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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

2

Definition: Anthracite coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anthracite coal A hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal; contains 86-97% carbon, and generally has...

3

Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

High temperature air-blown gasification of Korean anthracite and plastic waste mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Korean anthracite is too high in ash contents and low in calorific value to be used as an industrial energy source, the demand for anthracite has rapidly decreased and its competitiveness weakened. To overcome...

Young-Chan Choi; Jae-Goo Lee; Jae-Ho Kim…

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Factors Related to the Residence Time of Fine Particle Concerning the Burnout of Fujian Anthracite During Combustion in CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Factors related to the residence time of fine Fujian anthracite coke particle during combustion in CFB boiler which would affect its burnout were ... burnout of Fujian anthracite particle during combustion in CFB

Jieqing Zheng; Hongzhou He

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in ...

Dong-Won Kim; Jong-Min Lee; Jae-Sung Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Co-carbonization of two anthracites with a fat coal or two pitches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The blends of two anthracite powders (YQ and JC) with a fat coal (C4) or a petroleum pitch (PP) or a coal tar pitch (CTP) in different proportions were co-carbonized at 3{sup o}C/min up to 1000{sup o}C in an experimental 1 kg coke oven. Coke yield, coke particulate size, coke micro-strength and coke cracking strength were measured respectively. Coke optical textures were watched under a microscope. The results show that as anthracite proportion increases, coke yields of all blends improve; > 0.8 mm lump coke yields of blends with CTP or PP decline slightly, blends with C4 drop heavily; coke microstrengths do not change sharply, and coke cracking strength of blends with C4 or PP decrease more than blends with CTP. C4 produces fine-grained mosaics, and two anthracites are mainly fusinite and fragments, PP is coarse-grained mosaics, and CTP is chiefly flow or domain textures. Independent optical textures were observed in cokes. There exist evident borders between the two contact optical textures which were produced by different components, and a few phenomena that domain or flow textures penetrating into fusinite appeared in the blends. It seems that CTP is the best adhesives for blending with anthracites for producing high quality cokes.

Shen, J.; Wang, Z.Z. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). College of Chemical Engineering & Technology

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

s e c t i o n Building the new grid | white Paper www.generAtinginsights.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of developing smart grid architecture to maximize its benefits and minimize future risks By Jeffrey S. Katz, IBM54 s e c t i o n Building the new grid | white Paper 1 www.generAtinginsights.com smart grid Smart grid means automation of the electric power grid, and automation often means computerization

10

Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Cobb, J.T. Jr. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA)); Ahn, Y.K. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (USA)); Angelo, J.F. (Universal Energy International, Inc., Little Rock, AR (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Optimization of regimes for the feed of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust for burning in a TPP-210A boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented for regime adjustment of feed systems for a TPP-210A boiler for the burning of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust. As compared with nonoptimal regimes, optimal regimes of high-concentration-feed systems improve the economy of the boiler by 1.7% on average.

L.V. Golyshev; G.A. Dovgoteles [JSC 'L'vovORGRES', L'vov (Ukraine)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism.

Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Production characteristics and drainage optimization of coalbed methane wells: A case study from low-permeability anthracite hosted reservoirs in southern Qinshui Basin, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Monitoring the production from 94 coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the southern part of the Qinshui Basin of China this study demonstrates production characteristics of CBM wells, and how the incorrect production system, including improper water drainage rates and wellhead pressures, can lead to diminished gas production. Using data from these wells our results suggest that high-production rate wells, medium-production rate wells, low-production rate wells, and drainage wells, are controlled by drainage conditions in addition to the well location and structural geology. The analysis of drainage parameters shows that the maximum wellhead pressure should be maintained around 1.5 MPa before stable production, and between 0.10 MPa and 0.30 MPa after stable production. The most efficient average water production rate is approximately 4 m3/day before gas production and should be maintained near 1 m3/day during gas production. Initial daily average water production rate should be maintained around 1.5 m3/day. Maximum water production rate should be regulated between 4 and 17 m3/day. The rate of water level reduction should be within 4 m/d and drainage time should be maintained for 50–200 days prior to gas production. Implementation of these optimal drainage parameters will promote and sustain peak gas production for several years. In addition, reservoirs with adequate permeability, > 0.1 mD, are ideal for electric submersible pump systems while sucker-rod pumps are better suited for reservoirs with poor permeability. The combination of these operating conditions and the appropriate pumps optimizes the extraction efficiency and recovery of coalbed methane from the anthracitic coals in the Qinshui Basin.

