in Gasoline Explained What causes fluctuations in diesel

  8. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines ...

  9. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Retail motor gasoline city definitions The table below shows the counties included in the sampling area for the ten cities that EIA publishes retail motor gasoline prices for. EIA does not have gasoline prices by county. City Counties included Boston Barnstable County, MA Bristol County, MA Dukes County, MA Essex County, MA Hillsborough County, NH Merrimack County, NH Middlesex County, MA Nantucket County, MA Norfolk County, MA Plymouth County, MA Rockingham County, NH Strafford County, NH

  10. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection | Department of Energy Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be used in diesel engines having efficient fuel systems and combustion chamber designs that decrease fuel consumption and mitigate emissions. PDF icon p-02_anitescu.pdf More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Use Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline outlets. The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. ET Monday, except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). The reported price includes all taxes and is the pump price paid by a consumer as of 8:00 A.M. Monday. This price represents the self-serve price

  13. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions performance improvements compared to a production baseline vehicle. PDF icon deer12_confer.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  14. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

  15. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices & Coefficients of Variation Report

  16. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF REGULAR GASOLINE Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) Jan-00 1.289 7.8 13.0 32.1 47.1 Feb-00 1.377 17.9 7.5 30.1 44.6 Mar-00 1.517 15.4 12.8 27.3 44.6 Apr-00 1.465 10.1 20.2 28.3 41.4 May-00 1.485 20.2 9.2 27.9 42.7 Jun-00 1.633 22.2 8.8 25.8 43.1 Jul-00 1.551 13.2 15.8 27.2 43.8 Aug-00 1.465 15.8 7.5 28.8 47.8 Sep-00 1.550

  18. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    These data are made available through EIA's hotline (202-586-6966), EIA's web page, and through EIA's email notification, regular and wireless. Previous Diesel Fuel Price Data ...

  20. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance. PDF icon p-05bunting.pdf More...

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, cash self-serve on-highway diesel prices (including taxes) are collected from a sample of approximately 400 retail diesel outlets in the continental U.S. The sample includes a combination of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The prices are collected via telephone, fax, email, or the internet from

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Diesel Fuel Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF DIESEL FUEL Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) May-02 1.305 5.1 11.3 36.9 46.6 Jun-02 1.286 6.6 11.2 37.5 44.7 Jul-02 1.299 5.3 12.1 37.1 45.5 Aug-02 1.328 8.6 7.8 36.3 47.4 Sep-02 1.411 12.0 7.5 34.2 46.3 Oct-02 1.462 11.4 10.9 33 44.8 Nov-02 1.420 12.0 12.8 33.9 41.2 Dec-02 1.429 12.7 9.3 33.7 44.3 Jan-03 1.488 10.7

  3. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace064_confer_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  4. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace064_confer_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update

  5. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel ...

  6. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace063smith2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel ...

  7. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  8. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  9. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    EAGLES1.1 is PC-based interactive software for analyzing performance (e.g., maximum range) of electric vehicles (EVs) or fuel economy (e.g., miles/gallon) of gasoline vehicles (GVs). The EV model provides a second by second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. It takes into account the effects of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD) and regenerative braking. The GV fuel economy model which relates fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving cycle characteristics, canmore »be used to investigate the effects of changes in vehicle parameters and driving patterns on fuel economy. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be studied. Alternatively, the software can be used to determine the size of battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., maximum range and driving patterns). Options are available to estimate the time necessary for a vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a specified constant power and to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a drivng cycle for speeds exceeding a given value.« less

  10. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  11. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap | Department of Energy NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR. PDF icon deer09_lymburner.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit

  12. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine | Department of Energy Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fuel, Engines, and Emissions Research Center PDF icon 2004_deer_bunting2.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High EGR and Spark Assist

  13. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  14. Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Data Series: Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline (less Adj.) Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blenede w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, > Ed55 Other Conventional Gasoline Finished Motor Gasoline Adjustment Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Jet, Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet, Military

  15. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  17. Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 5: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe A comparison between the average annual price of a gallon of gasoline and a gallon of highway diesel fuel in several European countries shows that a large change took place in 2008. In most of the selected countries, the price of gasoline was 30 to 95 cents higher than that of diesel from 2001 to 2007. In 2008, the price

  18. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  19. Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations...

  20. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  2. Fact #596: November 9, 2009 Best and Worst Fuel to Replace Gasoline |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6: November 9, 2009 Best and Worst Fuel to Replace Gasoline Fact #596: November 9, 2009 Best and Worst Fuel to Replace Gasoline Public opinion surveys from December 2000, August 2004, February 2007 and March 2009 posed this question: Consider a future date when gasoline is no longer available. Which of the following do you think would be the best fuel for use in personal vehicles: electricity, ethanol, or hydrogen? A comparison of the answers from the three different

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  5. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Based on a worksheet developed by Argonne National Laboratory, the idle fuel consumption rate for selected gasoline and diesel vehicles with no load (no use of accessories such as air conditioners,...

  6. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors. Therefore, the overriding motivation behind the FFC R&D program described in this plan is to foster closer integration between fuel design and fabrication to reduce programmatic risk. These motivating factors are all interrelated, and progress addressing one will aid understanding of the others. The FFC R&D needs fall into two principal categories, 1) baseline process optimization, to refine the existing fabrication technologies, and 2) manufacturing process alternatives, to evaluate new fabrication technologies that could provide improvements in quality, repeatability, material utilization, or cost. The FFC R&D Plan examines efforts currently under way in regard to coupon, foil, plate, and fuel element manufacturing, and provides recommendations for a number of R&D topics that are of high priority but not currently funded (i.e., knowledge gaps). The plan ties all FFC R&D efforts into a unified vision that supports the overall Convert Program schedule in general, and the fabrication schedule leading up to the MP-1 and FSP-1 irradiation experiments specifically. The fabrication technology decision gates and down-selection logic and schedules are tied to the schedule for fabricating the MP-1 fuel plates, which will provide the necessary data to make a final fuel fabrication process down-selection. Because of the short turnaround between MP-1 and the follow-on FSP-1 and MP-2 experiments, the suite of specimen types that will be available for MP-1 will be the same as those available for FSP-1 and MP-2. Therefore, the only opportunity to explore parameter space and alternative processing is between now and 2016 when the candidate processes are down-selected in preparation for the MP-1, FSP-1, and MP-2 plate manufacturing campaigns. A number of key risks identified by the FFC are discussed in this plan, with recommended mitigating actions for those activities within FFC, and identification of risks that are impacted by activities in other areas of the Convert Program. The R&D Plan does not include discussion of FFC initiatives related to production-scale manufacturing of fuel (e.g., establishment of the Pilot Line Production Facility), rather, the goal of this plan is to document the R&D activities needed ultimately to enable high-quality and cost-effective production of the fuel by the commercial fuel fabricator. The intent is for this R&D Plan to be a living document that will be reviewed and updated on a regular basis (e.g., annually) to ensure that FFC R&D activities remain properly aligned to the needs of the Convert Program. This version of the R&D Plan represents the first annual review and revision.

  7. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w Fuel Ethanol ...

  8. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine | Department of Energy Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-06_curran.pdf More Documents &

  9. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  10. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Systems-Phoenix, Arizona | Department of Energy Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona August 26, 2015 - 1:45pm Addthis On October 12 and 13, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will host several events at the Electrochemical Energy Summit 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona, to foster increased collaboration between National

  11. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  14. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  16. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel sensitivity and single-stage fuel content generally gives a lower value of the pressure exponent. This helps to explain the results obtained while boosting the intake pressure in the HCCI engine. (author)

  18. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Diesel ...

  19. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  20. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2.333 2.217 2.133 values are down -0.084 values are down -0.186 U.S. On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices* (dollars per gallon)full history Change from 012516 020116 020816 week...

  1. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  2. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  3. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  4. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities: 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exposition | Department of Energy Demystifying the National Labs presentation by Sunita Satyapal, Fuel Cell Technologies Office, and Chris Ainscough, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as well as Business-to-Business Product Theater presentations by multiple National Labs. Presented at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition, November 11, 2014, in Los Angeles, California. PDF icon Leveraging National Lab Capabilities PDF icon Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL): Advanced

  5. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  6. Alternative fuel capabilities of the Mod II Stirling vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandin, A.W.; Ernst, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Stirling engine's characteristics make it a prime candidate for both multifuel and alternative fuel uses. In this paper, the relevant engine characteristics of the Mod II Stirling engine are examined, including the external heat system and basic operation. Adaptation of the Stirling to multifuel operation is addressed, and its experience with alternative fuels in automotive applications is summarized. The results of the U.S. Air Force review of the Stirling's multifuel capability are described, and the Stirling's advantages with liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels are discussed.

  7. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  8. fuels | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid Fuels Gasoline & Diesel Volatile fuel costs and a desire for energy independence have revived interest in another market for coal gasification technology: the production of liquid transportation fuels, chiefly gasoline and diesel fuel. For the United States, routes to synthesis of liquid fuels from coal add substantial diversity in fuel supply capability, a large capacity for fuels production considering the great extent of domestic coal reserves, and increased energy security that

  9. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  10. Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Find Expertise View homepages for scientists and researchers. Explore potential collaborations and project opportunities. Search the extensive range of capabilities by keyword to quickly find who and what you are looking for. Expertise Search Capabilities| Employees| Projects Capabilities Sort Capabilities Accelerators and Electrodynamics Search High power linear accelerator science and technology Search Accelerator operations Search Accelerator controls Search Neutron science

  11. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles. [Hythane = 85 vol% natural gas, 15 vol% H[sub 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  12. Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Capabilities LACED is built upon Los Alamos' unparalleled explosives detection capabilities derived from the expertise of award-winning scientists and state-of-the-art facilities. x x x x Key capabilities necessary to ensure national security Through LACED, Los Alamos offers the following capabilities: Explosives Science capabilities include: Analytical chemistry Micromechanical testing Performance testing of explosives from bench scale to demonstration scale Polymorphism

  13. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  14. Segregated exhaust SOFC generator with high fuel utilization capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Veyo, Stephen E.; Kothmann, Richard E.

