National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel burning equipment

  1. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) Jump to:New York:ClayBurn Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation,

  2. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  3. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  4. Burning Rate of Liquid Fuel on Carpet (Porous Media) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Tingguang; Olenick, Stephen M; Klassen, Michael S; Roby, Richard J; Torero, Jose L

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of a liquid fuel burning on carpet has been involved in many incendiary and accidental fires. While the research on a liquid fuel fire on carpet is still limited, much work on porous media has been ...

  5. Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment This fact sheet describes the use of hydrogen fuel cells to...

  6. Fuel burn reduction potential from delayed deceleration approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Jean-Marie, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Changing aircraft operational procedures is one strategy that can be used to reduce fuel burn and mitigate environmental impacts of aviation in relatively short timeframes with existing aircraft types. One promising ...

  7. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  8. Mixed Oxide Fresh Fuel Package Auxiliary Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapuncich, F.; Ross, A. [AREVA Federal Services (AFS), Tacoma WA (United States); Clark, R.H. [Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Ammerman, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is overseeing the construction the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) on the Savannah River Site. The new facility, being constructed by NNSA's contractor Shaw AREVA MOX Services, will fabricate fuel assemblies utilizing surplus plutonium as feedstock. The fuel will be used in designated commercial nuclear reactors. The MOX Fresh Fuel Package (MFFP), which has recently been licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a type B package (USA/9295/B(U)F-96), will be utilized to transport the fabricated fuel assemblies from the MFFF to the nuclear reactors. It was necessary to develop auxiliary equipment that would be able to efficiently handle the high precision fuel assemblies. Also, the physical constraints of the MFFF and the nuclear power plants require that the equipment be capable of loading and unloading the fuel assemblies both vertically and horizontally. The ability to reconfigure the load/unload evolution builds in a large degree of flexibility for the MFFP for the handling of many types of both fuel and non fuel payloads. The design and analysis met various technical specifications including dynamic and static seismic criteria. The fabrication was completed by three major fabrication facilities within the United States. The testing was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The unique design specifications and successful testing sequences will be discussed. (authors)

  9. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

    2011-10-03

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  10. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  11. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overviews 1 SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet. The DemoEast programme objective in Estonia was to promote the pellets firing technology, equipment and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

  12. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  13. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  14. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  15. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  16. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  17. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  18. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  19. Nuclear fuel post-irradiation examination equipment package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCooman, W.J. [AREVA NP Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Spellman, D.J. [UT-Battelle, LLC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Hot cell capabilities in the U.S. are being reviewed and revived to meet today's demand for fuel reliability, tomorrow's demands for higher burnup fuel and future demand for fuel recycling. Fuel reliability, zero tolerance for failure, is more than an industry buzz. It is becoming a requirement to meet the rapidly escalating demands for the impending renaissance of nuclear power generation, fuel development, and management of new waste forms that will need to be dealt with from programs such as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Fuel performance data is required to license fuel for higher burnup; to verify recycled fuel performance, such as MOX, for wide-scale use in commercial reactors; and, possibly, to license fuel for a new generation of fast reactors. Additionally, fuel isotopic analysis and recycling technologies will be critical factors in the goal to eventually close the fuel cycle. This focus on fuel reliability coupled with the renewed interest in recycling puts a major spotlight on existing hot cell capabilities in the U.S. and their ability to provide the baseline analysis to achieve a closed fuel cycle. Hot cell examination equipment is necessary to determine the characteristics and performance of irradiated materials that are subjected to nuclear reactor environments. The equipment within the hot cells is typically operated via master-slave manipulators and is typically manually operated. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is modernizing their hot cell nuclear fuel examination equipment, installing automated examination equipment and data gathering capabilities. Currently, the equipment has the capability to perform fuel rod visual examinations, length and diametrical measurements, eddy current examination, profilometry, gamma scanning, fission gas collection and void fraction measurement, and fuel rod segmentation. The used fuel postirradiation examination equipment was designed to examine full-length fuel rods for both Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors. (authors)

  20. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes the Design Data Needs to: (1) fabricate the coated particle fuel, (2) predict its performance in the reactor core, (3) predict the radionuclide release rates from the reactor core, and (4) predict the performance of spent fuel in a geological repository. The heart of this fuel development plan is Section 6, which describes the development activities proposed to satisfy the DDNs presented in Section 5. The development scope is divided into Fuel Process Development, Fuel Materials Development, Fission Product Transport, and Spent Fuel Disposal. Section 7 describes the facilities to be used. Generally, this program will utilize existing facilities. While some facilities will need to be modified, there is no requirement for major new facilities. Section 8 states the Quality Assurance requirements that will be applied to the development activities. Section 9 presents detailed costs organized by WBS and spread over time. Section 10 presents a list of the types of deliverables that will be prepared in each of the WBS elements. Four Appendices contain supplementary information on: (a) design data needs, (b) the interface with the separations plant, (c) the detailed development schedule, and (d) the detailed cost estimate.

  1. Detection of nonlinearities in the dependence of burn area on fuel age and climatic variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

    Angeles County in California, USA suggests that the relation- ships between wildfire burn area and fuel1 Detection of nonlinearities in the dependence of burn area on fuel age and climatic variables Suggested running head: Nonlinear dependence on fuel age and climate Frederic Paik Schoenberg Department

  2. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.4–23.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 7–9% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 7–9% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 3–5 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  3. Fact #635: August 9, 2010 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most lawn and garden equipment uses gasoline instead of diesel fuel. Mowing equipment consumes nearly half of all the fuel used by lawn and garden equipment. The fuel used in this equipment...

  4. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  5. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  6. Investigation of the characteristics of liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulsating combustors, Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Daniel, B.R.; Katz, U.; Xu, T.S.; Su, A.

    1986-11-01

    This report describes the results obtained during the first year of a DOE sponsored research program entitled ''Investigation of the Characteristics of Liquid Fuel Burning, Rijke Type, Pulse Combustors''. This research has been concerned with the development of an efficient, nonpolluting, pulse combustor which burns liquid fuels. The design of the developed combustor is based upon principles of the acoustic Rijke tube which had been previously used, by the principal investigators of this study, to guide the development of a highly efficient, coal burning pulse combustor. The present study was initiated with the objective of determining whether the high performance achieved with the coal burning pulse combustor can be duplicated with the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustors. This document also describes the development of the experimental set-up and its subsequent modifications which resulted in improved performance. These studies revealed that pulse combustion operation can be maintained by more than one mechanism.

  7. Estimation of potential aircraft fuel burn reduction in cruise via speed and altitude optimization strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovegren, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Anders)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental performance has become a dominant theme in all transportation sectors. As scientific evidence for global climate change mounts, social and political pressure to reduce fuel burn and C0 2 emissions has increased ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about advanced lean-burn...

  9. General analysis of breed-and-burn reactors and limited-separations fuel cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    A new theoretical framework is introduced, the "neutron excess" concept, which is useful for analyzing breed-and-burn (B&B) reactors and their fuel cycles. Based on this concept, a set of methods has been developed which ...

  10. Fuel Burn and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Power/Low Drag Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Jean-Marie

    Changing aircraft operational procedures is one strategy that can be used to reduce fuel burn and mitigate environmental impacts of aviation in relatively short timeframes with existing aircraft types. This study quantifies ...

  11. Fuel-Burn Impact of Re-Designing Future Aircraft with Changes in Mission Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Fuel-Burn Impact of Re-Designing Future Aircraft with Changes in Mission Specifications Anil.S.A. Over the past few years, pressure to reduce the overall fuel consumption of the commer- cial aircraft fleet has been growing steadily. Expenses related to fuel are now one of the largest contributors

  12. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2011-04-29

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500ºC to 600ºC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix A—MSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled “Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled “Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors” Appendix B—External presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix C—Fuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys” presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow, entitled “Uranium Metal Powder Production, Particle Dis

  13. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  14. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market. Turf grass is a fixture of the American landscape and the American economy. It is the nation's largest irrigated crop, covering more than 40 million acres. Legions of lawnmowers care for this expanse during the growing season-up to year-round in the warmest climates. The annual economic impact of the U.S. turf grass industry has been estimated at more than $62 billion. Lawn mowing also contributes to the nation's petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. Mowers consume 1.2 billion gallons of gasoline annually, about 1% of U.S. motor gasoline consumption. Commercial mowing accounts for about 35% of this total and is the highest-intensity use. Large property owners and mowing companies cut lawns, sports fields, golf courses, parks, roadsides, and other grassy areas for 7 hours per day and consume 900 to 2,000 gallons of fuel annually depending on climate and length of the growing season. In addition to gasoline, commercial mowing consumes more than 100 million gallons of diesel annually. Alternative fuel mowers are one way to reduce the energy and environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. They can reduce petroleum use and emissions compared with gasoline- and diesel-fueled mowers. They may also save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and promote a 'green' image. And on ozone alert days, alternative fuel mowers may not be subject to the operational restrictions that gasoline mowers must abide by. To help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits, Clean Cities produced this guide to alternative fuel commercial lawn equipment. Although the guide's focus is on original equipment manufacturer (OEM) mowers, some mowers can be converted to run on alternative fuels. For more information about propane conversions. This guide may be particularly helpful for organizations that are already using alternative fuels in their vehicles and have an alternative fuel supply or electric charging in place (e.g., golf cart charging stations at most golf courses). On the flip side, experiencing the benefits of using alternative fuels in mowing equipment may encourage organizations to try them in on-road vehicles as well. Whatever the case, alternative fuel commercial lawnmowers are a powerful and cost-effective way to reduce U.S. petroleum dependence and help protect the environment.

  15. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  16. Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostiuk, Larry W. (Edmonton, CA); Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

  17. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyatt Jaeglé

    combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions Lyatt Jaegle´ ,a Linda Steinberger,a Randall V. Martinbc anthropogenic emissions, mostly resulting from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, are superimposed estimates are 25% larger than a priori. A posteriori fuel combustion emissions are aseasonal

  18. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel in the Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    High fuel temperatures and resulting fuel particle coating stresses can be expected in a Pu and minor actinide fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design as compared to the ’standard’ UO2 fueled core. The high discharge burnup aimed for in this Deep-Burn design results in increased power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed near the inner and outer reflector. Furthermore, the pebble power in a multi-pass in-core pebble recycling scheme is relatively high for pebbles that make their first core pass. This might result in an increase of the mechanical failure of the coatings, which serve as the containment of radioactive fission products in the PBMR design. To investigate the integrity of the particle fuel coatings as a function of the irradiation time (i.e. burnup), core position and during a Loss Of Forced Cooling (LOFC) incident the PArticle STress Analysis code (PASTA) has been coupled to the PEBBED code for neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and depletion analysis of the core. Two deep burn fuel types (Pu with or without initial MA fuel content) have been investigated with the new code system for normal and transient conditions including the effect of the statistical variation of thickness of the coating layers.

  19. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and burn TRU in a thermal spectrum, while satisfying top-level operational and safety constraints. Various assembly designs have been proposed to assess the TRU burning potential of Th-based fuel in PWRs. In addition to typical homogeneous loading patterns, heterogeneous configurations exploiting the breeding potential of thorium to enable multiple cycles of TRU irradiation and burning have been devised. The homogeneous assembly design, with all pins featuring TRU in Th, has the benefit of a simple loading pattern and the highest rate of TRU transmutation, but it can be used only for a few cycles due to the rapid rise in the TRU content of the recycled fuel, which challenges reactivity control, safety coefficients and fuel handling. Due to its simple loading pattern, such assembly design can be used as the first step of Th implementation, achieving up to 3 times larger TRU transmutation rate than conventional U-MOX, assuming same fraction of MOX assemblies in the core. As the next step in thorium implementation, heterogeneous assemblies featuring a mixed array of Th-U and Th-U-TRU pins, where the U is in-bred from Th, have been proposed. These designs have the potential to enable burning an external supply of TRU through multiple cycles of irradiation, recovery (via reprocessing) and recycling of the residual actinides at the end of each irradiation cycle. This is achieved thanks to a larger breeding of U from Th in the heterogeneous assemblies, which reduces the TRU supply and thus mitigates the increase in the TRU core inventory for the multi-recycled fuel. While on an individual cycle basis the amount of TRU burned in the heterogeneous assembly is reduced with respect to the homogeneous design, TRU burning rates higher than single-pass U-MOX fuel can still be achieved, with the additional benefits of a multi-cycle transmutation campaign recycling all TRU isotopes. Nitride fuel, due its higher density and U breeding potential, together with its better thermal properties, ideally suits the objectives and constraints of the heterogeneous assemblies. However, signi

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Onboard Idle Reduction Equipment for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digglaws-incentivesFuelsPublications »Fuels

  1. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol, while nonmethane organic gas and CO emissions remained relatively unchanged for all fuels and cycles. Higher fraction ethanol blends appeared to decrease NO{sub X} emissions on the FTP and HFET (after conversion). As expected, fuel economy (miles per gallon) decreased with increasing ethanol content in all cases.

  2. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  3. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  4. Deep Burn Fuel Cycle Integration: Evaluation of Two-Tier Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bays; H. Zhang; M. Pope

    2009-05-01

    The use of a deep burn strategy using VHTRs (or DB-MHR), as a means of burning transuranics produced by LWRs, was compared to performing this task with LWR MOX. The spent DB-MHR fuel was recycled for ultimate final recycle in fast reactors (ARRs). This report summarizes the preliminary findings of the support ratio (in terms of MWth installed) between LWRs, DB-MHRs and ARRs in an equilibrium “two-tier” fuel cycle scenario. Values from literature were used to represent the LWR and DB-MHR isotopic compositions. A reactor physics simulation of the ARR was analyzed to determine the effect that the DB-MHR spent fuel cooling time on the ARR transuranic consumption rate. These results suggest that the cooling time has some but not a significant impact on the ARRs conversion ratio and transuranic consumption rate. This is attributed to fissile worth being derived from non-fissile or “threshold-fissioning” isotopes in the ARR’s fast spectrum. The fraction of installed thermal capacity of each reactor in the DB-MHR 2-tier fuel cycle was compared with that of an equivalent MOX 2-tier fuel cycle, assuming fuel supply and demand are in equilibrium. The use of DB-MHRs in the 1st-tier allows for a 10% increase in the fraction of fleet installed capacity of UO2-fueled LWRs compared to using a MOX 1st-tier. Also, it was found that because the DB-MHR derives more power per unit mass of transuranics charged to the fresh fuel, the “front-end” reprocessing demand is less than MOX. Therefore, more fleet installed capacity of DB-MHR would be required to support a given fleet of UO2 LWRs than would be required of MOX plants. However, the transuranic deep burn achieved by DB-MHRs reduces the number of fast reactors in the 2nd-tier to support the DB-MHRs “back-end” transuranic output than if MOX plants were used. Further analysis of the relative costs of these various types of reactors is required before a comparative study of these options could be considered complete.

  5. Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Analysis Using Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment (MHE) for Shaving Peak Building Energy" held on August 11, 2015.