Huihu Liu; Shuxun Sang; Michael Formolo; Mengxi Li; Shiqi Liu; Hongjie Xu; Shikai An; Junjun Li; Xingzhen Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Plant betterment for an anthracite-burning utility in Ukraine: Coal preparation as part of a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emission control strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Workers at the Energy Departments of the US and Ukraine have cooperatively devised a strategy for upgrading performance of a 200 MWe wet bottom pulverized coal boiler in eastern Ukraine at the Lugansk GRES power station. The plant currently burns poor quality anthracite (30% ash versus 18% ash design coal, as-received basis) and is in need of maintenance. Oil or gas support fuel in the amount of 30% (calorific basis) is required to stabilize the flame and supplement the calorific value of the coal feed. No NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} controls are used at present, and unburned carbon content in the fly ash is high. An experimental program was carried out at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to estimate the improvement in plant performance that could be expected if the unit is supplied with design coal and is refurbished. High ash Ukrainian anthracite was cleaned to design specifications. Raw and cleaned coal were fed to a 490 MJ/h coal feed combustion unit at a number of conditions of support fuel use and ingress air leakage designed to simulate current and improved operations at the power plant. The results indicate the improvement in performance and reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions that can be expected as a result of the planned upgrade and conversion to use of cleaned coal. A detailed engineering and financial analysis indicates that plant rehabilitation combined with the use of cleaned schtib reduces not only pollutant emissions but also cost of electricity (COE). Additional benefits include increased plant life and capacity, and reduced supplementary fuel consumption.

Ruether, J.A.; Freeman, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center; Gollakota, S.V. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Anthracite Power & Light | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56220 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

16

s e c t i o n reinventing energy | white Paper www.generAtinginsights.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nuclear Business maturity model (nBmm) The nuclear power industry is one of the most globally sharing, self-critical industries in the world. Various organizations, such as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators (INPO), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthracite Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source: Fusiongnition Research Experiment (FIRE) Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 75 Coking properties of perhydrous low-rank vitrains. Influence of pyrolysis conditions...

18

Undersøgelse af gener der fremkalder multiresistens hos E. coli; Examination of genes that induce multiresistance in E. coli.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biocidet triclosan selekterer for antibiotikaresistente Escherichia coli bakterier, især overfor antibiotikummet tetracycline, hvilket menes at skyldes en øget effluxpumpeaktivitet i AcrAB. I denne rapport fastslås,… (more)

Bruun-Schmidt, Kirstine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

s e c t i o n Building the new grid | white Paper www.generAtinginsights.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, global policy makers have begun crafting roadmaps to increase energy efficiency and sustainable, "green"; · Energy distribution grids coping with an increasing amount of de-central "green" energy generation, which emissions by increasing the amount of "green" energy generation; · Increase in overall efficiency of energy

20

Rice Hull Silica, A Silicon Carbide Precursor For Collagen, Lignin And Silicon Metal Powder Bindered Anthracite Briquettes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Foundry coke is currently the primary energy source of U.S. iron foundries employing cupolas to produce iron. The availability, cost and environmental impact of this… (more)

Jiles, Allura

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged… (more)

Nyathi, Mhlwazi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Shape from Planar Curves: A Linear Escape from Flatland Ady Ecker Kiriakos N. Kutulakos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure in Straight Homogeneous Gener- alized Cylinders (SHGC). Our presentation is closer to 1 #12

Jepson, Allan D.

23

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production, 1949-2011 Total By Rank By Mining Method By Location 200 U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2011 Anthracite Lignite Subbituminous...

24

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Bituminous",,"Subbituminous",,"Lignite",,"Anthracite",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number...

25

China Energy Primer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reserves, 54.4% were bituminous (including anthracite), 29.4% were sub-bituminous, and 16.2% were lignite.

Ni, Chun Chun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 2: Coal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2 2 Coal Coal is a mixture of organic mineral material produced by a natural process of growth and decay, or an accumulation of debris both vegetal and mineral with some sorting and stratification. The process is accomplished by chemical, biological, bacteriological and metamorphic action. 1 Forms of Coal Coal is a hydrocarbon that is classified according to the amount of heat it produces. Heat content depends upon the amount of fixed carbon it contains. Rank is the degree of progressive alteration in the transformation from lignite to anthracite. There are four primary ranks of coal: * Anthracite (semi-anthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite) * Bituminous (high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile) * Subbituminous * Lignite (brown coal and lignite)

27

SOI\\MASPDCTSOI,'TiE ECOLOGYO3 A SIVAI\\rE I.iottusK rN KA]\\.BOiig3Ay, OAHU, HAWATI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ecology :--;d..,r :-:-e su-nnarized. as follows: 1. The clarns occu: 1:- ag;rc3:iions or beos gener- ally

Luther, Douglas S.

28

DUSEL-related Science at LBNL -- Program and Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the only operating underground facility in the world fora next gener- ation underground facility at the DUSELshielded Oroville underground facility. These facilities

Bauer, Christian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptor domain-mediated auto-catalytic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: optimised techniques to generate adaptor protocols, being given a set of service interfaces involved... the gener- ation and the verification of the adaptor protocols....

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect grid operations Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the new grid | white Paper www.generAtinginsights.com Summary: grid: it challenges for energy Distribution grid operators the e-energy moma project addresses... " energy...