    2003-08-26

    A fuel cell generator contains a plurality of fuel cells (6) in a generator chamber (1) and also contains a depleted fuel reactor or a fuel depletion chamber (2) where oxidant (24,25) and fuel (81) is fed to the generator chamber (1) and the depleted fuel reactor chamber (2), where both fuel and oxidant react, and where all oxidant and fuel passages are separate and do not communicate with each other, so that fuel and oxidant in whatever form do not mix and where a depleted fuel exit (23) is provided for exiting a product gas (19) which consists essentially of carbon dioxide and water for further treatment so that carbon dioxide can be separated and is not vented to the atmosphere.

  15. Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities - Structures of the zwitterionic coatings synthesized for this study. Permalink Gallery Investigations on Anti-biofouling Zwitterionic Coatings for MHK Is Now in Press Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Water Power Investigations on Anti-biofouling Zwitterionic Coatings for MHK Is Now in Press Sandia's Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Advanced Materials program has a new publication on the antifouling efficacy of

  16. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities: 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office, and Chris Ainscough, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as well as Business-to-Business Product Theater presentations by multiple National Labs. ...

  17. Capability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mcnp Clouds go here Capability "Finding the proper balance between the near- term pulls from industry and the critical need for long-term science excellence is a constant challenge that often stresses our enterprise. In managing strategically the trade-o s that come with translational research we are nding win-win outcomes that bene t the Laboratory and our partners. Los Alamos is evolving to enable innovation to play a growing role in support of stable and enduring capabilities." -

  18. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On October 12 and 13, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will host several events at the Electrochemical Energy Summit 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona, to ...

  19. Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  20. Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Capabilities Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Capabilities Overview 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition National Lab Showcase Keith Wipke, NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Manager November 11, 2014 2 NREL Overview o Founded in 1977 o Location: Golden, Colorado o ~1,750 full-time staff o Full spectrum of RD&D, from basic science to deployment o Unique research and testing capabilities across multiple scales o Systems approach o Strong history of

  2. Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure/Battery Testing/Capabilities - Capabilitiesadmin2015-10-20T02:29:12+00:00 Facility Description Click to Open Factsheet 2012-3432P [181kb pdf] The Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) in conjunction with the Energy Storage Analysis Laboratory (ESAL) provides trusted, independent, third party testing and validation from the cell level up to 1+ MW AC electrical energy storage (EES) systems. In addition to long-term testing,

  3. Advanced fuel assembly characterization capabilities based on gamma tomography at the Halden boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, S.; Eitrheim, K.; Svaerd, S. J.; Hallstadius, L.; Willman, C.

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of individual fuel rods using gamma spectroscopy is a standard part of the Post Irradiation Examinations performed on experimental fuel at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. However, due to handling and radiological safety concerns, these measurements are presently carried out only at the end of life of the fuel, and not earlier than several days or weeks after its removal from the reactor core. In order to enhance the fuel characterization capabilities at the Halden facilities, a gamma tomography measurement system is now being constructed, capable of characterizing fuel assemblies on a rod-by-rod basis in a more timely and efficient manner. Gamma tomography for measuring nuclear fuel is based on gamma spectroscopy measurements and tomographic reconstruction techniques. The technique, previously demonstrated on irradiated commercial fuel assemblies, is capable of determining rod-by-rod information without the need to dismantle the fuel. The new gamma tomography system will be stationed close to the Halden reactor in order to limit the need for fuel transport, and it will significantly reduce the time required to perform fuel characterization measurements. Furthermore, it will allow rod-by-rod fuel characterization to occur between irradiation cycles, thus allowing for measurement of experimental fuel repeatedly during its irradiation lifetime. The development of the gamma tomography measurement system is a joint project between the Inst. for Energy Technology - OECD Halden Reactor Project, Westinghouse (Sweden), and Uppsala Univ.. (authors)

  4. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II.

  5. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  6. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  7. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized...

  8. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Hydrogen Storage R&D Core Characterization Capabilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) Hydrogen Storage R&D Core Characterization Capabilities An NREL-led National Laboratory Collaboration between NREL, LBNL, PNNL, and NIST NREL CORE CHARACTERIZATION CAPABILITIES The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will offer specialized characterization for hydrogen storage materials through its DOE-FCTO core-capability validation laboratory. We offer PCT analysis of hydrogen storage materials to determine their gravimetric and volumetric

  9. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

  10. Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Refiners Switch to Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model Contents * Summary * Introduction o Table 1. Comparison of Simple Model and Complex Model RFG Per Gallon Requirements * Statutory, Individual Refinery, and Compliance Baselines o Table 2. Statutory Baseline Fuel Compositions * Simple Model * Complex Model o Table 3. Complex Model Variables * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * RFG Simple and Complex Model Spreadsheets * Areas Particpating in the Reformulated Gasoline

  11. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges associated with the various fuel stratification levels.« less

  12. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores the potential of partial fuel stratification to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines utilizing the homogeneous charge compression-ignition cycle.

  13. Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bose, Ranendra K.

    2002-06-04

    Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

  14. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  15. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  16. SULFUR REDUCTION IN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUELS BY EXTRACTION/ADSORPTION OF REFRACTORY DIBENZOTHIOPHENES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott G. McKinley; Celedonio M. Alvarez

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to remove thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene from a simulated gasoline feedstock. We found that Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} reacts with a variety of thiophenes (Th*), affording Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(Th*){sup 2+}. We used this reactivity to design a biphasic extraction process that removes more than 50% of the dibenzothiophene in the simulated feedstock. This extraction system consists of a hydrocarbon phase (simulated petroleum feedstock) and extractant Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in an aqueous phase (70% dimethylformamide, 30% H{sub 2}O). The DBT is removed in situ from the newly formed Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(DBT){sup 2+} by either an oxidation process or addition of H{sub 2}O, to regenerate Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+}.

  17. Motor gasolines, summer 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, C.L.; Woodward, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    Samples for this report were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. Analytical data for the 1571 motor gasoline and 206 motor gasoline/alcohol blend samples were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, for reporting. This work is jointly funded by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Project Office (DOE cooperative agreement No. FC22-83FE60149). The data are representative of the products of 62 marketers, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. They are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map shows the marketing areas, districts, and sampling locations. The report includes trend charts of selected properties of motor fuels over the last twenty-five years. Twelve octane distribution graphs for leaded and unleaded grades of gasoline are presented for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline sold in the United States during June, July, and August 1985 was 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.8 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. Analyses of motor gasoline containing various alcohols are reported in separate tables beginning with this report. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline containing alcohols was 88.6 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 90.2 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Hazard analysis of compressed natural gas fueling systems and fueling procedures used at retail gasoline service stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-28

    An evaluation of the hazards associated with operations of a typical compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station is presented. The evaluation includes identification of a typical CNG fueling system; a comparison of the typical system with ANSI/NFPA (American National Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association) Standard 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel System, requirements; a review of CNG industry safety experience as identified in current literature; hazard identification of potential internal (CNG system-specific causes) and external (interface of co-located causes) events leading to potential accidents; and an analysis of potential accident scenarios as determined from the hazard evaluation. The study considers CNG dispensing equipment and associated equipment, including the compressor station, storate vessels, and fill pressure sensing system.

  19. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  20. Interim Action Determination Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Flexible Manufacturing Capability for the Mixed Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SPD SEIS), DOE/EIS-0283-S2. DOE is evaluating, among many other things, the environmental impacts of any design and operations changes to the MFFF, which is under construction at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE evaluated the impacts of construction and operation of the

  1. Fuel Fabrication Capability WBS 01.02.01.05 - HIP Bonding Experiments Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, Patricia O'Donnell; Summa, Deborah Ann; Liu, Cheng; Tucker, Laura Arias; Chen, Ching-Fong; Aikin, Beverly; Aragon, Daniel Adrian; Beard, Timothy Vance; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Pena, Maria Isela; Dombrowski, David E.

    2015-06-10

    The goals of this project were to demonstrate reliable, reproducible solid state bonding of aluminum 6061 alloy plates together to encapsulate DU-10 wt% Mo surrogate fuel foils. This was done as part of the CONVERT Fuel Fabrication Capability effort in Process Baseline Development . Bonding was done using Hot Isotatic Pressing (HIP) of evacuated stainless steel cans (a.k.a HIP cans) containing fuel plate components and strongbacks. Gross macroscopic measurements of HIP cans prior to HIP and after HIP were used as part of this demonstration, and were used to determine the accuracy of a finitie element model of the HIP bonding process. The quality of the bonding was measured by controlled miniature bulge testing for Al-Al, Al-Zr, and Zr-DU bonds. A special objective was to determine if the HIP process consistently produces good quality bonding and to determine the best characterization techniques for technology transfer.

