National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for front caused heating

  1. What Causes Electron Heat Loss in Fusion Plasma?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Causes Heat Loss in Fusion Plasmas? What Causes Electron Heat Loss in Fusion Plasma? 3D ... but one of the most basic is heating plasma-hot gas composed of electrons and charged ...

  2. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  3. HEATING THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE BY THE SELF-ENHANCED THERMAL WAVES CAUSED BY THE DYNAMO PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumin, Yurii V. E-mail: dumin@izmiran.ru

    2012-05-20

    We discuss a possible mechanism for heating the solar atmosphere by the ensemble of thermal waves, generated by the photospheric dynamo and propagating upward with increasing magnitudes. These waves are self-sustained and amplified due to the specific dependence of the efficiency of heat release by Ohmic dissipation on the ratio of the collisional to gyrofrequencies, which in its turn is determined by the temperature profile formed in the wave. In the case of sufficiently strong driving, such a mechanism can increase the plasma temperature by a few times, i.e., it may be responsible for heating the chromosphere and the base of the transition region.

  4. Front Burner- Issue 15

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 15 addresses the DOE eSCRM Program and Secure Online Shopping.

  5. Front Burner- Issue 14

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 14 highlights the 2013 National Cybersecurity Awareness Month (NCSAM) Campaign and Phishing Scams.

  6. FRONT BURNER- ISSUE 19

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 19 examines Securing the Internet of Things, Facebook Messenger Application, and implementation of the Contractor Training Site.

  7. ARM - Front Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Front Page World's premier ground-based observations facility advancing climate change research A U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility, providing data...

  8. Front Burner- Issue 13

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 13 contained a message from the Associate Chief Information Officer (ACIO) for Cybersecurity as well as a listing of recommended cybersecurity practices.

  9. Front Burner- Issue 16

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 16 addresses Malware, the Worst Passwords of 2013, and the Flat Stanley and Stop.Think.Connect. Campaign.

  10. Front Burner- Issue 18

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 18 addresses keeping kids safe on the Internet, cyber crime, and DOE Cyber awareness and training initiatives.

  11. FRONT BURNER- Issue 20

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 20 examines Phishing to include defining Phishing and related terms and how to protect yourself from this very common and clever security threat. The newsletter also addresses wireless networks, supply chains, training events, and readily available cybersecurity resources. Stay cyber informed and check it out!

  12. Heat

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release date: April 2015 Revised date: May 2016 Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 87,093 80,078 11,846 8,654 20,766 5,925 22,443 49,188 1,574 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 868 1,091 1,747 Q 400 3,809 Q 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 1,038 1,416 2,025 Q 734 4,622 Q 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 1,477 2,233 3,115 Q 2,008 8,246 Q 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 1,642 1,439 3,021 213 2,707

  13. Physical processes in an electron current layer causing intense plasma heating and formation of x-lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Nagendra; Wells, B. E.; Khazanov, Igor

    2015-05-15

    We study the evolution of an electron current layer (ECL) through its several stages by means of three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with ion to electron mass ratio M/m{sub e}?=?400. An ECL evolves through the following stages: (i) Electrostatic (ES) current-driven instability (CDI) soon after its formation with half width w about 2 electron skin depth (d{sub e}), (ii) current disruption in the central part of the ECL by trapping of electrons and generation of anomalous resistivity, (iii) electron tearing instability (ETI) with significantly large growth rates in the lower end of the whistler frequency range, (iv) widening of the ECL and modulation of its width by the ETI, (v) gradual heating of electrons by the CDI-driven ES ion modes create the condition that the electrons become hotter than the ions, (vi) despite the reduced electron drift associated with the current disruption by the CDI, the enhanced electron temperature continues to favor a slow growth of the ion waves reaching nonlinear amplitudes, (vii) the nonlinear ion waves undergo modulation and collapse into localized density cavities containing spiky electric fields like in double layers (DLs), (viii) such spiky electric fields are very effective in further rapid heating of both electrons and ions. As predicted by the electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) theories, the ETI growth rate maximizes at wave numbers in the range 0.4?

  14. Front Range Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Logo: Front Range Energy LLC Name: Front Range Energy LLC Address: 31375 Great Western Dr Place: Windsor, Colorado Zip: 80550 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Biofuels...

  15. Cybersecurity Front Burner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Training » Cybersecurity Training Warehouse » DOE Cybersecurity Awareness Program » Cybersecurity Front Burner Cybersecurity Front Burner Documents Available for Download January 15, 2015 FRONT BURNER - Issue 20 The Cybersecurity Front Burner Issue No. 20 examines Phishing to include defining Phishing and related terms and how to protect yourself from this very common and clever security threat. The newsletter also addresses wireless networks, supply chains, training events, and

  16. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Front Matter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the front matter of the Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: a Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  17. BLM Sierra Front Field Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Front Field Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Sierra Front Field Office Abbreviation: Sierra Front Address: 5665 Morgan Mill Road Place: Carson City, NV Zip: 89701 Phone...

  18. Fluctuating pulled fronts and Pomerons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iancu, Edmond

    2005-06-14

    I present a pedagogical discussion of the influence of particle number fluctuations on the high energy evolution in QCD. I emphasize the event-by-event description, and the correspondence with the problem of 'fluctuating pulled fronts' in statistical physics. I explain that the correlations generated by fluctuations reduce the phase-space for BFKL evolution up to saturation. Because of that, the evolution 'slows down', and the rate for the energy increase of the saturation momentum is considerably decreased. I also discuss the diagrammatic interpretation of the particle number fluctuations in terms of Pomeron loops.

  19. Bay Front Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEEDS 2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBayFrontBiomassFacility&oldid397174" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  20. Apparatus for characterizing the temporo-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Battiste, Richard L

    2013-12-31

    Methods and apparatus are described for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front within a mold space while the mold space is being filled with fluid. A method includes providing a mold defining a mold space and having one or more openings into the mold space; heating a plurality of temperature sensors that extend into the mold space; injecting a fluid into th emold space through the openings, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space with a fluid; and characterizing temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front by monitoring a termperature of each of the plurality of heated temperature sensors while the mold space is being filled with the fluid. An apparatus includes a mold defining a mold space; one or more openings for introducing a fluid into th emold space and filling the mold space with the fluid, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space; a plurality of heated temperature sensors extending into the mold space; and a computer coupled to the plurality of heated temperature sensors for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front.

  1. Apparatus for characterizing the temporo-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Battiste, Richard L.

    2007-12-25

    Methods and apparatus are described for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of a dynamic fluid front within a mold space while the mold space is being filled with fluid. A method includes providing a mold defining a mold space and having one or more openings into the mold space; heating a plurality of temperature sensors that extend into the mold space; injecting a fluid into the mold space through the openings, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space with the fluid; and characterizing temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front by monitoring a temperature of each of the plurality of heated temperature sensors while the mold space is being filled with the fluid. An apparatus includes a mold defining a mold space; one or more openings for introducing a fluid into the mold space and filling the mold space with the fluid, the fluid experiencing a dynamic fluid front while filling the mold space; a plurality of heated temperature sensors extending into the mold space; and a computer coupled to the plurality of heated temperature sensors for characterizing the temporal-spatial properties of the dynamic fluid front.

  2. Statistical physics on the light-front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raufeisen, J.

    2005-06-14

    The formulation of statistical physics using light-front quantization, instead of conventional equal-time boundary conditions, has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, such as heavy ion collisions. We develop light-front field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to Quantum Chromodynamics. We construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and introduce the chemical potential in a covariant way. In light-front quantization, the Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and does not lead to doublers in the transverse directions. A seminal property of light-front Green's functions is that they are related to parton densities in coordinate space. Namely, the diagonal and off-diagonal parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments can be interpreted as light-front density matrices.

  3. Geothermal heat pumps for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-02

    Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) can provide significant energy savings to a wide range of Federal facilities. GHP equipment can be obtained and installed at no up-front cost through Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) through energy service companies (ESCOs).

  4. Light-Front Holography, Color Confinement, and Supersymmetric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Light-Front Holography, Color Confinement, and Supersymmetric Features of QCD Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Light-Front Holography, Color Confinement, and ...