31

Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Final design of prototype unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A final design of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler has been accomplished under Phase I of DOE Contract ET-78-C-01-3269. The prototype boiler has been designed to generate 20,000 pounds per hour of 150 psig saturated steam using low Btu (4000 Btu per pound) anthracite culm as a fuel. This boiler will be located at the industrial park of the Shamokin Area Industrial Corporation (SAIC). This program is directed at demonstrating the commercial viability of anthracite culm fueled FBC steam generation systems.

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

like blast furnace slag, fly ash, coal gangue, limestone,In ordinary VSKs, high-ash anthracite coal and raw materialsAsh Limestone Gypsum Other (please specify) Other (please specify) Total Yearly Energy Consumption (ton) Coal

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Table 7.2 Coal Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1...

34

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Table 7.9 Coal Prices, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3...

35

Curriculum Support Maps for the Study of Indiana Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

": lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. Indiana coals are bituminous and composed of 55 to 79 nearly 17 billion tons is recoverable. These reserves could last another 585 years at the current rate

Polly, David

36

Active control of a powered ankle-foot prosthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amputees suffer a higher metabolic demand on their bodies. Passive prostheses seek to reduce this deficit through elastic distribution of the energy inherently dissipated in walking. Yet with no capacity to gener...

Ashwin Needham; Andrzej Ordys

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Exploring modulated amplitudes in the resistive regime of a one-dimensional superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a new method to explore the modulated amplitude associated with formation of phase slip centers in a one-dimensional superconductor. With this method we probe finite amplitude modulations that gener...

A. Bhattacharyay

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Development of an electric motor-driven pump unit for electro-hydraulic power steering with 42V power-Net  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motorization in vehicles is expanding rapidly for fuel efficiency, customer comfort, convenience, and safety features. These new electric loads represent an increase in the required electric power. This has gener...

J. Hur

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Energy service company and financial market development: experiences of the Global Environment Facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and the energy market for ESCO financing have been developing since ... dramatically. ESCOs’ services cover projects in many energy areas, including energy extraction, power gener...

Ming Yang

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A Non-Born–Oppenheimer Self-consistent Field Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This communication outlines the development of a novel method for the ab initio computation of molecular systems wherein the Born–Oppenheimer approximation is not invoked. In the current ... wavefunction is gener...

Balakrishnan Viswanathan; Christopher J. Barden…

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Searching for seismic scattering off mantle interfaces between 800 km and 2000 km depth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, reservoirs could feed OIBs. The heat flow gener- ated by a mantle with a potassium, thorium, and uranium., 1999; Kellogg et al., 1999a]. The mid-ocean ridges would then sample the depleted reservoir, whereas

van der Hilst, Robert Dirk

42

A Preliminary Study of the Marine Biota at Navassa Island, Caribbean Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which issued a gener al research permit to NMFS to conduct the 1998 survey. Navassa Island is a flat limestone cliffs with a small area along the north coast consisting of a steep rocky beach with some sand

43

Norman Spinrad Your Majesty; members of the Swedish  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stills and gener- ating abundant electricity to charge our hydrogen fuel cells, cars and trucks; to power from its own stupidity at the cost of making myself a laughing stock in the process, the only

Cai, Long

44

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 20352050, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/2035/2009/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by dust, biomass burning, fresh (indus- trial) chimney plumes, other coal burning pollution, and rel. Yang (mingxi@hawaii.edu) 1 Introduction Aerosols scatter and absorb shortwave solar radiation, gener

Meskhidze, Nicholas

45

Japanese Housing Tenure Choice and Welfare Implications after the Revision of the Tenant Protection Law  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new mode of housing tenure in Japan, rental housing with fixed rental terms, ... by analyzing the determinants of the choices by households among the three types of housing tenure in Japan: owned housing, gener...

Miki Seko; Kazuto Sumita

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Bond graph models of electromechanical systems. The AC generator case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. After reviewing electromechanical energy conversion and torque gener- ation, the core element present in any electromechanical system is introduced, and the corresponding electrical and mechanical ports are attached to it. No modulated elements are necessary, since the energy representation

Batlle, Carles

47

Radial heat transfer from a moving plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

devices are presently being con- sideredd both f r propulsion and attitude control. For the gener'ation of electrical power - the future, the controlled thermonuclear pro- cess or, , uclear fusion holds great promise. Whether the e. ergy created in... devices are presently being con- sideredd both f r propulsion and attitude control. For the gener'ation of electrical power - the future, the controlled thermonuclear pro- cess or, , uclear fusion holds great promise. Whether the e. ergy created in...

