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Sample records for friction reduction iv

  1. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and valve trains using durable, advanced material technologies, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, and new lubricants. deer12_gangopadhyay.pdf (1.14 MB) More Documents & Publications Low-Friction Hard Coatings Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Modified PAG

  2. An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 9 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. pmp_08_hsu.pdf (305.8 KB) More Documents & Publications An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction through Surface Modification (Agreement ID:23284) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Integrated Friction Reduction

  3. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Modified PAG (polyalkylene glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Engine Friction Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about engine friction...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Engine Friction Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about engine friction...

  6. Overview of Friction and Wear Reduction for Heavy Vehicles |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    -- Washington D.C. vss12fenske.pdf (3.23 MB) More Documents & Publications Parasitic Energy Losses Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces DOEDOD Parasitic Energy Loss Collaboration

  7. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface

  8. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  9. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have

  10. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  11. Friction of Steel Sliding Under Boundary Lubrication Regime in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KB) More Documents & Publications Impact of Low-Friction Surface Treatments on Engine Friction Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces Overview of Friction and Wear Reduction for Heavy

  12. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  13. Study on reduction and back extraction of Pu(IV) by urea derivatives in nitric acid conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, G.A.; Xiao, S.T.; Yan, T.H.; Lin, R.S.; Zhu, Z.W.

    2013-07-01

    The reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) by hydroxyl-semicarbazide (HSC), hydroxyurea (HU) and di-hydroxyurea (DHU) in nitric acid solutions were investigated separately with adequate kinetic equations. In addition, counter-current cascade experiments were conducted for Pu split from U in nitric acid media using three kinds of reductant, respectively. The results show that urea derivatives as a kind of novel salt-free reductant can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) rapidly in the nitric acid solutions. The stripping experimental results showed that Pu(IV) in the organic phase can be stripped rapidly to the aqueous phase by the urea derivatives, and the separation factors of plutonium /uranium can reach more than 10{sup 4}. This indicates that urea derivatives is a kind of promising salt-free agent for uranium/plutonium separation. In addition, the complexing effect of HSC with Np(IV) was revealed, and Np(IV) can be back-extracted by HSC with a separation factor of about 20.

  14. Human health benefits of ambient sulfate aerosol reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chestnut, L.G.; Watkins, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for about a 10 million ton reduction in annual SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States by the year 2010. Although the provisions apply nationwide, most of the reduction will take place in the eastern half of the United States, where use of high sulfur coal for electricity generation is most common. One potentially large benefit of Title IV is the expected reduction in adverse human health effects associated with exposure to ambient sulfate aerosols, a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when SO{sub 2} is present. Sulfate aerosols are a significant constituent of fine particulate (PM{sub 2.5}). This paper combines available epidemiologic evidence of health effects associated with sulfate aerosols and economic estimates of willingness to pay for reductions in risks or incidence of health effects with available estimates of the difference between expected ambient sulfate concentrations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada with and without Title IV to estimate the expected health benefits of Title IV. The results suggest a mean annual benefit in the eastern United States of $10.6 billion (in 1994 dollars) in 1997 and $40.0 billion in 2010, with an additional $1 billion benefit each year in Ontario and Quebec provinces.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction through Surface Modification (Agreement ID:23284) Project ID:18518

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about friction...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Engine Friction Reduction – Part II (Base fluid and additive technologies)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about engine friction...

  17. Ionic Liquids Used as Wear Reduction, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that can be used as friction and wear reduction additives for lubricating oils. ... that can be used as friction and wear reduction additives for lubricating oils. ...

  18. Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dardalis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-31

    This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

  19. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  20. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant

  1. Friction stir welding tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Barnes, Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  2. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  3. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  4. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  5. Friction welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor and a ceramic electrode body connected by a friction weld between a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect such a friction weld and a portion of the metal conductor.

  6. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  7. Heavy Truck Friction & Wear Reduction Technologies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vssp_20_killian.pdf (229.03 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together? Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles WA_04_074_EATON_CORPORATION_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_I.pdf

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Engine Friction Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel ...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together? An integrated surface technology for...

  10. Welding - Friction Stir - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Welding - Friction Stir Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Friction welding that uses a contact rotating tool creates frictional heating of an adjacent work piece. The process employs a mixer where the two pieces touch, an area called the plastic zone, to avoid the undesirable joining (e.g. alloying) of the two work pieces.Description First, a

  11. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    machining and heat treatment. Timken designed and manufactured all of the roller bearing related components such as the thrust bearing package. The production connecting rods and camshafts could not be used for the roller bearing engine, so new ones were produced according to the team’s designs using Timken steel. The remaining miscellaneous components were designed and procured by FEV. Timken prepared a display version of the crankshaft portion of the production engine without connecting rods which could be driven by a motor through a cogged-belt and electrically actuated clutch arrangement. A modified version was also made in which the engine was outfitted with roller bearings on the main bearing positions. Preliminary tests showed that the rollerized engine was running with 1/3 less friction than the standard display engine. Additional friction testing and noise characterization was cut short because of shipping damage to the rollerized engine display and because of other project priorities. The team did successfully demonstrate the ability to package roller bearings satisfactorily in numerous locations in a typical automotive engine. The scope of this project did not include durability demonstration and that subject would have to be addressed in any follow-on work. In the actual test phase, the rollerized engine did show significantly less friction in motored dynamometer tests compared to its production equivalent. The 5-10% improvement measured in this study was about half that seen in other studies. However, the fired test results did not show a reduction in friction which did not match prior experience or expectations. Subsequent teardown and inspection of the rollerized engine revealed potential sources of excessive friction in the experimental application. These features would be eliminated in a design not based on modification of production parts. The team is confident (based on experience) that friction reduction would be realized with proper modifications.

  12. Friction in surface micromachined interfaces. (Conference) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference on Friction, Fracture and Earthquake Physics held August 15-19, 2005 in Santa Barbara, CA. Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country ...

  13. Friction, Wear, and Lubrication Technologies | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Erck Ali Erdemir Osman Eryilmaz Aaron Greco Projects Lubricants Advanced lubrication approaches that integrate fuel-efficient lubricants, low-friction materials and coatings...

  14. Proposed Rules IV. Conclusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    686 Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 44 / Monday, March 7, 2016 / Proposed Rules IV. Conclusion For the reasons cited in this document, the NRC is denying PRM- 50-106. The NRC is denying this petition because the current regulations already address environmental qualification in both mild and design basis event conditions of electrical equipment located both inside and outside of the containment building that is important to safety, and the petitioners did not provide significant new or

  15. Energy conversion device and method of reducing friction therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solovyeva, Lyudmila Mikhaylovna; Jansson, Kyle S; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim; Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Daughterty, Early Eugene; Higdon, Clifton Baxter; Elagamy, Kamel Abdel-Khalik; Hicks, Aaron Michael

    2013-10-08

    A device configured for converting energy includes a first surface, a second surface configured for moving with respect to the first surface during operation of the device, and a coating disposed on at least one of the first surface and the second surface. The coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy represented by the general formula AlMgB.sub.14--X, wherein X is present in an amount of from 0 to 70 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the ceramic alloy and is a doping agent selected from the group of Group IV elements and borides and nitrides thereof, and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon in a gradient concentration. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12.

  16. ABL and BAM Friction Analysis Comparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Warner, Kirstin F.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2014-12-29

    Here, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here is a comparison of the Alleghany Ballistic Laboratory (ABL) friction data and Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM) friction data for 19 HEM and military standard explosives.

  17. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  18. Defining the Mechanisms of Friction: A Grand Challenge in Interfacial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Defining the Mechanisms of Friction: A Grand Challenge in Interfacial Mechanics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defining the Mechanisms of Friction: A Grand Challenge...

  19. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific ...

  20. Using Nanotechnology to Fight Friction and Wear | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Nanotechnology to Fight Friction and Wear Tiny diamonds wrapped in graphene help achieve "superlubricity," in which friction drops to near zero. Graphene "nanoscrolls" could...

  1. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  2. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Lim, Yong Chae; Mahoney, Murray; Sanderson, Samuel; Larsen, Steve; Steel, Russel; Fleck, Dale; Fairchild, Doug P; Wasson, Andrew J; Babb, Jon; Higgins, Paul

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  3. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  4. Miravalles IV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Name Miravalles IV Facility Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Coordinates 10.5251574, -85.254136 Loading map......

  5. Shiloh IV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shiloh IV Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner EDF Renewable Energy Developer EDF Renewable Energy Energy Purchaser Pacific...

  6. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  7. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel`s recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  8. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, H.B.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical canister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained. 5 figs.

  9. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, Harold B.

    1992-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  10. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  11. SECTION IV: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE A Pyroelectric Crystal Particle Accelerator ....................................................................................................................................................IV-1 J. Kalodimos and R.L. Watson Polarization of Ka Satellite Transitions in Potassium .....................................................................................................................................IV-4 K. S. Fruchey, R.L. Watson, V. Horvat, and Yong

  12. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test You are accessing a document from the ...

  13. Friction Control Solutions Inc FriCSo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Friction Control Solutions Inc FriCSo Jump to: navigation, search Name: Friction Control Solutions Inc. (FriCSo) Place: Farmington Hills, Michigan Zip: 48331 Product: FriCSo offers...

  14. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  15. Identification and characterization of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor from aronia juice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozuka, Miyuki; Yamane, Takuya; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Nakagaki, Takenori; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-09-25

    Aronia berries have many potential effects on health, including an antioxidant effect, effect for antimutagenesis, hepatoprotection and cardioprotection, an antidiabetic effect and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Previous human studies have shown that aronia juice may be useful for treatment of obesity disorders. In this study, we found that aronia juice has an inhibitory effect against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) (EC 3.4.14.5). DPP IV is a peptidase that cleaves the N-terminal region of incretins such as glucagon-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Inactivation of incretins by DPP IV induces reduction of insulin secretion. Furthermore, we identified that cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside as the DPP IV inhibitor in aronia juice. DPP IV was inhibited more strongly by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside than by cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The results suggest that DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside present in aronia juice. The antidiabetic effect of aronia juice may be mediated through DPP IV inhibition by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. - Highlights: • DPP IV activity is inhibited by aronia juice. • DPP IV inhibitor is cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside in aronia juice. • DPP IV is inhibited by cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside more than cyanidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside.