  5. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  6. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  7. Comparison between a propane-air combustion front and a helium-air simulated combustion front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barraclough, S.

    1983-12-01

    Turbulent combustion experiments were performed in a right cylindrical combustion bomb using a premixed propane-air gaseous fuel. The initial conditions inside the combustion chamber were three psig and room temperature. Prior to spark firing, the turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber was measured and could be varied over a ten fold range. The effect of initial turbulence intensity on turbulent flame propagation was investigated. Two regimes of turbulent combustion were identified, which is in agreement with a previous investigator's results. One of them, a ''transition regime'' occurs when the turbulence intensity is approximately twice the laminar flame speed. Within the transition regime, the turbulent burning speed is linearly proportional to initial turbulence intensity and independent of laminar flame speed and turbulence length scale. A high pressure helium front was injected into the combustion chamber to simulate the combustion front. Since the helium front is isothermal, hot-wire anemometry can be used to quantify the change in turbulence intensity ahead of the propagating front. The helium front was found to have different characteristics than the combustion front.

  8. Pentan isomers compound flame front structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansurov, Z.A.; Mironenko, A.W.; Bodikov, D.U.; Rachmetkaliev, K.N.

    1995-08-13

    The fuels (hexane, pentane, diethyl ether) and conditions investigated in this study are relevant to engine knock in spark- ignition engines. A review is provided of the field of low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. Studies were made of radical and stable intermediate distribution in the front of cool flames: Maximum concentrations of H atoms and peroxy radicals were observed in the luminous zone of the cool flame front. Peroxy radicals appear before the luminous zone at 430 K due to diffusion. H atoms were found in cool flames of butane and hexane. H atoms diffuses from the luminous zone to the side of the fresh mixture, and they penetrate into the fresh mixture to a small depth. Extension of action sphear of peroxy radicals in the fresh mixture is much greater than that of H atoms due to their small activity and high concentrations.

  9. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  10. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  11. Front lighted shadowgraphic method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, William J.

    1985-02-26

    High contrast silhouette images of a substantially opaque object are obtained using front illumination techniques. The object is frontally illuminated by light of a first polarization. A frontal surface of the object reflects the incident light to an observation station. The polarization of incident light bypassing the object and incident on a background is changed. The background light is reflected to the observation station, and the intensity of one of the two, differently polarized, reflected images is substantially reduced with respect to the other. Apparatus for carrying out the method includes a first polarizer for polarizing frontally incident illuminating light, a second polarizer behind the object and a reflective surface behind the second polarizer. A polarization analyzer, located in front of the object, is used to extinguish one of the two reflected images. Apparatus for carrying out the invention in instruments having a polarized light source and a polarization analyzer includes a combination of a polarizing material, for contacting a rear surface of the object, and a reflective surface provided adjacent the rear surface of the polarizing material. The combination is applied to the rear surface of the object. Back-surface mirrors of pleochroic substrates applied to thin film physical vapor deposited electronic circuit elements enable front lighted shadowgraphic imaging of the elements.

  12. Kinetic information from detonation front curvature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-15

    The time constants for time-dependent modeling may be estimated from reaction zone lengths, which are obtained from two sources One is detonation front curvature, where the edge lag is close to being a direct measure The other is the Size Effect, where the detonation velocity decreases with decreasing radius as energy is lost to the cylinder edge A simple theory that interlocks the two effects is given A differential equation for energy flow in the front is used, the front is described by quadratic and sixth-power radius terms The quadratic curvature comes from a constant power source of energy moving sideways to the walls Near the walls, the this energy rises to the total energy of detonation and produces the sixth-power term The presence of defects acting on a short reaction zone can eliminate the quadratic part while leaving the wall portion of the cuvature A collection of TNT data shows that the reaction zone increases with both the radius and the void fraction

  13. Front-end Nuclear Facilities (2008) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Front-end Nuclear Facilities (2008) Front-end Nuclear Facilities (2008) Front-end Nuclear Facilities (2008) (399.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Nuclear Power Facilities (2008) Financial Institution Partnership Program - Commercial Technology Renewable Energy Generation Projects Issued: October 7, 2009 Transmission Infrastructure Investment Projects (2009)

  14. Novel Perspectives from Light-Front QCD, Super-Conformal Algebra, and Light-Front Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-12-01

    Light-Front Quantization – Dirac’s “Front Form” – provides a physical, frame-independent formalism for hadron dynamics and structure. Observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes are defined from the hadronic LFWFs. One obtains new insights into the hadronic mass scale, the hadronic spectrum, and the functional form of the QCD running coupling in the nonperturbative domain using light-front holography. In addition, superconformal algebra leads to remarkable supersymmetric relations between mesons and baryons. I also discuss evidence that the antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is nonuniversal; i.e., flavor dependent, and why shadowing and antishadowing phenomena may be incompatible with the momentum and other sum rules for the nuclear parton distribution functions.

  15. Light front NJL model at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, S.; Beyer, M.; Mattiello, S.

    2005-06-14

    We investigate the properties of qq and qq-bar states in hot and dense quark matter in the framework of light-front finite temperature field theory. Presently we consider the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and derive the gap equation at finite temperature and density. We study pionic and scalar diquark dynamics in quark matter and compute the two-body masses and the Mott dissociation using a t-matrix approach. For the scalar diquark we determine the critical temperature of color superconductivity.

  16. Home Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Your choice of heating technologies impacts your energy bill. Learn about the different options for heating your home.

  17. Light-Front Holography, Light-Front Wavefunctions, and Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    Light-Front Holography is one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In spite of its present limitations it provides important physical insights into the nonperturbative regime of QCD and its transition to the perturbative domain. This novel framework allows hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The model leads to an effective confining light-front QCD Hamiltonian and a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound-state wavefunctions, and thus the fall-off as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The soft-wall holographic model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics - a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryons. The model predicts a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number n. The hadron eigensolutions projected on the free Fock basis provides the complete set of valence and non-valence light-front Fock state wavefunctions {Psi}{sub n/H} (x{sub i}, k{sub {perpendicular}i}, {lambda}{sub i}) which describe the hadron's momentum and spin distributions needed to compute the direct measures of hadron structure at the quark and gluon level, such as elastic and transition form factors, distribution amplitudes, structure functions, generalized parton distributions and transverse

  18. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, W.J.

    1983-06-30

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument.

  19. Strengthening the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractors | Department of Energy the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for Contractors Strengthening the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for Contractors Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Strengthening the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for Contractors, call slides and discussion summary. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (2.11 MB) More Documents & Publications Staged Upgrades -

  20. Heat pump apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  1. Strengthening the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for Contractors Strengthening the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for Contractors Better Buildings ...

  2. Front contact solar cell with formed electrically conducting layers on the front side and backside

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-06-26

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by a silicon substrate and a first doped layer of a first dopant type on the backside of the solar cell. A second doped layer of a second dopant type makes an electrical connection to the substrate from the front side of the solar cell. A first metal contact of a first electrical polarity electrically connects to the first doped layer on the backside of the solar cell, and a second metal contact of a second electrical polarity electrically connects to the second doped layer on the front side of the solar cell. An external electrical circuit may be electrically connected to the first and second metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell.

  3. Predictions of VRF on a Langmuir Probe under the RF Heating Spiral on the Divertor Floor on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosea, J C; Perkins, R J; Jaworski, M A; Kramer, G J; Ahn, J-W

    2014-07-01

    RF heating deposition spirals are observed on the divertor plates on NSTX as shown in for a NB plus RF heating case. It has been shown that the RF spiral is tracked quite well by the spiral mapping of the strike points on the divertor plate of magnetic field lines passing in front of the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) antenna on NSTX. Indeed, both current instrumented tiles and Langmuir probes respond to the spiral when it is positioned over them. In particular, a positive increment in tile current (collection of electrons) is obtained when the spiral is over the tile. This current can be due to RF rectification and/or RF heating of the scrape off layer (SOL) plasma along the magnetic field lines passing in front of the the HHFW antenna. It is important to determine quantitatively the relative contributions of these processes. Here we explore the properties of the characteristics of probes on the lower divertor plate to determine the likelyhood that the primary cause of the RF heat deposition is RF rectification.