Johnson, James Randall

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Michael Murray, Ph.D. National Wildlife Federation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Michael Murray, Ph.D. National Wildlife Federation Great Lakes Natural Resource Center Ann Arbor context #12;2 Source: Cassedy and Grossman, Introduction to Energy, 1998 #12;3 Coal Ranks · Anthracite ­ highest rank, high energy content · Bituminous ­ second highest rank, high energy content; typically

O'Donnell, Tom

49

Beginning July 2012, use of granular activated carbon (GAC) as filter media will be examined for removal of NOM.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& particle filtration prior to disinfection. · Removal of additional NOM by sorption is also utilized US EPA for removal of NOM. · Current filter bed conditions at plant are 24 inches anthracite over 15 inches sand. · 30 inches Calgon FILTRASORB® 300 GAC over 9 inches sand will be piloted to assess NOM removal

Mountziaris, T. J.

50

Particle and Gas Emissions from a Simulated Coal-Burning Household Fire Pit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle and Gas Emissions from a Simulated Coal-Burning Household Fire Pit ... Chinese anthracite and bituminous coals produce different amounts of emissions when burned in a fire pit that simulates common rural household use of these fuels. ... Here we present emissions from burning 15 different fuels in a laboratory system designed to mimic the fire pits used in Xuan Wei County, China. ...

Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Second Provincial Meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a very superior coke; it continues so to Rhymney; at Dowlais it becomes free-burning; at Cyfarthfa it begins to take on the characters of anthracite; and further westward ... in the valleys of the district, the lowest seams of coal can be won by pits of less than 1,000 yards in depth throughout about two-thirds of the basin ...

JOHN MAYER

1870-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

The National Museum of Wales: Department of Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... with the successful attempts of John Budd in adding pre-heating chambers to some anthracite-burning furnaces at Ystalyfera in the Swansea Valley in 1844. Like other contemporary blast furnaces, ... been stripped from steel ingots by hydraulic and steam cranes working alongside the sunken teeming pits. The new stripping machine, hydraulically driven, made it possible for ingots to be ...

1960-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nontraditional carbon reducing agents in smelting FMn78B ferromanganese and valuable manganese slag  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The smelting of FeMn78B ferromanganese (0.7% P) by a flux-free method, with the production of valuable slag (36-38% Mn), is considered in the case where some of the coke nuts are replaced by anthracite and sometimes by long-flame coal.

P.A. Kravchenko; O.N. Sezonenko; O.L. Bespalov; S.N. Kornienko; S.D. Belikov; M.I. Gasik [OAO Zaporozhskii Zavod Ferrosplavov, Zaporozh'e (Ukraine)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

55

High-Sulfur Coal for Generating Electricity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...15.7 Nuclear 3.1 Geothermal Negligible 1973, use...home and commercial heating, transporta-tion...

James T. Dunham; Carl Rampacek; T. A. Henrie

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

56

Clean Fuels from Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...superheating and water-heating sections of the boiler...percent on a higher heating value basis. Conclusions...made historically by heating bitumi-nous coal in...heart of the anthracite district only about 5 years ago...energy, wind, and geothermal steam and brines, will...

Arthur M. Squires

1974-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

57

Carbon Vol. 28, Nos. 213. pp. 261-279, 1990 Printed in Great Britain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: carbon formation from catalyzed CO decomposition over iron and from liquid phase coking of hydrocarbons. preparation of carbons via catalytic cracking of CO and coking processes, 2. carbon active sites of concern. In par- ticular. we envisioned gasifying plentiful anthracite coal, with its attendant mineral matter

58

The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Shaanxi and Shanxi together accounted for 83 percent of China's proven coal reserves in 2000, and Shanxi is not considered reserves [8]. Of China's forecasted coal reserves, a broader category than proven reserves, only January 13, 2011 #12;shown in Figures 1 and 2. The production data for anthracite, bituminous and lignite

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

59

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lb for anthracite. The reserves of lignite on a weight basisand reserves. Typical energy contents of coal range from about 7,000 for ligniteReserves of the United States, 1974 (Billion Tons). Underground Surface Total Energy Value (Quads) Subbituminous Lignite

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The status of coal briquetting technology in Korea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthracite is the only indigenous fossil fuel resource produced in Korea and is an important main source of residential fuel. Due to its particular characteristics, the best way to use Korean coal is in the form of briquettes, called {open_quotes}Yontan.{close_quotes} The ability to use this coal as briquettes was a great discovery made nearly 50 years ago and since then, has made a great contribution to the energy consumption of low and middle income households. Korean anthracite in coal briquette form has been used widely for household heating purposes. Collieries in Korea produced no more than one million tons of anthracite annually in the 1960s. Production, however, increased substantially up to about 17 million tons per year in the mid-1970s. In 1986, Korea succeeded in raising its coal production to 24.2 million tons, which was the maximum production level achieved by the Korean coal industrial sector. Since then, anthracite production has fallen. In 1991, coal output dropped to 15.1 million tons, a decrease of 12.2 percent from the 17.2 million tons produced in 1990, due to falling coal demand and rising labor costs. The role of coal as an energy source will be more important in the future to meet projected economic growth in Korea. While the production of indigenous Korean anthracite is expected to decrease under a coal mining rationalization policy, imports of bituminous coal will increase rapidly and will be used as an oil substitute in industry and power generation. In this chapter, general aspects of the Korean coal industry and coal utilization for residential uses, especially the Yontan coal briquetting techniques, are discussed. In addition, coal briquetting technology applications suitable for the APEC region will be presented.