  2. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  3. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Motor gasolines, Summer 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 796 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 22 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

  5. Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Vehicles » Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) have an internal combustion engine and are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (a high-level blend of gasoline and ethanol), or a mixture of both. There are more than 10.6 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today. However, many flexible fuel vehicle owners don't realize

  6. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2012-03-30

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

  7. Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine PDF icon deer10_johansson.pdf More Documents & Publications Partially Premixed Combustion High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

  8. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vs Gasoline Production Diesel vs Gasoline Production A look at refinery decisions that decide "swing" between diesel and gasoline production PDF icon deer08_leister.pdf More Documents & Publications Marathon Sees Diesel Fuel in Future ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program

  9. Microsoft Word - Gasoline_2008 Supplement.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 1 April 2008 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 A Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections 1 Highlights * Income growth rates have less of an impact on recent trends in gasoline consumption than in the past, but short-run effects are still significant. * High gasoline prices are once again motivating drivers to conserve by driving less and purchasing more fuel-efficient transportation. * The increasing share of lower-Btu-content ethanol has

  10. A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

  11. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel Resiliency | Department of Energy First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency May 2, 2014 - 10:29am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's response to Superstorm Sandy, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced the creation of the first federal regional refined petroleum product reserve containing gasoline. Based on the

  12. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  13. Evaulation of power-reactor fuel-rod-analysis capabilities. Phase 1 topical report. Volume 2. Code evaluation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, D.R.

    1983-09-01

    FRAPCON-2 (V1M4) was applied to generate fuel performance predictions for 60 rods of a recently evaluated power reactor data sample. Rod design, operational, and performance data was obtained from the RPRI Fuel Performance Data Base. The data was systematically processed to generate code input parameters. FRAPCON was initially applied for scoping studies to identify the best estimate mechanical response and fission gas release modeling options. Based on final scoping results, the balance of rods were analyzed with FRACAS-2 mechanics and FASTGRASS gas release models. Comparisons between measured and calculated fuel and cladding deformation, fission gas release, internal pressure, and gas composition are presented and interpreted relative to code error magnitudes, distributions, and trends versus rod design and operating parameters. The results indicate the FRAPCON-2 has best estimate capability for analysis of moderate duty fuel rod performance, provided that rod fabrication parameters are well characterized, and the fuel is dimensionally stable.

  14. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel...

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The overall conclusion is that the fuel can be stored in L Basin, meeting general safety functions for fuel storage, for an additional 50 years and possibly beyond contingent upon continuation of existing fuel management activities and several augmented program activities. It is concluded that the technical bases and well-founded technologies have been established to store spent nuclear fuel in the L Basin. Methodologies to evaluate the fuel condition and characteristics, and systems to prepare fuel, isolate damaged fuel, and maintain water quality storage conditions have been established. Basin structural analyses have been performed against present NPH criteria. The aluminum fuel storage experience to date, supported by the understanding of the effects of environmental variables on materials performance, demonstrates that storage systems that minimize degradation and provide full retrievability of the fuel up to and greater than 50 additional years will require maintaining the present management programs, and with the recommended augmented/additional activities in this report.

  16. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle...

  17. SULI Intern: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasoline Compression Ignition Share Argonne intern Kendyl Partridge from Mississippi State University worked with Argonne mentor Steve Ciatti in studying gasoline compression ignition engines. This research will help engineers increase an engine's efficiency while reducing its environmental impact. Browse By - Any - Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel

  18. U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years U.S. gasoline consumption this year is expected to be at the highest level since the record fuel demand seen back in 2007 as lower gasoline prices and more people finding jobs means more sales at the gasoline pump. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said gasoline consumption increased by 2.7% during the first eight months of 2015 and should rise by an average of 190,000 barrels per day this year to 9.1 million

  19. Second-Generation Fuel Cell Stack Durability and Freeze Capability from National FCV Learning Demonstration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Garbak, J.

    2009-11-18

    This presentation provides information about the objectives and partners of the National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration, the status of vehicle and station deployment, and results of vehicle and infrastructure analysis.

  20. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-07-05

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in [1,2] wherein Verification & Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI [3,4] is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models would be reduced considerably. The authors note that the PMI is primarily intended to provide a high-level, quantitative description of year-to-year (or version-to-version) improvements in numerical models, where these descriptions can be used as a means of justifying funding requests to support further model development research. It is in this context that the present report should be considered: the availability of data from experimental tests should be viewed as a time-dependent variable, where experiments are added to the calibration suite as resources become available. For the present report, the experimental data is of course already available (permitting demonstration of the proposed methodology). Furthermore, the authors are not proposing this methodology as the answer to the question of how to allocate resources for experimental tests, and readers are directed to [5] and the references contained in Section 1 of [5] for additional information on the subject. However, the strength of this methodology is that it offers a means by which to select the sequence of experiments in a pre-arranged experimental campaign (a situation for which the methods discussed in [5] are less appropriate). The report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the methodology employed to formulate the sequences of experiments for the calibrations performed for this study. Section 3 then presents the results associated with two sequences; supplementary results are provided in the Appendix. The report then concludes in Section 4 with a brief summary.

  1. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  2. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  3. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards). Separate standards were set for different entities, such as large refiners, small refiners, importers, downstream wholesalers, etc. In March 2014, Tier 3 standards were finalized by

  4. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  5. Fact #801: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow Fact #801: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is an engine technology that improves fuel economy and engine performance by injecting fuel directly into the combustion chamber, allowing for a more complete and efficient use of fuel compared to standard fuel injection. Both cars and light trucks have seen increased use of GDI in recent years as

  6. Development and validation of capabilities to measure thermal properties of layered monolithic U-Mo alloy plate-type fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-19

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the worlds highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of thermal conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify and validate the functionality of equipment methods installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, procedures to operate the equipment, and models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a zirconium diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  7. High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine | Department of Energy High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine A novel fuel injector has been developed and tested that addresses the technical challenges of LTC, HCCI, gasoline PPC, and RCCI by reducing complexity and cost. PDF icon p-16_zoldak.pdf More Documents &

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-temperature gasoline combustion engine research. PDF icon ace004_dec_2015_o.pdf More

  9. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Aerosol Methods | Department of Energy Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends. PDF icon deer12_zelenyuk.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-temperature gasoline combustion engine research. PDF icon ace004_dec_2014_o.pdf More

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Agency Vehicle Procurement and Management Requirement When purchasing a motor vehicle, a state agency must select one that is capable of being powered by cleaner fuels, including electricity and natural gas, if the total life cycle cost of ownership is less than or comparable to that of a gasoline-powered vehicle. A committee of representatives from the Minnesota Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Natural Resources, and Transportation, as well as the Pollution Control

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tier 2 and Tier 3 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program The Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program requires new passenger vehicles, including sport utility vehicles, pick-up trucks, and vans, to meet stringent emissions standards. New emissions standards apply to all light-duty vehicles, regardless of whether they run on gasoline, diesel, or alternative fuels. Additionally, this program requires gasoline refiners and importers to reduce the sulfur content of gasoline sold in the United States.

  13. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with ...

  14. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Details

  15. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Holiday Release Schedule The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. Monday (Eastern time), except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Holiday October 12, 2015 October 13, 2015 Tuesday Columbus January 18, 2016 January 19, 2016 Tuesday Martin Luther King Jr. February 15, 2016 February 16, 2016 Tuesday President's May 30, 2016 May 31, 2016 Tuesday Memorial July 4, 2016 July 5, 2016 Tuesday

  16. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail on-highway diesel prices are collected by telephone and fax from a sample of approximately 350 retail diesel outlets, including truck stops and service stations. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that all on-highway diesel sold be ULSD by December 1, 2010 (September 1, 2006 in California). In January 2007, the

  17. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sampling Methodology The sample design for the weekly diesel price survey was a two-phase design. The first phase constituted construction of a frame of 2,207 company-State units...

  18. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Sampling Methodology The respondents reporting to the weekly diesel price survey represent a stratified probability proportional to size (PPS) sample selected from a frame list of...

  19. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Counties included in New York City metro area The list below includes the counties in the EIA-878 definition for New York City Metro Area. Bergen County, NJ Bronx County, NY Essex...

  20. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cummins at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline turbocharged direct...

  3. U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    price. Gasoline demand this summer is expected to be slightly below last year's level, as more fuel efficient vehicles more than offset the projected increase in highway travel...

  4. Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maintaining Fuel Economy - News Releases | NREL Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While Maintaining Fuel Economy February 23, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a yearlong technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric (gHEV) trucks compared with conventional diesel vehicles. A report released this week details NREL's efforts to determine the impact of hybridization on performance,

  5. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding air/fuel zones richer than stoichiometric and temperatures that promote particle formation PDF icon deer10_klindt.pdf More Documents & Publications Bosch Powertrain Technologies Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and

  6. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  7. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

  8. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

  9. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into

  10. Diesel Fuel Price Pass-through

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  11. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  12. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clean Cities

    2010-03-01

    Flexible fuel vehicles can operate on either gasoline or E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. The fact sheet discusses the costs, benefits, and vehicle performance of using E85.

  13. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future blending. Future contract provisions that restrict distributors or retailers from blending gasoline with fuel alcohol are void. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 75-90, 105-449.60

  15. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph...

  16. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which assigns a RIN to each gallon of renewable fuel. Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners, blenders, and gasoline and diesel importers. The volumes required of each...

  18. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  19. Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when...

  20. Fuel Cell Vehicles Enhance NREL Hydrogen Research Capabilities (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * www.nrel.gov Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste. Expanded research, development, and testing activities will help advance fuel cell electric vehicle technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has acquired four Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle-Advanced (FCHV-adv) sport utility vehicles on loan from Toyota. Over the next two years the lab will use the FCHVs, also known as fuel cell electric vehicles or

  1. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) ...