  4. THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2 FLARE, RIBBONS, CORONAL FRONT, AND MASS EJECTION: INTERPRETING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWS FROM THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO GUIDED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLUX-ROPE MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Pariat, Etienne; Delannee, Cecile E-mail: title@lmsal.com E-mail: etienne.pariat@obspm.fr

    2011-09-10

    The 2011 February 15 X2.2 flare and associated Earth-directed halo coronal mass ejection were observed in unprecedented detail with high resolution in spatial, temporal, and thermal dimensions by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, as well as by instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft, then at near-quadrature relative to the Sun-Earth line. These observations enable us to see expanding loops from a flux-rope-like structure over the shearing polarity-inversion line between the central {delta}-spot groups of AR 11158, developing a propagating coronal front ('EIT wave'), and eventually forming the coronal mass ejection moving into the inner heliosphere. The observations support the interpretation that all of these features, including the 'EIT wave', are signatures of an expanding volume traced by loops (much larger than the flux rope only), surrounded by a moving front rather than predominantly wave-like perturbations; this interpretation is supported by previously published MHD models for active-region and global scales. The lateral expansion of the eruption is limited to the local helmet-streamer structure and halts at the edges of a large-scale domain of connectivity (in the process exciting loop oscillations at the edge of the southern polar coronal hole). The AIA observations reveal that plasma warming occurs within the expansion front as it propagates over quiet Sun areas. This warming causes dimming in the 171 A (Fe IX and Fe X) channel and brightening in the 193 and 211 A (Fe XII-XIV) channels along the entire front, while there is weak 131 A (Fe VIII and Fe XXI) emission in some directions. An analysis of the AIA response functions shows that sections of the front running over the quiet Sun are consistent with adiabatic warming; other sections may require additional heating which MHD modeling suggests could be caused by Joule dissipation. Although for the events studied here the effects of volumetric expansion are much

  5. Front lighted optical tooling method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, William J.

    1985-06-18

    An optical tooling method and apparatus uses a front lighted shadowgraphic technique to enhance visual contrast of reflected light. The apparatus includes an optical assembly including a fiducial mark, such as cross hairs, reflecting polarized light with a first polarization, a polarizing element backing the fiducial mark and a reflective surface backing the polarizing element for reflecting polarized light bypassing the fiducial mark and traveling through the polarizing element. The light reflected by the reflecting surface is directed through a second pass of the polarizing element toward the frontal direction with a polarization differing from the polarization of the light reflected by the fiducial mark. When used as a tooling target, the optical assembly may be mounted directly to a reference surface or may be secured in a mounting, such as a magnetic mounting. The optical assembly may also be mounted in a plane defining structure and used as a spherometer in conjunction with an optical depth measuring instrument. A method of measuring a radius of curvature of an unknown surface includes positioning the spherometer on a surface between the surface and a depth measuring optical instrument. As the spherometer is frontally illuminated, the distance from the depth measuring instrument to the fiducial mark and the underlying surface are alternately measured and the difference in these measurements is used as the sagittal height to calculate a radius of curvature.

  6. Solar heating panel arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, M.K.

    1983-07-12

    A solar heating panel arrangement and method are disclosed wherein a plurality of spherical lenses transmit and focus solar radiation onto the upper surface of a fluid passage for various relative positions of the sun. The upper surface of the passage is in heat transfer proximity to the fluid therein, causing solar radiation focused thereon to be transferred to the fluid in the form of heat. Solar radiation not directly incident on the lenses may be reflected onto them to increase the amount of solar energy available for transfer to the fluid. A supplementary insulating flow of fluid may also be provided above the passage to absorb heat passing upwardly therefrom and retain the heat within the system.

  7. Stirling engine heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.N.; Houtman, W.H.; Percival, W.H.

    1988-06-28

    A hot gas engine is described wherein a working gas flows back and forth in a closed path between a relatively cooler compression cylinder side of the engine and a relatively hotter expansion cylinder side of the engine and the path contains means including a heat source and a heat sink acting upon the gas in cooperation with the compression and expansion cylinders to cause the gas to execute a thermodynamic cycle wherein useful mechanical output power is developed by the engine, the improvement in the heat source which comprises a plurality of individual tubes each forming a portion of the closed path for the working gas.

  8. Electron g-2 in Light-front Quantization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2014-10-01

    Basis Light-front Quantization has been proposed as a nonperturbative framework for solving quantum field theory. We apply this approach to Quantum Electrodynamics and explicitly solve for the light-front wave function of a physical electron. Based on the resulting light-front wave function, we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. Nonperturbative mass renormalization is performed. Upon extrapolation to the infinite basis limit our numerical results agree with the Schwinger result obtained in perturbation theory to an accuracy of 0.06%.

  9. Nonlinear heat-release/acoustic model for thermoacoustic instability in lean premixed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peracchio, A.A.; Proscia, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Lean premixed combustors, such as those used in industrial gas turbines to achieve low emissions, are often susceptible to thermoacoustic combustion instabilities, which manifest themselves as pressure and heat release oscillations in the combustor. These oscillations can result in increased noise and decreased durability due to vibration and flame motion. A physically based nonlinear parametric model has been developed that captures this instability. It describes the coupling of combustor acoustics with the rate of heat release. The model represents this coupling by accounting for the effect of acoustic pressure fluctuations on the varying fuel/air ratio being delivered to the flame, causing a fluctuating heat release due to both fuel air ratio variations and flame front oscillations. If the phasing of the fluctuating heat release and pressure are proper, an instability results that grows into a limit cycle. The nonlinear nature of the model predicts the onset of the instability and additionally captures the resulting limit cycle. Tests of a lean premixed nozzle at engine scale and engine operating conditions in the UTRC single nozzle rig, conducted under DARPA contract, exhibited instabilities. Parameters from the model were adjusted so that analytical results were consistent with relevant experimental data from this test. The parametric model captures the limit cycle behavior over a range of mean fuel air ratios, showing the instability amplitude (pressure and heat release) to increase and limit cycle frequency to decrease as mean fuel air ratio is reduced.

  10. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  11. Light-Front Holography, Color Confinement, and Supersymmetric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: arXiv:1601.06328; Conference: Invited paper Theory and Experiment for Hadrons on the Light-Front (Light Cone 2015), 21-25 Sep 2015. Frascati, Italy ...

  12. Front-end utility rate updates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Front-end utility rate updates Home > Groups > Utility Rate Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 13 February, 2013 - 14:28 Utility Rates A few utility rate...

  13. Advanced integrated safeguards using front-end-triggering devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, J.A.; Whitty, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses potential uses of front-end-triggering devices for enhanced safeguards. Such systems incorporate video surveillance as well as radiation and other sensors. Also covered in the report are integration issues and analysis techniques.

  14. Dissolving the mineral calcite: Reaction front instability | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory calcite: Reaction front instability Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Using the X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope powered by the Advanced Photon Source, researchers can both watch and drive the nanoscale changes of the surface of a calcite mineral as it dissolves in real-time. In this image, researchers observe distortions in the reaction front (the boundary between the blue and red regions)

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  20. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  1. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  2. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Wayland, Jr., James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  3. Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

  4. Light-front holographic QCD and emerging confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Erlich, Joshua

    2015-05-21

    In this study we explore the remarkable connections between light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to gravity in a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and conformal quantum mechanics. This approach provides new insights into the origin of a fundamental mass scale and the physics underlying confinement dynamics in QCD in the limit of massless quarks. The result is a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin with an effective confinement potential derived from a conformal action and its embedding in AdS space. This equation allows for the computation of essential features of hadron spectra in terms of a single scale. The light-front holographic methods described here give a precise interpretation of holographic variables and quantities in AdS space in terms of light-front variables and quantum numbers. This leads to a relation between the AdS wave functions and the boost-invariant light-front wave functions describing the internal structure of hadronic bound-states in physical spacetime. The pion is massless in the chiral limit and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states lie on linear Regge trajectories with identical slopes in the radial and orbital quantum numbers. In the light-front holographic approach described here currents are expressed as an infinite sum of poles, and form factors as a product of poles. At large q2 the form factor incorporates the correct power-law fall-off for hard scattering independent of the specific dynamics and is dictated by the twist. At low q2 the form factor leads to vector dominance. The approach is also extended to include small quark masses. We briefly review in this report other holographic approaches to QCD, in particular top-down and bottom-up models based on chiral symmetry breaking. We also include a discussion of open problems and future applications.