  6. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  7. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Installing New E85 Equipment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlenderBusiness Case for E85 Fuel Retailers toE85 Codes

  9. Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EV Everywhere andEVERETTofEagleMaterial

  10. Diffusion-flame burning of fuel-vapor pockets in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendell, F.E.; Bush, W.B.; Mitchell, J.A.; Fink, S.F. IV . Center for Propulsion Technology and Fluid Mechanics)

    1994-08-01

    The authors examine analytically, with numerical assistance, the unsteady, diffusively limited burnup of initially unmixed fuel vapor and gaseous oxidizer. They study three simple spherical geometries: (1) an initially uniform sphere of fuel vapor immersed in an unbounded expanse of oxidizer; (2) a variant on case 1 in which only a finite concentric annulus of enveloping oxidizer is available for the burning of the initially uniform sphere of fuel vapor; and (3) an impervious sphere, consisting initially of one uniform hemisphere of fuel vapor and one uniform hemisphere of oxidizer. Of particular interest is the time interval for the exhaustion of the lean reactant, as a function of the fuel-to-oxidizer stoichiometry and the sphere radius. The motivation for these studies is to ascertain the fate of inhomogeneous blobs that arise as a consequence of imperfect fuel/air mixing, e.g., in the context of a supersonic combustor. In such a context, an inhomogeneous blob of gaseous mixture, idealized to have the geometry of a sphere, is examined as a Lagrangian element, as it is convected downstream, without slip, by the surrounding gaseous flow. The longest time for diffusional burnup, for the spherically enclosed geometries, arises for the case in which the fuel vapor and oxidizer are present in stoichiometric proportion.

  11. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    you using the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) at www.afdc.energy.govafdcfuels naturalgaslocations.html. Over the past decade, CNG has been the...

  12. Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    Guide explains the different types of alternative fuel commercial mowers and lists the makes and models of the ones available on the market.

  13. Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ, CA,EnergystudentThis theEVERETTA N A G E Madvantages

  14. 1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    /biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion 3 S. A. Guazzotti,1 D. T. Suess,1,2 K. R. Coffee,1,3 P. K. Quinn,4 T. S with potassium 17 (indicative of combustion sources), and mass concentration of submicrometer non-sea- 18 salt Peninsula, where dominance of fossil fuel combustion is suggested by 30 results from single

  15. Nerva fuel nondestructive evaluation and characterization equipment and facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputo, A.J. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States))

    1993-01-20

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is one of the technologies that the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has identified as essential for a manned mission to Mars. A base or prior work is available upon which to build in the development of nuclear rockets. From 1955 to 1973, the U.S Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsored development and testing of a nuclear rocket engine under Project Rover. The rocket engine, called the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA), used a graphite fuel element incorporating coated particle fuel. Much of the NERVA development and manufacturing work was performed at the Oak Ridge Y[minus]12 Plant. This paper gives a general review of that work in the area of nondestructive evaluation and characterization. Emphasis is placed on two key characteristics: uranium content and distribution and thickness profile of metal carbide coatings deposited in the gas passage holes.

  16. Lean-burn hydrogen spark-ignited engines: the mechanical equivalent to the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many 1345 experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The adjusted engine model predicts pressure traces, indicated efficiency and NO,, emissions with good accuracy over the range of speed, equivalence ratio and manifold pressure experimentally covered.

  17. Performance assessment for the geological disposal of Deep Burn spent fuel using TTBX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van den Akker, B.P.; Ahn, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of Deep Burn Modular High Temperature Reactor Spent Fuel (DBSF) is investigated in the Yucca Mountain geological repository (YMR) with respect to the annual dose (Sv/yr) delivered to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) from the transport of radionuclides released from the graphite waste matrix. Transport calculations are performed with a novel computer code, TTBX which is capable of modeling transport pathways that pass through heterogeneous geological formations. TTBX is a multi-region extension of the existing single region TTB transport code. Overall the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is seen to be four orders of magnitude lower than the regulatory threshold for exposure, even under pessimistic scenarios. A number of factors contribute to the favorable performance of DBSF. A reduction of one order of magnitude in the peak annual dose received by the RMEI is observed for every order of magnitude increase in the waste matrix lifetime, highlighting the importance of the waste matrix durability and suggesting graphite's utility as a potential waste matrix for the disposal of high-level waste. Furthermore, we see that by incorporating a higher fidelity far-field model the peak annual dose calculated to be received by the RMEI is reduced by two orders of magnitude. By accounting for the heterogeneities of the far field we have simultaneously removed unnecessary conservatisms and improved the fidelity of the transport model. (authors)

  18. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Parts and Equipment to Conserve Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNaturalStateVehicle Parts and

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Equipment Options for E85 Fueling Systems

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender Pump Dispensers to someoneElectricity Research

  1. Hybrid Rocket Burning Rate Enhancement by Nano-Scale Additives in HTPB Fuel Grains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James C

    2014-12-10

    particles. The implementation of commercial aluminum particles at a mass loading of 5% as a burning rate enhancer was assessed on a lab-scale burner. Traditional temporally and spatially averaged techniques were applied to determine the regression rates...

  2. Investigation of nitrogen dilution effects on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel at atmospheric condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prathap, C.; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-10-15

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of dilution with nitrogen on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel (50% H{sub 2}-50% CO by volume)-air (21% O{sub 2}-79% N{sub 2} by volume) mixtures. The syngas fuel composition considered in this work comprised x% N{sub 2} by volume and (100-x)% an equimolar mixture of CO and H{sub 2}. The proportion x (i.e., %N{sub 2}) was varied from 0 to 60% while the H{sub 2}/CO ratio was always kept as unity. Spherically expanding flames were generated by centrally igniting homogeneous fuel-air gas mixtures in a 40-L cylindrical combustion chamber fitted with optical windows. Shadowgraphy technique with a high-speed imaging camera was used to record the propagating spherical flames. Unstretched burning velocity was calculated following the Karlovitz theory for weakly stretched flames. Also, Markstein length was calculated to investigate the flame stability conditions for the fuel-air mixtures under consideration. Experiments were conducted for syngas fuel with different nitrogen proportions (0-60%) at 0.1 MPa (absolute), 302{+-}3K, and equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 3.5. All the measurements were compared with the numerical predictions obtained using RUN-1DL and PREMIX with a contemporary chemical kinetic scheme. Dilution with nitrogen in different proportions in syngas resulted in (a) decrease in laminar burning velocity due to reduction in heat release and increase in heat capacity of unburned gas mixture and hence the flame temperature, (b) shift in occurrence of peak laminar burning velocity from {phi}=2.0 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.4 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution, (c) augmentation of the coupled effect of flame stretch and preferential diffusion on laminar burning velocity, and (d) shift in the equivalence ratio for transition from stable to unstable flames from {phi}=0.6 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.0 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution. The present work also indicated that if the fuel mole fraction in the wide range of fuel-air mixtures investigated is less than 22%, then those fuel mixtures are in the unstable regime with regard to preferential diffusion. (author)

  3. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance in the Key Early Markets of Material Handling Equipment and Backup Power (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of NREL's analysis of hydrogen fuel cell performance in the key early markets of material handling equipment (MHE) and backup power.

  5. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  6. Development of aircraft fuel burn modeling techniques with applications to global emissions modeling and assessment of the benefits of reduced vertical separation minimums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Tim (Tim Alan)

    2007-01-01

    Given the current level of concern over anthropogenic climate change and the role of commercial aviation in this process, the ability to adequately model and quantify fuel burn and emissions on a system wide scale is of ...

  7. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Venneri; Chang-Keun Jo; Jae-Man Noh; Yonghee Kim; Claudio Filippone; Jonghwa Chang; Chris Hamilton; Young-Min Kim; Ji-Su Jun; Moon-Sung Cho; Hong-Sik Lim; MIchael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Vincent Descotes; Brian Boer

    2010-09-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  8. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  9. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  11. Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Atmospheric CO22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    1 Contribution of Ocean, Fossil Fuel, Land Biosphere and Biomass Burning Carbon1 Fluxes to Seasonal et al., 1989].18 Anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture drive most of the recent by deforestation, discussed below) over the last 50 years. The fossil fuel plus4 cement input, in contrast

  12. Fertile free fuels for plutonium and minor actinides burning in LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of using various uranium-free fuels for plutonium incineration in present light water reactors is investigated. Two major categories of inert matrix fuels are studied: composite ceramic fuel particles ...

  13. U.S. Department of Energy-Funded Performance Validation of Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-11-01

    This webinar presentation to the UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association summarizes how the U.S. Department of Energy is enabling early fuel cell markets; describes objectives of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center; and presents performance status of fuel cell material handling equipment.

  14. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  15. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a ”standard,” UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high TRU content and high burn-up).

  16. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  17. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by switching to LNG instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil and installing new emission controls that stands to benefit if regulators approve LNG shipments to the state. "Beyond payment for this study, FGE will receive no compensation whatsoever whether the state decides to import LNG or not, and no matter under

  18. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  19. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0DepartmentDepartment of EnergyLWRS2 DOE

  20. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0DepartmentDepartment of EnergyLWRS2 DOE1

  1. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0DepartmentDepartment of EnergyLWRS2 DOE110

  2. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0DepartmentDepartment of EnergyLWRS2

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced lean...

  4. Final Project Report INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE "BURNING" AND DIRECT DISPOSAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting FINAL TECHNICAL REPORTFiberProject

  5. Investigation of the characteristics of liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustors; Progress report, July 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Daniel, B.R.; Shani, S.; Bai, T.; Zhang, Z.

    1988-10-01

    This research program consists of three tasks. The objectives of Task A are to determine the performance characteristics of an uninsulated and an insulated, Rijke type, pulse combustors when burning different liquid fuels under different operating conditions. Task B is concerned with the elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for driving the pulsations in the developed combustors and Task C is concerned with the determination dependence of the performance of the combustor upon the amplitude of pulsations. The performance characteristics of this pulse combustor design were investigated extensively earlier under this program and the results are described in previous progress reports. In order to determine the effect of thermal conditions inside the combustor, a second insulated combustor was developed having the same design as the uninsulated combustor. The performance of this combustor was investigated this quarter. 21 figs.

  6. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  7. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  8. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  9. Performance of an industrial type combustor burning simulated fuels of medium BTU content 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goehring, Howard Lee

    1983-01-01

    I I ~ THEORETICAL CON SIDERAT IQN S Page v1 A. COMBUSTION CHAMBER OPERATING PRINCIPLES, . 4 B. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS C. AFFECT QF CHANGING ENGINE CONDITIONS ON COMBUSTOR PERFORMANCE D. HOW LOW BTU FUELS AFFECT COMBUSTOR PERFO RMAN C E... CHAPTER III . EXPERIMENTATION A. INTRODUCTION 15 20 28 B. CONDITIONS TO BE TESTED C. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP D. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE CHAPTER IV . SUMMARY A. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS B. RECOMMENDAT ION S RE FEREN CE S 75 TABLE OF CONTENTS...

  10. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Due to depletion of oil resources, increasing fuel prices and environmental issues associated with burning of fossil fuels, extensive research has been performed in biofuel production and dramatic progress has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Due to depletion of oil resources, increasing fuel prices and environmental issues associated with burning of fossil fuels, extensive research has been performed in biofuel production and dramatic progress has been made. But still problems exist in economically production of biofuels. One major problem

  12. High Burn-Up Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 15134

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Scaglione, John M

    2015-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) approach to successfully demonstrate the controllable fatigue fracture on high burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a normal vibration mode. CIRFT enables examination of the underlying mechanisms of SNF system dynamic performance. Due to the inhomogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, the detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, finite element analyses (FEAs) are used to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles for further investigation. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance. Fuel structure contributes to SNF system stiffness. There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interactions. SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous.

  13. Planning a Prescribed Burn 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2009-04-01

    , the size of the burn, and its impact on wildlife habitat. If you burned using this plan, you would probably never burn rangeland again on purpose because of the risks taken and the potential for disappointing results. Effective planning well in advance...-leaved herbaceous plants other than grass, may look rank (vigorous) and dense enough to burn, but by midwinter they often have broken down. Woody debris and standing dead trees help little in spreading a fire. The grass fuel also needs to be ready at the right...

  14. Underwriters Laboratories now accepting certification investigation requests for E85 fuel dispensing equipment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlenderBusiness Case forbuttonhighlightedNewSpring MEDIA

  15. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  16. Accidental Burning of a Fuel Layer on a Waterbed: A Scale Analysis Study of the Heat Transfer Models Predicting the pre-Boilover Time and Scaling to Published Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hristov, J; Planas, E; Arnaldos, J; Casal, J

    The paper concerns the heat transfer models of liquid fuel bed burning on water sublayer. The main efforts are stressed on the qualitative assessment of models available and their adequacy as well as on the prediction of ...

  17. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis: Design Selection for the Prismatic Block Reactor With Results from FY-2011 Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2011-10-01

    The Deep Burn (DB) Project is a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored feasibility study of Transuranic Management using high burnup fuel in the high temperature helium cooled reactor (HTR). The DB Project consists of seven tasks: project management, core and fuel analysis, spent fuel management, fuel cycle integration, TRU fuel modeling, TRU fuel qualification, and HTR fuel recycle. In the Phase II of the Project, we conducted nuclear analysis of TRU destruction/utilization in the HTR prismatic block design (Task 2.1), deep burn fuel/TRISO microanalysis (Task 2.3), and synergy with fast reactors (Task 4.2). The Task 2.1 covers the core physics design, thermo-hydraulic CFD analysis, and the thermofluid and safety analysis (low pressure conduction cooling, LPCC) of the HTR prismatic block design. The Task 2.3 covers the analysis of the structural behavior of TRISO fuel containing TRU at very high burnup level, i.e. exceeding 50% of FIMA. The Task 4.2 includes the self-cleaning HTR based on recycle of HTR-generated TRU in the same HTR. Chapter IV contains the design and analysis results of the 600MWth DB-HTR core physics with the cycle length, the average discharged burnup, heavy metal and plutonium consumptions, radial and axial power distributions, temperature reactivity coefficients. Also, it contains the analysis results of the 450MWth DB-HTR core physics and the analysis of the decay heat of a TRU loaded DB-HTR core. The evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel block in the DB-HTR (Deep-Burn High Temperature Reactor) core under full operating power conditions are described in Chapter V. The investigated designs are the 600MWth and 460MWth DB-HTRs. In Chapter VI, the thermo-fluid and safety of the 600MWth DB-HTRs has been analyzed to investigate a thermal-fluid design performance at the steady state and a passive safety performance during an LPCC event. Chapter VII describes the analysis results of the TRISO fuel microanalysis of the 600MWth and 450MWth DB-HTRs. The TRISO fuel microanalysis covers the gas pressure buildup in a coated fuel particle including helium production, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a CFP, the failure probabilities of CFPs, the temperature distribution in a CPF, and the fission product (FP) transport in a CFP and a graphite. In Chapter VIII, it contains the core design and analysis of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) with deep burn HTR reactor. It considers a synergistic combination of the DB-MHR and an SFR burner for a safe and efficient transmutation of the TRUs from LWRs. Chapter IX describes the design and analysis results of the self-cleaning (or self-recycling) HTR core. The analysis is considered zero and 5-year cooling time of the spent LWR fuels.

  18. Application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion systems and anti-knock control devices in small two-stroke cycle gasoline engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuentscher, V.

    1986-01-01

    For essentially reducing the specific fuel consumption in two-stroke cycle engines and the concentration of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust gas, the normal engine was equipped with a new ram tuned fuel injection system. By the application of charge stratification, lean burn combustion, different ignition systems and a special anti-knock device, considerable fuel consumption and HC emission reductions were obtained.