  2. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  3. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based...

  4. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  5. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  6. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  7. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2014 Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on...

  8. Fuel FX International Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on development and distribution of proprietary products focused on improving fuel economy and reducing environmental emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. References: Fuel...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax As of July 1, 2015, alternative fuels used to operate on-road vehicles are taxed at a rate of $0.162 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Alternative fuels are taxed at the same rate as gasoline and gasohol (5.1% of the statewide average wholesale price of a gallon of self-serve unleaded regular gasoline). Refer to the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) Fuels Tax Rates and Alternative Fuels Conversion website for fuel-specific GGE calculations.

  10. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  11. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  12. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules Contents * Introduction o Table 1. History of Foreign Refiner Regulations * Foreign Refinery Baseline * Monitoring Imported Conventional Gasoline * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Refiners Switch to Reformulated

  13. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  14. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage.

  15. Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel for transportation; however, there are multiple alternative fuels that are making their way to the market. These alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electric hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells, and bio-diesel. Students will probably have heard of some of these alternative fuels, but they may not understand how and why they are better then ordinary gasoline.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Tax Beginning July 1, 2015, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as motor fuel must be sold in gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) or diesel gallon equivalents (DGE). A GGE of CNG is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.) and a DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs. Operators of motor vehicles capable of using natural gas must pay an annual flat rate privilege tax if the vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 lbs. or less. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs)

  17. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use | Department of Energy 9: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has seen rapid adoption since its first significant use. As automakers strive for improved fuel economy, many have turned to the combined benefits

  18. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  19. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  20. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline -

  1. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_ciatti.pdf More Documents & Publications Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control

  3. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  4. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Fuels Mandate All gasoline sold in the state must be blended with 10% ethanol (E10). Gasoline with an octane rating of 91 or above is exempt from this mandate, as is gasoline sold for use in certain non-road applications. Gasoline that contains at least 9.2% agriculturally derived ethanol that meets ASTM specification D4806 complies with the mandate. For the purpose of the mandate, ethanol must meet ASTM specification D4806. The governor may suspend the renewable fuels mandate for

  6. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This is the final report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  7. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  8. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ?- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  9. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for highermore » loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.« less

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  11. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This is the largest price drop since the recession of 2008 where a loss of demand led to collapsing fuel prices. The price of gasoline is highly volatile and often varies ...

  12. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, John H. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Kemeny, John [University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); King, Fraser [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., 6732 Silverview Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ross, Alan M. [Alan M. Ross and Associates, 1061 Gray Fox Circle Pleasanton, CA 94566 (Canada); Ross, Benjamen [Disposal Safety, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  13. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  14. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace033_toops_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental Sulfation/Desulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

  15. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  16. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  17. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition | Department of Energy 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when purchasing vehicles. The graph below shows a three-month moving

  18. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: 2016 CAF standards. Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industrys future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  19. Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness March 18, 2011 - 9:41am Addthis Paul Bryan Biomass Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy The 1908 Model-T Ford was the first vehicle designed to run on ethanol-which Henry Ford termed "the fuel of the future." Today, about 8 million Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) on our roads are capable of running on either gasoline or

  20. Research & Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Hydrogen Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ...

  1. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  2. U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Formulation/ Grade: Gasoline, Average Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional, Average Conventional Regular Conventional Midgrade Conventional Premium Oxygenated, Average Oxygenated Regular Oxygenated Midgrade Oxygenated Premium Reformulated, Average Reformulated Regular Reformulated Midgrade Reformulated Premium Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline; natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; hydrogen; electricity; pure biodiesel (B100); fuels, other than alcohol, derived from biological materials; and P-Series fuels. In addition, the U.S.

  4. Capabilities | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACCapabilities content top Capabilities Synopsis of NISAC Modeling Capabilities NISAC designed advanced modeling and simulation capabilities to analyze critical infrastructure vulnerabilities, interdependencies, and complexities. These analyses are used to aid our nation's decisionmakers in policy-making, assessments, mitigation planning, education, training, and real-time assistance to crisis response organizations. The domains in which we work are large, complex, dynamic, adaptive,

  5. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  6. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to the availability of gasoline. In response to help build a more secure and resilient energy infrastructure, the Energy Department established the first federal regional refined petroleum product reserve containing gasoline. To help

  7. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  8. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  9. Gasoline Price Pass-through

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    differences, whereas stationary series can be estimated in level form. The unit root test could not reject the hypothesis that the retail and spot gasoline price series have a...

  10. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  11. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at 3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price...

  12. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  13. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  14. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at 3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price...

  15. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  16. Characteristics of isopentanol as a fuel for HCCI engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity. Similar to ethanol but unlike gasoline, isopentanol does not show two-stage ignition even at very low engine speed (350 rpm) or with considerable intake pressure boost (200 kPa abs.). However, isopentanol does show considerable intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) that is comparable to gasoline. Our previous work has found that ITHR is critical for maintaining combustion stability at the retarded combustion phasings required to achieve high loads without knock. The stronger ITHR causes the combustion phasing of isopentanol to be less sensitive to intake temperature variations than ethanol. With the capability to retard combustion phasing, a maximum IMEP{sub g} of 5.4 and 11.6 bar was achieved with isopentanol at 100 and 200 kPa intake pressure, respectively. These loads are even slightly higher than those achieved with gasoline. The ITHR of isopentanol depends on operating conditions and is enhanced by simultaneously increasing pressures and reducing temperatures. However, increasing the temperature seems to have little effect on ITHR at atmospheric pressure, but it does promote hot ignition. Finally, the dependence of ignition timing on equivalence ratio, here called {phi}-sensitivity, is measured at atmospheric intake pressure, showing that the ignition of isopentanol is nearly insensitive to equivalence ratio when thermal effects are removed. This suggests that partial fuel stratification, which has been found effective to control the HRR with two-stage ignition fuels, may not work well with isopentanol at these conditions. Overall, these results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  17. Direct determination of PB in gasoline emulsions using Ar and Ar-oxygen ICPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, I.B.; Zander, A.; Shkolnik, J.; Kim, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lead in gasoline emulsions was determined by argon and argon-oxygen ICP-AES. Intensity variations of inorganic and organic lead species in aqueous solution and in gasoline and decalin emulsions were studied. In an aqueous solution Pb II intensities were higher than those observed in gasoline and decalin emulsions and were higher in the argon ICP than in an argon-oxygen plasma. Pb intensities were influenced by aerosol flow rate, oxygen doping and emulsion composition, which were all compensated by Y II the internal standard. Pb LODs in the emulsions were not significantly degraded relative to an aqueous solution, and were adequate for the direct determination of lead in gasoline at the mg/kg concentration. The accuracy of Pb determination in spiked gasoline emulsions and in NIST reference fuels was satisfactory. Mg II/Mg I ratios indicate that emulsion plasmas are similar to ICPs containing water only.

  18. Research Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Capabilities Research Capabilities These capabilities are our science and engineering at work for the national security interest in areas from global climate to cyber security, from nonproliferation to new materials, from clean energy, to supercomputing. thumbnail of Bioscience At Los Alamos, scientists and engineers are working to unlock many of the mechanisms found in nature to improve humanity's ability to battle diseases, create new forms of environmentally friendly and abundant

  19. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that...

  1. U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Propane (Consumer Grade) Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate No. 2 Diesel Fuel No. 2 Diesel, Ultra Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel, High-Sulfur No. 2 Fuel Oil Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Sales Type Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Sales to End Users W W W W W W 1983-2015 Sales for Resale

  2. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Advanced Vehicle Acquisition and Biodiesel Fuel Use Requirement All gasoline-powered vehicles purchased with state funds must be flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) or fuel-efficient hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fuel-efficient HEVs are defined as automobiles or light trucks that use a gasoline or diesel engine and an electric motor to provide power and that gain at least a 20% increase in combined U.S. Environmental Protection Agency city-highway fuel economy over the equivalent or most-similar

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax An excise tax rate of 9% of the average wholesale price on a per gallon basis applies to all special fuels, including diesel, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, and any other combustible gases and liquids, excluding gasoline, used to propel motor vehicles. For taxation purposes, one gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) of compressed natural gas (CNG) is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 cubic feet. One GGE of liquefied natural gas

  5. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Declining fuel prices to push U.S. gasoline demand to an 8-year high In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said domestic gasoline consumption this year should be about 60,000 barrels per day higher than in 2014 rising to an average 9 million barrels per day the highest since 2007. The average pump price is forecast to fall to $2.16 per gallon in the first quarter of 2015 with gasoline already selling for less than $2 a gallon in several states

  6. Cybersecurity Capability

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) Frequently Asked Questions 1) What is the C2M2 model? The C2M2 is a voluntary evaluation process utilizing industry-accepted cybersecurity practices that can be used to measure the maturity of an organization's cybersecurity capabilities. The C2M2 is designed to measure both the sophistication and sustainment of a cyber security program. The model

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuel Specifications Ethanol-blended gasoline must conform to ASTM D4814, E85 must conform to ASTM D4806, and biodiesel-blended fuel containing at least 6%, but no more than 20%, biodiesel must conform to ASTM D7467. Additionally, biobutanol must be an agriculturally derived isobutyl alcohol that meets ASTM D7862 for butanol for blending with gasoline for use as a motor fuel. Gasoline blended with biobutanol must conform to ASTM D4814. The state defers to the U.S. Environmental Protection

  8. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in

  9. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly

  10. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  11. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  12. Gasoline prices inch down (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline prices inch down (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the...