  5. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  6. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  7. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  8. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  9. On the propagation of a coupled saturation and pressure front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid for a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity, I derive an expression for the velocity of a propagating, coupled saturation and pressure front. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the velocity of the propagating front depends upon the magnitude of the saturation and pressure changes across the front in addition to the properties of the medium. Thus, the expression must be evaluated in conjunction with numerical reservoir simulation. The propagation of the two-phase front is governed by the background saturation distribution, the saturation-dependent component of the fluid mobility, the porosity, the permeability, the capillary pressure function, the medium compressibility, and the ratio of the slopes of the relative permeability curves. Numerical simulation of water injection into a porous layer saturated with a nonaqueous phase liquid indicates that two modes of propagation are important. The fastest mode of propagation is a pressure-dominated disturbance that travels through the saturated layer. This is followed, much later, by a coupled mode with a large saturation change. These two modes are also observed in a simulation using a heterogeneous porous layer. A comparison between the propagation times estimated from the results of the numerical simulation and predictions from the asymptotic expression indicates overall agreement.

  10. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  11. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  12. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  14. Study of heat flux induced dryout in capillary grooves. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1992-12-01

    This is an experimental study of ethanol flowing in the narrow grooves of a copper plate which is subjected to heat fluxes sufficient to evaporate more liquid than can be replaced by capillary pumping. Three groove geometries are used: square, rectangle, and trapezoid. The objective is to simulate aspects of liquid flow in heat pipes with axial grooves. In order to validate analytical models of capillary flow in grooves, the capillary limit, dryout front location, and dryout front movement in response to power draw downs are documented. The results show the rewet performance of the groove is dependent on geometry. Grooves of higher heat transfer capacity can be poor for recovering from dryout, like the trapezoidal groove. Comparisons of the theoretical maximum heat transfer with the data are good for the square and rectangle, but overestimate the value for the trapezoid. No theory sufficiently predicted the location of the dryout front for the three geometries. For both a quiescent dryout front and a boiling dryout front, the theory does not utilize an accurate description of the geometry of the liquid front which is critical for determining the capillary pressure difference.

  15. Heat exchanger for power generation equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

    2005-06-14

    A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

  16. Light-front holographic QCD and emerging confinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Erlich, Joshua

    2015-05-21

    In this study we explore the remarkable connections between light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to gravity in a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and conformal quantum mechanics. This approach provides new insights into the origin of a fundamental mass scale and the physics underlying confinement dynamics in QCD in the limit of massless quarks. The result is a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin with an effective confinement potential derived from a conformal action and its embedding in AdS space. This equation allows for the computation of essential features of hadron spectra in terms of a single scale. Themore » light-front holographic methods described here give a precise interpretation of holographic variables and quantities in AdS space in terms of light-front variables and quantum numbers. This leads to a relation between the AdS wave functions and the boost-invariant light-front wave functions describing the internal structure of hadronic bound-states in physical spacetime. The pion is massless in the chiral limit and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states lie on linear Regge trajectories with identical slopes in the radial and orbital quantum numbers. In the light-front holographic approach described here currents are expressed as an infinite sum of poles, and form factors as a product of poles. At large q2 the form factor incorporates the correct power-law fall-off for hard scattering independent of the specific dynamics and is dictated by the twist. At low q2 the form factor leads to vector dominance. The approach is also extended to include small quark masses. We briefly review in this report other holographic approaches to QCD, in particular top-down and bottom-up models based on chiral symmetry breaking. We also include a discussion of open problems and future applications.« less

  17. Heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, V. J.

    1981-02-10

    A solar energy heating apparatus is described comprising means for concentrating solar energy incident thereon at an absorption station, an absorber located at the said absorption station for absorbing solar energy concentrated thereat, a first passageway associated with the said energy concentrating means for directing fluid so as to be preheated by the proportion of the incident energy absorbed by the said means, a second passageway associated with the absorber for effecting principal heating of fluid directed therethrough. The second passageway is such that on directing fluid through the first passageway it is initially preheated by the proportion of the incident energy absorbed by the energy concentrating means, the preheated fluid thereafter being directed to the second passageway where the principal heating takes place.

  18. Physics design of front ends for superconducting ion linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostroumov, P.N.; Carneiro, J.-P.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting (SC) technology is the only option for CW linacs and is also an attractive option for pulsed linacs. SC cavities are routinely used for proton and H{sup -} beam acceleration above 185 MeV. Successful development of SC cavities covering the lower velocity range (down to 0.03c) is a very strong basis for the application of SC structures in the front ends of high energy linacs. Lattice design and related high-intensity beam physics issues in a {approx}400 MeV linac that uses SC cavities will be presented in this talk. In particular, axially-symmetric focusing by SC solenoids provides strong control of beam space charge and a compact focusing lattice. As an example, we discuss the SC front end of the H{sup -} linac for the FNAL Proton Driver.

  19. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  20. At Plasma Camp, teachers experience research front and center | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab At Plasma Camp, teachers experience research front and center By Constance Kaita August 12, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Wendy Dlakic, a physics and earth science teacher from Livingston, Mont., examines a plasma with Nick Guilbert, a master teacher and collaborator from The Peddie School, at this year's Plasma Camp for physics teachers at PPPL from July 15 to 19. (Photo by Photo by Elle Starkman/ PPPL Office of Communications) Wendy Dlakic, a

  1. Formation mechanism of steep wave front in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, M. Kasuya, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Kobayashi, T.; Arakawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Fukunaga, K.; Yamada, T.; Yagi, M.

    2015-03-15

    Bifurcation from a streamer to a solitary drift wave is obtained in three dimensional simulation of resistive drift waves in cylindrical plasmas. The solitary drift wave is observed in the regime where the collisional transport is important as well as fluctuation induced transport. The solitary drift wave forms a steep wave front in the azimuthal direction. The phase of higher harmonic modes are locked to that of the fundamental mode, so that the steep wave front is sustained for a long time compared to the typical time scale of the drift wave oscillation. The phase entrainment between the fundamental and second harmonic modes is studied, and the azimuthal structure of the stationary solution is found to be characterized by a parameter which is determined by the deviation of the fluctuations from the Boltzmann relation. There are two solutions of the azimuthal structures, which have steep wave front facing forward and backward in the wave propagation direction, respectively. The selection criterion of these solutions is derived theoretically from the stability of the phase entrainment. The simulation result and experimental observations are found to be consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  2. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  3. Energy absorber for sodium-heated heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-12-01

    A heat exchanger is described in which water-carrying tubes are heated by liquid sodium and in which the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes is minimized. An energy absorbing chamber contains a compressible gas and is connected to the body of flowing sodium by a channel so that, in the event of a sodium-water reaction, products of the reaction will partially fill the energy absorbing chamber to attenuate the rise in pressure within the heat exchanger.

  4. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front...

  5. STIP 2.0 Static Content for Front Page Body | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Static Content for Front Page Body STIP 2.0 Static Content for Front Page Body My Profile Create Review OSTI.Gov Newsletter - April-May 2016 Issue 15 OSTIblog: Thorium - An ...

  6. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  7. Home Front Inc.: Hot, Humid Climate Region 40+% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-13

    This case study describes a model prototype home kit that is efficient and affordable and includes high-performance mechanical systems, HVAC, and solar water heating.