  16. EERE Success Story—Ionic Liquids Used as Wear Reduction, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Partnered with Shell Global Solutions, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed ionic liquids (salts in a liquid state at ambient temperatures) that can be used as friction and wear reduction additives for lubricating oils.

  17. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  18. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  19. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  20. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  1. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Friction, Fatigue, and Failure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two steel bars bolted together poses interesting challenges in nonlinear dynamics. (Photo by Matt Brake) Two steel bars bolted together pose interesting challenges in nonlinear dynamics. (Photo by Matt Brake) Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS News Friction, Fatigue, and Failure By Mollie Rappe Photography By Randy Montoya Thursday, September 01, 2016 Sandia experts, students explore mechanical challenges at summer institute Sandia experts, students explore mechanical challenges at summer

  3. Facile Routes to Th(IV), U(IV), and Np(IV) Phosphites and Phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Eric M.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-08-05

    Three actinide(IV) phosphites and a NpIV phosphate, AnIV(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) and Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂, respectively, were synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions. The first three phases are isotypic and were obtained using similar reaction conditions. Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ was synthesized using an analogous method to that of Np(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂. However, this fourth phase is quite different in comparison to the other phases in both composition and structure. The structure of Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ is constructed from double layers of neptunium(IV) phosphate with caesium cations in the interlayer region. In contrast, An(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) form dense 3D networks. The actinide contraction is detected in variety of metrics obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Changes in the oxidation state of the neptunium starting materials yield different products.

  4. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  5. Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology flexible_hybrid_friction.pdf (590.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Class Patent Waiver W(C)2009-001 Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

  6. Clear Path IV Exercise Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2016, DOE led Clear Path IV in Portland, Oregon and Washington, DC. Clear Path IV was an interagency exercise focused on testing and evaluating energy sector response plans to address...

  7. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  8. Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together? ...

  9. Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin

    2013-12-15

    Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.

  10. Atomic-scale friction modulated by potential corrugation in multi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We found that potential corrugations on sliding surfaces dominate the friction force and ... POTENTIAL ENERGY; POTENTIALS; SHEETS; SURFACES Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  11. Material flow during friction stir welding: A thermo-mechanically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ORNL Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI ... Friction Stir Welding Symposium, Beijing, China, 20140519, 20140523 Research Org: Oak ...

  12. Method and device for frictional welding (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channels recessed bottom. ...

  13. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  14. Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  15. Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  16. Method and device for frictional welding (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained. Inventors: Peacock, ...

  17. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing for High Structural Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for aerospace & energy industries Laser-FSAM hybrid & mini-sample testing ... Design, 65 (2015), 934-952 Friction Stir- Laser Hybrid Machine at CFSP 5 Hardness- 135 ...

  18. Thermal Modeling of A Friction Bonding Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Dixon; Douglas Burkes; Pavel Medvedev

    2007-10-01

    A COMSOL model capable of predicting temperature evolution during nuclear fuel fabrication is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Fuel plates are fabricated by friction bonding (FB) uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy foils positioned between two aluminum plates. The ability to predict temperature distribution during fabrication is imperative to ensure good quality bonding without inducing an undesirable chemical reaction between U-Mo and aluminum. A three-dimensional heat transfer model of the FB process implementing shallow pin penetration for cladding monolithic nuclear fuel foils is presented. Temperature distribution during the FB process as a function of fabrication parameters such as weld speed, tool load, and tool rotational frequency are predicted. Model assumptions, settings, and equations are described in relation to standard friction stir welding. Current experimental design for validation and calibration of the model is also demonstrated. Resulting experimental data reveal the accuracy in describing asymmetrical temperature distributions about the tool face. Temperature of the bonded plate drops beneath the pin and is higher on the advancing side than the retreating side of the tool.

  19. Tuning the reactivity of mononuclear nonheme manganese(iv)-oxo complexes by triflic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junying; Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong -Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-04-14

    Triflic acid (HOTf)-bound nonheme Mn(IV)-oxo complexes, [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 (L = N4Py and Bn-TPEN; N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine and Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized by adding HOTf to the solutions of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes and were characterized by various spectroscopies. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes exhibited a significant positive shift upon binding of HOTf. The driving force dependences of electron transfer (ET) from electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)(HOTf)2 complexes were examined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of ET to determine the reorganization energies of ET. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentials of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 complexes resulted in greatly enhanced oxidation capacity towards one-electron reductants and para-X-substituted-thioanisoles. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were markedly enhanced by binding of HOTf, such as a 6.4 105-fold increase in the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reaction (i.e., sulfoxidation). Such a remarkable acceleration in the OAT reaction results from the enhancement of ET from para-X-substituted-thioanisoles to the MnIV(O) complexes as revealed by the unified ET driving force dependence of the rate constants of OAT and ET reactions of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2. In contrast, deceleration was observed in the rate of H-atom transfer (HAT) reaction of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 complexes with 1,4-cyclohexadiene as compared with those of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes. Thus, the binding of two HOTf molecules to the MnIV(O) moiety resulted in remarkable acceleration of the ET rate when

  20. Tuning the reactivity of mononuclear nonheme manganese(iv)-oxo complexes by triflic acid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Junying; Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong -Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-04-14

    Triflic acid (HOTf)-bound nonheme Mn(IV)-oxo complexes, [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 (L = N4Py and Bn-TPEN; N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine and Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized by adding HOTf to the solutions of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes and were characterized by various spectroscopies. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes exhibited a significant positive shift upon binding of HOTf. The driving force dependences of electron transfer (ET) from electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)–(HOTf)2 complexes were examined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of ET to determine the reorganization energies of ET. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentialsmore » of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 complexes resulted in greatly enhanced oxidation capacity towards one-electron reductants and para-X-substituted-thioanisoles. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were markedly enhanced by binding of HOTf, such as a 6.4 × 105-fold increase in the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reaction (i.e., sulfoxidation). Such a remarkable acceleration in the OAT reaction results from the enhancement of ET from para-X-substituted-thioanisoles to the MnIV(O) complexes as revealed by the unified ET driving force dependence of the rate constants of OAT and ET reactions of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2. In contrast, deceleration was observed in the rate of H-atom transfer (HAT) reaction of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 complexes with 1,4-cyclohexadiene as compared with those of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes. Thus, the binding of two HOTf molecules to the MnIV(O) moiety resulted in remarkable acceleration of the ET rate when the ET is thermodynamically feasible. When the ET reaction is highly endergonic, the rate of the HAT reaction is decelerated due to the steric effect of the counter anion of HOTf.« less

  1. Friction Stir Welding of Lightweight Vehicle Structures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanella, M L

    2008-08-31

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, LLC and Ford Motor Company was to establish friction stir welding (FSW) and friction stir processing as viable options for use in construction of lightweight substructures for trucks and cars, including engine cradles, suspension sub frames, instrument panel supports, and intake manifolds.

  2. Role of Friction in Materials Selection for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This is an invited article for a special issue of the ASM International monthly magazine that concerns "Automotive Materials and Applications." The article itself overviews frictional considerations in material selection for automobiles. It discusses implications for energy efficiency (engine friction) and safety (brakes) among other topics.

  3. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  4. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory describes a new aluminum joining process and the industry partnership that enabled its use for mass auto production

  5. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despoja, Vito

    2011-05-15

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  6. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  7. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  8. Anaerobic U(IV) Bio-oxidation and the Resultant Remobilization of Uranium in Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, John D.

    2005-06-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites is based on immobilizing U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Due to the use of nitric acid in the processing of nuclear fuels, nitrate is often a co-contaminant found in many of the environments contaminated with uranium. Recent studies indicate that nitrate inhibits U(VI) reduction in sediment slurries. However, the mechanism responsible for the apparent inhibition of U(VI) reduction is unknown, i.e. preferential utilization of nitrate as an electron acceptor, direct biological oxidation of U(IV) coupled to nitrate reduction, and/or abiotic oxidation by intermediates of nitrate reduction. Recent studies indicates that direct biological oxidation of U(IV) coupled to nitrate reduction may exist in situ, however, to date no organisms have been identified that can grow by this metabolism. In an effort to evaluate the potential for nitrate-dependent bio-oxidation of U(IV) in anaerobic sedimentary environments, we have initiated the enumeration of nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing bacteria. Sediments, soils, and groundwater from uranium (U) contaminated sites, including subsurface sediments from the NABIR Field Research Center (FRC), as well as uncontaminated sites, including subsurface sediments from the NABIR FRC and Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Texas, lake sediments, and agricultural field soil, sites served as the inoculum source. Enumeration of the nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing microbial population in sedimentary environments by most probable number technique have revealed sedimentary microbial populations ranging from 9.3 x 101 - 2.4 x 103 cells (g sediment)-1 in both contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Interestingly uncontaminated subsurface sediments (NABIR FRC Background core FB618 and Longhorn Texas Core BH2-18) both harbored the most numerous nitrate-dependent U(IV) oxidizing population 2.4 x 103 cells (g sediment)-1

  9. Frictional anisotropy under boundary lubrication: effect of surface texture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erck, R. A.; Lorenzo-Martin, C.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-06-15

    The friction coefficient was measured under boundary lubrication with a ball-on-flat contact configuration in unidirectional sliding. The ball was smooth and hardened 52100 steel. Discs were made from case-carburized and hardened 4620, annealed 1080, and 1018 steels with directionally ground surfaces. A synthetic lubricant of stock polyalphaolefin was used for testing. During testing with each material, a frictional spike was observed whenever the ball slid parallel to the grinding ridge on the disc surface. The average friction coefficient for all tests was about 0.1, which is typical for the boundary lubrication regime. The magnitude of the frictional spikes, which reached as high as a friction coefficient of 0.25, and their persistence depended on the hardness of the disc surface. On the basis of elastohydrodynamic theory, coupled with the observation of severe plastic deformation on the ridges parallel to the sliding direction, the frictional spike could be due to localized plastic deformation on the disc surface at locations of minimal thickness for the lubricant fluid film. This hypothesis was further supported by lack of frictional spikes in tests using discs coated with a thin film of diamond-like carbon, in which plastic deformation is minimal.