  19. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  20. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  1. Evaluation of hoop creep behaviors in long-term dry storage condition of pre-hydrided and high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Bang, J.G.; Kim, D.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Related to the degradation of the mechanical properties of Zr-based nuclear fuel cladding tubes under long term dry storage condition, the mechanical tests which can simulate the degradation of the mechanical properties properly are needed. Especially, the degradation of the mechanical properties by creep mechanism seems to be dominant under long term dry storage condition. Accordingly, in this paper, ring creep tests were performed in order to evaluate the creep behaviors of high burn-up fuel cladding under a hoop loading condition in a hot cell. The tests are performed with Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding whose burn-up is approximately {approx}60,000 MWd/tU in the temperature range from 350 deg. to 550 deg.. The tests are also performed with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO up to 1,000 ppm. First of all, the hoop loading grip for the ring creep test was designed in order that a constant curvature of the specimen was maintained during the creep deformation, and the graphite lubricant was used to minimize the friction between the outer surface of the die insert and the inner surface of the ring specimen. The specimen for the ring creep test was designed to limit the deformation within the gauge section and to maximize the uniformity of the strain distribution. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties under a hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated by using this test technique. In this paper, secondary creep rate with increasing hydrogen content are drawn, and then kinetic data such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy for creep process are also drawn. In addition, creep life are predicted by obtaining LMP (Larson-Miller parameter) correlation in the function of hydrogen content and applied stress to yield stress ratio. (authors)

  2. Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and fossil fuel combustion S. A. Guazzotti,1 D. T. Suess,2 K. R. Coffee,2,3 P. K. Quinn,4 T. S. Bates,4 A concentration of submicrometer carbon-containing particles with potassium (indicative of combustion sources the Arabian Peninsula, where dominance of fossil fuel combustion is suggested by results from single

  3. The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean: Advancing Engines for Renewable Fuels Live Green, Burn Clean: Advancing Engines for Renewable Fuels André Boehman Professor of Fuel Science and Materials College of Earth and Mineral Sciences The Pennsylvania State University André Boehman Professor of Fuel

  4. Numerical and experimental study of soot formation in laminar diffusion flames burning simulated biogas fuels at elevated pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    biogas fuels at elevated pressures Marc R.J. Charest , Ömer L. Gülder, Clinton P.T. Groth University 18 April 2014 Available online 2 June 2014 Keywords: Soot formation High pressure combustion Biogas, and other chemical species that are harmful to human health and the environment. Gaseous biofuels, or biogas

  5. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strogen, Bret

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels & AdvancedEfficiency & Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels & AdvancedEfficiency & Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels & Advanced

  6. Prospects for measuring the fuel ion ratio in burning ITER plasmas using a DT neutron emission spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Skiba, M., E-mail: mateusz.skiba@physics.uu.se; Dzysiuk, N.; Weiszflog, M.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Andersson-Sundén, E.; Eriksson, J.; Binda, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (EURATOM-VR Association), SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    The fuel ion ratio n{sub t}/n{sub d} is an essential parameter for plasma control in fusion reactor relevant applications, since maximum fusion power is attained when equal amounts of tritium (T) and deuterium (D) are present in the plasma, i.e., n{sub t}/n{sub d} = 1.0. For neutral beam heated plasmas, this parameter can be measured using a single neutron spectrometer, as has been shown for tritium concentrations up to 90%, using data obtained with the MPR (Magnetic Proton Recoil) spectrometer during a DT experimental campaign at the Joint European Torus in 1997. In this paper, we evaluate the demands that a DT spectrometer has to fulfill to be able to determine n{sub t}/n{sub d} with a relative error below 20%, as is required for such measurements at ITER. The assessment shows that a back-scattering time-of-flight design is a promising concept for spectroscopy of 14 MeV DT emission neutrons.

  7. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascucci, Valerio

    of premixed burners capable of stably burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could

  8. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish Version) (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More placesNaturalStateVehicle

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls onManual del vehículoU.S.

  10. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  11. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementannual variations in fossil fuel emissions, J. Geophys.including land, ocean and fossil fuel surface fluxes, have

  12. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  13. Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Neutral Biosphere (NB) GFED NEP GFED Uncorrected Biomass2 (1) Best case = best ocean + GFED (NEP+best BB) + fossil2) Takahashi ocean + GFED (NEP+best BB) + fossil fuel (3)

  14. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Equipment List

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and masthead Berkeley LablooksEquipment List

  15. The Challenge Human activities, such as the burning of fossil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Sheffield Science Gateway. The Challenge Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels oil, gas fields or saline aquifers. Emissions from fossil fuel power stations could then be reduced

  16. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR/%2Afissile4/%2A en

  18. A numerical investigation into the anomalous slight NOx increase when burning biodiesel; A new (old) theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Chen, J.Y.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    G. et al, 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Publishing,x Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory GeorgeIncrease When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. Fuel

  19. Issues in "Burning Plasma Science" S. J. Zweben, D. S. Darrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development issues => big issue: local burn control in an AT · Our conclusions · Alternate path #12;Burning, fueling, pumping, non-carbon PFCs, etc, could be done without (or in DD phase of) a BP experiment 2) BP

  20. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  1. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  2. Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

  3. The hybrid rich-burn/lean burn engine. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.; Podnar, D.; Meyers, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a unique engine technology called Hybrid Rich-Burn/Lean-Burn (HRBLB) that capitalizes on the low production of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) during extremely rich and lean combustion. The HRBLB concept is predicated on simultaneous combustion of extremely rich and lean natural gas-air mixtures in separate cylinders. Rich exhaust products undergo a catalytic water-gas shift reaction to form an intermediate combustible fuel composed of carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. All of the intermediate fuel is added to lean natural gas-air mixtures in other cylinders to enhance ignitability that would otherwise result in misfire. This paper presents results obtained during the development of a stationary, turbocharged, and intercooled, 18-liter HRBLB engine. Results show that NO{sub x} can be reduced by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5 relative to stock engine emissions at equivalent efficiency. The HRBLB engine has demonstrated corrected NO{sub x} (15% O{sub 2}) levels of 23 ppm at rated load with thermal efficiencies of 35%.

  4. UNIRIB: Equipment Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 - 19 Publications 1. Xie, Z.; Ma, L.;1Equipment

  5. IntelliBurn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimenMakingBiofuels Jump to: navigation,IntegrysIntelliBurn

  6. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustria GeothermalInformation BKNStateMountainBoiseBurns

  7. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy014771°,North Dakota:BonnBoulder,Burns, OR

  8. Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocks 2009CubicAnalysisYear Jan

  9. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To this end, there has been considerable recent interest in the development of premixed burners capable of sta- bly burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could, for example, be used as one

  10. Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1 David A. Cleaves,2 Service's National Forest System prescribed burning activity and costs are examined. Fuels management officers from 95 National Forests reported costs and acreage burned for 4 types of prescribed fire

  11. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step...

  12. Transient Burned Gas Rate Control on VVA equipped Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - drocarbons), CO (Carbon monoxide) and above all NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) emissions. This has spurred an inter- est in new (cleaner) combustion modes. The premixed combustion modes (LTC: Low Temperature Combustion) into the combustion process. Usually, the EGR can be realized in two possible manners: through a High Pressure (HP

  13. Cleanroom Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMayARM-0501Classroom-presentations Sign InClean Tech

  14. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  15. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  16. Manufacturing Readiness Assessment for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Back-up Power and Material Handling Equipment Emerging Markets (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2010-02-01

    This report details NREL's activity to address the need to understand the current status and associated risk levels of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry.

  17. Engineered fuel: Renewable fuel of the future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczyk, L.

    1997-01-01

    The power generation and municipal solid waste management industries share an interest in the use of process engineered fuel (PEF) comprised mainly of paper and plastics as a supplement to conventional fuels. PEF is often burned in existing boilers, making PEF an alternative to traditional refuse derived fuels (RDF). This paper describes PEF facilities and makes a comparison of PEF and RDF fuels.

  18. Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofol Extravasation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rahul; Yoshikawa, Hana; Abisaab, Josyann

    2012-01-01

    IN E MERGENCY M EDICINE Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofolof Emergency Medicine Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofol

  19. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  20. Solar Equipment Certification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipment Certification Solar Equipment

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Propane Infrastructure and Fuel Incentives - Boulden Brothers Propane Boulden Brothers Propane provides fueling equipment at no cost to propane vehicle operators on a case-by-case...

  2. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  3. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  4. Maximum Fuel Utilization in Advanced Fast Reactors without Actinides Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidet, Florent

    2010-01-01

    Oxford ; New York ; Oxford University Press. Fuel- Trac,Spent Fuel / Reprocessing, in Nuclear Industry Statusto Burn Non-Fissile Fuels. 2008. GA. Energy Multiplier

  5. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  6. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  7. Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper objects. Examples include the upward bending seen in burning matches and the crumpling of burning paper

  8. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central progression, forest fires, infrared perimeter mapping, northern Rockies 1. Introduction Extreme wildfires Yellowstone Fires (Turner et al 1994), the 1997 Indonesian Forest Fires, and the Australian Black Saturday

  9. Equipment Certification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,Power Corp Jump to:SIBR JV JumpCertificationEquipment

  10. Agricultural Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolar EnergyAerodynall Countriescapital GmbH JumpEquipment Jump

  11. Equipment Insulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop, IncsourceEnginuityBusinessEnviva MaterialsEquipment

  12. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  13. Equipment Listing | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012 for Equipment

  14. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  15. Reforestation: Prescribed Burning for Site Preparation http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to reduce hazardous fuels, to prepare sites for seeding and planting, to improve wildlife habitat will be dependent on the goals of the burn. For example, to prepare a site for planting (debris reduc- tion), burns. This technique can be used to prepare a site for planting or to prepare the seedbed for natural regeneration

  16. Impact of preindustrial biomass-burning emissions on the oxidation pathways of tropospheric sulfur and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    the onset of the Industrial Revolution due to increases in fossil fuel burning emissions [e.g., Lelieveld et-burning events in North America just prior to the Industrial Revolution significantly impacted the oxidation the Industrial Revolution, particularly when using paleo-oxidant data as a reference for model evaluation. INDEX

  17. Effect of inactive impurities on the burning of ICF targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Il'in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The efficiency of thermonuclear burning of the spherical deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets in the presence of low-Z impurities (such as lithium, carbon, or beryllium) with arbitrary concentrations is investigated. The effect of impurities produced due to the mixing of the thermonuclear fuel with the material of the structural elements of the target during its compression on the process of target burning is studied, and the possibility of using solid noncryogenic thermonuclear fuels in ICF targets is analyzed. Analytical dependences of the ignition energy and target thermonuclear gain on the impurity concentration are obtained. The models are constructed for homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas for the case in which the burning is initiated in the central heated region of the target and then propagates into the surrounding relatively cold fuel. Two possible configurations of an inhomogeneous plasma, namely, an isobaric configuration formed in the case of spark ignition of the target and an isochoric configuration formed in the case of fast ignition, are considered. The results of numerical simulations of the burning of the DT plasma of ICF targets in a wide range of impurity concentrations are presented. The simulations were performed using the TEPA one-dimensional code, in which the thermonuclear burning kinetics is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the strongest negative effect related to the presence of impurities is an increase in the energy of target ignition. It is substantiated that the most promising solid noncryogenic fuel is DT hydride of beryllium (BeDT). The requirements to the plasma parameters at which BeDT can be used as a fuel in noncryogenic ICF targets are determined. Variants of using noncryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel are proposed.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Fueling Infrastructure Inspection The Oklahoma Department of Labor may access and inspect any equipment, practices, or methods used in association with...

  19. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  20. From Pyrolysis Kinetics to Models of Condensed-Phase Burning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo

    The state-of-the-art of fire modelling is currently hindered due to a poor capability to model the burning of solid fuels. Current fire modelling tools provide good predictions of the thermal effects of a fire (e.g. the ...

  1. The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from camelina and tallow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from the biofuels due to its higher aromatic content. " Droplet burning rates of camelina and tallow HRJ fuel Available online 1 March 2013 Keywords: Alternative jet fuel Hydroprocessed biofuel Spherically symmetric

  2. FFaacciilliittiieess MMaannaaggeemmeenntt//EEnnvviirroonnmmeennttaall HHeeaalltthh && SSaaffeettyy Hazardous Work Area/Equipment Repair Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Hazardous Work Area/Equipment Repair Form Form Instructions: Client is responsible for completing this form to assure that equipment and/or immediate work areas are not contaminated with any hazardous materials, tissue, etc.) Do Safety Hazards exist in the work area? N ___ Y ___ (Electrical, burn, or trip hazards

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  5. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E.; Kim, S-H.; Koechl, F.

    2014-09-01

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  6. Energy Audit Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  7. Power equipment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, R.S. (Consultant, Bridgewater, NJ (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Many considerations are taken into account in selecting equipment for power projects. The project often becomes a proving ground, benefiting equipment suppliers and developers. In designing and building power generation projects, developers and engineering and construction firms must go through the process of choosing the right equipment for the job. In doing so, a number of considerations regarding the benefits of selection and ease of installation must be taken into account. Understanding the selection process demonstrates how the independent power generation industry becomes a proving ground for different applications of power equipment. In turn, this adds more innovation and versatility to the entire power generation industry. It also provides lenders with examples of proven equipment that will more readily lead to successful financing in the future. Several developers and equipment vendors recently talked about how and why the choices were made for equipment like gas turbines, fluidized bed boilers, water treatment, power cooling equipment, and instruments and controls. 3 figs.

  8. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  9. Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Shuai; Heller, Marissa; Wu, Peggy A; Nambudiri, Vinod E

    2014-01-01

    Number 1 January 2014 Letter Chemical burn caused by topicalan unusually severe case of chemical burn following garlicirritant contact dermatitis, chemical burn, allium sativum

  10. Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResource andfirstDeviceLab captures fiveLabLabLabTheBurns,

  11. FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for long pulse burning and nuclear technology studies. There is evidently a huge cost saving in going

  12. Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    2014 Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with fewer emissions per watt than burning fossil fuels. But as fuel cells received an $800,000 Department of Energy grant to study how to make one type of fuel cell--solid oxide

  13. PHYSICS OF BURNING PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;OUTLINE · Introduction · Three Classes of Burning Plasma Physics inaccessable to contemporary tokamak of inaccessable burning plasma physics · Conclusions FIRE Workshop 2 May 2000 #12;INTRODUCTION · A fusion reactorPHYSICS OF BURNING PLASMAS: PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO PRESENT FACILITIES FIRE Physics Workshop May

  14. Burn control study using burning plasma simulation experiments in JT-60U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heating power through particle heating. ·Burn control has to be performed under this linkage involvingBurn control study using burning plasma simulation experiments in JT-60U H. Takenaga1), Y. Miura1 various physics. This study provides new approach to the burn control study. The linkage is experimentally

  15. Fueling of Tokamaks With Accelerated FRC's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Fueling of Tokamaks With Accelerated FRC's J. Grossnickle, A. Hoffman, J. Slough, P. Gurevich, & G Introduction Tokamaks require deep fuelling primarily to replenish burned fuel while maintaining high central

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  17. The Effects of Prescribed Burning on Fire Hazard in the Chaparral: Toward a New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is predicated on the belief that young fuels (20 years old and less) are highly resistant to burning. To test to locate reburns of young chaparral fuels greater than 1000 acres (400 ha) in extent. Of the 147 fires examined, 17 (11.6 percent) contained at least one area of young fuels that had reburned. The majority

  18. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14010 ? Industry Deployed...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hydrogenandfuelcellspdfsstateofthestates2012.pdf 3. "Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment Deployment" May 15, 2013: http:...

  19. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  20. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  1. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  2. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Equipment Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and masthead Berkeley Lablooks

  3. Response of Pan American Balsamscale, Soil, and Livestock to Prescribed Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutz, J.L.; Greene, T.G.; Scifres, C.J.; Koerth, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    increased little bluestem and decreased Pan American balsamscale. Burning, whether a single burn or applied in 2 successive years, did not significantly influence soil water contents to 30 cm deep. Generally, crude protein and digestible organic matter... on the day prior to burning. Immediately prior to igni tion, fuel and mulch were collected from 10 to 25 randomly-located samples for determination of water content. At the same time, 10 soil 2 cores (0 to 8- and 8 to 30-cm deep) were extracted...