  13. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular...

  14. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  15. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  16. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine ...

  17. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  18. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  19. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple relationship between number and mass emissions was not observed. Data were collected on-road to compare weekday with weekend air quality around the Twin Cities area. This portion of the study resulted in the development of a method to apportion the Diesel and SI contribution to on-road aerosol.

  20. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  1. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  2. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Parking Space Regulation An individual is not allowed to park a motor vehicle within any parking space specifically designated for public parking and fueling of AFVs unless the motor vehicle is an AFV fueled by electricity, natural gas, methanol, propane, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), or other fuels the Oregon Department of Energy approves. Eligible AFVs must also be in the process of fueling or charging to park in the space. A person found responsible for

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Carbon Fuel Standard California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) Program requires a reduction in the carbon intensity of transportation fuels that are sold, supplied, or offered for sale in the state by a minimum of 10% by 2020. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) regulations require transportation fuel producers and importers to meet specified average carbon intensity requirements for fuel. In the regulations, carbon intensity reductions are based on reformulated gasoline mixed with

  5. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E85 Optimized Engine Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels ...

  6. Microsoft Word - Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2004 Summer 2004 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary * Gasoline markets are tight as the 2004 driving season begins and conditions are likely to remain volatile through the summer. High crude oil costs, strong gasoline demand growth, low gasoline inventories, uncertainty about the availability of gasoline imports, high transportation costs, and changes in gasoline specifications have added to current and expected gasoline costs and pump prices. * For the upcoming summer driving season (April to

  7. Abuse Testing Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abuse Testing Capabilities - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  8. CAMS Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMS Capabilities HVEC 10 MV Model FN Tandem Of the three accelerators CAMS utilizes the largest is the HVEC 10 MV Model FN Tandem, which was obtained from the University of Washington and installed at LLNL in the mid-80s. During installation the accelerator's belt charging system was replaced with a NEC Pelletron, new Dowlish spiral-inclined beam tubes were installed, as were the gas-handling systems necessary for use of SF6 as the insulating tank gas. The FN accelerator is routinely operated

  9. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  10. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an FFV? An FFV, as its name implies, has the flex- ibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs are

  11. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    What is an FFV? An FFV, as its name implies, has the flex- ibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs

  12. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  13. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  14. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Research Team Members Key Contacts Fuels Gasification will likely be the cornerstone of future energy and chemical processes due to its flexibility to accommodate numerous feedstocks such as coal, biomass, and natural gas, and to produce a variety of products, including heat and specialty chemicals. Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle schemes require the production of clean hydrogen to fuel innovative combustion turbines and fuel cells. This research will focus on development

  15. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  16. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

  17. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  18. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit for Residents Through the Residential Energy Tax Credit program, qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 25% of alternative fuel infrastructure project costs, up to $750. Beginning January 1, 2016, qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 50% of project costs, up to $750. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), propane, and other fuels that the Oregon Department

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Infrastructure Tax Credit for Businesses Business owners and others may be eligible for a tax credit of 35% of eligible costs for qualified alternative fuel infrastructure projects, or the incremental or conversion cost of two or more AFVs. Qualified infrastructure includes facilities for mixing, storing, compressing, or dispensing fuels for vehicles operating on alternative fuels. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85),

  1. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 2. Fuel and EGR Effects on Knock-Limited Load and Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2013-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external-cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to that of 87AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicating mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. The results demonstrate that for all fuels, EGR is a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency but is less useful for knock mitigation with E30 than for 87AKI gasoline or IB24. Under knocking conditions, 15% EGR is found to offer 1 CA of CA50 timing advance with E30, whereas up to 5 CA of CA50 advance is possible with knock-limited 87AKI gasoline. Compared to 87AKI, both E30 and IB24 are found to have reduced adiabatic flame temperature and shorter combustion durations, which reduce knocking propensity beyond that indicated by the octane number. However, E30+0% EGR is found to exhibit the better antiknock properties than either 87AKI+15% EGR or IB24+15% EGR, expanding the knock limited operating range and engine stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. Furthermore, the fuel sensitivity (S) of E30 was attributed to reduced speed sensitivity of E30, expanding the low-speed stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. The results illustrate that intermediate alcohol gasoline blends exhibit exceptional antiknock properties and performance beyond that indicated by the octane number tests, particularly E30.

  3. Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reformulated Gasoline Program Contents * Introduction * Mandated RFG Program Areas o Table 1. Mandated RFG Program Areas * RFG Program Opt-In Areas o Table 2. RFG Program Opt-In Areas * RFG Program Opt-Out Procedures and Areas o Table 3. History of EPA Rulemaking on Opt-Out Procedures o Table 4. RFG Program Opt-Out Areas * State Programs o Table 5. State Reformulated Gasoline Programs * Endnotes Spreadsheets Referenced in this Article * Reformulated Gasoline Control Area Populations Related EIA

  4. Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard Brochure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    The Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard requires ethanol in most gasoline beginning January 1, 2008. ARE YOU READY? TEN THINGS MISSOURI TANK OWNERS AND OPERATORS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ETHANOL 1. Ethanol is a type of alcohol made usually from corn in Missouri and other states. 2. E10 is a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% unleaded gasoline. E85 is a blend of 75% to 85% fuel ethanol and 25% to 15% unleaded gasoline. Blends between E10 and E85 are not allowed to be sold at retail. 3. Any vehicle or small

  5. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003 Preliminary Findings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This is the preliminary report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  6. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline,...

  7. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Past EIA research and analysis 1 has shown that changes in wholesale gasoline ... price. 3 http:www.eia.govpetroleumgasdieselpumpmethodology.cfm 4 This Week In Petroleum ...

  8. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories

  9. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices ",60,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Release...

  10. Summer 2002 Motor Gasoline Outlook2.doc

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... as shown in Figure MG2. Uniquely stringent air quality standards imposed on gasoline sales ... regional phenomenon: the more stringent pollution requirements resulted in ...

  11. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-15

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19:354-359) method of in vitro recombination. Methods for analysis were developed and a preliminary analysis of the library was performed. A preliminary gasoline process design was constructed and process economics were determined based upon assumptions made from experimental results. The projected cost of gasoline BDS was determined to be competitive with current competing technologies.

  12. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  13. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance improvement was measured for this vehicle, which achieved near volumetric fuel economy parity on the aggressive US06 drive cycle, demonstrating the potential for improved fuel economy in forthcoming downsized, downsped engines with high-octane fuels.

  14. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  16. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  17. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery ...

  18. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from ...

  19. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  1. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  2. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in ...

  3. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, ...

  4. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  5. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI ...

  6. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods...

  7. Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition Share Description Argonne intern Kendyl Partridge from Mississippi State University worked with Argonne mentor Steve Ciatti in studying gasoline compression ignition engines. This research will help engineers increase an engine's efficiency while reducing its environmental impact. Speakers Kendyl Partridge, Argonne National Laboratory Intern from Mississippi State University Duration 1:56 Topic Energy Energy efficiency Vehicles

  8. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  15. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to rise (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Components and Mixtures under Engine Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Curran, H J

    2010-01-11

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, an improved version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multicomponent gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines (3-50 atm, 650-1200K, stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures). Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  17. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  18. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryJay Keasling and Howard Chou of Berkeley Lab and the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have invented a fermentation process to produce 5-carbon alcohols from genetically modified E. coli host cells regardless of the

  19. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Tax Alternative fuels are subject to an excise tax at a rate of $0.205 per gasoline gallon equivalent, with a variable component equal to at least 5% of the average wholesale price of the fuel. (Reference West Virginia Code 11-14C-2, 11-14C-5, 11-14C-6a, 11-15A-13a, and 11-15-18b

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    E85 Fueling Infrastructure Grants The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity's (Department) Renewable Fuels Development Program is partnered with the Illinois Corn Marketing Board to fund new E85 fueling infrastructure at retail gasoline stations. The American Lung Association of Illinois-Iowa administers grants of up to $15,000 for a blender pump installation, $10,000 for a new E85 dispenser installation, and $7,500 to convert existing stations to dispense E85. The maximum

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Retrofit Regulations Converting a vehicle to operate on an alternative fuel in lieu of the original gasoline or diesel fuel is prohibited unless the California Air Resources Board (ARB) has evaluated and certified the retrofit system. ARB will issue certification to the manufacturer of the system in the form of an Executive Order once the manufacturer demonstrates compliance with the emissions, warranty, and durability requirements. A

  3. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tax LNG is taxed at a rate of $0.14 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. For taxation purposes, LNG is converted to its gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) at the rate of 1.5536 gallons of LNG to equal one volumetric gross gallon of gasoline. LNG is defined as natural gas for use as a motor fuel, which has been cooled to approximately -260 degrees Fahrenheit and is in a liquid state. (Reference South Dakota Statutes 10-47B-3 and 10-47B-4

  5. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  6. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle systems simulations using experimental data demonstrate improved modeled fuel economy of 15% for passenger vehicles solely from powertrain efficiency relative to a 2009 PFI gasoline baseline.