  10. SECTION IV: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    collisions... IV-3 R. D. DuBois, A. C. F. Santos, R. Olson, V. Horvat, R. L. Watson, A. N. Perumal, and Y. Peng...

  11. Generation IV International Forum Updates Technology Roadmap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    status of the Lead Fast Reactor and Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) Generation IV concepts, ... Agency's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). ...

  12. Generation IV International Forum Framework Agreement Extended...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related Articles Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Renewed energy and enhanced coordination are on the horizon for an ...

  13. SECTION IV: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systematics of K and L x-ray satellite spectra...... IV-1 V. Horvat and R. L. Watson K x-ray satellite ...

  14. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  15. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, R.I.

    1990-10-16

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more road wheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the road wheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the road wheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded. 8 figs.

  16. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Roy I.

    1990-01-01

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

  17. Electronic contribution to friction on GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Applied Science and Technology Graduate Group, UC Berkeley; Dept. of Materials Sciences and Engineering, UC Berkeley; Salmeron, Miquel; Qi, Yabing; Park, J.Y.; Hendriksen, B.L.M.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-15

    The electronic contribution to friction at semiconductor surfaces was investigated by using a Pt-coated tip with 50nm radius in an atomic force microscope sliding against an n-type GaAs(100) substrate. The GaAs surface was covered by an approximately 1 nm thick oxide layer. Charge accumulation or depletion was induced by the application of forward or reverse bias voltages. We observed a substantial increase in friction force in accumulation (forward bias) with respect to depletion (reverse bias). We propose a model based on the force exerted by the trapped charges that quantitatively explains the experimental observations of excess friction.

  18. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  19. Friction of partially embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers inside elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin; Cassell, Alan; Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya; Callen, Phillip [NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States)

    2007-08-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers partially embedded inside polyurethane (eVACNFs) are proposed as a robust high friction fibrillar material with a compliant backing. Carbon nanofibers with 50-150 nm in diameter and 20-30 {mu}m in length are vertically grown on silicon and transferred completely inside an elastomer by vacuum molding. By using time controlled and selective oxygen plasma etching, fibers are partially released up to 5 {mu}m length. Macroscale friction experiments show that eVACNFs exhibit reproducible effective friction coefficients up to 1. Besides high friction, the proposed fabrication method improves fiber-substrate bond strength, and enables uniform height nanofibers with a compliant backing.

  20. Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FSW & USW Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Formability of Direct Cast Mg Sheet and Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Joining of Magnesium to Steel FY 2009 Progress Report for ...

  1. Nitrate reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  2. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  3. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  4. SECTION IV: ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND MATERIALS SCIENCE A semiempirical scaling law for target K x-ray production in heavy ion collisions...... IV-1 R. L. Watson, Y. Peng, V. Horvat, and A. ...

  5. Switchable friction enabled by nanoscale self-assembly on graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Amet, Francois; Maksymovych, Petro; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shuopei; Lu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Guangyu; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; et al

    2016-02-23

    Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200%. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene but from self-assembly of environmental adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4–6 nm. The stripes and resulting frictional domains appear on monolayer and multilayer graphene on a variety of substrates, as well as onmore » exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. We show that the stripe-superlattices can be reproducibly and reversibly manipulated with submicrometre precision using a scanning probe microscope, allowing us to create arbitrary arrangements of frictional domains within a single flake. In conclusion, our results suggest a revised understanding of the anisotropic friction observed on graphene and bulk graphite in terms of adsorbates.« less

  6. Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts for ... Title: Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts ...

  7. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling (Technical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling You are accessing a document from the Department ...

  8. Victory Gardens Phase IV Wind Farm II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Jump to: navigation, search Name Victory Gardens Phase IV Wind Farm II Facility Victory Gardens- Phase IV Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status...

  9. Generation IV International Forum 39th Policy Group Meeting ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related Articles China and Russia to Join the Generation IV International Forum Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

  10. Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Marine Renewable Energy Test...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Marine Renewable Energy Test Centers and Environmental Effects Research Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Marine Renewable Energy Test Centers and...

  11. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Access the recording and download ...

  12. Medicine Bow Wind Farm IV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IV Jump to: navigation, search Name Medicine Bow Wind Farm IV Facility Medicine Bow Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Platte...

  13. Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Adaptive Management in the Marine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Adaptive Management in the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Adaptive Management in the Marine Renewable Energy ...

  14. EIS-0469: Wilton IV Wind Energy Center; Burleigh County, North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Wilton IV Wind Energy Center; Burleigh County, North Dakota EIS-0469: Wilton IV Wind Energy Center; Burleigh County, North Dakota Summary Western Area Power Administration is...

  15. Reductive Capacity Measurement of Waste Forms for Secondary Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Yang, Jungseok; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-09-28

    The reductive capacities of dry ingredients and final solid waste forms were measured using both the Cr(VI) and Ce(IV) methods and the results were compared. Blast furnace slag (BFS), sodium sulfide, SnF2, and SnCl2 used as dry ingredients to make various waste forms showed significantly higher reductive capacities compared to other ingredients regardless of which method was used. Although the BFS exhibits appreciable reductive capacity, it requires greater amounts of time to fully react. In almost all cases, the Ce(IV) method yielded larger reductive capacity values than those from the Cr(VI) method and can be used as an upper bound for the reductive capacity of the dry ingredients and waste forms, because the Ce(IV) method subjects the solids to a strong acid (low pH) condition that dissolves much more of the solids. Because the Cr(VI) method relies on a neutral pH condition, the Cr(VI) method can be used to estimate primarily the waste form surface-related and readily dissolvable reductive capacity. However, the Cr(VI) method does not measure the total reductive capacity of the waste form, the long-term reductive capacity afforded by very slowly dissolving solids, or the reductive capacity present in the interior pores and internal locations of the solids.

  16. Cerium(IV), Neptunium(IV), and Plutonium(IV) 1,2-phenyldiphosphonates: Correlations and Differences between Early Transuranium Elements and Their Proposed Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diwu, Juan; Wang, Shuao; Liao, Zuolei; Burns, Peter C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-10-04

    The in situ hydrothermal reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) in the presence of 1,2-phenylenediphosphonic acid (PhP2) results in the crystallization of Np[C6H4(PO3H)2]22H2O (NpPhP2) and Pu[C6H4(PO3H)(PO3H2)][C6H4(PO3H)(PO3)]2H2O (PuPhP2), respectively. Similar reactions have been explored with Ce(IV) resulting in the isolation of the Ce(IV) phenylenediphosphonate Ce[C6H4(PO3H)(PO3H2)][C6H4(PO3H)(PO3)]2H2O (CePhP2). Single crystal diffraction studies reveal that although all these three compounds all crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-, only PuPhP2 and CePhP2 are isotypic, whereas NpPhP2 adopts a distinct structure. In the cerium and plutonium compounds edge-sharing dimers of MO8 polyhedra are bridged by the diphosphonate ligand to create one-dimensional chains. NpPhP2 also forms chains. However, the NpO8 units are monomeric. The protonation of the ligands is also different in the two structure types. Furthermore, the NpO8 polyhedra are best described as square antiprisms (D4d), whereas the CeO8 and PuO8 units are trigonal dodecahedra (D2d). Bond-valence parameters of Ro = 1.972 and b = 0.538 have been derived for Np4+ using a combination of the data reported in this work with that available in crystallographic databases. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra of NpPhP2 and PuPhP2 are also reported and used to confirm the tetravalent oxidation states.

  17. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements IV (ARM-ACME IV)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsARM Airborne Carbon Measurements IV (ARM-ACME IV) Campaign Links Final Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) 2008.10.01, Biraud, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements IV (ARM-ACME IV) 2013.10.01 - 2015.09.30 Lead Scientist : Sebastien Biraud For data sets, see below. Abstract ARM ACME observations and

  19. Wear and friction behavior of metal impregnated microporous carbon composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goller, G.; Koty, D.P.; Tewari, S.N.; Singh, M.; Tekin, A.

    1996-11-01

    Metal-matrix composites have been prepared by pressure-infiltration casting of copper-base alloy melts into microporous carbon preforms. The carbon preforms contained varying proportions of amorphous carbon and graphite. Load dependence of the wear and friction behavior of the composite pins has been examined under ambient conditions against cast-iron plates, using a pin-on-plate reciprocating wear tester. The wear resistance of the composite is significantly improved, as compared with the base alloy. Contrary to the normally expected behavior, the addition of graphite to the amorphous carbon does not reduce the friction coefficient, especially at high loads. The wear and friction behavior of the composites is very sensitive to the size and distribution of the microstructural constituents.

  20. Frictional effects on the volumetric strain of sandstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.; Hilbert Jr., L.B.; Cook, N.G.W.; Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1999-01-02

    The contributions of frictional slip on the nonlinear, hysteretic deformation of sandstone in the reversible regime (i.e., prior to the onset of permanent deformation) for uniaxial strain compression are investigated through an analysis of a Hertz-Mindlin face-centered cubic sphere pack model and laboratory stress-strain tests on Berea sandstone. The analysis demonstrates that the dynamic 1 moduli are path-independent functions of the strain. The analysis also reveals that for uniaxial strain consolidation it is possible to decompose the volumetric strain into a path-independent contribution from nonlinear grain contact deformation and a path-dependent contribution from frictional (slip) compaction. Laboratory stress+-strain measurements on Berea sandstone support these findings and, in addition, reveal that frictional compaction accounts for a significant portion of the volumetric strain of Berea sandstone.