  8. Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Addthis Description Below is the text version for Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers. Text Version The video opens with a shot of a research laboratory, with scientists talking and working in front of a row of electronics. Ayyoub Momen-Oak Ridge Staff Scientist This is going to be a game-changing technology. Viral Patel-Post Doctoral Research Associate Just the name sounds amazing: ultrasonic

  9. What Causes Electron Heat Loss in Fusion Plasma?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Solar Do for You What Can Solar Do for You October 28, 2014 - 1:28pm Addthis Solar energy benefits homeowners, the job market, and the planet. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Lab Solar energy benefits homeowners, the job market, and the planet. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Lab Paige Terlip Paige Terlip Former Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory What does this mean for me? Using solar energy at home can help you

  10. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  11. Meson Transition Form Factors in Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Cao, Fu-Guang; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2011-06-22

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction P{sub q{bar q}} = 0.5 is required; thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wavefunction need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks (anti-quarks) which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements, P{sub q{bar q}q{bar q}} {approx} 10%, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wavefunction. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} TFFs.

  12. Instrument Front-Ends at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Thomas; Slimmer, David; Voy, Duane; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The optimization of an accelerator relies on the ability to monitor the behavior of the beam in an intelligent and timely fashion. The use of processor-driven front-ends allowed for the deployment of smart systems in the field for improved data collection and analysis during Run II. This paper describes the implementation of the two main systems used: National Instruments LabVIEW running on PCs, and WindRiver's VxWorks real-time operating system running in a VME crate processor.

  13. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  14. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  15. ARM - Human Causes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Human Causes Some of the human activities which can cause ...

  16. Shape-shifting groups of nanorods release heat differently |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shape-shifting groups of nanorods release heat differently By Justin H.S. Breaux * ... of the transfer of heat at the nanoscale cause nanoparticles to change shape in ensembles. ...

  17. Heat transfer and heat exchangers reference handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with an understanding of the basic concepts of heat transfer and the operation of heat exchangers.

  18. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  19. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  20. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  1. Heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  2. Root cause outline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Signature page ... Error Bookmark not defined. Appendix A Capital Allocation Board Quarterly Status Reports Appendix B Root Cause Analysis...

  3. Heat pipe methanator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  4. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a low smolder to avoid overheating, which wastes fuel and is one of the biggest causes of air pollution. An under-sized unit will not provide sufficient heat. You should discuss...

  5. SHOCK HEATING OF THE MERGING GALAXY CLUSTER A521

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-02-10

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 {+-} 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  6. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  7. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  8. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  9. Meson transition form factors in light-front holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Cao Fuguang; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2011-10-01

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M}{gamma}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}{sup *}{yields}M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, is required to describe the anomalous coupling of mesons to photons using holographic methods and leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the qq component of the pion wave function, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the qq component of the pion wave function P{sub qq}=0.5 is required, thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wave function need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks P{sub qqqq}{approx}10%, which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements for a dressed current model, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wave function. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} TFFs.

  10. Bound state calculations in QED and QCD using basis light-front

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quantization | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Bound state calculations in QED and QCD using basis light-front quantization Authors: Pieter Maris, Paul Wiecki, Yang Li, Xingbo Zhao, James P. Vary In order to describe self-bound systems, one needs a nonperturbative approach. We discuss the relativistic bound state equations of QED and QCD formulated in Basis Light-Front Quantization. In this approach, the light-front direction is discretized, and two-dimensional harmonic oscillator

  11. Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing of Incompressible Viscous Fluids with Interfacial Tension in Solvent Extraction Citation Details In-Document Search...

  12. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  13. Solar heating panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellsworth, R.L.

    1983-01-18

    A solar heating panel for collecting solar heat energy and method for making same having a heat insulative substrate with a multiplicity of grooves and structural supporting ribs formed therein covered by a thin, flexible heat conductive film to form fluid conducting channels which in turn are connected to manifolds from which fluid is directed into the channels and heated fluid is removed therefrom.

  14. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  15. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  18. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  19. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  20. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  1. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  2. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) (3.31 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical ...

  3. Silicon Solar Cells with Front Hetero-contact and Aluminum Alloy Back Junction (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.-C.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.; Branz, H. M.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this report are: (1) to apply industrial back Al process in efficient n-wafer cells with a-Si:H front surface passivation; and (2) to evaluate the surface recombination velocity (SRV) of the a-Si:H passivated front surface with different surface preparation procedures.

  4. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  5. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-08-21

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described.

  6. Inhibition of slug front corrosion in multiphase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.J.; Jepson, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion at the slug front at the bottom of a pipeline is identified as one of the worst cases of corrosion occurring in the pipeline which carries unprocessed multiphase production with a high level of CO{sub 2} gas. One objective of the study in recommending a subsea completion to shore was to determine if commercial corrosion inhibitors can control this type of corrosion using carbon steel pipeline. Thus, inhibitors which showed excellent performance in the lab using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode system (RCE) were further evaluated to confirm their performance in a flow loop simulating the test conditions predicted from the flow modeling for the proposed pipeline. The performance profile of two commercial inhibitors were determined in a 4 in. flow loop at 7O C, 100 psig CO{sub 2} partial pressure in corrosive brines with or without ethylene glycol and/or light hydrocarbon. Results showed that the carbon steel pipeline could be adequately protected at low temperature using a commercial corrosion inhibitor to meet the designed life of the pipeline. Ethylene glycol, which is used in the pipeline to prevent hydrate formation, reduces the corrosivity of the brine and gives no effect on inhibitor performance under the slug flow conditions. A good agreement in inhibitor performance was observed between the flow loop and the RCE testing. The uninhibited corrosion rate of the test brine in this study is in good agreement with the predicted value using deWaard and Williams correlation for CO{sub 2} corrosion.

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  10. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. ... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery ......

  11. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    among the most effcient and comfortable heating and cooling technologies available because they use the earth's natural heat to provide heating, cooling, and often, water heating. ...

  12. Electromagnetic energy conversion in downstream fronts from three dimensional kinetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapenta, Giovanni [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)] [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Goldman, Martin; Newman, David [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States); Markidis, Stefano [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Divin, Andrey [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-05-15

    The electromagnetic energy equation is analyzed term by term in a 3D simulation of kinetic reconnection previously reported by Vapirev et al. [J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 118, 1435 (2013)]. The evolution presents the usual 2D-like topological structures caused by an initial perturbation independent of the third dimension. However, downstream of the reconnection site, where the jetting plasma encounters the yet unperturbed pre-existing plasma, a downstream front is formed and made unstable by the strong density gradient and the unfavorable local acceleration field. The energy exchange between plasma and fields is most intense at the instability, reaching several pW/m{sup 3}, alternating between load (energy going from fields to particles) and generator (energy going from particles to fields) regions. Energy exchange is instead purely that of a load at the reconnection site itself in a region focused around the x-line and elongated along the separatrix surfaces. Poynting fluxes are generated at all energy exchange regions and travel away from the reconnection site transporting an energy signal of the order of about S?10{sup ?3}W/m{sup 2}.

  13. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  14. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  15. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  16. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  17. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-05-05

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  18. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  19. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  20. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  1. THE PROPERTIES OF X-RAY COLD FRONTS IN A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF SIMULATED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallman, Eric J.; Skillman, Samuel W.; Smith, Britton D.; Burns, Jack O.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Norman, Michael L.

    2010-12-10

    We examine the incidence of cold fronts in a large sample of galaxy clusters extracted from a (512 h {sup -1} Mpc) hydrodynamic/N-body cosmological simulation with adiabatic gas physics computed with the Enzo adaptive mesh refinement code. This simulation contains a sample of roughly 4000 galaxy clusters with M {>=}10{sup 14} M{sub sun} at z = 0. For each simulated galaxy cluster, we have created mock 0.3-8.0 keV X-ray observations and spectroscopic-like temperature maps. We have searched these maps with a new automated algorithm to identify the presence of cold fronts in projection. Using a threshold of a minimum of 10 cold front pixels in our images, corresponding to a total comoving length L{sub cf}>156 h {sup -1} kpc, we find that roughly 10%-12% of all projections in a mass-limited sample would be classified as cold front clusters. Interestingly, the fraction of clusters with extended cold front features in our synthetic maps of a mass-limited sample trends only weakly with redshift out to z = 1.0. However, when using different selection functions, including a simulated flux limit, the trending with redshift changes significantly. The likelihood of finding cold fronts in the simulated clusters in our sample is a strong function of cluster mass. In clusters with M>7.5 x 10{sup 14} M{sub sun} the cold front fraction is 40%-50%. We also show that the presence of cold fronts is strongly correlated with disturbed morphology as measured by quantitative structure measures. Finally, we find that the incidence of cold fronts in the simulated cluster images is strongly dependent on baryonic physics.