Choi, Woo-Zin

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

National Cancer Institute Support for Scientific Conferences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...JULY 1980 2621 J. T. Kalberer, Jr. and B. H. Morrison III gator and participant at a 1977 NCI conference for young investigators...explore these new concepts and to discuss them with senior investi gators, some proportion of them will be the movers of the next gener...

John T. Kalberer, Jr. and Bayard H. Morrison III

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

MODELLING OF A NONLINEAR MULTIVARIABLE BOILER PLANT USING HAMMERSTEIN MODEL, A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELLING OF A NONLINEAR MULTIVARIABLE BOILER PLANT USING HAMMERSTEIN MODEL, A NONPARAMETRIC mathematically and prac- tically tractable. Boilers are industrial units, which are used for gener- ating steam of fuel. Boiler operation is a complex operation in which hot water must be delivered to a turbine

Al-Duwaish, Hussain N.

64

Tumor Eradication in the Rabbit by Radiofrequency Heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the tumor. At 47 ,this was reflected in edema of the foot or areas of thrombosis in the tumor or overlying tissues...because the relationships between machine-gener ated power and power consumed by heated tissue are com plex (34,35...

J. A. Dickson; S. A. Shah; D. Waggott; and W. B. Whalley

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Boosting with Incomplete Information Gholamreza Haffari1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fraser University, Canada 2 Wright State University, USA 3 Yahoo! Inc. USA Abstract In real-world machine.SFU.CA Shaojun Wang2 SHAOJUN.WANG@WRIGHT.EDU Greg Mori1 MORI@CS.SFU.CA Feng Jiao3 FENGJIAO@YAHOO-INC.COM 1 Simon information is a very important and realistic task. Excluding popular EM algorithms for gener- ative models

Wang, Shaojun

66

Quantitative Elemental Analyses by Plasma Emission Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in-troduced into plasmas as aerosols gener-ated...injected into the plasma has been achieved...sample, the sampling area being defined by...transported to the plasma by the same argon...impossible to attain in non-ICP plasma systems...along with the thermal expansion thrust...

Velmer A. Fassel

1978-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

67

APS/123-QED Dust Successive Generations in Complex Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution at the entrance of the plasma zone. It is connected to a 13.56 MHz rf gener- ator throughAPS/123-QED Dust Successive Generations in Complex Plasmas: A Cyclic Phenomenon in the Void Region´eans cedex 2, France (Dated: December 5, 2007) Dust formation and growth in plasmas are in most cases

Boyer, Edmond

68

J Regul Econ DOI 10.1007/s11149-006-9003-y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the impact of such invest- ments on market prices and demand response. Such economic assessments must structure of the generation sector, the network topology, the distribution and elasticity of demand of the best transmission expansions may change when the gener- ation expansion response is taken

69

A newsletter for commercial vegetable growers prepared by the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service April 03, 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

demon- strate that significant losses have occurred while using the currently labeled fungicides blight from muskmelon and watermelon plants around the state to determine the distribution of fungicide. This gas can be gener- ated by faulty heat exchangers, dirty fuel openings, and incomplete combustion

Ginzel, Matthew

70

SCIENCE NEWS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gener-ators, super-heaters and turbines outstripped...studying eco-nomical operation and finally to the...they provide ideal weather in the hospital...to tuberculosis, colds, infections of...affected by the weather. Moist heat that...sudden changes in weather. In addi-tion...

1934-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

71

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Internal tidal energy fluxes in the South China Sea from density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tide. Semidiurnal energy density is largest along a ray path which co- incides with generation sites of the largest internal tides in the ocean, with depth-integrated energy fluxes >60 kW m-1 , are gener- atedJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Internal tidal energy fluxes

Johnston, Shaun

72

Conducting Cybersecurity Research Legally and Ethically Aaron J. Burstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conducting Cybersecurity Research Legally and Ethically Aaron J. Burstein University of California cybersecurity are not outright prohibitions but rather the difficulty of determining which of a large set by explaining the areas of law that are most gener- ally applicable to cybersecurity researchers and offering

Paxson, Vern

73

IEEE Trans. on PAMI (vol.19, no.11, Nov. 1997) Prior Learning and Gibbs Reaction-Di usion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy in statistics mechanics. Prior models of this kind are either gener- alized from traditional computation: #12;rst it presents a novel theory for learning the universal statistics of natural images { a prior model for typical cluttered scenes of the world { from a set of natural images, second it proposes

Zhu, Song Chun

74

Acoustic near-field characteristics of a conical, premixed flame Doh-Hyoung Lee and Tim C. Lieuwena)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system failure. They gener- ally occur at frequencies associated with the combustor's natural it is influenced by oscillation frequency, combustor geometry, flame length and temperature ratio. The results processing,1 solid and liquid rockets,2,3 ramjets,4 afterburners, and land-based gas turbines.5