  4. Nuclear fuel cycles for mid-century development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parent, Etienne, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    A comparative analysis of nuclear fuel cycles was carried out. Fuel cycles reviewed include: once-through fuel cycles in LWRs, PHWRs, HTGRs, and fast gas cooled breed and burn reactors; single-pass recycle schemes: plutonium ...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls onManualLiquefiedVehicle and Equipment

  6. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  7. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  8. Cruising Equipment Company CECO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation EU-UNDPCross-LaminatedCruising Equipment Company

  9. Improvement of Oak-Dominated Rangeland with Tebuthiuron and Prescribed Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, Charles j.; Stuth, Jerry W.; Koerth, Ben H.

    1987-01-01

    Page 'in ?Origbla11JuUetiBl ' ~. " .. ! 1. , :,' ';':' \\ . f" J.: , Improvement of Oak-Dominated Rangeland with Tebuthiuron and Prescribed Burning Authors CHARLES J. SCIFRES, Thomas M. O'Connor Professor Texas Agricultural Experiment Station... samples to 8 cm deep were collected for determination of water content. Soil and fuel sam ples were weighed wet, then oven dried at 60 degrees centigrade (DC), and reweighed. Environmental variables monitored during the burns included air...

  10. Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere ?14CO2: Post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Enting, I. G; Schuur, E. A. G; Caldeira, K.; Fung, I. Y

    2002-01-01

    CO 2 Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cementof seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Tellus,contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,

  11. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Equipment Applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(Technical Report)(Conference) | SciTechSpecific

  12. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  13. Early Equipment Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlie, Michelle

    2007-05-18

    Installed .................................................40 Exhibit 11: 400 Gallon Tank and K-Tron Feeder................................................42 Exhibit 12: Cardboard Box Layout of First Floor Equipment ..............................43... Exhibit 13: Continuous Mixer .............................................................................43 Exhibit 14: Gantry Palletizer...............................................................................44 Page 4 Acknowledgements I...

  14. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    and emission factors of 1,3- butadiene are in the range ofkg fuel burned, the 1,3-butadiene emission value is almostPE case is one-third of 1,3-butadiene EF of 117 mg/kg fuel

  15. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01

    emission factors of 1,3- butadiene are in the range of 2.6 -kg fuel burned, the 1,3-butadiene emission value is almostPE case is one-third of 1,3-butadiene EF of 117 mg/kg fuel

  16. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  17. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    Annual data released on the number of on-road alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles made available by both the original equipment manufacturers and aftermarket vehicle conversion facilities. Data on the use of alternative fueled vehicles and the amount of fuel they consume is also available.

  18. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rebates for qualified vehicle conversions and certain fueling infrastructure. The rebate amount for vehicle conversions is 50% of the cost of the equipment, up to 4,500 for...

  20. Industrial Equipment Impacts Infrastructure

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservation StandardsEnergy In2008DepartmentIndustrial

  1. Increasing fuel utilization of breed and burn reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Sanzo, Christian Diego

    2014-01-01

    double cladded sodium cooled fast reactor (ADR) 4.4 Thermal-utilization to 30% in a sodium fast reactor and up to 40%reactor, the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the supercritical

  2. Ignition and burn of a small magnetized fuel target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2012-06-01

    The crucial step for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is ignition, which leads to sufficiently high gain to enable design of a power producing system. Thus far, this step has not been demonstrated. Magnetized targets may provide an alternative path to ignition. In addition, the 1-D calculations presented here suggest that this approach may provide the gain and other characteristics needed for a practical fusion reactor.

  3. BCM 1 Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass andAtomsVehicles and FuelsjBBEE Public1 Equipment

  4. BCM 2 Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass andAtomsVehicles and FuelsjBBEE Public1 Equipment2

  5. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Instruments | ASTERIX | Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResource and Job Event InLANLRecoveryEquipment Surfaces

  6. Laboratory Equipment & Supplies | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate studentScience (SC) DirectedEquipment & Supplies

  7. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate studentScience (SC) DirectedEquipment &

  8. INL Equipment to Aid Regional Response Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch8 IEEEINL Equipment to Aid Regional

  9. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Guidelines/FAQ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and masthead Berkeley LablooksEquipment

  10. The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

  11. Health Care Buildings: Equipment Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment Table Buildings, Size and Age Data by Equipment Types for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet)...

  12. IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

  13. IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

  14. Controlling Air and Burned Gas Masses of Turbocharged VVT SI Thomas Leroy, Jonathan Chauvin and Nicolas Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controlling Air and Burned Gas Masses of Turbocharged VVT SI Engines Thomas Leroy, Jonathan Chauvin gas masses inside the combustion chambers of turbocharged VVT SI engines. We coordinate ex- isting low and driveability, provided they are equipped with direct injection, turbocharger and Variable Valve Timing (VVT

  15. CORE ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF A DEEP-BURN PEBBLE BED REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Achieving a high burnup in the Deep-Burn pebble bed reactor design, while remaining within the limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback, is challenging. The high content of Pu and Minor Actinides in the Deep-Burn fuel significantly impacts the thermal neutron energy spectrum. This can result in power and temperature peaking in the pebble bed core in locally thermalized regions near the graphite reflectors. Furthermore, the interplay of the Pu resonances of the neutron absorption cross sections at low-lying energies can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator at certain operating conditions. To investigate the aforementioned effects a code system using existing codes has been developed for neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and fuel depletion analysis of Deep-Burn pebble bed reactors. A core analysis of a Deep-Burn Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (400 MWth) design has been performed for two Deep-Burn fuel types and possible improvements of the design with regard to power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback are identified.

  16. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  17. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Safety, Codes, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Many odorants can also contaminate fuel cells. Hydrogen burns very quickly. Under optimal combustionFUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Safety, Codes, and Standards Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, nuclear, natural gas, and coal with carbon sequestration. Fuel cells provide a highly efficient means

  18. Dual-fuel engine conversions evaluated by U.S. Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    In seeking ways to reduce emissions from two-stroke locomotive type engines, the Navy has evaluated dual-fuel conversions operating on a compression ignition cycle, using up to 94% natural gas and 6% diesel pilot fuel. The Navy has conducted an evaluation and test program under the direction of Dr. Normnn L. Helgeson, at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California. Of the Navy`s many diesel engines, those installed in its MUSE (mobile utility support equipment) units for temporary electrical power were the first Navy off-road engines to be affected by emissions regulations. Most of the units are powered by the EMD 645 engine, and when burning diesel fuel do not meet the emission requirements in many areas of the country. This paper discusses the changes and results of the conversion and shakedown tests.

  19. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department of EnergyEmergingEnergyBulk Hauling Equipment

  20. DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements S. P data Cellularity Real residuals Results Future plans High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity temperature 725 K High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements October 27, 2008 Page 3 #12;System

  1. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  2. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn in ICF Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of ICF targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to treat fusion products (suprathermal -particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield. I. MOTIVATION AND CONTEXT

  3. Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1 Scott R. Miles, Donald M. Haskins watershed and facilities damage and to recommend and prescribe Emergency Burn Area Rehabilitation (EBAR

  4. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer GrapheneW.Help Table(SC)CRADABurning

  5. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  6. Emergency Facilities and Equipment

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume clarifies requirements of DOE O 151.1 to ensure that emergency facilities and equipment are considered as part of emergency management program and that activities conducted at these emergency facilities are fully integrated. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

  7. Development of a coal burning pulsating combustor for industrial power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Wang, M.R.; Daniel, B.R.

    1983-11-01

    The research conducted under this program investigated the performance characteristics of a previously developed coal burning pulsating combustor whose design is based upon the Rijke tube principles. The combustor consists of a vertical tube opened at both ends with a fuel burning bed located in the middle of its lower half. Coal is supplied to the bed by a rotating auger-type feed system located 1 ft above the bed. Following ignition, the interaction between the combustion process and the combustor flow results in the excitation of high amplitude (up to 165 dB) fundamental, longitudinal acoustic mode oscillations with frequencies in the range 75 to 90 Hz in the combustor. Maximum amplitudes occurred near stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation, suggesting that systems utilizing the developed combustor should possess high thermal efficiencies, as they could operate with relatively litle excess air. Both bituminous and subbituminous coals with sizes in the range 1/4'' to 1/2'' were burned in the developed pulsating combustor. The CO, CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and particulates concentrations in the exhaust flow were measured to evaluate the combustor performance. In tests with bituminous coal, combustion efficiencies higher than 95% for coal feed rates in the range 42 to 60 lb/ft/sup 2/hr were achieved with only 13% excess air while NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/ concentrations were comparable to those obtained with other steady state combustors. A higher performance was attained in initial tests with subbituminous coal. Finally, pulsating operation was possible under fuel rich conditions suggesting that the developed pulsating combustor could be possibly used as a gasifier.

  8. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  9. The U.S. Burning Plasma Program C.M. Greenfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for burning plasma research ­ US Burning Plasma Organization (created 2005): currently 283 registered members

  10. Solar Install Mount Production Labor Equipment Simple Balance of Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipment CertificationSolar Hot

  11. Solar and Wind Equipment Sales Tax Exemption | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PVEquipment Sales Tax

  12. On burning a lump of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ana Alonso-Serrano; Matt Visser

    2015-11-03

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  13. On burning a lump of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  14. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  15. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  16. Hydrogen Equipment Certification Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc., AEquipment Certification Guide U.S.

  17. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVtheEnergyPrepared forEnergy 10

  18. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  19. ELMs and the Performance of Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Institute of Tech., Pathumthani 12121, Thailand 3SAIC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation 4-5 July 2005 #12;Predictive Modeling of Burning Plasmas IEA of burning plasma experiments using static and dynamic pedestal models IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics

  20. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  1. Experience in preparing fuel for combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rude, J.

    1995-09-01

    The key phase seems to be that wood is the ORIGINAL FUEL. Certainly as man discovered fire, it was the most obvious as well as abundantly available fuel and it burned very well because man was smart enough to select the dry wood once he understood the basics of combustion. As the needs started to go beyond the most elementary, designs for burning ideal fuels were pretty well perfected, however, the burning of less ideal fuels still remain a challenge. To provide plant steam requirements by burning waste that must be disposed of anyway can reduce operating cost considerably. For most of us involved in producing steam, the experience we have with fuels such as bark, wood waste, sludge, and miscellaneous forms of solid combustible waste material, are a result of burning these fuels in an existing boiler supposedly designed for wood waste or possibly a combination of wood and other fuels such as coal, oil, or gas. For a supplier of fuel preparation systems, the typical application involves the sizing, cleaning, and drying of wood waste, and sludge from a pulp and/or paper mill. Other forms of combustible waste are dealt with occasionally and after proper preparation fired in the combustion system for the purpose of generating hot gas and/or steam for the plant process.

  2. New Emergency Equipment Notifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(MillionNatureThousand Cubic| DepartmentREAC/TSNew

  3. Substation Equipment Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructureInnovation Portal Substantially Parallel Flux

  4. Maersk Line Equipment guide

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) AugustA. -71- Particulate: ColumnsLake4/%2A en1/%2A

  5. Appliance and Equipment Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t yWaste |4 2014 AnnualDOE's Report to< Back Savings<

  6. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012 forPool What

  7. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012 forPool

  8. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012

  9. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012100 ton Stanat

  10. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012100 ton StanatRare

  11. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012100 ton

  12. Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012100 tonMachine

  13. Expense Equipment Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAbout UsExpectations of6 ARM

  14. Expense Equipment Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAbout UsExpectations of6 ARM8

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A TElectric Vehicle Supply EquipmentFuelFuels

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onPropane Rolls onManualLiquefiedVehicle and EquipmentMid

  17. China production equipment sourcing strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Natalie, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    This thesis recommends a China business and equipment strategy for the Controls Conveyor Robotics Welding (CCRW) group at General Motors. The current strategy is to use globally common equipment through predetermined global ...

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Combustion : Fuel Testing and Characterization : Task 1 Report, May 30, 1990-October 1, 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, Dwight J.; Canova, Joseph H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, Abbas.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  19. An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects Zeki Melek John Keyser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    simulator injects fuel into the fluid simulation. We also present a simple yet effective method for modeling is simulated as a single moving fluid. Solid objects inside the simulation domain can catch fire and start burning. Heat information is transferred from the fluid simulator to a solid simulator, while the solid

  20. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  1. Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor Obrigheim in Germany for which sufficiently precise experimental reference data are available. (authors)

  2. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  3. Dynamic stability, blowoff, and flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shroll, Andrew Philip

    2011-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising technology to implement carbon capture and sequestration for energy conversion to electricity in power plants that burn fossil fuels. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to ...

  4. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Effects of Methyl Ester Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions.Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. FuelE. ; Natarajan, M. Effects of Biodiesel Fuels Upon Criteria

  5. Fire Behavior Modeling - Experiment on Surface Fire Transition to the Elevated Live Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omodan, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    of FDS to recognize two fuels of different materials in theFire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System, BURN -K.P. Combustion of forest fuels in Forest Fire: Control and

  6. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Electric Forklift Trucks | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment Development of Hydrogen Education Programs for Government Officials Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems...

  8. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combustion, Control, and Fuel...

  9. Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment (2010 MECS) Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment Sector (NAICS 336) Energy use data source:...

  10. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

  11. Fact #634: August 2, 2010 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2008a model estimates fuel use for off-highway equipment. Construction and mining equipment using diesel fuel account for the majority of this fuel use....

  12. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    are the soil management and watershed implications from alternative fuels reduction approaches? 3. How do are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what of mechanical fuel reduction alternatives? What are the economic differences related to stand type

  13. Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

  14. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01

    fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

  15. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    laboratory measurements of biomass-burning emissions: 1.tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning, J.Eleuterio (2005), A review of biomass burning emissions part

  16. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  17. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    J. D. Crounse et al. : Biomass burning pollution overChemistry and Physics Biomass burning and urban airprimary anthropogenic and biomass burning organic aerosols

  18. Savannah River Site - L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummaryDIST OFMEAG, Dalton2ProgramArea Burning/Rubble Pit Remediation

  19. ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report+ on ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA . in a COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK presented-coil tokamak configurations that would achieve ignition under presently accepted scaling laws. Studies the extent to which these compact tokamak ignition experiments can resolve the technical issue of under

  20. Fusion Power Burn and ..... Steve Cowley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Power Burn and ..... Steve Cowley UK Atomic Energy Authority and Imperial College to the realisation of fusion energy. 2013 #12;Fusion Today ­ questions? · "Fast Track to Fusion" ­ clear message. -- EFDA roadmap ­ clear message · US position ­ unclear, contradicts EU? -- FESAC panels 10 year plan

  1. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities · why a burning plasma experiment? · BP contribution impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode of operation ) #12;···· we know a lot more now than helium ash - induce SOL flow towards divertor - control density · helium exhaust time, i.e. He , limited

  2. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL flow towards

  3. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal if strike points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode pressure for H- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL

  4. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Life Satisfaction Over the First Five Years Following Burn Injury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoskins, Jessica Lynne

    2012-10-19

    Individuals with burn injuries increasingly survive their injury, but we know little about their psychological outcomes following the injury. This study examines life satisfaction outcomes for 260 individuals who sustained burn injuries and were...

  7. A Comparative Study Of The Poetry Of Fergusson And Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swick, Lena

    1913-01-01

    brewed a peck o' maut" is a good example of Burns's rollicking drinking songs. Other classes of poetry used by the two authors are rhymed epistles, elegies, satires, epigrams. Burns follows Fergusson's example in the use of the rhymed epistles...

  8. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive NH3 SCR has been demonstrated as a high efficiency and low cost alternative lean NOx...