  1. Friction stir weld tools having fine grain structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grant, Glenn J.; Frye, John G.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, Kenneth Scott

    2016-03-15

    Tools for friction stir welding can be made with fewer process steps, lower cost techniques, and/or lower cost ingredients than other state-of-the-art processes by utilizing improved compositions and processes of fabrication. Furthermore, the tools resulting from the improved compositions and processes of fabrication can exhibit better distribution and homogeneity of chemical constituents, greater strength, and/or increased durability. In one example, a friction stir weld tool includes tungsten and rhenium and is characterized by carbide and oxide dispersoids, by carbide particulates, and by grains that comprise a solid solution of the tungsten and rhenium. The grains do not exceed 10 micrometers in diameter.

  2. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  3. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.

  4. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more » i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Combining data from motored engine friction, a theoretical engine model, a line friction contact rig, and a fired engine can provide better insight to lube oil and additive performance.

  6. Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in engines. deer08erdemir.pdf (468.03 KB) More Documents & Publications Low-Friction Hard Coatings Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces Ultra-Fast Chemical Conversion Surfaces

  7. Formability of Direct Cast Mg Sheet and Friction Stir and Ultrasonic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formability of Direct Cast Mg Sheet and Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Joining of Magnesium to Steel Formability of Direct Cast Mg Sheet and Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Joining of...

  8. A reassessment of surface friction model for maximum cold fusion reactions in superheavy mass region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukushima, A.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Nasirov, A.; Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-26

    We have made a study on the capture process of 40,48Ca+ 208Pb systems with a dynamical approach based on the surface friction model. The deformation of the nuclei due to the mutual excitation is taken into account. We have calculated the capture cross sections for several values of the friction coefficients. It was shown that, in the cold fusion reactions, the friction parameters of the surface friction model needs to be reexamined.

  9. Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Superhard and low-friction coatings and surface treatments can help improve fuel economy and durability in engines.

  10. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  11. Friction stir method for forming structures and materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Frederick, David Alan

    2011-11-22

    Processes for forming an enhanced material or structure are disclosed. The structure typically includes a preform that has a first common surface and a recess below the first common surface. A filler is added to the recess and seams are friction stir welded, and materials may be stir mixed.

  12. Incommensurate Structure of Phosphorus Phase IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshito; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Takeya, Satoshi; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2007-04-27

    There are six known phases for phosphorus at room temperature under high pressure. Only the structure of phase IV, which exists from 107 GPa to 137 GPa, remains unsolved. We performed a powder x-ray diffraction experiment and a Rietveld analysis and successfully determined its structure to be an incommensurately modulated structure by only 1 site of atomic position. High-pressure phases of halogens and chalcogens have previously been shown to have a similar modulated structure; however, phosphorus phase IV is different from them and was shown to be the third case.

  13. Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)

    2006-12-01

    Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the

  14. Drag reduction in coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.

    1996-12-31

    It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

  15. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  16. Cours-IV/Clavin2015.key

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jump across an hydrodynamic discontinuity IV 1) U L U b - U L Flame Unburnt mixture at rest Burnt gas Zoom T b T u d L Temperature u + 0 u u U L b U b p + u 2 + 0 w +...

  17. PART IV … REPRESENTATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    K, Page i PART IV - REPRESENTATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS SECTION K REPRESENTATIONS, CERTIFICATIONS, AND OTHER STATEMENTS OF OFFERORS K-1 FAR 52.204-8 ANNUAL REPRESENTATIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS (DEC 2014) .................. 131 K-2 FAR 52.204-16 COMMERCIAL AND GOVERNMENT ENTITY CODE REPORTING (JUL 2015) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 135 K-3 FAR 52.209-7 INFORMATION

  18. PART IV … REPRESENTATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    K, Page i PART IV - REPRESENTATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS SECTION K REPRESENTATIONS, CERTIFICATIONS, AND OTHER STATEMENTS OF OFFERORS K-1 FAR 52.204-8 ANNUAL REPRESENTATIONS AND CERTIFICATIONS (DEC 2014) .................. 131 K-2 FAR 52.204-16 COMMERCIAL AND GOVERNMENT ENTITY CODE REPORTING (JUL 2015) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 135 K-3 FAR 52.209-7 INFORMATION

  19. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  20. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  1. Effects of the Exposure to Corrosive Salts on the Frictional Behavior of Gray Cast Iron and a Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Truhan, Jr., John J; Kenik, Edward A

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of increasingly aggressive road-deicing chemicals has created significant and costly corrosion problems for the trucking industry. From a tribological perspective, corrosion of the sliding surfaces of brakes after exposure to road salts can create oxide scales on the surfaces that affect friction. This paper describes experiments on the effects of exposure to sodium chloride and magnesium chloride sprays on the transient frictional behavior of cast iron and a titanium-based composite sliding against a commercial brake lining material. Corrosion scales on cast iron initially act as abrasive third-bodies, then they become crushed, spread out, and behave as a solid lubricant. The composition and subsurface microstructures of the corrosion products on the cast iron were analyzed. Owing to its greater corrosion resistance, the titanium composite remained scale-free and its frictional response was markedly different. No corrosion scales were formed on the titanium composite after aggressive exposure to salts; however, a reduction in friction was still observed. Unlike the crystalline sodium chloride deposits that tended to remain dry, hygroscopic magnesium chloride deposits absorbed ambient moisture from the air, liquefied, and retained a persistent lubricating effect on the titanium surfaces.

  2. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2009-09-15

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  3. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mentesana, Charles

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  4. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

  5. In vitro removal of actinide (IV) ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1982-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Validation Soundings Phase IV and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation Soundings Phase IV and V-NSA ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? ... Campaign : AIRS Validation Soundings Phase IV and V-NSA 2005.04.25 - 2006.04.24 Lead ...

  7. Involvement of DPP-IV Catalytic Residues in Enzyme-Saxagliptin Complex Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzler,W.; Yanchunas, J.; Weigelt, C.; Kish, K.; Klei, H.; Xie, D.; Zhang, Y.; Corbett, M.; Tamura, J.; et al

    2008-01-01

    The inhibition of DPP-IV by saxagliptin has been proposed to occur through formation of a covalent but reversible complex. To evaluate further the mechanism of inhibition, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the DPP-IV:saxagliptin complex. This structure reveals covalent attachment between S630 and the inhibitor nitrile carbon (C-O distance <1.3 Angstroms). To investigate whether this serine addition is assisted by the catalytic His-Asp dyad, we generated two mutants of DPP-IV, S630A and H740Q, and assayed them for ability to bind inhibitor. DPP-IVH740Q bound saxagliptin with an {approx}1000-fold reduction in affinity relative to DPP-IVWT, while DPP-IVS630A showed no evidence for binding inhibitor. An analog of saxagliptin lacking the nitrile group showed unchanged binding properties to the both mutant proteins, highlighting the essential role S630 and H740 play in covalent bond formation between S630 and saxagliptin. Further supporting mechanism-based inhibition by saxagliptin, NMR spectra of enzyme-saxagliptin complexes revealed the presence of three downfield resonances with low fractionation factors characteristic of short and strong hydrogen bonds (SSHB). Comparison of the NMR spectra of various wild-type and mutant DPP-IV:ligand complexes enabled assignment of a resonance at {approx}14 ppm to H740. Two additional DPP-IV mutants, Y547F and Y547Q, generated to probe potential stabilization of the enzyme-inhibitor complex by this residue, did not show any differences in inhibitor binding either by ITC or NMR. Together with the previously published enzymatic data, the structural and binding data presented here strongly support a histidine-assisted covalent bond formation between S630 hydroxyl oxygen and the nitrile group of saxagliptin.

  8. Simple rule can be used to calculate friction loss in piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, A.A.

    1997-05-26

    A simple rule for calculating friction loss in piping has been developed. Called the Rule of Fours, it is designed to be easily memorized for use in the field. For determining pressure loss in piping, friction-loss tables are often more convenient than calculating the Reynolds number or finding the friction factor on a Moody chart, then calculating the friction loss by the Darcy or Fanning relationships. Friction-loss tables can be found in the Crane Technical Paper, Hydraulic Institute Engineering Data Book, and several other references. There are occasions, however, when such tables are not readily available to the engineer trying to estimate pressure drop in fluid flowing through pipelines. Because friction loss is essentially a point function, it is only necessary to determine the pressure drop for a given set of conditions. The author has developed a simple rule for such calculations.

  9. Effects of Stone-Wales and vacancy defects in atomic-scale friction on defective graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wu, RunNi; Xia, Re; Chu, Xi-Hua; Xu, Yuan-Jie

    2014-05-05

    Graphite is an excellent solid lubricant for surface coating, but its performance is significantly weakened by the vacancy or Stone-Wales (SW) defect. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to explore the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite which contains a single defect or stacked defects. Our results suggest that the friction on defective graphite shows a strong dependence on defect location and type. The 5-7-7-5 structure of SW defect results in an effectively negative slope of friction. For defective graphite containing a defect in the surface, adding a single vacancy in the interior layer will decrease the friction coefficients, while setting a SW defect in the interior layer may increase the friction coefficients. Our obtained results may provide useful information for understanding the atomic-scale friction properties of defective graphite.