  2. Travelling fronts of the CO oxidation on Pd(111) with coverage-dependent diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisternas, Jaime, E-mail: jecisternas@miuandes.cl [Facultad de Ingeniera y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Monseor Alvaro del Portillo 12455, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Karpitschka, Stefan [Physics of Fluids, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Wehner, Stefan [Institut fr Integrierte Naturwissenschaften - Physik, Universitt Koblenz-Landau, 56070 Koblenz (Germany)

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study a surface reaction on Pd(111) crystals under ultra-high-vacuum conditions that can be modeled by two coupled reaction-diffusion equations. In the bistable regime, the reaction exhibits travelling fronts that can be observed experimentally using photo electron emission microscopy. The spatial profile of the fronts reveals a coverage-dependent diffusivity for one of the species. We propose a method to solve the nonlinear eigenvalue problem and compute the direction and the speed of the fronts based on a geometrical construction in phase-space. This method successfully captures the dependence of the speed on control parameters and diffusivities.

  3. Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We apply the Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ) approach to the Hamiltonian field theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in free space. We solve for the mass eigenstates corresponding to an electron interacting with a single photon in light-front gauge. Based on the resulting non-perturbative ground state light-front amplitude we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The numerical results from extrapolating to the infinite basis limit reproduce the perturbative Schwinger result with relative deviation less than 1.2%. We report significant improvements over previous works including the development of analytic methods for evaluating the vertex matrix elements of QED.

  4. DOE Offers Conditional Loan Guarantee for Front End Nuclear Facility in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idaho | Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Front End Nuclear Facility in Idaho DOE Offers Conditional Loan Guarantee for Front End Nuclear Facility in Idaho May 20, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - As part of a broad effort to expand the use of nuclear power in the United States and reduce carbon pollution, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced today the Department's first conditional commitment for a front-end nuclear facility. The $2 billion loan guarantee will support

  5. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems This presentation covers typical sources of waste heat from process heating equipment, characteristics of waste heat streams, and options for recovery including Combined Heat and Power. Waste Heat Management Options for Improving Industrial Process Heating Systems (August 20, 2009) (494.7 KB) More

  6. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  7. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP; Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.;...

  8. STIP 2.0 Static Content for Front Page Body | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Static Content for Front Page Body What is STIP? The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP) is a collaboration from across the DOE ...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by USAMP at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about magnesium-intensive front end sub...

  10. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  11. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  12. Heat transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  13. 1980s Forging Partnerships on the Information Front | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information 80s Forging Partnerships on the Information Front 1980s Forging Partnerships on the Information Front Back to history 1980 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Databank signed for the exchange of computer codes 1981 Bilateral MOUs began with other countries to exchange non-nuclear information 1981 Department of Energy Panel on International Scientific and Technical Information (STI) concluded that foreign

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  15. Fusion heating technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, A.J.

    1982-06-01

    John Lawson established the criterion that in order to produce more energy from fusion than is necessary to heat the plasma and replenish the radiation losses, a minimum value for both the product of plasma density and confinement time t, and the temperature must be achieved. There are two types of plasma heating: neutral beam and electromagnetic wave heating. A neutral beam system is shown. Main development work on negative ion beamlines has focused on the difficult problem of the production of high current sources. The development of a 30 keV-1 ampere multisecond source module is close to being accomplished. In electromagnetic heating, the launcher, which provides the means of coupling the power to the plasma, is most important. The status of heating development is reviewed. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), lower hybrid heating (HHH), and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are reviewed.

  16. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  17. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Atmospheric Heat Budget shows where the atmospheric heat energy comes from and where it goes. Practically all this energy ultimately comes from the sun in the form of the ...

  18. ARM - Heat Index Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Heat Index Calculations Heat Index is an index that ...

  19. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, ... limit of s &29; 1, RR assumed the electron heat flux to be diffusive, obeying Fourier's ...

  20. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Heat Checking and ...

  1. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  2. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  3. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  4. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  5. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  6. MA HEAT Loan Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents information on the success of Massachusetts's HEAT loan offerings and how the financing tool is funded.

  7. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.6 cents from a week ago to $2.97 per gallon. That's down $1.05 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.94 per gallon, down 6.7 cents from last week, and down $1.07

  8. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 6.3 cents from a week ago to $2.91 per gallon. That's down $1.10 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.88 per gallon, down 6.8 cents from last week, and down $1.13

  9. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 7.5 cents from a week ago to $2.84 per gallon. That's down $1.22 from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.80 per gallon, down 7.4 cents from last week, and down $1.23

  10. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4.1 cents from a week ago to $2.89 per gallon, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $2.84 per gallon, down 5.4 cents from last week

  11. Residential heating oil price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heating oil price decreases The average retail price for home heating oil fell 3.6 cents from a week ago to $3.04 per gallon. That's down 99.4 cents from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region fell to $3.01 per gallon, down 3.6 cents from last week, and down $1.01

  12. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  13. State Heating Oil & Propane Program. Final report 1997/98 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunton, G.

    1998-06-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor`s Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1997/98 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program is funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used for water heating and cooking in areas of the state where natural gas is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity, and its perception as a clean heating fuel have all worked to increase the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold.

  14. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes have been investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat-pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces have been conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  15. Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - PRE-DECISIONAL - DRAFT 1 Waste Heat Recovery 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1. Introduction to Waste Heat Recovery .......................................................................................... 2 5 1.2. Challenges and Barriers for Waste Heat Recovery ..................................................................... 13 6 1.3. Public

  16. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  17. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  18. Characterization of Multicrystalline Silicon Modules with System Bias Voltage Applied in Damp Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Call, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-07-01

    As it is considered economically favorable to serially connect modules to build arrays with high system voltage, it is necessary to explore potential long-term degradation mechanisms the modules may incur under such electrical potential. We performed accelerated lifetime testing of multicrystalline silicon PV modules in 85 degrees C/ 85% relative humidity and 45 degrees C/ 30% relative humidity while placing the active layer in either positive or negative 600 V bias with respect to the grounded module frame. Negative bias applied to the active layer in some cases leads to more rapid and catastrophic module power degradation. This is associated with significant shunting of individual cells as indicated by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves. Mass spectroscopy results support ion migration as one of the causes. Electrolytic corrosion is seen occurring with the silicon nitride antireflective coating and silver gridlines, and there is ionic transport of metallization at the encapsulant interface observed with damp heat and applied bias. Leakage current and module degradation is found to be highly dependent upon the module construction, with factors such as encapsulant and front glass resistivity affecting performance. Measured leakage currents range from about the same seen in published reports of modules deployed in Florida (USA) and is accelerated to up to 100 times higher in the environmental chamber testing.

  19. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    defined as geothermal heat pump unit with all the necessary functional components, except for installation materials. These include geothermal heat pump, air handler, heat ...

  20. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for ...

  1. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  3. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.