  9. Fueling of Tokamaks With Accelerated FRC's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Fueling of Tokamaks With Accelerated FRC's J. Grossnickle, A. Hoffman, J. Slough, & G. Vlases Summer Study, Snowmass Introduction Tokamaks require deep fuelling primarily to replenish burned fuel Fields The combined FRC guide field and `Tokamak' cross field directs open field line plasma to the right

  10. Burning for Improvement of Macartney Rose-Infested Coastal Prairie. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, R.A.; Scifres, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    of Macartney rose to season of burning. Pre vious research emphasized the use of herbicides fol lowed by fIre, and winter was arbitrarily chosen for in stallation of burns (12). Therefore, information was needed relative to season of prescribed burning... Environmental conditions, including relative air temperature at 2 meters above ground temperature at 2.54 centimeters deep, and and direction at 2 meters above ground monitored during each burn. the plots were backfired on the leeward side(s) meters...

  11. Stabilized fuel with silica support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes a stabilized fuel which is supported by a silica support structure. The silica support structure provides a low density, high porosity vehicle for safely carrying hydrocarbon fuels. The silica support structure for hydrocarbon fuel does not produce toxic material residues on combustion which would pose environmentally sensitive disposal problems. The silica stabilized fuel composition is useful as a low temperature, continuous burning fire starter for wood or charcoal.

  12. Height Replacement of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.T.; Kitchen, L.M.; Scifres, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding CONTENTS ...................................... Summary . - i ,.z;.., s * ' ............................ a ,, Jntroduction.. v ~ ~ ~ z z . . 4 *- e -- .d 5- . ..... ...... .. * 2 $$escription... of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding SUMMARY Woody plant reinvasion of tame pastures and native rangeland is a ' severe problem on the South Texas Plains. Shredding and/or pre- scribed burning may be employed as lowcost methods...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A TElectric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

  14. MERIT Equipment MERIT Video Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of Energy MERIT Equipment Dismantlement 1 Sept 2010 #12;What's Left · Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU disposal Sept 2010 (estimated) 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy MERIT Equipment secondary containmentco ta e t · Hydraulic fluid drained & cylinders removed& cy de s e o ed 3 Managed by UT

  15. UCI Equipment Management Peter's Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    the Asset Retirement Global document available in KFS under KFS Capital Asset Management (as the EIMR formUCI Equipment Management Peter's Exchange (UCI Surplus Sales) SURPLUS PICK-UP REQUEST Department) Phone: (949) 824-6111, 6447, 6519, 6100 Fax this form to (949) 824-4115, or e-mail Equipment-Management

  16. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  17. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  18. Information technology equipment cooling method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  20. ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    by agricultural and chemical companies for many reasons. However, ethanol does not mix well with gasoline that one burns 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent in fossil fuels to pro- duce 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or fuel, its use amounts

  1. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  2. Combustor technology for broadened-properties fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to increase the availability and reduce the cost of future fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines, it may be necessary to broaden fuel specifications. Anticipated changes in fuel properties, and the effects of these changes on combustion system performance, operating characteristics, durability, and emissions are briefly reviewed, and results to date of a program being conducted to develop and demonstrate combustor technology required to utilize broadened-properties fuels in current and next-generation engines are described. Combustion system design considerations and tradeoffs for burning broadened-properties fuels are discussed, and test experience with several applicable combustor design modifications to the G.E. CF6-80A combustion system is reviewed. Modifications have been demonstrated to improve liner cooling and reduce smoke in the conventional annular combustor, thereby reducing effects of variations in fuel hydrogen content. Advanced staged and variable geometry combustor concepts for burning broadened-properties fuels have also been demonstrated.

  3. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  4. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  5. Natural Gas as a Boiler Fuel of Choice in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kmetz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas is abundant, clean burning, and cost competitive with other fuels. In addition to superior economic fundamentals, the expanded use of natural gas will be enhanced by political and industry leaders. Natural gas therefore will continue...

  6. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  7. The role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor in the future of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Lidsky, L.M.; Miller, M.M.

    1990-12-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of the potential role of actinide burning and the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) in the future of nuclear power. The development of a usable actinide burning strategy could be an important factor in the acceptance and implementation of a next generation of nuclear power. First, the need for nuclear generating capacity is established through the analysis of energy and electricity demand forecasting models which cover the spectrum of bias from anti-nuclear to pro-nuclear. The analyses take into account the issues of global warming and the potential for technological advances in energy efficiency. We conclude, as do many others, that there will almost certainly be a need for substantial nuclear power capacity in the 2000--2030 time frame. We point out also that any reprocessing scheme will open up proliferation-related questions which can only be assessed in very specific contexts. The focus of this report is on the fuel cycle impacts of actinide burning. Scenarios are developed for the deployment of future nuclear generating capacity which exploit the advantages of actinide partitioning and actinide burning. Three alternative reactor designs are utilized in these future scenarios: The Light Water Reactor (LWR); the Modular Gas-Cooled Reactor (MGR); and the Integral Fast Reactor (FR). Each of these alternative reactor designs is described in some detail, with specific emphasis on their spent fuel streams and the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Four separation and partitioning processes are utilized in building the future nuclear power scenarios: Thermal reactor spent fuel preprocessing to reduce the ceramic oxide spent fuel to metallic form, the conventional PUREX process, the TRUEX process, and pyrometallurgical reprocessing.

  8. First Look at Smoke Emissions from Prescribed Burns in Long-unburned Longleaf Pine Forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akagi, Sheryl; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Weise, David; Reardon, James; Urbanski, Shawn; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-02-22

    While fire has long played a role in the longleaf pine ecosystem, there are still some stands in the southeastern United States where fire has not been reintroduced and fuels have accumulated for 50 years or more. As part of a larger study examining fuel loading and smoke emissions on Department of Defense installations in the southeastern U.S., fuels and trace emissions were measured during three prescribed burns at Ft. Jackson Army Base near Columbia, South Carolina in November 2011. These pine-forest understory fires provided valuable emissions data for fires that burned in stands that had little or no exposure to fire for decades. Smoke emissions were measured on the ground and from an aircraft by scientists from a large team of atmospheric researchers. (Akagi et al., 2013) To characterize initial emissions in the lofted plume and in point sources of residual smoldering combustion, trace-gas species were measured using an airborne FTIR and a ground-based FTIR, respectively. Whole-air sampling canisters were also collected from both ground- and airborne-based platforms. A total of 97 trace gases were quantified in this work, largely via infrared spectroscopy. Selected emissions data were compared with similar data collected from prescribed burns sampled in coastal North Carolina in 2010 in younger fuels beds of loblolly/longleaf stands near Camp Lejeune (Burling et al., 2011). The emission factors measured in this work differ by ~13-195% to EF measured from the managed stands at Camp Lejeune for organic and N-containing species, suggesting that fire emissions in similar ecosystems can exhibit large variability. Part of the differences, however, may be ascribed to burn conditions as well since the NC burns were during the wet season whereas the SC stands were burned after an extended drought. We also report the first detailed FTIR emissions data for a suite of monoterpenes. Figure 1 displays the emission factors (g/kg fuel) for several monoterpenes and isoprene as measured by the ground-based FTIR system. Due to their unsaturated structure, terpenes are highly reactive compounds emitted from plants thought to contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation (SOA) (Saathoff et al., 2009; Hennigan et al., 2011) and the formation of small oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) (Jacob et al., 2002) in fire plumes. The known chemistry and measured abundance of monoterpenes suggests that these species impacted secondary plume processes including ozone, OVOC, and SOA formation in sampled plumes within the first few hours after emission.

  9. Response of Camphorweed and Associated Vegetation to Herbicides and Prescibed Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutz, J.L.; Scifres, C.J.; Hanselka, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    . Immediately prior to burning, standin fine fuel (sta B ing crop plus mulch) in ten, 0.25-m sampling a r2& equidistantly spaced along the permanent lines, f i harvested to ground level and the mulch collena,. Because of freezing weather prior to sampling..., all stand- ing fine fuel was dead. All fuel samples were sealed in metal cans, air-dried for 48 hours at 65" C, and weighed. Oven-dry water content of soil was f'r- rmined on ten samples recovered from 0 to 8, 8 to and 15 to 30 cm deep from...

  10. Hydrogen Equipment Certification Guide Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill FinancingDepartment ofPowerScenario Analysis ModelHydrogenEquipment

  11. Shenyang Tendo New Energy Equipment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New Energy Equipment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation,

  12. Shenyang Tianrui Wind Equipments Sales Company Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New Energy Equipment Co Ltd Jump to:

  13. Shenyang Tianxiang Wind Equipments Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New Energy Equipment Co Ltd Jump to:Information

  14. Property:Incentive/EquipReqs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation,PropertyPartner7WebsiteCertReqs Jump to:ContNameEquipReqs Jump

  15. Baoding Solar Thermal Equipment Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustriaBiofuelsOpen EnergyBanksSolar Thermal Equipment Company

  16. List of Equipment Insulation Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed air IncentivesEquipment Insulation

  17. List of Food Service Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed air IncentivesEquipment

  18. Dynamically balanced fuel nozzle and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Janus, Michael C. (Baltimore, MD); Robey, Edward H. (Westover, WV)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method of operation designed to reduce undesirably high pressure oscillations in lean premix combustion systems burning hydrocarbon fuels are provided. Natural combustion and nozzle acoustics are employed to generate multiple fuel pockets which, when burned in the combustor, counteract the oscillations caused by variations in heat release in the combustor. A hybrid of active and passive control techniques, the apparatus and method eliminate combustion oscillations over a wide operating range, without the use of moving parts or electronics.

  19. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  20. BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL@atm.ox.ac.uk AEROSOL AND GAS PROPERTIESSEASONALITY OF BURNING Biomass burning in the Amazon shows strong seasonal in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and effective radius, linked to biomass burning through detected fires. Use

  1. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  2. Investigation of the mechanism in RIJKE pulse combustors with tangential air and fuel injection. Progress report, August 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.I.; Daniel, B.R.; Bai, T.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of DOE Contract No. DE-AS04-85AL31881. This three year investigation started in August 1989 and its objective was to elucidate the mechanisms that control the driving of pulsations in the liquid fuel burning, Rijke type, pulse combustor developed under a preceding DOE contracts. It was demonstrated in that contract that the developed Rijke type pulse combustor can burn a variety of light and heavy liquid fuel oils with high combustion efficiencies while using low excess air, which produces high thermal efficiencies. Since the elucidation of the driving mechanism in the Rijke pulse combustor required the use of optical diagnostics (e.g., radiation measurements), it was decided to perform these investigations in a Rijke pulse combustor that burned propane instead of a liquid fuel in order to avoid difficulties that are often encountered due to the presence of liquid droplets in the combustion region. Consequently, an effort was made to develop a Rijke pulse combustor that is similar to the one developed in the preceding program and demonstrated similar performance characteristics. Such a pulse combustor was developed in the early phases of this program. The developed experimental setup was provided with capabilities for measuring steady combustor temperature distributions, the characteristics of the excited pressure oscillations, the exhaust flow composition, the characteristics of the flow field and the reaction rates. This pulse combustor consists of a cylindrical tube that is attached to a decoupling chamber at each end. Fuel and air are supplied via a tangential air/fuel injection system that is located at a distance of L/4 from the combustor entrance, where L is the combustor length. Part of the combustor tube, where combustion occurs, is water cooled. This section is also equipped with flat quartz windows to permit optical diagnostics.

  3. Effects of different fuels on a turbocharged, direct injection, spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Justin E

    2010-01-01

    The following pages describe the experimentation and analysis of two different fuels in GM's high compression ratio, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) engine. The focus is on a burn rate analysis for the fuels - gasoline ...

  4. RADIATION DOSE CALCULATION FOR FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CLOSURE CELL EQUIPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Musat

    2005-03-07

    This calculation evaluates the energy deposition rates in silicon, gamma and neutron flux spectra at various locations of interest throughout FHF closure cell. The physical configuration features a complex geometry, with particle flux attenuation of many orders of magnitude that cannot be modeled by computer codes that use deterministic methods. Therefore, in this calculation the Monte Carlo method was used to solve the photon and neutron transport. In contrast with the deterministic methods, Monte Carlo does not solve an explicit transport equation, but rather obtain answers by simulating individual particles, recording the aspects of interest of their average behavior, and estimates the statistical precision of the results.

  5. Review of Transmutation Fuel Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

    2008-01-01

    The technology demonstration element of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is aimed at demonstrating the closure of the fuel cycle by destroying the transuranic (TRU) elements separated from spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Multiple recycle through fast reactors is used for burning the TRU initially separated from light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. For the initial technology demonstration, the preferred option to demonstrate the closed fuel cycle destruction of TRU materials is a sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR) used as burner reactor. The sodium-cooled fast reactor represents the most mature sodium reactor technology available today. This report provides a review of the current state of development of fuel systems relevant to the sodium-cooled fast reactor. This report also provides a review of research and development of TRU-metal alloy and TRU-oxide composition fuels. Experiments providing data supporting the understanding of minor actinide (MA)-bearing fuel systems are summarized and referenced.

  6. Reprocessing option for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

    1991-11-01

    The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

  7. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this project were related to the economy and the budget cutbacks required during the project duration, which resulted in fewer bus drivers than expected the ultimate shut down of the City’s downtown bus operations.

  8. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  9. Origins of Eponymous Orthopaedic Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meals, Clifton; Wang, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest useof dermatology and a proli?c inventor. He produced a single-Foley’s described the inventor as having a ‘‘great presence

  10. Final assessment of MOX fuel performance experiment with Japanese PWR specification fuel in the HBWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Hajime; Teshima, Hideyuki; Kanasugi, Katsumasa; Kosaka, Yuji; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain high burn-up MOX fuel irradiation performance data, SBR and MIMAS MOX fuel rods with Pu-fissile enrichment of about 6 wt% had been irradiated in the HBWR from 1995 to 2006. The peak burn-up of MOX pellet achieved 72 GWd/tM. In this test, fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure, stack length and cladding length were measured for MOX fuel and UO{sub 2} fuel as reference. MOX fuel temperature is confirmed to have no significant difference in comparison with UO{sub 2}, taking into account of adequate thermal conductivity degradation due to PuO{sub 2} addition and burn-up development. And the measured fuel temperature agrees well with FINE code calculation up to high burn-up region. Fission gas release of MOX is possibly greater than UO{sub 2} based on temperature and pressure assessment. No significant difference is confirmed between SBR and MIMAS MOX on FGR behavior. MOX fuel swelling rate agrees well with solid swelling rate in the literature. Cladding elongation data shows onset of PCMI in high power region. (authors)

  11. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  12. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  13. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. will develop a unique, fuel-flexible Rich Catalytic Lean-Burn (RCL®) injector with catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultralow-emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. This will broaden the range of opportunity fuels that can be utilized to include low- and ultralow-Btu gases, such as digester and blast furnace gases, and fuels containing reactive species, such as refinery, wellhead, and industrial byproduct gases.

  14. A Long Term Field Emissions Study of Natural Gas Fueled Refuse Haulers in New York City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark; Byron l. Rapp; Mridul Gautam; Wenguang Wang; Donald W. Lyons

    1998-10-19

    New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these was for street collection and transporting the refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines. Five trucks were equipped with electronically controlled Detroit Diesel Series 50 lean burn engines, while another five were powered by Caterpillar stoichiometric burn 3306 natural gas engines, The Ca terpillar engines employed an exhaust oxygen sensor feedback and three way catalysts. Since the refuse haulers had automatic Allison transmissions, and since they were employed in stop-and-go city service, initial emissions measurements were made using the Central Business Cycle (SAE Jl376) for buses at 42,000 pound test weight. Some additional measurements were made using an ad hoc cycle that has been designed to be more representative of the real refuse hauler use that included several compaction cycles. The Cummins powered natural gas vehicles showed oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide emission variations typically associated with variable fuel mixer performance. In the first Year of testing, the stoichiometric Caterpillar engines yielded low emission levels, but in later years two of these refuse haulers had high carbon monoxide attributed to failure of the feedback system. For example, carbon monoxide on these two vehicles rose from 1.4 g/mile and 10 g/mile in 1995 to 144.9 g/mile and 57.8 g/mile in 1996. These stoichiometric engines were also less fuel efficient than their lean burn counterparts. The Detroit Diesel Series 50 powered refuse haulers produced high levels of oxides of nitrogen. However, it was found that changing the shifting patterns of the transmission lowered the oxides of nitrogen. All three engine types showed the potential for low emissions operation and the particulate matter reduction advantage offered by natural gas was evident from the results.