  10. SECTION IV. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE Cross Sections for Cu K-Vacancy Production in Fast Heavy Ion Collisions R.L. Watson, J.M. Blackadar and V. Horvat Enhancement of the Cu Kα x-ray Diagram Lines in Fast Heavy Ion Collisions R.L. Watson, V. Horvat and J.M. Blackadar K-shell Ionization by Secondary Electrons V. Horvat, R.L. Watson and J.M. Blackadar Target-atom Inner-shell Vacancy Distributions Created in Collisions with Heavy Ion Projectiles V. Horvat, R.L. Watson and J.M. Blackadar Systematics of

  11. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Weiju

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  12. Table IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary All targets must be achieved simultaneously Characteristics Units Calendar year 2002 status a 2005 2010 Membrane conductivity, operating temperature Ω-cm 2 0.1 0.1 0.1 Oxygen cross-over b mA/cm 2 5 5 2 Hydrogen cross-over b mA/cm 2 5 5 2 Cost $/kW 50 5 Operating Temperature o C 160 160 170 Durability Hours 5000 >15000 >40000 Survivability o C -20 -30 -40 Notes: a) Status is present day 80 o C unless otherwise noted; targets are for new

  13. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  14. Part IV Council on Environmental Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    79 Wednesday, No. 247 December 24, 2014 Part IV Council on Environmental Quality Revised Draft Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews; Notice VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:20 Dec 23, 2014 Jkt 235001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\FR\FM\24DEN2.SGM 24DEN2 mstockstill on DSK4VPTVN1PROD with NOTICES2 77802 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 247 / Wednesday, December 24, 2014 / Notices 1 A

  15. Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Relation: Conference: 10th International Friction Stir Welding Symposium, Beijing, China, 20140519, 20140523 Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org:...

  16. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2009-12-28

    Friction stir spot welding was used to join two advanced high-strength steels using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. Numerous tool designs were employed to study the influence of tool geometry on weld joints produced in both DP780 and a hot-stamp boron steel. Tool designs included conventional, concave shouldered pin tools with several pin configurations; a number of shoulderless designs; and a convex, scrolled shoulder tool. Weld quality was assessed based on lap shear strength, microstructure, microhardness, and bonded area. Mechanical properties were functionally related to bonded area and joint microstructure, demonstrating the necessity to characterize processing windows based on tool geometry.

  17. Curvature effect on tearing modes in presence of neoclassical friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maget, Patrick; Mellet, Nicolas; Meshcheriakov, Dmytro; Garbet, Xavier; Lütjens, Hinrich

    2013-11-15

    Neoclassical physics (here associated to the poloidal variation of the magnetic field strength along field lines in a tokamak) is well known for driving self-generated plasma current and nonlinear magnetic islands associated to it in high performance, ITER relevant plasma discharges. It is demonstrated that the neoclassical friction between a magnetic perturbation and plasma flow already impacts magnetic islands in the linear regime, by inducing a weakening of curvature stabilization for tearing modes. This conclusion holds in particular for regimes where convection is influencing the pressure dynamics, as shown using a simple analytical model and confirmed in full Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics simulations.

  18. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  19. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarasov, S. Yu. Rubtsov, V. E.; Melnikov, A. G.

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  20. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  1. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" held on February 25, 2016. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Slides (2.59 MB) More Documents &

  2. Hotline IV …High Temperature ESP | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hotline IV …High Temperature ESP Hotline IV …High Temperature ESP Project Objective: Increase temperature rating of high temperature ESPs. high_dhruva_hotline_iv.pdf (1.64 MB) More Documents & Publications Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

  3. Atomic-scale friction modulated by potential corrugation in multi-layered graphene materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-03-21

    Friction is an important issue that has to be carefully treated for the fabrication of graphene-based nano-scale devices. So far, the friction mechanism of graphene materials on the atomic scale has not yet been clearly presented. Here, first-principles calculations were employed to unveil the friction behaviors and their atomic-scale mechanism. We found that potential corrugations on sliding surfaces dominate the friction force and the friction anisotropy of graphene materials. Higher friction forces correspond to larger corrugations of potential energy, which are tuned by the number of graphene layers. The friction anisotropy is determined by the regular distributions of potential energy. The sliding along a fold-line path (hollow-atop-hollow) has a relatively small potential energy barrier. Thus, the linear sliding observed in macroscopic friction experiments may probably be attributed to the fold-line sliding mode on the atomic scale. These findings can also be extended to other layer-structure materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) and graphene-like BN sheets.

  4. Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach ...

  5. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling Not Available...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATION; BIOMASS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GREENHOUSE EFFECT; METHANE; OCEAN THERMAL POWER PLANTS; RENEWABLE...

  6. Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors February 17, ...

  7. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office February 25, 2016 Presenter: Brian James - Strategic ...

  8. Friction Stir Welding of ODS and RAFM Steels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili; Hoelzer, David; Tan, Lizhen; Sokolov, Mikhail A.

    2015-09-14

    Advanced structural materials such as oxide dispersion strengthened steels and reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are desired in fusion reactors as primary candidate materials for first wall and blanket structures, due to their excellent radiation and high-temperature creep resistance. However, their poor fusion weldability has been the major technical challenge limiting practical applications. For this reason, solid-state friction stir welding (FSW) has been considered for such applications. In this paper, the effect of FSW parameters on joining similar and dissimilar advanced structural steels was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to reveal the effects of FSW onmore » grain size, micro-texture distribution, and phase stability. Hardness mapping was performed to evaluate mechanical properties. Finally, post weld heat treatment was also performed to tailor the microstructure in the welds in order to match the weld zone mechanical properties to the base material.« less

  9. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 ?A/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  10. Friction Stir Welding of ODS and RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili; Hoelzer, David; Tan, Lizhen; Sokolov, Mikhail A.

    2015-09-14

    Advanced structural materials such as oxide dispersion strengthened steels and reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels are desired in fusion reactors as primary candidate materials for first wall and blanket structures, due to their excellent radiation and high-temperature creep resistance. However, their poor fusion weldability has been the major technical challenge limiting practical applications. For this reason, solid-state friction stir welding (FSW) has been considered for such applications. In this paper, the effect of FSW parameters on joining similar and dissimilar advanced structural steels was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction methods were used to reveal the effects of FSW on grain size, micro-texture distribution, and phase stability. Hardness mapping was performed to evaluate mechanical properties. Finally, post weld heat treatment was also performed to tailor the microstructure in the welds in order to match the weld zone mechanical properties to the base material.

  11. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David H.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David R.; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2011-11-08

    Friction stir methods are disclosed for processing at least one workpiece using a rotary tool with rotating member for contacting and processing the workpiece. The methods include oscillating the rotary tool laterally with respect to a selected propagation path for the rotating member with respect to the workpiece to define an oscillation path for the rotating member. The methods further include obtaining force signals or parameters related to the force experienced by the rotary tool at least while the rotating member is disposed at the extremes of the oscillation. The force signals or parameters associated with the extremes can then be analyzed to determine a lateral position of the selected path with respect to a target path and a lateral offset value can be determined based on the lateral position. The lateral distance between the selected path and the target path can be decreased based on the lateral offset value.

  12. Friction, impact, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Hall, G.F.

    1985-05-31

    Impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge sensitivities of energetic materials (explosives and pyrotechnics) used or manufactured at Mound were tested by the ''one-shot'' method. The Bruceton statistical method was used to derive 50% initiation levels, and the results were compared. The materials tested include: PETN, HMX, Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX), CP, TATB, RX26BB, RX26BH, barium styphnate, LX-15, LX-16, Ti/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.65//KClO/sub 4/, Fe/KClO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 1.75//B/CaCrO/sub 4/, Ti/B/CaCrO/sub 4/, B/CaCrO/sub 4/, TiH/sub 0.65//2B, TiH/sub 0.65//3B, 2Ti/B, TiH/sub 1.67//2B, Ti/2B, TiH/sub 1/67//3B, Ti/B, and Ti/3B. Some samples were investigated for aging effects, physical variables, and the effect of manufacturing paramters on sensitivities. The results show that in both friction and impact tests, CP and barium styphnate are the most sensitive; TiH/sub 1.65/KClO/sub 4/, LX-15, TATB and its related materials are the least sensitive; and other materials such as PETN and HMX are in the mid-range. In the electrostatic tests of Ti-based pyrotechnics, a decrease of sensitivity with increasing hydrogen concentration was observed. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Friction and wear in hot forging of steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daouben, E.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Deltombe, R.; Dubois, A.; Truong-Dinh, N.; Lazzarotto, L.

    2007-04-07

    In the field of hot forging of steels, the mastering of wear phenomena enables to save cost production, especially concerning tools. Surfaces of tools are protected thanks to graphite. The existing lubrication processes are not very well known: amount and quality of lubricant, lubrication techniques have to be strongly optimized to delay wear phenomena occurrence. This optimization is linked with hot forging processes, the lubricant layers must be tested according to representative friction conditions. This paper presents the first part of a global study focused on wear phenomena encountered in hot forging of steels. The goal is the identification of reliable parameters, in order to bring knowledge and models of wear. A prototype testing stand developed in the authors' laboratory is involved in this experimental analysis. This test is called Warm and Hot Upsetting Sliding Test (WHUST). The stand is composed of a heating induction system and a servo-hydraulic system. Workpieces taken from production can be heated until 1200 deg. C. A nitrided contactor representing the tool is heated at 200 deg. C. The contactor is then coated with graphite and rubs against the workpiece, leaving a residual track on it. Friction coefficient and surface parameters on the contactor and the workpiece are the most representative test results. The surface parameters are mainly the sliding length before defects occurrence, and the amplitude of surface profile of the contactor. The developed methodology will be first presented followed by the different parts of the experimental prototype. The results of experiment show clearly different levels of performance according to different lubricants.

  14. Dynamical friction in multi-component evolving globular clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessandrini, Emiliano; Lanzoni, Barbara; Miocchi, Paolo; Ciotti, Luca; Ferraro, Francesco R.