  4. Heat recovery casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawn, J.

    1980-10-01

    Plants and factories could apply a great variety of sources and uses for valuable waste heat. Applications may be evaluated on the basis of real use for a specific waste heat, high-enough temperature and quality of work, and feasibility of mechanical heat transfer method. Classification may be by temperature, application, heat-transfer equipment, etc. Many buildings and industrial processes lend themselves well to heat-recovery strategies. Five case histories describe successful systems used by the Continental Corporation Data Center; Nabisco, Inc.; Kasper Foundry Company; Seven Up Bottling Company of Indiana; and Lehr Precision Tool company. (DCK)

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  6. AdS/QCD and Applications of Light-Front Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Cao, Fu-Guang; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    Light-Front Holography leads to a rigorous connection between hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in 3 + 1 physical space-time, thus providing a compelling physical interpretation of the AdS/CFT correspondence principle and AdS/QCD, a useful framework which describes the correspondence between theories in a modified AdS5 background and confining field theories in physical space-time. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this approach leads to a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time. The internal structure of hadrons is explicitly introduced and the angular momentum of the constituents plays a key role. We give an overview of the light-front holographic approach to strongly coupled QCD. In particular, we study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} M using light-front holographic methods. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}' mesons are also presented. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates. A method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level is outlined.

  7. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  8. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  9. Geothermal Heat Pump Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ARI-320 Water-Source Heat Pumps 10 ARI-325 Ground Water-Source Heat Pumps 13 ARI-330 Ground Source Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 11 ARI-870 Direct Geoexhange Heat Pumps 2 Other Non-ARI ...

  10. Design of the NSLS-II Linac Front End Test Stand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fliller III, R.; Johanson, M.; Lucas, M.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II operational parameters place very stringent requirements on the injection system. Among these are the charge per bunch train at low emittance that is required from the linac along with the uniformity of the charge per bunch along the train. The NSLS-II linac is a 200 MeV linac produced by Research Instruments Gmbh. Part of the strategy for understanding to operation of the injectors is to test the front end of the linac prior to its installation in the facility. The linac front end consists of a 100 kV electron gun, 500 MHz subharmonic prebuncher, focusing solenoids and a suite of diagnostics. The diagnostics in the front end need to be supplemented with an additional suite of diagnostics to fully characterize the beam. In this paper we discuss the design of a test stand to measure the various properties of the beam generated from this section. In particular, the test stand will measure the charge, transverse emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunching performance of the linac front end under all operating conditions of the front end.

  11. Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

  12. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  13. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  14. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1977-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  15. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  16. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  17. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Home Heating Systems Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  18. Thermal overinsulation and the behavior of hot water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casier, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Supported by thermodynamic calculations and field experience G.D.F. disproved the theory that because of their high warm-up/cooldown inertia, hot-water central heating systems are inefficient for insulated dwellings that have low thermal losses, causing overheating in certain situations. With the proper choice of thermostat, water temperature, and piping design, a heating system that uses water as the heat carrier can be responsive to the needs of a tightly insulated residence.

  19. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam Generation * Fluid Heating * Calcining * Drying * Heat Treating * Metal Heating * Metal and Non-metal Melting * Smelting, agglomeration etc. * Curing and Forming * Other Heating Waste heat is everywhere! Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc Arvind Thekdi, E3M Inc 3 Waste Heat Sources from Process Heating Equipment * Hot gases -

  20. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  1. Measures of the Environmental Footprint of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Carlsen; Emily Tavrides; Erich Schneider

    2010-08-01

    Previous estimates of environmental impacts associated with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle have focused primarily on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Results have varied widely. Section 2 of this report provides a summary of historical estimates. This study revises existing empirical correlations and their underlying assumptions to fit to a more complete set of existing data. This study also addresses land transformation, water withdrawals, and occupational and public health impacts associated with the processes of the front end of the once-through nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium mining, milling, refining, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication. Metrics are developed to allow environmental impacts to be summed across the full set of front end processes, including transportation and disposition of the resulting depleted uranium.

  2. Report on the value engineering workshop on APS beamline front ends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzay, T.

    1993-01-01

    A formal value engineering evaluation process was developed to address the front end components of the beamlines for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This process (described in Section 2) involved an information phase, a creative phase, a judgment phase, a development phase, and a recommendation phase. Technical experts from other national laboratories and industry were invited to a two-day Value Engineering Workshop on November 5-6, 1992. The results of this Workshop are described in Section 4. Following the Workshop, various actions by the APS staff led to the redesign of the front end components, which are presented in Sections 5 and 6. The cost benefit analysis is presented in Section 7. It is important of realize that an added benefit of the Workshop was to obtain numerous design evaluations and enhancements of the front end components by experts in the field. As the design work proceeds to Title II completion, the APS staff is including many of these suggestions.

  3. Hamiltonian Light-front Field Theory Within an AdS/QCD Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vary, J.P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, Jun; Maris, P.; Brodsky, S.J.; Harindranath, A.; de Teramond, G.F.; Sternberg, P.; Ng, E.G.; Yang, C.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-12-16

    Non-perturbative Hamiltonian light-front quantum field theory presents opportunities and challenges that bridge particle physics and nuclear physics. Fundamental theories, such as Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) offer the promise of great predictive power spanning phenomena on all scales from the microscopic to cosmic scales, but new tools that do not rely exclusively on perturbation theory are required to make connection from one scale to the next. We outline recent theoretical and computational progress to build these bridges and provide illustrative results for nuclear structure and quantum field theory. As our framework we choose light-front gauge and a basis function representation with two-dimensional harmonic oscillator basis for transverse modes that corresponds with eigensolutions of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model obtained from light-front holography.

  4. Hamiltonian Light-Front Ffield Theory in a Basis Function Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vary, J.P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, Jun; Maris, P.; Brodsky, S.J.; Harindranath, A.; de Teramond, G.F.; Sternberg, P.; Ng, E.G.; Yang, C.

    2009-05-15

    Hamiltonian light-front quantum field theory constitutes a framework for the non-perturbative solution of invariant masses and correlated parton amplitudes of self-bound systems. By choosing the light-front gauge and adopting a basis function representation, we obtain a large, sparse, Hamiltonian matrix for mass eigenstates of gauge theories that is solvable by adapting the ab initio no-core methods of nuclear many-body theory. Full covariance is recovered in the continuum limit, the infinite matrix limit. There is considerable freedom in the choice of the orthonormal and complete set of basis functions with convenience and convergence rates providing key considerations. Here, we use a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator basis for transverse modes that corresponds with eigensolutions of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model obtained from light-front holography. We outline our approach, present illustrative features of some non-interacting systems in a cavity and discuss the computational challenges.

  5. Parameters of a supersonic combustion chamber with organization of combustion at the flame front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solokhin, E.L.; Mironenko, V.A.; Ivanov, V.I.

    1985-10-25

    In some engineering problems, it is necessary to burn fuel in the combustion chamber with supersonic flow. As a rule, the scheme of organization of the process in such a chamber presupposes a separate accompanying feed of fuel and oxidant in which combustion of fuel takes place in a diffusion flame front. In this article we give theoretical results of investigation of a supersonic combustion chamber in which combustion of the fuel mixture takes place in a oblique flame front stabilized by an external source (analogous to the subsonic combustion chambers of ramjets). The possibility of the existence of such an oblique flame front in a supersonic flow of fuel mixture was previously proved experimentally.

  6. Apparatus and method for phase fronts based on superluminal polarization current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, John; Ardavan, Houshang; Ardavan, Arzhang

    2012-02-28

    An apparatus and method for a radiation source involving phase fronts emanating from an accelerated, oscillating polarization current whose distribution pattern moves superluminally (that is, faster than light in vacuo). Theoretical predictions and experimental measurements using an existing prototype superluminal source show that the phase fronts from such a source can be made to be very complex. Consequently, it will be very difficult for an aircraft imaged by such a radiation to detect where this radiation has come from. Moreover, the complexity of the phase fronts makes it almost impossible for electronics on an aircraft to synthesize a rogue reflection. A simple directional antenna and timing system should, on the other hand, be sufficient for the radar operators to locate the aircraft, given knowledge of their own source's speed and modulation pattern.

  7. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  8. Heat storage duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Both the amount and duration of heat storage in massive elements of a passive building are investigated. Data taken for one full winter in the Balcomb solar home are analyzed with the aid of sub-system simulation models. Heat storage duration is tallied into one-day intervals. Heat storage location is discussed and related to overall energy flows. The results are interpreted and conclusions drawn.

  9. Hydride heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  10. Geothermal Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Systems Geothermal Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Watch how geothermal heat ... As with any heat pump, geothermal and water-source heat pumps are able to heat, cool, and, ...