  15. List of Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Incentives | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed air IncentivesEquipmentFuel

  16. L. John Perkins LLNL 5/8/01 Ignition/Burn is a Done Deal Or is It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Weep!) Moderator ­ Graphite Fuel -- U-metal in Al cladding Cooling -- Water Core size ­ 9 X 10 m/horizontal stability (~msecs ­seconds) Gross core oscillations (~seconds) Density control Neutron flux profile control Burn control systems Control rods Shutdown control (killer pellets...) Scram rods Neutron wall loading

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

  18. Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quiter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    the mass of 239 Pu in a 17x17 PWR fuel assembly with 45 GWd/center of 40 GWd/MTU burn-up PWR fuel assembly with coolingrate for the 11 y cooled PWR fuel was used as a source term

  19. Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn wood chips or pellets, which are fed into the boilers automatically by an electronically regulatedWood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text 31st December 2010 Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Wood') supports the development of renewable energy from wood fuel. Of all the clean energy technologies, wood

  20. Evaluation of Fuel Benefits Depending on Continuous Descent Approach Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dengfeng

    1 Evaluation of Fuel Benefits Depending on Continuous Descent Approach Procedures Yi Cao, Li was simulated based on actual recorded traffic data. The fuel burn for the simulated traffic was estimated using the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption model and compared to a baseline

  1. Puget Sound Energy - Commercial Energy Efficient Equipment Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary AreasDepartmentImreInvolvement Plantable thatEquipmentLorelei|

  2. Microsoft Word - CAMD Equipment PrePurchase Form.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete and realisticQuarterStochastic Mean-FieldEquipment

  3. Summary of Construction Equipment Tests and Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Equipment Tests A series of tests were conducted by the APS Construction Vibration Measurement Task Force using various pieces of construction equipment at the APCF...

  4. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1030 Geochemistry: Geochemical cycles (0330); KEYWORDS: combustion, experimental

  5. Fusion burn dynamics in dense Z-pinch (DZP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1990-04-01

    The fusion burn dynamics and energy yield of the dense Z-pinch (DZP) are examined using a profile-averaged, zero-dimensional, time dependent model. A range of conditions (fuel, line density, voltage, fusion-product heating, enthalpy endloss, density and temperature profiles, current rise rate, electrode impurities) are examined. Magneto-hydrodynamic stability is assumed, and initial conditions are based on those ideally existing after the melting and ionization of a solid fiber of fusion fuel. Plasma conditions required of neutron sources for materials testing ({dot S}{sub n} {ge} 10{sup 19} n/s) and for possible commercial power production (ratio of fusion energy yield to energy input, Q{sub p} {approx equal} 15, lower values if reversible recovery of a fraction of the magnetic energy is possible) are described. If f{sub B} {approx gt} 0.8 fractional fuel burnup is possible in a nominal 800-ns DT discharge (200-ns current-rise phase at 20 MV/m followed by a 500-ns constant-current crowbarred phase), reactor-relevant values of Q{sub p} may be possible. For the simpler (and shorter) constant-voltage discharge (e.g., no voltage crowbar) the value of Q{sub p} is in the range 5--10 for discharges below 200-ns duration. Smaller levels of fuel burnup, shorter discharges, or generally lower levels of Q{sub p} will require a reversible energy transfer system to meet reactor energy-balance requirements. Imposition of a plasma current rise-time constraint that may be needed for stable plasma operation (e.g., I > 10{sup 12} A/s) will burnup, Q{sub p} and discharge time to an extent where reversible energy/transfer system will be required to meet reactor energy- balance requirements. 25 refs.

  6. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial Equipment

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial Equipment6 2008

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial Equipment6

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial Equipment68

  10. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement U.S. Residential5 Commercial Equipment689

  11. On the burning of his library, and On medical travel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholin, Thomas

    1961-01-01

    , and ordered his books to be burned by the aediles. According to [the elder] Seneca, Suasoria, ch. 7, Cicero deliberated whether or not to burn his writings, on the promise of Anthony that if he did so he would remain unharmed; for Anthony, inflamed... selves if in the past they spent some hours reading my books. According to Seneca, when by decree of the senate the books of Labienus were burned, Cassius Severus, his close associate, remarked: "Now I who know them by heart must be burned alive/' One...

  12. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    regions of skin, burns, psoriasis, basal cell carcinomas andinto diseased states like psoriasis, eczema, basal celland cancer, conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis,

  13. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI and European certified lean-burn GDI vehicles operating on ethanol blends

  14. On the Stability of Thermonuclear Burning Fronts in Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt

    2004-04-26

    The propagation of cellularly stabilized thermonuclear flames is investigated by means of numerical simulations. In Type Ia supernova explosions the corresponding burning regime establishes at scales below the Gibson length. The cellular flame stabilization - which is a result of an interplay between the Landau-Darrieus instability and a nonlinear stabilization mechanism - is studied for the case of propagation into quiescent fuel as well as interaction with vortical fuel flows. Our simulations indicate that in thermonuclear supernova explosions stable cellular flames develop around the Gibson scale and that deflagration-to-detonation transition is unlikely to be triggered from flame evolution effects here.

  15. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  16. Fission Product Monitoring of TRISO Coated Fuel For The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John b. Walter

    2010-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO-coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burn up of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B’s) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  17. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01

    -Btu (Lignite) Gas. (August 1979) James Richard Blacksmith, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Francis W. Holm An experimental investigation was conducted to deter- mine the dual-fuel performance characteristics of a one...- cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu gas, such as would be obtained from the underground gasification of lignite. Conventional diesel and dual-fuel engine performance tests were conducted with the engine coupled to a station- ary water...

  18. Calibrating Pesticide Application Ground Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.

    2000-07-05

    - pose of rinse water as hazardous waste. Clean and lubricate the pump. Equipment used to apply certain pesticides should not be used to apply others. Do not use equipment to apply 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DP, MCPP, and 2,4- DB for any other purpose because... or a commercial decontaminate for- mulation. Most contain a combination of soda ash, detergent and alkaline chlorine. Rinse thoroughly with clean water. Remove nozzles to clean screens and tips. Apply rinse water to a field per label requirements or dis...

  19. Revisiting impacts of nuclear burning for reviving weak shocks in neutrino-driven supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Nishimura, Nobuya

    2014-02-20

    We revisit potential impacts of nuclear burning on the onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D, respectively) models with or without a 13 isotope ? network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for 4 progenitor models; 3 for 15.0 M {sub ?} stars and 1 for an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. We find that the energy supply due to the nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion, especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models are energized by nuclear energy deposition when the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer and/or later as it touches the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the diagnostic energy of the explosion increases up to a few times 10{sup 50} erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. We point out that these features are most remarkable for the Limongi-Chieffi progenitor in both 1D and 2D because the progenitor model possesses a massive oxygen layer, with an inner-edge radius that is smallest among the employed progenitors, which means that the shock can touch the rich fuel on a shorter timescale after bounce. The energy difference is generally smaller (?0.1-0.2 × 10{sup 51} erg) in 2D than in 1D (at most ?0.6 × 10{sup 51} erg). This is because neutrino-driven convection and the shock instability in 2D models enhance the neutrino heating efficiency, which makes the contribution of nuclear burning relatively smaller compared to 1D models. Considering uncertainties in progenitor models, our results indicate that nuclear burning should remain one of the important ingredients to foster the onset of neutrino-driven explosions.

  20. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  1. Permit for Charging Equipment Installation: Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender PumpVehiclesThe Heat Letter toTRUCKS ARECompliance

  2. TOWARDS BENCHMARK MEASUREMENTS FOR USED NUCLEAR FUEL ASSAY USING A LEAD SLOWING-DOWN SPECTROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    for spent fuel testing. The characterization of spent fuel is particularly important for nuclear safeguards and for determining the fuel burn up level in view of reprocessing and recycling of used fuel. Several studies have been made to assess the potential of the LSDS for spent fuel assay (Refs. 1, 4-9). In the framework

  3. Idling - cruising the fuel inefficiency highway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Levinson, T.

    2011-06-30

    What is the purpose of idling? The scale of idling can be small, as when parents idle their vehicles while waiting for their children outside of school, or it can be large, as when ocean liners are in port. In many cases, the primary purpose for idling is to control the temperature of a passenger or freight compartment. Large line-haul trucks idle overnight to keep fuel and the engine warm, for the resting driver's comfort, to mask out noises and smells, and for safety. In addition, all classes of trucks idle during the workday at ports and terminals, busy delivery sites, border crossings, and other work sites. They may be idling to enable slow movement in a queue (creep idling) or to provide other services. Bus drivers also idle their vehicles while they wait for passengers and to warm up in the morning. Even locomotive engines are idled so they start, for hotel load, to keep the battery charged, to keep the toilet water from freezing, and for air brakes, or because the operator idles out of habit. Although this document focuses on long-haul trucks, much of the information applies to other vehicles as well. The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 6 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $20 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling. Two main factors have combined to create a surge of interest in idling reduction (IR): (1) Increasing restrictions on idling for heavy vehicles and (2) The price of diesel fuel. Because stakeholders focus their efforts on improving different factors (air quality, fuel economy, noise level), they do not necessarily agree on the most advantageous technological alternatives to implement. In addition, although many equipment manufacturers have tried to educate customers and government agencies, they often provide conflicting claims about the comparative merits of different devices. This makes it difficult for truck owners to choose the right equipment for their needs. In this study, we present the first comparison of IR technologies with each other and with idling on the basis of both costs and full fuel-cycle emissions, for different locations, fuel prices, and idling patterns. The preferences described are for the technologies that reduce total emissions the most and cost truck owners the least. We also discuss how regulatory issues and legislation affect IR, what financial incentives help to promote IR, and how outreach and education approaches can be adopted to reduce the need to idle. Finally, we offer a prediction of how future research and development (R&D), regulations, and citizen involvement can help to improve fuel economy and clean the air.

  4. The smoke-fireplume model : tool for eventual application to prescribed burns and wildland fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Dunn, W. E.; Lazaro, M. A.; Policastro, A. J.

    1999-08-17

    Land managers are increasingly implementing strategies that employ the use of fire in prescribed burns to sustain ecosystems and plan to sustain the rate of increase in its use over the next five years. In planning and executing expanded use of fire in wildland treatment it is important to estimate the human health and safety consequences, property damage, and the extent of visibility degradation from the resulting conflagration-pyrolysis gases, soot and smoke generated during flaming, smoldering and/or glowing fires. Traditional approaches have often employed the analysis of weather observations and forecasts to determine whether a prescribed burn will affect populations, property, or protected Class I areas. However, the complexity of the problem lends itself to advanced PC-based models that are simple to use for both calculating the emissions from the burning of wildland fuels and the downwind dispersion of smoke and other products of pyrolysis, distillation, and/or fuels combustion. These models will need to address the effects of residual smoldering combustion, including plume dynamics and optical effects. In this paper, we discuss a suite of tools that can be applied for analyzing dispersion. These tools include the dispersion models FIREPLUME and SMOKE, together with the meteorological preprocessor SEBMET.

  5. Investigation of the characteristics of a coal burning Rijke type pulsating combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance characteristics of a coal burning Rijke type pulsating combustor was studied. The combustor consists of an open ended vertical tube with a coal burning bed located in the middle of its lower half. The liberation of heat by the combustion process at this location results in spontaneous excitation of the fundamental, longitudinal, acoustic mode of the tube and the acoustic oscillations lead to significant intensification of the combustion process. An 108 inch long 5.5 inch internal diameter combustor was constructed and instrumented for this investigation. The measurements performed during a series of experiments conducted at various air/fuel ratios and coal feed rates include: dB level of pulsations at the mid section of the combustor, frequency of oscillations, temperature at different locations inside the combustor, mass emission rates of generated particulates, and CO, CO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and SP/sub 2/ concentrations in the exhaust products of the combustor. The study demonstrated that the developed pulsating combustor can burn coal stably and continuously under a variety of air/fuel ratios and that maximum amplitudes of acoustic pressure occur when operation is conducted near stoichiometric conditions. It was also verified that the presence of pulsations resulted in a very efficient and intense combustion process. The measured CO and CO/sub 2/ concentrations were used to determine the combustion efficiencies of the combustor which were higher than 95%.

  6. Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Tom G. III; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    actinide fuels,? Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol. 238, no. 8, pp. 1958?1964, 2008. [5] T. Kim, T. Taiwo, R. Hill, W. Yang, and F. Venneri, ?A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts,? Tech. Rep. ANL- AFCI-155, Argonne National...

  7. MA Transmutation Performance Simulation and Accompanied Burning-up Analysis for C-ADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Ji-Lang; Chang, Zhen-Qi

    2012-01-01

    An accelerator-driven subcritical reactor functions well in incinerating high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) as well as providing energy. China is on his way to establish such a facility to transmutate the annual 1000 tons of HLW. A neutronic analysis has been performed for a reference core with a special task of burning minor actinides 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm. Instant operation parameters are determined, including neutron energy spectra, thermal power distribution and transmutation validation. Burning-up analysis is carried out to further confirm the incineration efficiency. The core parameters optimized in this work will be applied to simulate in-core fuel behavior in future research.

  8. Preliminary design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor employing breed-and-burn strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tak, T. W.; Yu, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, D. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology, gil 50, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60564 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A new design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor with power rate of 1000 MWe (UCFR) has been developed based on the strategy of breed-and burn. The bottom region of the core with low enriched uranium (LEU) plays a role of igniter of the core burning and the upper natural uranium (NU) region acts as blanket for breeding. Fissile materials are bred in the blanket and the active core moves upward at a speed of 5.4 cm/year. Through the core depletion calculation using Monte Carlo code, McCARD, it is confirmed that a full power operation of 60 years without refueling is feasible. Core performance characteristics have been evaluated in terms of axial/radial power shapes, reactivity feedback coefficients, etc. This design will serve as a base model for further design study of UCFRs using LWR spent fuels in the blanket region. (authors)

  9. APPROVED MATERIALS FOR ALSEP EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    expanding Section I and Section II and adding Section III. New materials added in this revision are: 211 212#12;#12;: : . APPROVED MATERIALS FOR ALSEP EQUIPMENT NO. REV. NO. ATM 242 E PAGE COVER OF 54 DATE 213 322 323 324 417 418 419 612 613 806 1111 Materials reinstated (clarified type no.): 1009 Prepared

  10. Cleaning Mechanised Pesticide Spray Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , hoses, nozzles, valves and pumps of mechanised spraying equipment can contaminate operators and possibly bowls, hoses, tanks and pumps retain the most solution. This Technical Note sets out the procedures label for any special cleaning instructions. · Wear the protective clothing described on the pesticide

  11. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001â??2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  12. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, CS; Krolewski, AG; Tosca, MG; Randerson, JT

    2012-01-01

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  13. Indexes for selected equipment show moderate increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, G.

    1997-04-07

    Costs for six selected equipment items used in refining construction operations have been surveyed for the 3 years, 1994--1996. The accompanying table shows Nelson-Farrar equipment indexes for these items of equipment. The six categories of equipment tracked are bubble trays, fractionating towers, tube stills, valves and fittings, tanks and pressure vessels, and non-metallic building materials. Tables also present data on operating costs for materials, labor, and equipment.

  14. Early Market Applications for Fuel Cell Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    handling equipment. It features a lifecycle-cost-analysis comparison table. Full Fuel-Cycle Comparison of Forklift Propulsion Systems - This report examines forklift...