    2014-11-10

    We use the Chandrasekhar formalism and direct N-body simulations to study the effect of dynamical friction on a test object only slightly more massive than the field stars, orbiting a spherically symmetric background of particles with a mass spectrum. The main goal is to verify whether the dynamical friction time (t {sub DF}) develops a non-monotonic radial dependence that could explain the bimodality of the blue straggler radial distributions observed in globular clusters. In these systems, in fact, relaxation effects lead to a mass and velocity radial segregation of the different mass components, so that mass-spectrum effects on t {sub DF} are expected to be dependent on radius. We find that in spite of the presence of different masses, t {sub DF} is always a monotonic function of radius, at all evolutionary times and independently of the initial concentration of the simulated cluster. This is because the radial dependence of t {sub DF} is largely dominated by the total mass density profile of the background stars (which is monotonically decreasing with radius). Hence, a progressive temporal erosion of the blue straggler star (BSS) population at larger and larger distances from the cluster center remains the simplest and the most likely explanation of the shape of the observed BSS radial distributions, as suggested in previous works. We also confirm the theoretical expectation that approximating a multi-mass globular cluster as made of (averaged) equal-mass stars can lead to significant overestimations of t {sub DF} within the half-mass radius.

  15. Enhanced shear strength of sodium bentonite using frictional additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, K.E.; Bowders, J.J.; Gilbert, R.B.; Daniel, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most important obstacles to using geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) in landfill cover systems is the low shear strength provided by the bentonitic portion of the GCL. In this study, the authors propose that granular, frictional materials might be added to the bentonite to form an admixture that would have greater shear strength than the bentonite alone while still raining low hydraulic conductivity. Bentonite was mixed with two separate granular additives, expanded shale and recycled to form mixtures consisting of 20-70% bentonite by weight. In direct shear tests at normal stresses of 34.5-103.5 kPa, effective friction angles were measured as 45{degrees} for the expanded 36{degrees} for the recycled glass, and 7{degrees} for the hydrated granular bentonite. The strength of the expanded shale mixtures increased nearly linearly as the percentage shale in the mixture increased, to 44{degrees} for a bentonite mixture with 80% shale. The addition of recycled glass showed little effect on the shear strength of the mixtures of glass and bentonite. Hydraulic conductivity measurements for both types of mixtures indicated a linear increase with log(k) as the amount of granular additive increased. For applications involving geosynthetic clay liners for cover systems, a mixture of 40% expanded shale and 60% bentonite is recommended, although further testing must be done. The 40/60 mixture satisfies the hydraulic equivalency requirement, with k = 5.1X10{sup -9} cm/sec, while increasing the shear strength parameters of the bentonitic mixture to {phi}{prime} = 17{degrees} and c{prime} = 0.

  16. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  17. CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Denney, Kelly D., E-mail: pds2001@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jjshin@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2013-06-20

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  18. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  19. Measuring Real-time Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Measuring Real-time Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction Tuesday, May 31, 2016 Manganese(IV) oxides are powerful scavengers of toxins and trace metals, but they are also strong oxidants in the environment (1). Certain common microbes can also 'breathe' manganese oxides, in a process known as anaerobic respiration (2). During these environmental -commonly with sulfur or iron species- and biological interactions, manganese oxides are often

  20. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated toolkit consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  1. Actinide Corroles: Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) bis(-chloride) Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Buckley, Heather L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Arnold, John

    2013-12-01

    The first synthesis and structural characterization of actinide corroles is presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesised and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature 1H NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Stress-dependent grain size evolution of nanocrystalline Ni-W and its impact on friction behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Argibay, N.; Furnish, T. A.; Boyce, B. L.; Clark, B. G.; Chandross, M.

    2016-06-07

    The friction behavior of ultra-nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings was investigated. A critical stress threshold was identified below which friction remained low, and above which a time-dependent evolution toward higher friction behavior occurred. Founded on established plasticity models we propose a correlation between surface grain size and applied stress that can be used to predict the critical stress separating the two friction regimes. Lastly, this interpretation of plasticity models suggests that macro-scale low and high friction regimes are respectively associated with the nano-scale mechanisms of grain boundary and dislocation-mediated plasticity.

  3. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Won Hee; Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E.; Lee, Yong Woo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  4. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali; Busch, Donald E.; Fenske, George R.; Lee, Sam; Shepherd, Gary; Pruett, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  5. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility. [22, 45, 60/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luerkens, D W

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22/sup 0/C, 45/sup 0/C, and 60/sup 0/C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature.

  6. Atomic friction at exposed and buried graphite step edges: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-06-08

    The surfaces of layered materials such as graphite exhibit step edges that affect friction. Step edges can be exposed, where the step occurs at the outmost layer, or buried, where the step is underneath another layer of material. Here, we study friction at exposed and buried step edges on graphite using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and complementary molecular dynamics simulations of the AFM tip apex. Exposed and buried steps exhibit distinct friction behavior, and the friction on either step is affected by the direction of sliding, i.e., moving up or down the step, and the bluntness of the tip. These trends are analyzing in terms of the trajectory of the AFM tip as it moves over the step, which is a convolution of the topography of the surface and the tip shape.

  7. Friction of Steel Sliding Under Boundary Lubrication Regime in Commercial Gear Oils at Elevated Temperatures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study was conducted to understand how to increase engine efficiency by reducing parasitic boundary regime friction losses and enable operation with lower viscosity oils while maintaining engine durability.

  8. Enhancing trappable antiproton populations through deceleration and frictional cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotorev, Max; Sessler, Andrew; Penn, Gregory; Wurtele, Jonathan S.; Charman, Andrew E.

    2012-03-20

    CERN currently delivers antiprotons for trapping experiments with the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which slows the antiprotons down to about 5 MeV.This energy is currently too high for direct trapping, and thick foils are used to slow down the beam to energies which can be trapped.To allow further deceleration to $\\sim 100 \\;\\mbox{keV}$, CERN is initiating the construction of ELENA,consisting of a ring which will combine RF deceleration and electron cooling capabilities. We describe a simple frictionalcooling scheme that can serve to provide significantly improved trapping efficiency, either directly from the AD or first usinga standard deceleration mechanism (induction linac or RFQ). This scheme could be implemented in a short time.The device itself is short in length, uses accessible voltages, and at reasonable cost could serve in the interim beforeELENA becomes operational, or possibly in lieu of ELENA for some experiments. Simple theory and simulations provide a preliminary assessment of theconcept and its strengths and limitations, and highlight important areas for experimental studies, in particular to pin down the level of multiplescattering for low-energy antiprotons. We show that the frictional cooling scheme can provide a similar energy spectrum to that of ELENA,but with higher transverse emittances.

  9. Hard and low friction nitride coatings and methods for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali; Urgen, Mustafa; Cakir, Ali Fuat; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Kazmanli, Kursat; Keles, Ozgul

    2007-05-01

    An improved coating material possessing super-hard and low friction properties and a method for forming the same. The improved coating material includes the use of a noble metal or soft metal homogeneously distributed within a hard nitride material. The addition of small amounts of such metals into nitrides such as molybdenum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride results in as much as increasing of the hardness of the material as well as decreasing the friction coefficient and increasing the oxidation resistance.

  10. Stellite 6 Friction Changes Due to Aging and In-Service Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, John Clifford; DeWall, Kevin George

    2001-07-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have been investigating the ability of motor-operated valves to close or open when subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the friction that occurs at the interface between the valve disc and the valve body seats during operation of a gate valve. In most gate valves, these surfaces are hardfaced with Stellite 6, a cobalt-based alloy. The nuclear industry has developed methods to analytically predict the thrust needed to operate these valves at specific pressure conditions. To produce accurate valve thrust predictions; the analyst must have a reasonably accurate, though conservative, estimate of the coefficient of friction at the disc-to-seat interface. One of the questions that remains to be answered is whether, and to what extent, aging of the disc and seat surfaces affects the disc-to-seat coefficient of friction. Specifically, does the accumulation of a surface film due to aging of these surfaces increase the coefficient of friction and if so, how much? This paper presents results of specimen tests addressing this issue with emphasis on the following: • The change in the friction coefficient of Stellite 6 as it ages and whether the friction reaches a plateau. • The effect periodic gate valve cycling due to in-service testing has on the friction coefficient. • The results of an independent review of the test methods, processes, and the results of the research to date. • The status of ongoing aging and friction testing.

  11. Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Weiju

    2014-11-11

    A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Integrated Friction Reduction Technology to Improve Fuel Economy without Sacrificing Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by George Washington University at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel &...

  13. Reduction-in-Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or whether the employee has a right to another...

  14. Paperwork Reduction Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that all federal websites request permission from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) before collecting information from 10 or more members of the public....

  15. Nanoscale wear and kinetic friction between atomically smooth surfaces sliding at high speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajauria, Sukumar Canchi, Sripathi V. Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2015-02-23

    The kinetic friction and wear at high sliding speeds is investigated using the head-disk interface of hard disk drives, wherein the head and the disk are less than 10?nm apart and move at sliding speeds of 510?m/s relative to each other. While the spacing between the sliding surfaces is of the same order of magnitude as various AFM based fundamental studies on friction, the sliding speed is nearly six orders of magnitude larger, allowing a unique set-up for a systematic study of nanoscale wear at high sliding speeds. In a hard disk drive, the physical contact between the head and the disk leads to friction, wear, and degradation of the head overcoat material (typically diamond like carbon). In this work, strain gauge based friction measurements are performed; the friction coefficient as well as the adhering shear strength at the head-disk interface is extracted; and an experimental set-up for studying friction between high speed sliding surfaces is exemplified.

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens Sample from the Fifth Data Release Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey...

  17. TOTAL SES SL EJ//EK EN IV EN III

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SL EJEK EN IV EN III NN (Engineering) NQ (ProfTechAdmin) NU (TechAdminSupport) RETIREMENT ELIGIBLE TO RETIRE IMMEDIATELY 11 13.9% ELIGIBLE TO RETIRE BY 3272014 29 36.7%...

  18. 2016 Annex IV State of the Science Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The recently published Annex IV State of the Science Report summarizes the state of the science of interactions and effects of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices on the marine environment, the...