  11. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C.; Tokarz, Richard D.; Parry, Jr., Harvey L.; Braun, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  12. New Mexico Heat Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    This is an updated and simplified version of the New Mexico heat flow data already on the NGDS that was used for Play Fairway analysis.

  13. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  14. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12 1 18 (*) 2 1 Q 6 Buildings without Cooling ... 30 1 (*) 4 (*) 14 (*) 4 (*) 1 6 Water-Heating Energy Source Electricity ... 402 21 57 42...

  16. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Es HEATS program, short for High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage, seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  17. Wood and Pellet Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for an efficient, renewable way to heat your home? Wood or pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and pellet stoves are efficient heaters.

  18. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  19. Ductless Heat Pumps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  1. On the movement of a liquid front in an unsaturated, fractured porous medium, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J.J.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to present approximate analytical solutions of the fracture flow which gives the position of the liquid fracture front as a function of time. These solutions demonstrate that the liquid movement in the fracture can be classified into distinctive time periods, or flow regimes. It is also shown that when plotted versus time using a log-log scale, the liquid fracture front position asymptotically approaches a series of line segments. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run utilizing input data applicable to the densely welded, fractured tuff found at Yucca Mountain in order to confirm these observations. 19 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Improved Reliability of PV Modules with Lexan PC Sheet-Front Sheet, Noryl

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PPE Sheet-Back Sheet | Department of Energy Improved Reliability of PV Modules with Lexan PC Sheet-Front Sheet, Noryl PPE Sheet-Back Sheet Improved Reliability of PV Modules with Lexan PC Sheet-Front Sheet, Noryl PPE Sheet-Back Sheet Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps5_sabic_zhou.pdf (925.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Weathering Performance of PV Backsheets Hail Impact Testing on Crystalline Si Modules with Flexible

  3. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  4. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  5. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  6. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  7. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  8. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  9. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1 Combined Heat and Power overview ........................................................................................... 2 5 1.2 Benefits of CHP for the Nation ...................................................................................................... 4 6 1.3 Benefits of CHP for

  10. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  11. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  12. Geothermal Heat Pumps - Heating Mode | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Mode Geothermal Heat Pumps - Heating Mode In winter, fluid passing through this vertical, closed loop system is warmed by the heat of the earth; this heat is then transferred to the building. Heating Mode Animated Slide (PowerPoint 493 KB) Note: To view this animation in PowerPoint use 'Slide Show' mode. Simple illustration showing the transfer of heat from the ground to a building space to provide space heating. Simple illustration showing the transfer of heat from the ground to a

  13. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a Knudsen heat capacity as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  14. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  15. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  16. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  17. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Prototype Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, Ryan C.; Morris, Scott J.; Smith, Leon E.; Keller, Daniel T.

    2015-09-16

    The IAEA has requested that PNNL perform an initial set of tests on front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) prototypes. The FEUM prototype test plan details the tests to be performed, the criteria for evaluation, and the procedures used to execute the tests.

  18. Coherent States and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Light Front Scalar Field Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vary, J.P.; Chakrabarti, D.; Harindranath, A.; Lloyd, R.; Martinovic, L.; Spence, J.R.; /Iowa State U.

    2005-12-14

    Recently developed nuclear many-body techniques provide novel results when applied to constituent quark models and to light-front scalar field theory. We show how spontaneous symmetry breaking arises and is consistent with a coherent state ansatz in a variational treatment. The kink and the kink-antikink topological features are identified and the onset of symmetry restoration is demonstrated.

  19. Commissioning and Operation of the FNAL Front end Injection Line and Ion Sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karns, Patrick R.

    2015-09-01

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  20. Silicon Solar Cells with Front Hetero-Contact and Aluminum Alloy Back Junction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H.-C.; Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.; Branz, H. M.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01

    We prototype an alternative n-type monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell structure that utilizes an n/i-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) front hetero-contact and a back p-n junction formed by alloying aluminum (Al) with the n-type Si wafer.

  1. Observations of a cold front with strong vertical undulations during the ARM RCS-IOP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D.N.; Melfi, S.H.

    1996-04-01

    Passage of a cold front was observed on the night of April 14-15, 1994, during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Intensive Observatios Period (IOP) at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The observations are described.

  2. Development of Novel Front Contract Pastes for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Jellison, D. G.E. P.; Joshi, P.

    2012-04-05

    In order to improve the efficiencies of silicon solar cells, paste to silicon contact formation mechanisms must be more thoroughly understood as a function of paste chemistry, wafer properties and firing conditions. Ferro Corporation has been involved in paste development for over 30 years and has extensive expertise in glass and paste formulations. This project has focused on the characterization of the interface between the top contact material (silver paste) and the underlying silicon wafer. It is believed that the interface between the front contact silver and the silicon wafer plays a dominant role in the electrical performance of the solar cell. Development of an improved front contact microstructure depends on the paste chemistry, paste interaction with the SiNx, and silicon (“Si”) substrate, silicon sheet resistivity, and the firing profile. Typical front contact ink contains silver metal powders and flakes, glass powder and other inorganic additives suspended in an organic medium of resin and solvent. During fast firing cycles glass melts, wets, corrodes the SiNx layer, and then interacts with underlying Si. Glass chemistry is also a critical factor in the development of an optimum front contact microstructure. Over the course of this project, several fundamental characteristics of the Ag/Si interface were documented, including a higher-than-expected distribution of voids along the interface, which could significantly impact electrical conductivity. Several techniques were also investigated for the interfacial analysis, including STEM, EDS, FIB, EBSD, and ellipsometry.

  3. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Systems » Radiant Heating Radiant Heating In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. In-wall radiant heating in a house under construction near Denver. | Photo courtesy of Warren Gretz, NREL. Radiant heating systems supply heat directly to the floor or to panels in the wall or ceiling of a house. The systems depend largely on radiant heat transfer -- the delivery of heat directly from the hot surface to the people and

  4. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar...

  5. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A.; Arakaki, Lester H.; Varley, Eric S.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  6. Micro heat barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2003-08-12

    A highly effective, micron-scale micro heat barrier structure and process for manufacturing a micro heat barrier based on semiconductor and/or MEMS fabrication techniques. The micro heat barrier has an array of non-metallic, freestanding microsupports with a height less than 100 microns, attached to a substrate. An infrared reflective membrane (e.g., 1 micron gold) can be supported by the array of microsupports to provide radiation shielding. The micro heat barrier can be evacuated to eliminate gas phase heat conduction and convection. Semi-isotropic, reactive ion plasma etching can be used to create a microspike having a cusp-like shape with a sharp, pointed tip (<0.1 micron), to minimize the tip's contact area. A heat source can be placed directly on the microspikes. The micro heat barrier can have an apparent thermal conductivity in the range of 10.sup.-6 to 10.sup.-7 W/m-K. Multiple layers of reflective membranes can be used to increase thermal resistance.

  7. Measurement of wave-front aberration in a small telescope remote imaging system using scene-based wave-front sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Bauman, Brian J

    2015-03-31

    Reference-free compensated imaging makes an estimation of the Fourier phase of a series of images of a target. The Fourier magnitude of the series of images is obtained by dividing the power spectral density of the series of images by an estimate of the power spectral density of atmospheric turbulence from a series of scene based wave front sensor (SBWFS) measurements of the target. A high-resolution image of the target is recovered from the Fourier phase and the Fourier magnitude.

  8. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  9. Heat treatment furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  10. Direct numerical simulations of fluid flow, heat transfer and phase changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juric, D.; Tryggvason, G.; Han, J.

    1997-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fluid flow, heat transfer, and phase changes are presented. The simulations are made possible by a recently developed finite difference/front tracking method based on the one-field formulation of the governing equations where a single set of conservation equations is written for all the phases involved. The conservation equations are solved on a fixed rectangular grid, but the phase boundaries are kept sharp by tracking them explicitly by a moving grid of lower dimension. The method is discussed and applications to boiling heat transfer and the solidification of drops colliding with a wall are shown.