  7. Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  8. Bioventing approach to remediate a gasoline contaminated subsurface. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Griffin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. Process operations began in October 1990. The field site is located at an air station. A spill in 1969 of about 100,000 kilograms aviation gasoline was caused by a broken underground transfer line. A major portion of the spilled product still persists as an oily-phase residue in a 80x360 meter plume. The subsurface is a uniform beach sand with the ground water level near five meters. Prior to startup of the venting systems, a grass cover was established and a nutrient solution was dispersed throughout the unsaturated subsurface. Subsurface air flow patterns are being determined with a tracer gas of sulfur hexafloride. Soil gas, core material, and underground water are being monitored to determine the extent of remediation. Objectives of the study are to demonstrate that surface emissions of gasoline are minimal, oily residue will be reduced to <100 mg fuel carbon/Kg core material, and the process will be applicable to full-scale remediation. Flow rate is based on a calculated residence time of 24 hours. Surface emission of fuel hydrocarbons have not exceeded 1 micrograms/liter soil gas.

  9. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to be lower this summer than previously thought. The price for regular gasoline this summer is now expected to average $3.53 a gallon, according to the new monthly forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That's down 10 cents from last month's forecast and 16 cents cheaper than last summer. After reaching a weekly peak of $3.78 a gallon in late February, pump prices fell nine weeks in a row to $3.52

  10. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M.

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  11. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  12. Gasoline prices inch down slightly (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  13. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  14. Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct an inquiry into the causes of the price increases of gasoline in July and August of 2003.

  15. U.S. gasoline prices increase slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price...

  16. Gasoline prices rise again (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to 3.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.7 cents from a week ago and up almost 43 cents from 4 weeks ago,...

  17. Gasoline prices inch down (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the...

  18. Gasoline prices inch up (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up nine tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  19. Gasoline prices inch down (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to 3.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up nine tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  20. Gasoline prices fall slightly (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to 3.49 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  1. Gasoline prices fall slightly (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to 3.49 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly...

  2. Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and Renewable Fuels * 2010+ - Benzene Reductions GHG and LCFS 5 1970 1975 1980 ... Sulfur Gasoline Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Benzene Reduction CaRFG 1 CaRFG "4" Evolution of ...

  3. Alternative Fuel Price Report - March 28, 2005

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    At the national average gasoline price of 2.109 per gallon, the fuel cost of an electric Ranger is less than that of its conventional counterpart for electricity price up...

  4. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  5. Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook Summary For the upcoming summer season (April to September 2003), high crude oil costs and other factors are expected to yield average retail motor gasoline prices higher than those of last year. Current crude oil prices reflect a substantial uncertainty premium due to concerns about the current conflict in the Persian Gulf, lingering questions about whether Venezuelan oil production will recover to near pre-strike

  6. Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition Share Description Argonne intern Kendyl Partridge from Mississippi State University worked with Argonne mentor Steve Ciatti of the Energy Systems division in studying gasoline compression ignition engines. This research will help engineers increase an engine's efficiency while reducing its environmental impact. Speakers Kendyl Partridge, Argonne National Laboratory Intern from Mississippi State University Duration 1:56 Topic

  7. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  8. Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis biomass in beekers Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively known as "biomass." Studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in E85, an alternative fuel that

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Measurement LNG is taxed based on the gasoline gallon equivalent, or 6.6 pounds of LNG for one gallon of motor fuel, unless a diesel gallon equivalent is established by the national conference on weights and measures. (Reference Ohio Revised Code 5735.012 and 5735.013

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Tax CNG used in motor vehicles is subject to a state motor fuel tax rate of $0.26 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). For taxation purposes, one GGE is equal to 5.66 pounds or 126.67 standard cubic feet of natural gas. (Reference House Bill 5466, 2014, and Special Notice 2014-2

  11. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  12. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  13. Performance and emissions characteristics of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.R.; Maxwell, R.L.; Swain, M.N.; Bedsworth, K.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A formal ongoing program to characterize the performance and exhaust characteristics of automotive-type powerplants fueled by conventional and alternative fuels is reported. This report contains the information obtained during the past three years when four alternative fuels and two baseline fuels were evaluated in three engines. The four alternative fuels were a simulated gasoline made to represent coal derived gasoline, methyl aryl ethers blended at the 10% level in an unleaded gasoline, gasoline made from methanol, and a blend of Indolene plus methanol and higher alcohols. The two baseline fuels were, Indolene and Gulf unleaded regular gasoline. The engines tested were a pre-mixed carbureted SI (spark ignition) engine, a carbureted three-valve stratified-charge SI engine and a pre-mixed carbureted SI engine with a closed-loop three-way catalyst emission control system.

  14. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline A person or distributor may not offer, sell, or distribute gasoline that contains ethanol at a level greater than 10% (E10) or contains corn-based ethanol as an additive. The prohibition does not take effect until at least two of the six New England states, in addition to Maine, have enacted laws preventing the sale of these fuel blends. (Reference Maine Revised Statutes Title 38, Section 585M and Title 10, Section 1457-B

  16. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office develops technologies to enable fuel cells to be competitive in diverse applications, with a focus on light-duty vehicles (at less than $40/kW) and to enable renewable hydrogen to be cost-competitive with gasoline (at less than $4 per gallon gasoline equivalent (gge), delivered and dispensed).

  18. Commercialization potential of the china lake trash-to-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, J.; Smith, G.

    1980-01-01

    The title process involves a series of noncatalytic petrochemical processes to convert organic wastes to a synthetic crude oil containing approximately 90% high-octane gasoline and 10% fuel and lubricating oils. By-product char and gases are consumed for process energy. The key features of the process, the relative confidence of the commercial scale-up and the projected economics based on an independent 3rd-party evaluation are discussed.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Excise Tax Distributors who sell or use motor fuel, including special fuels, are subject to an excise tax of $0.26 per gallon. Motor fuels that are not commonly sold or measured by the gallon and are used in motor vehicles on public highways are taxed according to their gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). The Georgia Department of Revenue may adjust tax rates annually based on vehicle fuel economy and the Consumer Price Index through July 1, 2018. A GGE of compressed natural gas (CNG) must be at

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas and Propane Fuel Tax Any individual using or selling compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), or liquefied petroleum gas (propane) as a motor fuel must report fuel use and remit taxes due to the Kansas Department of Revenue on a monthly basis. The minimum tax imposed on CNG is $0.24 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE), LNG is $0.26 per GGE, and propane is $0.23 per gallon. The state imposes a tax rate of $0.24 per gallon on conventional motor fuel. Alternatively,

  1. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Chemistry Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Research Photo of a hand holding a beaker containing a clear yellow liquid. NREL evaluates a broad range of renewable gasoline and diesel fuels-ranging from currently available ethanol and biodiesel to future products such as dimethyl furan and hydrotreated biomass pyrolysis oils. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's fuel chemistry research explores how biofuels, advanced petroleum-based fuels, fuel blends, and natural gas perform in vehicles as well as in fuel pumps, storage tanks,

  2. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  3. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact 835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File ...

  4. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File ...

  5. Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High EGR and Spark Assist Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High EGR and Spark Assist 2005 Diesel Engine...

  6. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level.

  7. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.49 a gallon, up 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.08 a gallon, down 9-tenths of a penny. This is Amerine Woodyard, with

  8. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.02 a gallon, down 7-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.44 a gallon, up 2-tenths of a penny.

  9. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline decreased for the second week in a row to $3.71 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 4.05 a gallon, down 2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, down 7-tenths of a penny

  10. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.93 a gallon, down 1.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.43 a gallon, down 4.6

  11. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.71 a gallon, up 5.6 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.23 a gallon, up 1.8 cents. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  12. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    March 10, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.76 a gallon, up 4.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.25 a gallon, up 2 ½ cents.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 5½ cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.28 a gallon, up 3.1 cents. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    14, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.98 a gallon, up 9.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain states at 3.44 a gallon, down 8-tenths of a penny

  15. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    21, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.03 a gallon, up a nickel from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain states at 3.45 a gallon, up 8-tenths of a penny

  16. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    24, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.65 a gallon, up 8 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.21 a gallon, up

  17. Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.95 a gallon, up 1.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.39 a gallon, up 2.8 cents. The Midwest region boasted the highest weekly increase at 18.8 cents with

  18. Performance and emissions of non-petroleum fuels in a direct-injection stratified charge Sl engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, L.E.; Chui, G.K.; Roby, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuels derived from coal and shale resources were evaluated using a direct-injection stratified charge engine. The fuels were refined to different degrees which ranged from those typical of gasoline blending components to those similar to current gasoline. Results showed that fuels refined to have properties similar to gasoline performed like gasoline. The less refined fuels were limited in performance. The total carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbon emissions varied with the volatility of the fuels. Most fuels with a higher overall distillation curve generally gave higher hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The NOx emissions increased with the percent aromatics in the fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase with fuel viscosity. Within the range of engine operation, nearly all the fuels evaluated gave satisfactory performance. With some modifications, even the less refined fuels can be potentially suitable for use in this engine.

  19. Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fuel Shortages Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages Homeowners: Respond to Fuel Shortages Natural disasters and other hazards can impact the energy industry's ability to produce and distribute petroleum products, including gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. At the same time, the demand for fuel may spike due to evacuations, or because consumers are buying more fuel to power backup generators during electrical outages. All these factors may lead to fuel shortages, which will prompt local

  20. Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

  1. DOE Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline DOE Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline April 20, 2006 - 12:26pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today is reminding consumers about the Department of Energy's (DOE) gasoline price reporting system. Consumers can report activity at local gasoline filling stations that they believe may constitute "gouging" or "price fixing" by visiting gaswatch.energy.gov/. "There are many legitimate factors

  2. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Applications | Department of Energy Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher

  3. Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o

  4. National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.

    2008-10-01

    Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

  5. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  6. EV Everywhere: Saving on Fuel and Vehicle Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) can save you money, with much lower fuel costs on average than conventional gasoline vehicles. Electricity prices are lower and more stable than gasoline prices. On a national average, it costs less than half as much to travel the same distance in an EV than a conventional vehicle.