  19. NREL Funding Reductions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funding Reductions to Further Impact Lab's Work Force For more information contact: Robert Noun 303-275-3062 Golden, Colo., December 22, 1995 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced today that it will further reduce its work force as a result of continuing reductions of its fiscal year 1996 federal funding for renewable energy research and development. On November 2, the laboratory announced plans to reduce its 900 person regular work force

  20. Table IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary Table IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary "Technical targets for fuel cell membranes in stationary applications defined by the High Temperature Working Group (February 2003). " technical_targets_membr_stat.pdf (83.24 KB) More Documents & Publications Table II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive Table III: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Stationary Table I: Technical Targets for

  1. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luerkens, D. W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide.

  2. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office February 25, 2016 Presenter: Brian James - Strategic Analysis, Inc. DOE Host: Grace Ordaz- Technology Manager, Hydrogen Storage Program 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Question and Answer * Please type your questions into the question box 2 Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell

  3. Measurement of local internal friction in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, H.; Bchsenschtz-Gbeler, M.; Luo, Y.; Samwer, K.; Kumar, A.; Arnold, W.

    2014-04-07

    Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM), an advanced scanning probe microscopy technique, has been used to measure local elastic properties with a spatial resolution given by the tip-sample contact radius. AFAM is based on inducing out-of-plane vibrations in the specimen. The vibrations are sensed by the AFM cantilever from by the photodiode signal when its tip is in contact with the material under test. To measure local damping, the inverse quality factor Q{sup ?1} of the resonance curve is usually evaluated. Here, from the contact-resonance spectra obtained, we determine the real and imaginary part of the contact stiffness k* and from these two quantities the local damping factor Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} is obtained which is proportional to the imaginary part ? of the contact stiffness. The evaluation of the data is based on the cantilever's mass distribution with damped flexural modes and not on an effective point-mass approximation for the cantilevers motion. The given equation is simple to use and has been employed to study the local Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} of amorphous PdCuSi metallic glass and its crystalline counterpart as a function of position of the AFM tip on the surface. The width of the distribution changes dramatically from the amorphous to the crystalline state as expected from the consequences of the potential-energy landscape picture. The center value of the distribution curve for Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} coincides very well with published data, based on global ultrasonic or internal friction measurements. This is compared to Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} measured in crystalline SrTiO{sub 3}, which exhibits a narrow distribution, as expected.

  4. Tactical encirclement reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutwald, R.

    1986-12-05

    This monograph discusses the intricacies of liquidating tactical encirclements and bypassed pockets of enemy resistance. Operational employment of U.S. Army doctrine will lead to tactical encirclements in most instances. Contemporary doctrine, however, fails to acknowledge the probability of encirclement. Additionally, doctrine fails to address methods of dealing with enemy pockets. History argues that encircled enemy units often refuse to capitulate and usually require reduction by force. Furthermore, four brief examples of encirclement from the Russo-German front of World War II demonstrate that reduction operations are often difficult and complex. An encircling commander must foresee the consequences of encirclements and attempt to create the most favorable conditions for the reduction of encircled enemy forces. He must select a method and technique of reduction. He must base his selection of the situation, the threat posed by the enemy, the requirement for speed, the available resources, and the likely costs. Regardless of the method and technique chosen, the encircling commander must also consider the following: pausing to organize, establishing maneuver and fire control measures, isolating the enemy, nuclear weapon employment, and psychological operations. This paper concludes that the Army must acknowledge its doctrinal void, research and develop a reduction methodology, and amend its doctrine.

  5. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  6. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  7. Paperwork Reduction Act Forms

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    You may need to fill out one or several of these forms depending on the nature of your survey or usability project. See the Paperwork Reduction Act Web page for more information about the process. Contact the Web Usability Coordinator if you have questions about which forms to complete.

  8. Nondestructive, in-process inspection of inertia friction welding : an investigation into a new sensing technique.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, D. A.; Cola, M. J.; Dave, V. R.; Dozhier, N. G.; Carpenter, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the capabilities of a new sensor for in-process monitoring of quality during friction welding. The non-contact sensor is composed of microphones that are mounted in an aluminum ring which surrounds the weld joint. The sensor collects the acoustical energy (in the form of sound pressure) that is emitted during the plastic deformation and phase transformations (if applicable) in friction welding processes. The focus in this preliminary investigation is to search for and identify features within the acoustical emission that are indicative of bond quality. Bar-to-bar inertia friction welding (one form of friction welding) of copper to 304L stainless steel is used in this proof-of-concept study. This material combination exhibits only marginal weldability and is ideally suited for validating the capabilities of this new sensing technique. A probabilistic neural network is employed in this work to analyze the acoustical emission's frequency spectrum in an attempt to classify acceptable, conditional, and unacceptable welds. Our preliminary findings indicate that quality-based process features do exist within the frequency spectrum of the acoustical signature. The results from this analysis are presented. Future work in improving the sensing and interpretation of the data is discussed in an effort to develop a robust method of quality-based, in-process monitoring of friction welds.

  9. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  10. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  11. Research Level I-V and QE Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, Keith

    2013-08-12

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current-voltage (I-V) and quantum efficiency (QE) for various types of photovoltaic cells include the following: (1) Compare measurements with another trusted laboratory often enough to see the random error; (2) Have a calibration lab calibrate your research cell; (3) Document potential metastabilities and sensitivity to premeasurement conditions; (4) Measure the 1-sun spectral responsivity with a bias light level of 0.37 times the expected 1-sun short-current current; and (5) Be aware of bias rate artifacts in I-V and QE.

  12. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling (Technical Report) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SciTech Connect Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for

  13. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less

  14. Effects of heterogeneity and friction on the deformation and strength of rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.; Myer, L.R.; Liu, Z.; Cook, N.G.W.; Kemeny, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    Experimental observations of the evolution of damage in rocks during compressive loading indicate that macroscopic failure occurs predominantly by extensile crack growth parallel or subparallel to the maximum principal stress. Extensile microcracks initiate at grain boundaries and open pores by a variety of micromechanical processes which may include grain bending, Brazilian type fracture and grain boundary sliding. Microstructural heterogeneity in grain size, strength and shape determines the magnitude of the local tensile stresses which produce extensile microcracking and the stability with which these microcracks coalesce to form macrocracks. Friction at grain boundaries and between the surfaces of microcracks reduces the strain energy available for extensile crack growth and increases the stability of microcrack growth. In clastic rocks, frictional forces may improve the conditions for extensile microcrack growth by constraining the amount of sliding and rotation of individual grains. Micromechanical models are used to investigate the effects of heterogeneity and friction on the deformation and strength of crystalline and clastic rocks.

  15. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  16. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, Warren H.; Payne, John R.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB.sub.2, for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints.

  17. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  18. Deletion of the paired [alpha]5(IV) and [alpha]6(IV) collagen genes in inherited smooth muscle tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; Mochizuki, T.; Reeders, S.T. ); Smeets, H. ); Antignac, C. ); Laurila, P. ); Paepe, A. de ); Tryggvason, K. )

    1993-08-27

    The gene encoding [alpha]6(IV) collagen, COL4A6, was identified on the human X chromosome in a head-to-head arrangement and within 452 base pairs of the [alpha]5(IV) collagen gene, COL4A5. In earlier studies, intragenic deletions of COL4A5 were detected in a subset of patients with Alport syndrome (AS), a hereditary defect of basement membranes. In some families, AS cosegregates with diffuse leiomyomatosis (DL), a benign smooth muscle tumor diathesis. Here it is shown that patients with AS-DL harbor deletions that disrupt both COL4A5 and COL4A6. Thus, type IV collagen may regulate smooth muscle differentiation and morphogenesis.

  19. Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.

    2006-04-05

    The FRC groundwater and sediment contain significant concentrations of U and Tc and are dominated by low pH, and high nitrate and Al concentrations where dissimilatory metal reducing bacterial activity may be limited. The presence of Clostridia in Area 3 at the FRC site has been confirmed and their ability to reduce uranium under site conditions will be determined. Although the phenomenon of uranium reduction by Clostridia has been firmly established, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a reaction are not very clear. The authors are exploring the hypothesis that U(VI) reduction occurs through hydrogenases and other enzymes (Matin and Francis). Fundamental knowledge of metal reduction using Clostridia will allow us to exploit naturally occurring processes to attenuate radionuclide and metal contaminants in situ in the subsurface. The outline for this report are as follows: (1) Growth of Clostridium sp. under normal culture conditions; (2) Fate of metals and radionuclides in the presence of Clostridia; (3) Bioreduction of uranium associated with nitrate, citrate, and lepidocrocite; and (4) Utilization of Clostridium sp. for immobilization of uranium at the FRC Area 3 site.

  20. Stability of Y–Ti–O precipitates in friction stir welded nanostructured ferritic alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xinghua; Mazumder, B.; Miller, M. K.; David, S. A.; Feng, Z.

    2015-01-19

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys, which have complex microstructures which consist of ultrafine ferritic grains with a dispersion of stable oxide particles and nanoclusters, are promising materials for fuel cladding and structural applications in the next generation nuclear reactor. This paper evaluates microstructure of friction stir welded nanostructured ferritic alloys using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography techniques. Atom probe tomography results revealed that nanoclusters are coarsened and inhomogeneously distributed in the stir zone and thermomechanically affected zone. Three hypotheses on coarsening of nanoclusters are presented. Finally, the hardness difference in different regions of friction stir weld has been explained.

  1. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chivers, T.C.

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  2. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  3. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  4. Influence of the chemical surface structure on the nanoscale friction in plasma nitrided and post-oxidized ferrous alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freislebem, Mrcia; Menezes, Caren M.; Cemin, Felipe; Costi, Fernanda B.; Ferreira, Patrcia A.; Aguzzoli, Csar; Baumvol, Israel J. R.; Alvarez, Fernando; Figueroa, Carlos A.