  15. Presented at UFA Burning Plasma Science Workshop II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for a Next Step Experiment in Magnetic Fusion · Compact High Field Approach - General Parameters · Burning for Resolving the Critical Fusion Plasma Science Issues for an Attractive MFE Reactor Burning Plasma Experiment 1, 2001 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion for the FIRE Team

  16. Stellar Burning Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herwig, Falk

    ]. In these objects, a thermonuclear runaway of the helium shell on top of an electron-degenerate core (a young White implications for the production of neutron- rich elements. log Tlog Teffeff Figure 1-- A thermonuclear runaway stellar conditions. We will include a stellar equation of state as well as thermonuclear burning (TN burn

  17. Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

  18. Analysis of Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    to manage global warming (Wiedinmyer, 2010) As land managers consider increased burning, air quality our understanding of pollutant emission rates associated with prescribed forest burns. Methods Site tracer and pollutant dispersion patterns. Modeling The WindTrax stochastic particle dispersion model

  19. Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban Area S A N G I L L E E , * , , H Y November 30, 2007. An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission- based models) to assess

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. Comparative study of plutonium burning in heavy and light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Szakaly, F. J.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.; Dyck, G. R.; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G. W. R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.

    2008-01-01

    There is interest in the U.S. and world-wide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In some disposal scenarios, the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the commercial spent fuel capacity of the sites. In the long term (100 to 1,500 years), this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, particularly {sup 241}Am and {sup 241}Pu. One possible approach to reducing this decay-heat burden would be to reprocess commercial spent nuclear fuel and use intermediate-tier thermal reactors to 'burn' these actinides and other transuranics (plutonium and higher actinides). The viability of this approach is dependent on the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic compositions of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The intermediate-tier thermal burners could bridge the commercial water-cooled reactors and fast reactors required for ultimate consumption of the transuranics generated in the commercial reactors. This would reduce the number of such fast reactors required to complete the mission of burning transuranics. If thermal systems are to be used for the transmutation mission, it is likely that they would be similar to or are advanced versions of the systems currently used for power generation. In both the U.S. and Canada, light- and heavy-water-cooled thermal reactors are used for power generation in the commercial nuclear sector. About 103 pressurized- and boiling- light water reactors (PWRs and BRWs) are deployed in the U.S. nuclear industry while about 18 CANDU (heavy-water-cooled) reactors are used in the Canadian industry. There are substantial differences between light and heavy water-cooled reactors that might affect transmutation potential. These arise from differences in neutron balance of the reactors, in neutron energy spectra, in operational approaches (e.g., continuous refueling enhancing fuel burnup), and so on. A systematic study has been conducted to compare the transmutation potentials of CANDU and PWR systems using (U,Pu)O{sub 2} mixed oxide fuels. First, we examine and compare the isotopic evolution of plutonium-containing fuel under irradiation in these reactor types to understand the physics processes involved. The core-physics parameters to be compared for these systems are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics models for a single fuel assembly that is representative of the whole-core (e.g., using the linear reactivity model). Results from a parametric study of the discharge burnup as a function of the Pu fraction in the initial heavy metal are presented for each system. The Pu consumption level, minor actinides buildup level, and the masses destroyed per unit energy generation are summarized and compared. In addition, assessment results for a simple plutonium recycling concept in realistic CANDU and PWR cores are presented. In these cases, plutonium from commercial spent PWR fuel will be separated and burned in realistic intermediate thermal burner reactors using (U,Pu)O{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel. The spent fuel from this thermal burner will be separated and the resulting Pu will be burned in a second pass through the thermal burner reactor. The resulting transuranics are assumed to then be burned in a fast burner reactor. The impact of using the spent fuels of these systems on the core performance of the fast burner reactor and the required numbers of the various reactor types will be discussed.

  2. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  3. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  4. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI...

  5. Determination of the Burning Characteristics of a Slick of Oil on Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L; Olenick, Stephen M; Garo, Jean P; Vantelon, Jean P

    2003-01-01

    The burning rate of a slick of oil on a water bed is characterized by three distinct processes, ignition, flame spread and burning rate. Although all three processes are important, ignition and burning rate are critical. ...

  6. Ac#vi#es of the US Burning Plasma Organiza#on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Goals of the USBPO · Coordinate and advocate US burning plasma (BP) research=ons · USBPO ­ Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scien=fic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science community to support burning plasma

  7. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  8. Solar equipment ravaged by floods gets new life | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy SmoothEquipmentSolar PVEquipment Sales Taxat

  9. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  10. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the second quarter of 2012.

  11. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-11-01

    This report includes 47 composite data products (CDPs) produced for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment, with data through the second quarter of 2013.

  12. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Peters, M.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes 47 composite data products (CDPs) produced for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment, with data through the fourth quarter of 2013.

  13. The influence of burning on nitrogen dynamics of a Pan American balsamscale community 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greene, Thomas Alexander

    1983-01-01

    (Jorgensen and Wells 1971). Crude protein and P content (Old 1969), in vitro digestible organic matter, and ash content (Kucera and Ehrenreich 1962) of regrowth following burning may exceed that found in plants on unburned areas. Christensen (1977) found... phosphate fire retardant. Thus, six treatments (unburned, burned 1980, burned 1981, burned 1982, burned 1980 and 1982, and burned 1981 and 1982) were installed, each with four replications. Each block was fenced. to exclude cattle. Because of delays of 2...

  14. Vegetation response to burning thicketized live oak savannah on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, David Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    were more produc- tive than unburned areas based on evaluations for two growing seasons after the fires. Species diversity was increased by burning. Areas burned in the fall supported more diverse grass populations than either unburned areas... or areas burned in the spring. Forage, especially grasses, was apparently more available to grazing animals on burned than unburned areas. Forb production on uplands burned in the fall was five times that of unburned areas and twice that of areas burned...

  15. ARM-2007-GRL-Burn-20070323.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotal Ozone Mapping0-006 Site Scientific Mission Plan

  16. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016Study (CHAPS)ArchiveProject (BBOP) Related Links

  17. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  18. AGR-2: The first irradiation of French HTR fuel in Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Lambert; B. Grover; P. Guillermier; D. Moulinier; F. Imbault Huart

    2012-10-01

    AGR-2, the second irradiation of the US program for qualification of the NGNP fuel, is open to international participation within the scope of the Generation IV International Forum. In this frame, it includes in its multi-capsule irradiation rig an irradiation of French HTR fuel manufactured in the CAPRI line (GAIA facility at CEA/Cadarache and AREVA/CERCA compacting line at Romans). The AGR-2 irradiation is designed to place our first fabrications of HTR particles under operating conditions that are representative of ANTARES project while keeping close to the test range of the German fuel as much as possible, which is the reference in terms of irradiation behavior. A few batches of particles and 12 fuel compacts were produced and characterized in 2009 by CEA and CERCA. The fuel main characteristics are in conformity with our specifications and in compliance with INL requirements. The AGR-2 experiment is based on the design and devices used in the first experiment of the AGR program. The design makes it possible to monitor the irradiation conditions and in particular, the temperature, the power and the fission products released from fuel particles. The in pile equipment consists of a multi-capsule device designed to simultaneously irradiate six independent capsules with temperature control. The out-of-core part consists of the equipment for actively controlling temperature and measuring the fission products release on-line. The target conditions for the irradiation experiment were defined with the aim of comparing the results obtained under irradiation with German particles along with the objectives of reaching burn-up and fluence targets to validate the behavior of our fuel in a significant range (15% FIMA – 5 × 1025 n/m2 at 600 EFPD with centerline fuel temperature about 1100 degrees C). These conditions have to be representative of ANTARES project characteristics. These target conditions were compared with final results from neutron and thermal design studies performed by INL team, and preliminary thermal mechanical ATLAS calculations were carried out by CEA from this pre-design. Despite the mean burn-up achieved in approximately 600 EFPD being a little high (16.3% FIMA max. associated with a low fluence up to 2.85 × 1025 n/m2), this irradiation will nevertheless encompass the range of irradiation effects covered in our experimental objectives (maximum stress peak at start of irradiation then sign inversion of the stress in the SiC layer). In addition, the fluence and burn-up acceleration factors are very similar to those of the German reference experiments. This experimental irradiation began in July 2010 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and first results have been acquired.

  19. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  20. TEM Characterization of High Burn-up Microstructure of U-7Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Brandon Miller; Dennis Keiser; Adam Robinson; James Madden; Pavel Medvedev; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    As an essential part of global nuclear non-proliferation effort, the RERTR program is developing low enriched U-Mo fuels (< 20% U-235) for use in research and test reactors that currently employ highly enriched uranium fuels. One type of fuel being developed is a dispersion fuel plate comprised of U-7Mo particles dispersed in Al alloy matrix. Recent TEM characterizations of the ATR irradiated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates include the samples with a local fission densities of 4.5, 5.2, 5.6 and 6.3 E+21 fissions/cm3 and irradiation temperatures of 101-136?C. The development of the irradiated microstructure of the U-7Mo fuel particles consists of fission gas bubble superlattice, large gas bubbles, solid fission product precipitates and their association to the large gas bubbles, grain subdivision to tens or hundreds of nanometer size, collapse of bubble superlattice, and amorphisation. This presentation will describe the observed microstructures specifically focusing on the U-7Mo fuel particles. The impact of the observed microstructure on the fuel performance and the comparison of the relevant features with that of the high burn-up UO2 fuels will be discussed.

  1. FUELING OF ITER-SCALE FUSION PLASMAS M. J. Gouge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    not anticipated in early1,2 and even more recent3 fusion power plant assessments, which had burn fractions systems to handle the larger DT throughput. Gas and pellet fueling efficiency data from past tokamak experiments is reviewed; pellet fueling efficiency is significantly larger than that of gas injection

  2. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  3. ATLAS Equipment 1 June09

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals duenationalMeeting - June 4-5,

  4. University of Delaware | CCEI Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA| ReactionSite MapGasUniqueUniversityCCEI

  5. Implementing Equipment Based Obligations Presentation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia NationalSecurityNuclearH-canyon |I 1 2.9/%2A enITEM

  6. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Guidelines

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(Technical Report)(Conference) | SciTechSpecificThe

  7. Laboratory Equipment Donation Program - Search

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(Technical Report)(Conference) |OPMO Listing OPMO

  8. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Ancillary Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask2 J.N.open toCelebrating Los Alamos

  9. MPC Equipment | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion to localPartnershipMEMORANDUMMILCMOF CoatingMPC

  10. Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012 for

  11. Equipment Loans | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012 for

  12. Equipment Pool | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4th Quarter 2012 forPool What is

  13. Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitoring Equipment Operation (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations contain instructions for the operation and monitoring of air pollution control equipment, as well as comments on procedures in the event of equipment breakdown, failure, and...

  14. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  15. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  16. Operations and Maintenance for Major Equipment Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Equipment lies at the heart of all operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. This equipment varies greatly across the Federal sector in age, size, type, model, condition, etc.

  17. Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    EPA's rule, equipment that is typically dismantled on site before disposal (e.g., retail food vacuum, and for small appliances the recover equipment performance requirements are 90 percent efficiency

  18. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  19. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  20. Fire suppression and detection equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.E. Bates [HSB Professional Loss Control, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2006-01-15

    Inspection and testing guidelines go beyond the 'Code of Federal Regulation'. Title 30 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR) contains requirements and references to national standards for inspection, testing and maintenance of fire suppression and detection equipment for mine operators. However, federal requirements have not kept pace with national standards and best practices. The article lists National Fire Protection (NFPA) standards that are referenced by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 30 CFR. It then discusses other NFPA Standards excluded from 30 CFR and explains the NFPA standard development process. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 photos.

  1. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  2. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  3. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. Mirror and Shadow: Social Media in the Burning Man Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aveline, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    record. The survey is open to Burners everywhere (as long asBurning Man participants (Burners)? Yes / No 15. If yes,I thank all those anonymous burners who contributed to the

  5. Isothermal model of ICF burn with finite alpha range treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Conner Daniel (Conner Daniel Cross)

    2009-01-01

    A simple model for simulating deuterium tritium burn in inertial confinement fusion capsules is developed. The model, called the Isothermal Rarefaction Model, is zero dimensional (represented as ordinary differential ...

  6. Impact of prescribed burning on Gulf Coast tick populations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldham, Thomas Walter

    1983-01-01

    on adjacent unburned areas. Tick numbers remained lower on burned and unburned areas the second growing season after burning on mesquite- mixedgrass and bunchgrass-annual forb sites. Standing crops of herbaceous vegetation and mulch were reduced following... and unburned plant community . Adult ticks present in the vegetation and mulch layer were initially killed by the heat of the passing fire front. Habitat alterations caused by the fire limited tick numbers until vegetation recovered and senesced to form a...

  7. Gulf Cordgrass Production, Utilization, and Nutritional Value Following Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oefinger, R.D.; Scifres, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    ). Growth characteristics of gulf cordgrass give rise to its apparent adaptability to fire. Regrowth follow ing burning progresses rapidly, thus quickly rendering succulent regrowth acceptable as forage to domestic grazing animals (6). Young regrowth... and species of Acacia) on the uplands to the west. Soil Characteristics Physical and Chemical Components The loamy sand sites, burned in fall 1974 were characterized by a near neutral soil surface, becoming more basic to 30 centimeters deep (Table 1...

  8. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  9. Performance of the Lead-Alloy Cooled Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel Hejzlar; Cliff Davis

    2004-09-01

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners.

  10. Performance of the Lead-Alloy-Cooled Reactor Concept Balanced for Actinide Burning and Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Davis, Cliff B. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    A lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor concept targeted for a balanced mission of actinide burning and low-cost electricity production is proposed and its performance analyzed. The design explores the potential benefits of thorium-based fuel in actinide-burning cores, in particular in terms of the reduction of the large reactivity swing and enhancement of the small Doppler coefficient typical of fertile-free actinide burners. Reduced electricity production cost is pursued through a longer cycle length than that used for fertile-free burners and thus a higher capacity factor. It is shown that the concept can achieve a high transuranics destruction rate, which is only 20% lower than that of an accelerator-driven system with fertile-free fuel. The small negative fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, small positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and negative core radial expansion coefficient provide self-regulating characteristics so that the reactor is capable of inherent shutdown during major transients without scram, as in the Integral Fast Reactor. This is confirmed by thermal-hydraulic analysis of several transients without scram, including primary coolant pump trip, station blackout, and reactivity step insertion, which showed that the reactor was able to meet all identified thermal limits. However, the benefits of high actinide consumption and small reactivity swing can be attained only if the uranium from the discharged fuel is separated and not recycled. This additional uranium separation step and thorium reprocessing significantly increase the fuel cycle costs. Because the higher fuel cycle cost has a larger impact on the overall cost of electricity than the savings from the higher capacity factor afforded through use of thorium, this concept appears less promising than the fertile-free actinide burners.

  11. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  12. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  13. Stars as thermonuclear reactors: their fuels and ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ray

    2004-05-28

    Atomic nuclei are transformed into each other in the cosmos by nuclear reactions inside stars: -- the process of nucleosynthesis. The basic concepts of determining nuclear reaction rates inside stars and how they manage to burn their fuel so slowly most of the time are discussed. Thermonuclear reactions involving protons in the hydrostatic burning of hydrogen in stars are discussed first. This is followed by triple alpha reactions in the helium burning stage and the issues of survival of carbon and oxygen in red giant stars connected with nuclear structure of oxygen and neon. Advanced stages of nuclear burning in quiescent reactions involving carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon are discussed. The role of neutron induced reactions in nucleosynthesis beyond iron is discussed briefly, as also the experimental detection of neutrinos from SN 1987A which confirmed broadly the ideas concerning gravitational collapse leading to a supernova.