  7. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 DEER Conference Presentation: Desert Research Institute PDF icon 2003_deer_fujita.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles

  8. The Alternative Fuel Price Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    December 17, 2001 his is the fifth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of October 15 and October 22, 2001, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report for the week of June 4, 2001. Gasoline and Diesel Prices

  9. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

  10. Maintenance and operation of the US Alternative Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Ferrill, J.L.; Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. This report covers the first year at the 3-year contract. The principal objective was to assist the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals with two new fuel initiatives selected for tasks in the project year: (1) Production of low-sulfur, low-olefin catalytically cracked gasoline blendstock; and (2) production of low-reactivity/low-emission gasoline. Supporting goals included maintaining equipment in good working order, performing reformulated gasoline tests, and meeting the needs of other government agencies and industries for fuel research involving custom processing, blending, or analysis of experimental fuels.

  11. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  12. Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from 2000 to 2013 | Department of Energy 7: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends from 2000 to 2013 Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends from 2000 to 2013 Retail prices for most transportation fuels have been highly volatile over the past 13 years. The figure below shows quarterly price fluctuations for select fuel types from 2000 to 2013. Gasoline, diesel, propane, E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), and B20 (20% biodiesel

  13. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  14. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  15. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.3 cents from a week ago and up 25.4 cents from two weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  16. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.75 a gallon on Monday. That's up almost 14 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  17. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.7 cents from a week ago and up almost 43 cents from 4 weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    shows small increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. Gasoline price shows small increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. Gasoline price up this week (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  1. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 1/2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  2. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.50 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline decreased for the second week in a row to $3.71 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  7. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.52 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  8. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  9. Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalysis Partnerships Licensing Sponsored Research Technical Services Technologist in Residence News Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Photos Videos Ombudsman Ombudsman Argonne National Laboratory Technology Development and Commercialization About Technologies Available for Licensing Capabilities Partnerships News Capabilities Catalysis Capabilities Argonne offers a wide range of R&D capabilities that collaborators from private industry, federal agencies, and state and local

  10. Statement of Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statement of Capabilities Statement of Capabilities World-class experts and capabilities countering all aspects of explosive threats, and aiming predominantly at enhanced detection capabilities. What is a SOC Letter? A nonbinding letter, a SOC is written by LACED to a requesting organization. The SOC describes a unique capability or service available from LACED on a non-exclusive basis. A SOC letter is not an endorsement of the requester and does not constitute a guarantee that LACED will

  11. 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov 2009 Fuel Economy Guide and FuelEconomy.gov October 24, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With energy costs looming as winter approaches, saving money is on everyone's minds these days. Fortunately, improving your vehicle's fuel economy is both economically and environmentally smart. In the winter, one of the easiest ways to decrease gasoline consumption is to warm up your engine for no more than

  12. Clark Atlanta Universities (CAU) Energy Related Research Capabilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Clark Atlanta Universities (CAU) Energy Related Research Capabilities More ... CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LOS ANGELES GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at ...

  13. United States Fuel Resiliency: US Fuels Supply Infrastructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report: United States Fuel Resiliency – U.S. Fuels Supply Infrastructure Study: (1) Infrastructure Characterization; (II) Vulnerability to Natural and Physical Threats; and (III) Vulnerability and Resilience This report assesses the U.S. fuels supply transportation, storage, and distribution (TS&D) infrastructure, its vulnerabilities (natural and physical threats), and its resiliency. The analysis employs a region-by-region perspective of U.S. fuels supply infrastructure, mirroring the Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) system that underpins liquid fuels commerce. The report also assesses the TS&D networks for crude oil and condensates, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, natural gas liquids, biofuels, and natural gas. Key findings include:

  14. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs). Water Chart: How far will one gallon go and how much water will it produce?

  15. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

  16. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion More than 90 percent of transportation relies on petroleum-based fuels: gasoline and diesel. While alternative fuels and plug-in electric vehicles offer great promise to reduce America's petroleum consumption, petroleum-based fuels are likely to play a substantial role for years to come. However, the sources

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax of $0.31 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 cubic feet at a base temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of 14.73 lbs. per square inch. Liquefied natural gas is subject to the excise tax of $0.325 per diesel gallon equivalent, measured at 6.06 lbs. Liquefied petroleum gas (propane) is subject to the excise tax of $0.30 per gallon. E85

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels Tax The state motor fuel tax on liquefied natural gas (LNG) is imposed based on the diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) and the tax on compressed natural gas (CNG) is based on the gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Beginning January 1, 2016, the state motor fuel tax on propane is imposed based on a GGE basis. For taxation purposes, one GGE of propane and CNG is equal to 5.75 pounds (lbs.) and 5.66 lbs., respectively, and one DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs. The North Carolina

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax Rate A license tax of $0.24 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) is collected on all alternative fuel used, sold, or distributed for sale or use in Wyoming. Alternative fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, and renewable diesel. For taxation purposes, one GGE of CNG is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.), one DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs, one GGE of propane is

  1. Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grout, Ray W

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high- performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

  2. Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC LFMM / NEMS overview 2 M. Cole, EIA Advanced Biofuels Workshop August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC * LFMM is a mathematical representation of the U.S. liquid fuels market (motor gasoline, diesel, biofuels, etc.). EIA analysts use LFMM to project motor fuel prices and production approaches through 2040. * LFMM is a

  3. Alternative Fuel Price Report - June 29, 2004

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ALTERNATIVE FUEL PRICE REPORT Alternative Fuel Prices Across the Nation June 29, 2004 his is the twelfth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between June 14 and June 25, 2004, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report,

  4. Alternative Fuel Price Report - November 26, 2004

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    THE ALTERNATIVE FUEL PRICE REPORT Alternative Fuel Prices Across the Nation November 26, 2004 his is the thirteenth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between November 8 and November 19, 2004, with comparisons to the prices in the previous

  5. Federal Technical Capability Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-05-18

    Provides requirements and responsibilities to ensure recruitment and hiring of technically capable personnel to retain critical technical capabilities within the Department at all times. Cancels DOE M 426.1-1. Canceled by DOE O 426.1.

  6. DOE Publishes Roadmap for Developing Cleaner Fuels | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Publishes Roadmap for Developing Cleaner Fuels DOE Publishes Roadmap for Developing Cleaner Fuels July 7, 2006 - 2:52pm Addthis Research Aimed at Making Cellulosic Ethanol a Practical Alternative to Gasoline WASHINGTON, DC -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released an ambitious new research agenda for the development of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to gasoline. The 200-page scientific "roadmap" cites recent advances in biotechnology that have made cost-effective

  7. NSTec Overview and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meidinger, A.

    2012-07-27

    This presentation describes the history of the Nevada National Security Site (Nevada Test Site) Contract as well as current capabilities.

  8. Sandia Energy - Research & Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D Projects Analysis, Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, Design, Energy, Energy Storage, Highlights - Energy Research, Highlights - HPC, Materials Science,...

  9. Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Access to the following capabilities, tools, and facilities is provided through a peer-reviewed proposal submission process. Although individual capabilities are managed by one of the specific groups, all of them can be used across the CNM scientific portfolio and requested in a user proposal Before submitting a proposal for access, prospective users are encouraged to contact staff members to learn more about the science and capabilities at the CNM. Key Research Areas

  10. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  11. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    56.9 57.3 73.4 65.7 March ... 105.0 100.6 59.0 59.6 69.0 68.0 April ... 111.4 107.5 66.0 65.3 80.5 75.1 May...

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Data Revision Notice

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    for some stations in the West Coast less California region. EIA has corrected this error and provides a revision to the affected areas for December 28, 2015 in this...

  13. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    114.6 105.9 57.6 58.1 64.5 57.4 July ... NA 104.7 56.7 56.9 63.1 56.8 August ... 114.6 109.0 59.1 59.1 64.9 60.6...

  14. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    88.4 45.3 45.9 65.3 47.5 April ... 99.3 92.8 46.6 46.7 56.7 46.1 May ... 101.1 97.3 46.7 47.0 56.0 45.6 June...

  15. From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A microbe that can produce an advanced biofuel directly from biomass was developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy Institute.

  16. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Concept Phase 2 Refinement Phase 3 Optimization May 10 May 11 May 12 Sep 13 May 13 ... 12v SS & ATM Integration Vehicle FE Optimization FE Demo GM Powertrain Advanced ...

  17. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud

  18. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    99.6 92.9 52.3 52.2 67.4 56.6 February ... 99.8 93.2 52.2 52.0 62.8 55.2 March ... 99.0 93.1 50.5 50.1 59.4 52.8 April...

  19. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  20. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  1. Gasoline Type Proliferation and Price Volatility

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the potential effect/role of implementation of a national menu of fuels to address the proliferation of boutique fuels.

  2. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible fuels.

  3. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuels characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the projects objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  4. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modern water-purification techniques Supercomputers Resilient passenger jets Better cancer therapies 7 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office Source: US DOE 2132015 eere.energy.gov ...