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

75

Scenario-Based Fault-Tolerant Model Predictive Control for Diesel-Electric Marine Power Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scenario-Based Fault-Tolerant Model Predictive Control for Diesel-Electric Marine Power Plant where diesel gener- ator sets (a diesel engine connected to a generator) produce electrical power, which Email: torstein.bo@itk.ntnu.no, tor.arne.johansen@itk.ntnu.no Abstract--Diesel-electric propulsion

Johansen, Tor Arne

76

Macroscopic/microscopic simulation of nuclear reactions at intermediate energies. Denis Lacroix, Aymeric Van Lauwe and Dominique Durand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for reactions close to the fusion barrier (5-10 MeV/A) up to higher energy (100 MeV/A) and it gives access) -coalescence -test of fusion (FSI) -energy balance -classical propagation -in-flight emission Figure 1 to understand nuclear reactions at inter- mediate energies. These models provide gener- ally a rather good

Boyer, Edmond

77

How to Make Specialists NOT Specialised in TAC Market Design Competition?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clearing policies in order to make transactions. An annual Trading Agent Competition (TAC) Market Design, gener- ate more transactions and therefore create more profit for both traders and the market makerHow to Make Specialists NOT Specialised in TAC Market Design Competition? Behaviour-based Mechanism

Zhang, Dongmo

78

Amino acid uptake and energy coupling dependent on photosynthesis in Anacystis nidulans.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...intensity and can be carried out in far red light under conditions of PS I. These results...PS I and the insensitivity to DCMU in far red light indicate that ATP gener- ated by...J. Bacteriol. 124:1039-1040. 32. Wood, J. M. 1975. Leucine transport in Escherichia...

J Lee-Kaden; W Simonis

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Study of the ArBr-, AC, and Krl-anions and the corresponding neutral van der Waals complexes by anion zero electron kinetic energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rotational transitions. From our data, we construct the potential energy curve for each neutral state as well energy functions between open and closed shell species or between neutrals and ions are gener- ally muchStudy of the ArBr-, AC, and Krl- anions and the corresponding neutral van der Waals complexes

Neumark, Daniel M.

80

A Model and Approach for Optimal Power Systems Planning and Investment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amounts of energy from wind and solar generators, batteries, and demand- side market participants. Some incorporates the detailed gener- ator, topology and operational aspects found in production cost planning expected benefits, while also representing generic generation expansions under the same objective

Oren, Shmuel S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Biological Conversion of Light Energy to the Chemical Energy of Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...disadvrantages 219 characteristic of solar energy, chief of which...involve the transformation of solar energy into the cellular...could either be burned in a gas turbine-gener- ator system to...process of transforming solar energy to methane by the...

C. G. Golueke; W. J. Oswald

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

February 1999 119 mallinvertebrates arefunction-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ecosystems (Wilson 1992, Freckmanet al. 1997, Palmer et al. 1997, Postel and Car- penter 1997). In freshwater, the species richness and functional importance of fresh- water benthic invertebrates gener- ally go unnoticed) or to disturbances, such as floods or drought (e.g., Covich 1993, Power 1995,Johnson et al. 1998), thatalter

Palmer, Margaret A.

83

Why Steiner-tree type algorithms work for community detection Mung Chiang Henry Lam Zhenming Liu Vincent Poor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design an ef- ficient algorithm for recovering most mem- bers in S with well-controlled false positive overhead, by utilizing the network structure for a large family of "homogeneous" gener- ative models., 2011). This line of problems have been extensively stud- ied. In this paper, we shall revisit

Lam, Henry

84

Optimal scheduling of non-perfect inspections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......loose connection of pipes and joints, battery measurements, perform starting, stopping...if adequate techniques are used, the fuel, cooling water and lubricant oil level...standby gener- ators may imply to inspect batteries and filters, e.g. at different frequencies......

R. I. Zequeira; C. Bérenguer

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Colorado Environmentalists: Scientists Battle AEC and Army  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...atomic plant, an AEC weapons production facility, which occurred on...finally agreed to establish off-site radioactive monitoring near...nuclear reactor for gener-ating electricity planned for construc-tion...engineering department, Kansas State University; 23 May...