  14. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  15. NuclearNuclear ""BurningBurning"" of Nuclearof Nuclear ""WasteWaste"" Constantine P. Tzanos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fragments and their decay products #12;Contributors to dose: PWR fuel withContributors to dose: PWR fuel of 70,000 MTIHM of PWR Spent Fuel Repository, Normalized to the PeakPWR Spent Fuel Repository 233 U 99 Tc 129 I 234 U 236 U 238 U #12;Dose Rate: 70,000 MTIHM of PWR Spent Fuel withDose Rate: 70

  16. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Materials at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about modular process equipment...

  18. Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning Ethan Burns1 Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 2 / 22'd s Contributions Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On

  19. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  20. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment...

  1. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  2. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  3. Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns*, Ruthvik Basavaraj**, Venkatasailanathan Ramadesigan***, Folarin Latinwo**, Ravi N. Methekar***,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Identification of Dominant Mechanisms for Capacity Fade of Lithium-Ion Batteries Nancy A. Burns- + 6C LixC6 Lithium-ion battery, chemistry and reactions Electric motor Engine Fuel tank Electric, military, mobile applications, and space. Lithium-ion chemistry has been identified as the preferred

  4. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASAT’s manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  5. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming UpgradesArea: PADD 1 to PADDFuelFuelFuel

  6. THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Peninsula) - Produces excess heat (needs cooling tower) BOILER #10 SAME AMOUNT LOW PRESSURE STEAM TO MILL FOR PAPER TURBINE/ GENERATOR 25 MW MORE ELECTRICITY (currently make about 13MW) HIGH PRESSURE STEAM ADDS 15 levels · OTHER Reprocessed fuel oil - MAY be reduced 13% to 12.4 million gallons per year Waste from

  7. Reduction of NO sub x and SO sub 2 emissions from coal burning pulse combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, E.A.; Zinn, B.T.; Miller, N.; Chen, F.

    1990-12-01

    In this investigation, a Rijke pulse combustor was constructed, in which unpulverized coal was burned on a rotating bed where the presence of acoustic velocity oscillations resulted in bed fluidization and intensification of the combustion process. The objectives of this investigation were to determine (1) if the nitrogen oxides emissions of the experimental Rijke pulse combustor could be reduced by air staging the combustion process and (2) if the sulfur dioxide emissions of this pulse combustor could be reduced by the addition of sorbent materials such as limestone to the coal bed or to the gas stream above the bed. Air staging experiments were conducted for total dimensionless air fuel ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 and primary dimensionless air/fuel ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Injection heights ranged from 20 cm to 52 cm above the coal bed. Air staging was effective in reducing the nitrogen oxides emissions of coal burning Rijke type pulse combustors under the proper conditions. Another series of experiments was conducted using sorbent addition to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. In some of these experiments, pulverized dolomitic limestone was introduced along with the coal through the coal delivery tube just above the bed, while in the remainder of the experiments, the sorbent was dispersed in an air stream and injected at 15 cm or 23 cm above the coal bed. 9 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2010-01-08

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  9. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  10. A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.

    2005-09-16

    A systematic assessment of the General Atomics (GA) proposed Deep-Burn concept based on the Modular Helium-Cooled Reactor design (DB-MHR) has been performed. Preliminary benchmarking of deterministic physics codes was done by comparing code results to those from MONTEBURNS (MCNP-ORIGEN) calculations. Detailed fuel cycle analyses were performed in order to provide an independent evaluation of the physics and transmutation performance of the one-pass and two-pass concepts. Key performance parameters such as transuranic consumption, reactor performance, and spent fuel characteristics were analyzed. This effort has been undertaken in close collaborations with the General Atomics design team and Brookhaven National Laboratory evaluation team. The study was performed primarily for a 600 MWt reference DB-MHR design having a power density of 4.7 MW/m{sup 3}. Based on parametric and sensitivity study, it was determined that the maximum burnup (TRU consumption) can be obtained using optimum values of 200 {micro}m and 20% for the fuel kernel diameter and fuel packing fraction, respectively. These values were retained for most of the one-pass and two-pass design calculations; variation to the packing fraction was necessary for the second stage of the two-pass concept. Using a four-batch fuel management scheme for the one-pass DB-MHR core, it was possible to obtain a TRU consumption of 58% and a cycle length of 286 EFPD. By increasing the core power to 800 MWt and the power density to 6.2 MW/m{sup 3}, it was possible to increase the TRU consumption to 60%, although the cycle length decreased by {approx}64 days. The higher TRU consumption (burnup) is due to the reduction of the in-core decay of fissile Pu-241 to Am-241 relative to fission, arising from the higher power density (specific power), which made the fuel more reactivity over time. It was also found that the TRU consumption can be improved by utilizing axial fuel shuffling or by operating with lower material temperatures (colder core). Results also showed that the transmutation performance of the one-pass deep-burn concept is sensitive to the initial TRU vector, primarily because longer cooling time reduces the fissile content (Pu-241 specifically.) With a cooling time of 5 years, the TRU consumption increases to 67%, while conversely, with 20-year cooling the TRU consumption is about 58%. For the two-pass DB-MHR (TRU recycling option), a fuel packing fraction of about 30% is required in the second pass (the recycled TRU). It was found that using a heterogeneous core (homogeneous fuel element) concept, the TRU consumption is dependent on the cooling interval before the 2nd pass, again due to Pu-241 decay during the time lag between the first pass fuel discharge and the second pass fuel charge. With a cooling interval of 7 years (5 and 2 years before and after reprocessing) a TRU consumption of 55% is obtained. With an assumed ''no cooling'' interval, the TRU consumption is 63%. By using a cylindrical core to reduce neutron leakage, TRU consumption of the case with 7-year cooling interval increases to 58%. For a two-pass concept using a heterogeneous fuel element (and homogeneous core) with first and second pass volume ratio of 2:1, the TRU consumption is 62.4%. Finally, the repository loading benefits arising from the deep-burn and Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) concepts were estimated and compared, for the same initial TRU vector. The DB-MHR concept resulted in slightly higher TRU consumption and repository loading benefit compared to the IMF concept (58.1% versus 55.1% for TRU consumption and 2.0 versus 1.6 for estimated repository loading benefit).

  11. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  12. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    2009-06-16

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  13. Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Wood pellets have increased tremendously pellet stoves or boilers over traditional wood-fired equipment due to their relative ease of use. As a result, the demand for fuel pellets has also grown quickly. However, wood is not the only suitable

  14. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  15. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

  16. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Medical Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Technologies Office conducted a healthcare energy end-use monitoring project for two sites. Read details about large medical imaging equipment energy results.

  17. Pollution Control Equipment Tax Deduction (Alabama)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pollution Control Equipment Tax Deduction allows businesses to deduct from their Alabama net worth the net amount invested in all devices, facilities, or structures, and all identifiable...

  18. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    productivity and operating cost of the equipment. These materials are used in burners, electrical heating elements, material handling, load support, and heater tubes, etc....

  19. Commercial and Industrial Kitchen Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: All equipment must be installed on or after January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015. The documentation must be received no later than March 31, 2016. 

  20. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...

  1. PPP Equipment Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PPP Equipment Corporation Sector: Solar Product: PPP-E designs, produces and markets Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors and converter systems producing high-purity...

  2. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facilityâ??s production process.

  3. Fuel treatment effects on snags and coarse woody debris in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Fuel treatment effects on snags and coarse woody debris in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada. In this paper, we report on the impacts of several replicated fuel treatments including overall fuel loads also increase the probability of snag and CWD consumption when an area inevitably burns

  4. Fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, Jack (Perth Amboy, NJ); Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Stawsky, Alfred (Teaneck, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  5. Better metallurgy for process equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Metallurgy choices have expanded significantly for process equipment and pumps used for handling difficult corrosive fluids. If they have been specifying the austenitic AISI types 316, 316L, 317, 317L or the newer first generation alloy 329 in their pumps, there is a strong message in recent literature. Based on tests and experience there are better, often less costly alternatives. In the case of CD[sub 4]MCu, N08020 and 904L, there are lower-cost material alternatives for many applications. For SA S31254 and SA N08367, there are some less aggressive can be substituted. These alternatives are the new second generation duplex steels. The lower cost of the duplex alloys is a result of the reduced nickel content, which is about half that of the standard austenitics. Also, their carbon content is low; the same as 316L and 317L for most alloys, including S31803. The second generation duplex alloys offer significant value improvement in a vast majority of applications over the common austenitics and ferritics. Further, their improved resistance to corrosion and improved physical properties relative to the expensive. and in many cases proprietary, highly corrosion-resistant, super-ferritics and super-austenitics, means that they can and should be considered as an alternative for applications where those materials are now overqualified. Strength, toughness and wide corrosion resistance are all-important properties and considerations for process pump materials. Combine these with competitive cost and there is an opportunity that must be investigated.

  6. Fuels Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping intoand DavidEnergyVirginiaEnergy|Fuels

  7. Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

    1991-08-27

    Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

  8. Fuel injector nozzle for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klomp, E.D.; Peters, B.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a nozzle body with at least one fuel flow opening therethrough for feed fuel to the chamber, a resilient diaphragm normally sealing the opening and having orifice means therein for further atomizing and directing the pulses into the chamber, fastening means for fixing the diaphragm to the body so that diaphragm can deflect by a predetermined amount under low engine load operating conditions so that a wide angle cone of atomized fuel is injected into and generally at one end of the combustion chamber for the stratified charge thereof and deflect by an amount greater than the first amount of deflection under high engine load operating conditions. A narrow spray cone of atomized fuel is injected in a deeper pattern into and throughout the combustion chamber for optimizing the charge thereof and fuel burns under the low and high load engine operating conditions.

  9. Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

  10. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  11. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  12. Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    centimeters deep for gravimetric determination of soil water content. Soil textures from the same depths were determined by the hy- drometer method (Bouyoucos, 1962), and pH on a 1:4 slurry (Mortensen, 1965). Post burn standing crop of herbaceous... bluestem tended to in- crease in impom during the second growing sea- f% following W burns. In April 1976, dune paspalum and Heller 'cum accounted or 64 percent of the green grass ding crop on unburned areas (Table 4). Ckdy 12 F ,&ent of green grass...

  13. Communication Support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegna, Chris [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2014-02-05

    The role of this DOE grant was to provide administrative and software support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO). The USBPO is a grassroots organization of fusion plasma scientists that concentrates broadly on issues of interest in burning plasma physics in general with a particular emphasis on the needs of the ITER program. The particular role of this grant was to provide support of the communication needs of the USBPO primarily through the administration and maintenance of the USBPO server, the public USBPO website, e-mail lists and numerous members-only discussion forums and mail lists.

  14. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  15. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  16. Equipment qualification research program: program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, R.G.; Smith, P.D.

    1982-06-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed this program plan for research in equipment qualification (EQA). In this report the research program which will be executed in accordance with this plan will be referred to as the Equipment Qualification Research Program (EQRP). Covered are electrical and mechanical equipment under the conditions described in the OBJECTIVE section of this report. The EQRP has two phases; Phase I is primarily to produce early results and to develop information for Phase II. Phase I will last 18 months and consists of six projects. The first project is program management. The second project is responsible for in-depth evaluation and review of EQ issues and EQ processes. The third project is responsible for detailed planning to initiate Phase II. The remaining three projects address specific equipment; i.e., valves, electrical equipment, and a pump.

  17. Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. X. Li; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict; T. A. Johnson; B. R. Westphal; Guy L. Frederickson

    2007-09-01

    An integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electrorefiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 54.4 kg heavy metal) were processes under the fixed operating parameters that have been developed for this equipment based on over a decade’s worth of processing experience. A mass balance across this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test.

  18. dieSel/heAvy equipMent College of Rural and Community Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Chris

    credits The diesel and heavy equipment mechanics program offers the student training in the maintenance and repair of trucks, buses and heavy equip- ment. This one-year certificate program emphasizes hands of equipment problems and make nec- essary repairs and adjustments from tune-ups to complete engine

  19. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  20. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 3 of 2014; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, Chris; Kurtz, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    This document includes 23 composite data products (CDPs) produced for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment, with data through the third quarter of 2014.

  1. Fuel Efficiency Benefits and Implementation Consideration for Cruise Altitude and Speed Optimization in the National Airspace System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Luke

    2014-07-29

    This study examines the potential fuel burn benefits of altitude and speed optimization in the cruise phase of flight for domestic airlines in the United States. Airlines can achieve cost reductions and reduce environmental ...

  2. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum

  3. Renewable Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWind Energy Wind Energy Renewable

  4. fuel cells

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR/%2Afissile4/%2A en

  5. Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a turbocharged SI engine equipped with direct injection, VVT and a low-pressure EGR loop. In this chapter with a turbocharger and direct

  6. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  7. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  8. ClearFuels Technology Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) Jump to:New York:ClayBurnVitaCleanstar

  9. Thomas F. Burns Deputy Assistant Administrator for Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Redondo Beach, CA, supporting government satellite and ground system projects,including Peacekeeper failures and major milestone readiness. Dr. Burns is the recipient of the NRO Medal of Distinguished control. He enjoys spending time with his family and distance running, having completed over twenty

  10. Burning Plasma Physics -The Next Frontier Three Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Magnetic Fusion · Burning Plasma Performance Considerations · Compact High Field Approach - General International Collaboration #12;Dale M. Meade Presented at 6th International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology San Diego, CA April 10, 2002 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion for the FIRE Team http

  11. ITER:The Future International Burning Plasma Experiment Present Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ITER5/8/01 ITER:The Future International Burning Plasma Experiment Present Status R. Aymar, ITER/8/01 strategic objective ¥ to establish fusion energy as a real energy option for the future Ð e.g. Òcreating availability and integration of essential fusion technologies Ð test components for a future reactor Ð test

  12. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  13. Fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick (Bromley, GB)

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  14. Fuel rail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, M.; Herbert, J.D.; O'Leary, J.J.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes a fuel rail for a V-configuration automotive type internal combustion engine having a throttle body superimposed over an intake manifold. The throttle body has an air plenum above an induction channel aligned with a throttle bore passage in the manifold for flow or air to the engine cylinders. The rail includes a spacer body mounted sealingly between the throttle body and the manifold of the engine and having air induction passages therethrough to connect the throttle body channels and the manifold, the spacer body having at least on longitudinal bore defining a fuel passage extending through the spacer body, and a fuel injector receiving cups projecting from and communicating with the fuel passage. The spacer body consists of a number of separated spacer members, and rail member means through which the fuel passage runs joining the spacer members together.

  15. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Shetter, R. : Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan,for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmosphericC. : Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric

  16. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  17. Activities of the US Burning Plasma Organization Vice-Chair of Council,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the principal coordinating body for MFE burning plasma research · It exists to advance the scientific to advance burning plasma research · Began with the 2006-7 ITER Design Review ­ US MFE community contributed

  18. header for SPIE use Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    header for SPIE use Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multi, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details. Keywords: Multispectral imagery, Genetic programming, Supervised classification, Forest fire, Wildfire. 1

  19. SINGULAR LEVI-FLAT REAL ANALYTIC HYPERSURFACES By DANIEL BURNS and XIANGHONG GONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xianghong

    SINGULAR LEVI-FLAT REAL ANALYTIC HYPERSURFACES By DANIEL BURNS and XIANGHONG GONG Abstract. We #12;24 DANIEL BURNS AND XIANGHONG GONG Let M be a real analytic hypersurface defined by r = 0

  20. Developing shrub fire behaviour models in an oceanic climate: Burning in the British Uplands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Gwilym Matthew; Legg, Colin; Smith, Adam; MacDonald, Angus

    2006-01-01

    Prescribed burning of moorland vegetation in the UK is used to provide habitat for red grouse, a game bird, and to improve grazing for sheep and deer. The peak time of fire risk corresponds to the normal legal burning ...