  5. Fact #635: August 9, 2010 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: August 9, 2010 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment Fact #635: August 9, 2010 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment Most lawn and garden equipment uses gasoline instead of diesel fuel. Mowing equipment consumes nearly half of all the fuel used by lawn and garden equipment. The fuel used in this equipment accounts for only 1.8% of total gasoline use. Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2008 Bar graph showing the fuel consumption

  6. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  7. Report: Efficiency, Alternative Fuels to Impact Market Through 2040

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Fuel efficiency improvements and increased use of alternative fuels, will shrink gasoline's share of the fuel market 14% by 2040, according to a new report based on analysis of the U.S. Energy Information Administration in its Annual Energy Outl

  8. Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions | Department of Energy Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

  9. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  11. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_35_patton.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion

  12. Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Downsizing | Department of Energy Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing Application of Synergistic Technologies to Achieve High Levels of Gasoline Engine Downsizing Discussed technologies applied in highly downsized efficient gasoline engine concept such as multiple injection, advanced boosting, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, and electrical supercharger PDF icon deer11_boggs.pdf More Documents & Publications Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Measurement Effective November 1, 2015, the Oklahoma Department of Labor (DOL) must standardize compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) measurements for retail motor vehicle fuel, unless the National Conference on Weights and Measures has established equivalent measures. Until the DOL standardizes measurements, a gasoline gallon equivalent is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.) of CNG and a diesel gallon equivalent is equal to 6.06 lbs. of LNG. (Reference House Bill

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Petroleum Reduction Requirements The Wisconsin Department of Administration's fleet management policy requires all state agencies to collectively reduce gasoline use in state-owned vehicles by at least 50% by 2015 as compared to the total amount used in 2006. In addition, state agencies must reduce petroleum-based diesel fuel use by 25% by 2015. (Reference Wisconsin Statutes 16.045 and Executive Order 141, 2006

  15. Capabilities: Science Pillars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pillars /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg Capabilities: Science Pillars The Lab's four Science Pillars harness our scientific capabilities for national security solutions. What are the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Science Pillars? The Laboratory has established the Science Pillars under four main themes to bring together the Laboratory's diverse array of scientific capabilities and expertise: Information, Science, and Technology Pillar Materials for the Future Pillar

  16. Science & Engineering Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg Science & Engineering Capabilities These capabilities are our science and engineering at work for the national security interest in areas from global climate to cyber security, from nonproliferation to new materials, from clean energy solutions to supercomputing. Accelerators, Electrodynamics» Energy» Materials Science» Bioscience: Bioenergy, Biosecurity, and Health» Engineering» National Security, Weapons Science»

  17. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines Expanding ...

  18. Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... adjacent to the cylinder-wall from temperature-map images. September 2013 ... 2013 Determine effects of intake temperature, gasoline direct injection (GDI) timing ...

  19. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    began to decline, and with the transition from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol completed and the end of the summer driving season drawing near, gasoline prices...

  20. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  1. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  2. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  3. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  4. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  5. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  6. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor...

  7. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  8. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  9. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  10. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  11. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  12. Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  13. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  15. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  16. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  17. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  18. Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  19. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  20. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  1. Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  2. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  3. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  7. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  8. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  9. Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

  10. Sierra/Fuego Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Existing SierraFuego Capabilities Related to Grid-to-Rod Fretting (GTRF) Salvador Rodriguez and Daniel Z. Turner Sandia National Laboratory June 30, 2011...

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities A Vision for Sustainable Transportation Line graph illustrating three pathways (biofuel, hydrogen, and electric vehicle) to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas ...

  12. Postdoc capability awareness AOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, John L.

    2015-12-18

    This is a summary of the LANL accelerator operations and technology division prepared for the postdoc programmatic capability awareness workshop in engineering and applied sciences.

  13. The Sasol route to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    Details are given of the Sasol operation in South Africa. Flow sheets are provided for Sasol 1 and Sasol 2 and 3. The Sasol 1 plant produces waxes, liquid fuels, pipeline gas and chemicals; the Sasol 2 and 3 plants primarily produce ethylene, gasoline and diesel fuel. The versatility of the process is emphasized. The product selectivities of the fixed bed and Synthol reactors are shown and the properties of the products are compared. The influence of the catalyst on selectivity is examined.

  14. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  15. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is possible on the overall totals, to the current FHWA estimates. Because NONROAD2005 model was designed for emission estimation purposes (i.e., not for measuring fuel consumption), it covers different equipment populations from those the FHWA models were based on. Thus, a direct comparison generally was not possible in most sectors. As a result, NONROAD2005 data were not used in the 2008 update of the FHWA off-highway models. The quality of fuel use estimates directly affect the data quality in many tables published in the Highway Statistics. Although updates have been made to the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use Gasoline Model, some challenges remain due to aging model equations and discontinuation of data sources.

  16. Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Top 5 Fuel Cell States: Why Local Policies Mean Green Growth Jun 21 st , 2011 2 * Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative * Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition * Accomplishments * Ohio Successes Discussion Areas 3 Ohio's Fuel Cell Initiative * Announced on 5/9/02 * Part of Ohio Third Frontier Initiative * $85 million investment to date * Core focus areas: 1) Expand the state's research capabilities; 2) Participate in demonstration projects; and 3) Expand the fuel cell industry in Ohio 4 OHIO'S FUEL CELL INITIATIVE

  17. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  18. Federal Technical Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-11-19

    This directive defines requirements and responsibilities for meeting the Department of Energy (DOE) commitment to recruiting, deploying, developing, and retaining a technically competent workforce that will accomplish DOE missions in a safe and efficient manner through the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP). Cancels DOE M 426.1-1A, Federal Technical Capability Manual.

  19. Federal Technical Capability Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-05

    The Federal Technical Capability Manual provides the process for the recruitment, deployment, development, and retention of Federal personnel with the demonstrated technical capability to safely accomplish the Departments missions and responsibilities at defense nuclear facilities. Canceled by DOE M 426.1-1A. Does not cancel other directives.

  20. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  1. Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation - ORNL Reference Fuel Blends *Accurately measure exhaust profile from an HCCI engine with a variety of fuels and create a better understanding of HCCI engine emissions. PDF icon deer09_bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel

  2. Alternative Fuels in Trucking Volume 5, Number 4

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    N atural gas costs less to pro- duce than gasoline and diesel fuel. However, it must be delivered to the market area and compressed or liquefied before being put into the vehicle fuel tank, steps that add significant cost. Whether the natural gas at the vehicle fuel tank retains a price advantage over gasoline or diesel fuel depends on many factors. A few of the most important are: * Distance from the wellhead to the market area * The gas volumes over which the costs of compression or liquefac-

  3. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  4. Clark Atlanta Universities (CAU) Energy Related Research Capabilities |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Clark Atlanta Universities (CAU) Energy Related Research Capabilities Clark Atlanta Universities (CAU) Energy Related Research Capabilities How energy related research has helped Clark Atlanta University. PDF icon Clark Atlanta Universities (CAU) Energy Related Research Capabilities More Documents & Publications 2008-2009 Winter Fuels Outlook Conference Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL EDUCATION AT CALIFORNIA STATE

  5. Gasoline prices inch down slightly (long version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.84 a gallon, down 5.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.32 a gallon, down 3.9 cents.

  6. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (long version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.74 a gallon, up 19.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.14 a gallon, up 16.3 cents.

  7. Gasoline prices up this week (long version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.3 cents from a week ago and up 25.4 cents from two weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.87 a gallon, up almost 13 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.27 a gallon, up 13 cents.

  8. Gasoline prices up this week (long version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.75 a gallon on Monday. That's up almost 14 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.97 a gallon, up almost 11 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.41 a gallon, up 13.5 cents.

  9. Gasoline price shows small increase (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the New England States, at 3.52 a gallon, down 1/10 of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest at 2.87 a gallon in the Rocky Mountain States, with the biggest regional price drop at close to 7 cents.

  10. Gasoline price up this week (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    up this week (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. For the first time since early December pump prices were highest in the West Coast at 3.50 a gallon, up 1.2 cents from a week ago. For the fourth week in a row, prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 2.88 a gallon, up 1.3 cents.

  11. Gasoline price up this week (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. For the second week in a row, pump prices were highest in the West Coast at 3.55 a gallon, up 4.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 2.98 a gallon, up 10.1 cents marking the greatest regional increase this week.

  12. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 1/2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.95 a gallon, down 1.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.48 a gallon, down 2.5 cents. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.50 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 5.6 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.31 a gallon, down 6 1/2 cents.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.36 a gallon, down 7.1 cents.

  15. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.52 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.80 a gallon, down 3.6 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.30 a gallon, down 2.9 cents.

  16. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  17. Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Round 1 Emissions Results from Compressed Natural Gas Vans and Gasoline Controls Operating in the U.S. Federal Fleet Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Leslie Eudy ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S.

  18. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  19. Relative performance of rotary and piston engines on synthetic coal-derived gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kappos, C.; Rajan, S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper compares the overall power and emissions features and in-cylinder combustion characteristics of a two-rotor Wankel engine and those of a four-cylinder piston engine, with particular reference to thermal efficiency, oxides of nitrogen, unburnt hydrocarbons, exhaust temperature, ignition delay and combustion interval. The study provides insight into the similarities and differences in the mechanisms of pollutant formation and combustion characteristics of rotary and piston engines, while operating on a synthetic coal-derived gasoline. In particular, the shorter ignition delay and longer combustion interval of the rotary engine indicates its suitability for use with lower quality fuels.

  20. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size distribution remained approximately the same (50 nm) but the particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content in the fuel. In addition, increasing ethanol content significantly reduced the number concentration of 50 and 100 nm particles during gradual and WOT accelerations.