Bryce Nelson

1970-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

86

Low-Emittance Electron Bunches from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Measured using Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Emittance Electron Bunches from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Measured using Single-Shot X-Ray,8], x-ray [9­11], and -ray radiation [12,13]. The electron density wave gener- ated by an intense laser manuscript received 15 February 2012; published 10 August 2012) X-ray spectroscopy is used to obtain single

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

87

Evidence of blocking with geometric cues in a virtual Edward S. Redhead a,*, Derek A. Hamilton b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hamilton b a School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK b. Several experiments using both human (e.g., Chamizo, Aznar-Casanova, & Artigas, 2003; Redhead & Hamilton.elsevier.com/locate/l&m #12;and Hamilton (2007) asked human participants to approach a visible platform in a computer gener

Hamilton, Derek

88

Sun's Network File System (NFS) One of the first uses of distributed client/server computing was  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

34 Sun's Network File System (NFS) One of the first uses of distributed client/server computing of data across clients. Thus, if 1 #12;2 SUN'S NETWORK FILE SYSTEM (NFS) you access a file on one machine-DUSSEAU #12;SUN'S NETWORK FILE SYSTEM (NFS) 3 even; in the best such case, no network traffic need be gener

Sheridan, Jennifer

89

Autonomous Thermal Control System Omid Ardakanian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

18-24% of all energy usage. Building energy management can reduce both its operating costs and its- and middle-income countries, energy is mostly gener- ated from fossil fuel, directly contributing to global system in terms of energy efficiency. 1. Introduction Energy consumption of residential and commercial

Waterloo, University of

90

Minimalist Representations and the Importance of Nearest Neighbor Effects in Protein Folding Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimalist Representations and the Importance of Nearest Neighbor Effects in Protein Folding First principle models of protein folding gener- ally are preferred over statistical approaches because a knowledge-based approach and a more funda- mental methodology. Our present focus is on whether protein

Berry, R. Stephen

91

Speeding up protein folding: mutations that increase the rate at which Rop folds and unfolds by over four orders of magnitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Speeding up protein folding: mutations that increase the rate at which Rop folds and unfolds. Introduction When a protein folds, the backbone and sidechain atoms organize from the extensive number protein folding usually occurs on the order of milliseconds to seconds, it is gener- ally accepted

Mochrie, Simon

92

A numerical and experimental study of counterflow syngas flames at different pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.I. Rami�rez, J. Hagerdorn, A. Saveliev, S.K. Aggarwal * Department of Mechanical and Industrial for stationary power generation due to its wide availability as a product of bio and fossil fuel gasification waste, and refinery residual [1,2]. It is particularly attractive for stationary power gener- ation

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

93

Channel Coding Diversity with Mismatched Decoding Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Channel Coding Diversity with Mismatched Decoding Metrics Trung Thanh Nguyen, Student Member diversity with general decoding metrics in terms of the gener- alized mutual information (GMI). We show of weather-induced fading scenarios where the quality of a single (either FSO or RF) channel could

Lampe, Lutz

94

Geophysical Journal International Geophys. J. Int. (2014) 197, 443457 doi: 10.1093/gji/ggt515  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at deep seismic structures are usually masked by strong shallow reverberations when unconsolidated useful in resolving seismic structure beneath a station sitting on unconsolidated sediments. It not only, an unconsolidated sedimentary layer can gener- ate strong reverberation waves due to the large velocity contrast

Niu, Fenglin

95

Possibilities of coke manufacture in nonpollutant conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents some possibilities to obtain coke briquettes from anthracite, using as binders petroleum pitch, wheat flour, cement, plaster, ashes from power-plants dried from the electrofilters. Specific thermal post-treatment were proposed for each case, such as: oxidation or heating at low temperatures (under 300 C). As a result the authors obtained coke briquettes to be used in small equipment, with no pollutant pyrogenetic treatment.

Barca, F.; Panaitescu, C.; Vidrighin, C.; Peleanu, I. [Politehnica Univ. Bucharest (Romania); Albastroiu, P. [S.C. ICEM S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Potassium-Modified Iron Ore as Oxygen Carrier for Coal Chemical Looping Combustion: Continuous Test in 1 kW Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(20) Briefly, it consists of a fast fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, a spout-fluid bed as a fuel reactor, and an external loop-seal. ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2013), 52 (28), 9573-9585 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ... Gu, H.; Shen, L.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, S.; Song, T.; Chen, D.Iron ore as oxygen carrier improved with potassium for chemical looping combustion of anthracite coal Combust. ...

Haiming Gu; Laihong Shen; Zhaoping Zhong; Xin Niu; Huijun Ge; Yufei Zhou; Shen Xiao

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

97

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

98

Evaluating Mercury Concentrations in Midwest Fish in Relationship to Mercury Emission Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Given that: (1) coal use worldwide is increasing, (2) the US has abundant coal reserves (USDOE, 2007) and appears poised to embrace numerous energy sources including increased coal as a means to supplant foreign oil consumption, and (3) coal... primary types of coal (bituminous, anthracite, and lignite) all have various energy contents and mixtures of elements (World Coal Institute, 2005). In addition to the primary constituents of coal, numerous other elements exist in minute concentrations...