    2014-09-15

    Friction is a ubiquitous phenomenon in everyday activities spanning from vehicles where efficient brakes are mandatory up to mechanical devices where its minimum effects are pursued for energy efficiency issues. Recently, theoretical models succeed correlating the friction behavior with energy transference via phonons between sliding surfaces. Therefore, considering that the energy losses by friction are prompted through phonons, the chemical surface structure between sliding surfaces is very important to determine the friction phenomenon. In this work, we address the issue of friction between a conical diamond tip sliding on different functionalized flat steel surfaces by focusing the influence of the chemical bonds in the outermost layers on the sliding resistance. This geometry allows probing the coupling of the sharp tip with terminator species on the top and underneath material surface at in-depth friction measurements from 20 to 200?nm. Experimentally, the friction coefficient decreases when nitrogen atoms are substituted for oxygen in the iron network. This effect is interpreted as due to energy losses through phonons whilst lower vibrational frequency excitation modes imply lower friction coefficients and a more accurate adjustment is obtained when a theoretical model with longitudinal adsorbate vibration is used.

  5. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B.; Sheppard, Charles J.; Dyk, E. Ernest van

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  6. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, John R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces.

  7. Electrolytic oxide reduction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Berger, John F

    2015-04-28

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies, a plurality of cathode assemblies, and a lift system configured to engage the anode and cathode assemblies. The cathode assemblies may be alternately arranged with the anode assemblies such that each cathode assembly is flanked by two anode assemblies. The lift system may be configured to selectively engage the anode and cathode assemblies so as to allow the simultaneous lifting of any combination of the anode and cathode assemblies (whether adjacent or non-adjacent).

  8. Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J.

    2009-08-15

    Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

  9. Multiple pass and multiple layer friction stir welding and material enhancement processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhili [Knoxville, TN; David, Stan A. [Knoxville, TN; Frederick, David Alan [Harriman, TN

    2010-07-27

    Processes for friction stir welding, typically for comparatively thick plate materials using multiple passes and multiple layers of a friction stir welding tool. In some embodiments a first portion of a fabrication preform and a second portion of the fabrication preform are placed adjacent to each other to form a joint, and there may be a groove adjacent the joint. The joint is welded and then, where a groove exists, a filler may be disposed in the groove, and the seams between the filler and the first and second portions of the fabrication preform may be friction stir welded. In some embodiments two portions of a fabrication preform are abutted to form a joint, where the joint may, for example, be a lap joint, a bevel joint or a butt joint. In some embodiments a plurality of passes of a friction stir welding tool may be used, with some passes welding from one side of a fabrication preform and other passes welding from the other side of the fabrication preform.

  10. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  11. Development of Tc(IV)-Incorporated Fe Minerals to Enhance 99Tc Retention in Glass Waste Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-03-17

    Iron minerals have been considered to be good hosts for Tc immobilization because the Tc(IV) ion substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure of the Fe oxide due to similarities in (1) cation size [Tc(IV) = 78.5 pm ; Fe(III) = 69 or 78.5 pm], (2) metal-oxygen interatomic distance (Tc—O = 0.199 nm, Fe—O = 0.203 nm), (3) number of coordinating oxygen atoms (both 6-fold coordinated), and (4) the redox potential (Eh=ca. +20 mV at pH = 7) for a redox couple between Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) and Fe(III)/Fe(II). Magnetite, maghemite, and trevorite are iron oxide minerals and all belong to spinel mineral group. Laboratory testing shows that Tc can be removed from aqueous waste solutions by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation with iron oxide minerals during recrystallization of Fe(OH)2(s) used as an initial solid precursor. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed that Tc was in the +4 oxidation state in final Tc-Fe minerals. The Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were also tested for Tc retention in glass melts at different temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC in a furnace. After being cooled in air, the solid glass specimens collected at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using XANES and Tc retention using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Even though Tc(IV) started to reoxidize at 600 oC, Tc retention in the final glass specimen prepared with Tc-incorporated Fe mineral even at high temperatures was at least two times higher than glass prepared with KTcO4 salt. Higher Tc retention in glass is considered to result from limited and delayed Tc volatilization process due to Fe mineral encapsulation for Tc. Therefore, the results showing the presence of Tc(IV) in the Fe mineral structure indicate strong possibility to enhance Tc retention in borosilicate glass as well as to reduce the remediation costs at the Hanford Site.

  12. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  13. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  14. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  15. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-10

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  16. IV. LMI Model Provisions for Shared Renewable Energy Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    www.irecusa.org | LMI Guidelines | 35 IV. LMI Model Provisions for Shared Renewable Energy Programs As indicated at the outset, these LMI Guidelines and accompanying LMI Model Provisions are intended to function in tandem with IREC's Model Rules for Shared Renewable Energy Programs. For policymakers, regulators and other entities using and refining these LMI Model Provisions, IREC emphasizes that coordination with customer advocates, especially LMI customer advocates, environmental and

  17. Method of synthesis of anhydrous thorium(IV) complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Cantat, Thibault

    2013-04-30

    Method of producing anhydrous thorium(IV) tetrahalide complexes, utilizing Th(NO.sub.3).sub.4(H.sub.2O).sub.x, where x is at least 4, as a reagent; method of producing thorium-containing complexes utilizing ThCl.sub.4(DME).sub.2 as a precursor; method of producing purified ThCl.sub.4(ligand).sub.x compounds, where x is from 2 to 9; and novel compounds having the structures: ##STR00001##

  18. Analysis of the raw data of sample plots in NFIMAP Cycle IV ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    raw data of sample plots in NFIMAP Cycle IV (English version) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Analysis of the raw data of sample plots in NFIMAP Cycle IV...

  19. Sensitivities of I-V Parameters in C-Si PV Modules of Hygrothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensitivities of I-V Parameters in C-Si PV Modules of Hygrothermal Stress Sensitivities of I-V Parameters in C-Si PV Modules of Hygrothermal Stress Presented at the PV Module ...

  20. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors The safety ...

  1. Annex IV Environmental Webinar: Effects of Energy Removal on Physical Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please mark your calendars for the next Annex IV Environmental webinar titled: Effects of Energy Removal on Physical Systems. Held under the auspices of the Annex IV initiative to the IEA Ocean...

  2. Generation-IV Roadmap Report of the Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Charter of the Generation IV Roadmap Fuel Cycle Crosscut Group (FCCG) is to (1) examine the fuel cycle implications for alternative nuclear power scenarios in terms of Generation IV goals and ...

  3. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  4. Thermal Management in Friction-Stir Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2015-05-25

    Process design and implementation in FSW is mostly dependent on empirical information gathered through experience. Basic science of friction stir welding and processing can only be complete when fundamental interrelationships between process control parameters and response variables and resulting weld microstructure and properties are established to a reasonable extent. It is known that primary process control parameters like tool rotation and translation rate and forge axis force have complicated and interactive relationships to the process response variables such as peak temperature, time at temperature etc. Of primary influence to the other process response parameters are temperature and its gradient at the deformation and heat affected zones. Through review of pertinent works in the literature and some experimental results from boundary condition work performed in precipitation hardening aluminum alloys this paper will partially elucidate the nature and effects of temperature transients caused by variation of thermal boundaries in Friction Stir Welding.

  5. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welding: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; David, Stan A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of residual stresses are often generated during welding and result in critical degradation of the structural integrity and performance of components. Neutron diffraction has become a well established technique for the determination of residual stresses in welds because of the unique deep penetration, three-dimensional mapping capability, and volume averaged bulk measurements characteristic of the scattering neutron beam. Friction stir welding has gained prominence in recent years. The authors reviewed a number of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in friction stir welds and highlighted examples addressing how the microstructures and residual stresses are correlated with each other. An example of in situ neutron diffraction measurement result shows the evolution of the residual stresses during welding.

  6. UPDATE ON FRICTION BONDING OF MONOLITHIC U-MO FUEL PLATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Burkes; N. P. Hallinan; J. M. Wight; M. D. Chapple

    2007-09-01

    Friction Bonding (FB), formerly referred to as Friction Stir Welding, is an alternative plate fabrication technique to encapsulate monolithic U-Mo fuel foils inside 6061-T6 aluminum alloy cladding. Over the past year, significant progress has been made in the area of FB, including improvements in tool material, tool design, process parameters, cooling capability and capacity and modeling, all of which improve and enhance the quality of fabricated fuel plates, reproducibility of the fabrication process and bond quality of the fuel plates. Details of this progress and how it relates to the observed improvements and enhancements are discussed. In addition, details on how these improvements have been implemented into the last two RERTR mini-plate irradiation campaigns are also discussed.

  7. Microstructure and anisotropic mechanical behavior of friction stir welded AA2024 alloy sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhihan; Li, Wenya; Li, Jinglong; Chao, Y.J.; Vairis, A.

    2015-09-15

    The anisotropic mechanical properties of friction stir welded (FSW) AA2024-T3 alloy joints were investigated based on the uniaxial tensile tests. The joint microstructure was examined by using electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Results show that the evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in the FSW joints. With the increase of loading angle from 0° to 90° the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the specimens consistently decrease, or at first decrease and then increase, depending on the FSW process parameters. The specimen cut from the weld direction, i.e. a loading angle of 0°, exhibits the highest strength and elongation. - Highlights: • Microstructure and anisotropy of friction stir welded joints were studied. • The evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in joints. • The lowest yield stress and UTS are at 45° and 60° loadings, respectively. • Rotation speed heavily impact on the anisotropy of joints.

  8. PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT OF 1995

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT OF 1995 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY INFORMATION COLLECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Chris Rouleau, PRA Officer Records Management Division Office of the Associate Chief Information Officer for IT Planning, Architecture and E-Government Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of the Chief Information Officer 2/16/2010 2 TOPICS  Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 - Law  Paperwork Reduction Act - Overview  Information Collection Requests (ICRs)  Information

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Idling Reduction Network News Archives Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network News Archives The National Idling Reduction Network brings together ...

  10. National Idling Reduction Network News- November 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Newsletter with information on idling reduction regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events.