Robichaud, Jeffery

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

99

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012" 1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Bituminous","Subbituminous","Lignite","Anthracite","Total" "Alabama",106.57,"-","-","-",106.57 "Alaska","-","w","-","-","w" "Arizona","w","-","-","-","w" "Arkansas","w","-","-","-","w" "Colorado","w","w","-","-",37.54 "Illinois",53.08,"-","-","-",53.08 "Indiana",52.01,"-","-","-",52.01

100

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 20072024, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/2007/2012/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-temperature combustion such as motor ve- hicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010). In par- ticular, EC1-2007-2012 © Author(s) 2012. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Ionic and carbonaceous the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC gener- ated from higher

Meskhidze, Nicholas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Elimination of Steam Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

claims and misinformation gener ated by over thirty-six steam trap manufacturers in the United States alone. A PARTIAL LIST OF STEAM TRAP MANUFACTURERS AAF GESTRA ANDERSON HIROSS ARMSTRONG HOFFMAN BARNES &JONES HONEYWELL BRAUKMANN BESTOBELL... removal had been devised and these same methods, with minor variations, are employed today. The inverted bucket trap was in vented in 1910 by Otto Arner, a friend of Adam Armstrong. Armstrong began his business career by making bicycle spokes...

Dickman, F.

102

The effects of temperature on thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins in sea turtles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vertebrates, has the capability of sequestering iodine and synthesizing iodoproteins. In mammals this gland arises from endoderm of the embryonic pharynx between the first and second pharyngeal pouches (Boyd, 1964). It synthesizes two hormones, tri... in vertebrates. In addition to these morphological actions, thyroid hormones influence oxygen consumption and overall metabolic rate (Gorbman et al. , 1983). Thus This thesis folloms the style and format of ~Gener 1 and ~tom aratl e ~tndoorinoto...

Haynes, Shane Patrick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

Solution Structure of Bovine Angiogenin by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using the REDAC strategy (Güntert & Wüthrich, 1991), structures were rapidly gener-ated with DIANA. ... Biol., 186, 611) is described, which makes use of redundant dihedral angle constraints (REDAC) derived from preliminary calculations of the complete structure. ... The REDAC approach reduces the computation time for obtaining a group of acceptable conformers with the program DIANA 5-100-fold, depending on the complexity of the protein structure, and retains good sampling of conformation space. ...

Olivier Lequin; Christine Albaret; François Bontems; Geneviève Spik; Jean-Yves Lallemand

1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

104

Application of biofiltration system on AOC removal: Column and field studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) is the main supplier of domestic water for the Greater Kaohsiung area, the second largest metropolis in Taiwan. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration is one of the major treatment processes in CCLWTP. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of BAC filtration on water treatment in the studied advanced water treatment plant and its capability on pollutants [e.g., AOC (assimilable organic carbon), bromide, bromate, iron] removal. In this study, water samples from each treatment process of CCLWTP were collected and analyzed periodically to assess the variations in concentrations of AOC and other water quality indicators after each treatment unit. Moreover, the efficiency of biofiltration process using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anthracite as the fillers was also evaluated through a column experiment. Results show that the removal efficiencies for AOC, bromide, bromate, and iron are 86% 100%, 17%, and 30% after the BAC filter bed, respectively. This indicates that BAC filtration plays an important role in pollutant removal. Results also show that AOC concentrations in raw water and effluent of the CCLWTP are approximately 143 and 16 ?g acetate-C l?1, respectively. This reveals that the treatment processes applied in CCLWTP is able to remove AOC effectively. Results of column study show that the AOC removal efficiencies in the GAC and anthracite columns are 60% and 17%, respectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic images. The observed microorganisms included bacteria (rods, cocci, and filamentous bacteria), fungi, and protozoa. Results from this study provide us insight into the mechanisms of AOC removal by advanced water treatment processes. These findings would be helpful in designing a modified water treatment system for AOC removal and water quality improvement.

C.C. Chien; C.M. Kao; C.W. Chen; C.D. Dong; C.Y. Wu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Variations in AOC and microbial diversity in an advanced water treatment plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the variations in assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial diversities in an advanced water treatment plant. The efficiency of biofiltration on AOC removal using anthracite and granular activated carbon (GAC) as the media was also evaluated through a pilot-scale column experiment. Effects of hydrological factors (seasonal effects and river flow) on AOC concentrations in raw water samples and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biofiltration on AOC treatment were also evaluated. Results show that AOC concentrations in raw water and clear water of the plant were about 138 and 27 ?g acetate-C/L, respectively. Higher AOC concentrations were observed in wet seasons probably due to the resuspension of organic-contained sediments and discharges of non-point source (NPS) pollutants from the upper catchment. This reveals that seasonal effect played an important role in the variations in influent AOC concentrations. Approximately 82% and 70% of AOC removal efficiencies were observed in GAC and anthracite columns, respectively. Results from column experiment reveal that the applied treatment processes in the plant and biofiltration system were able to remove AOC effectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal significant decrease in microbial diversities after the ozonation process. Higher HRT caused higher microbial contact time, and thus, more microbial colonies and higher microbial diversity were observed in the latter part of the biofilters. Some of the dominant microbial species in the biofiltration columns belonged to the beta-proteobacterium, which might contribute to the AOC degradation. Results of this study provide us insight into the variations in AOC and microbial diversity in the advanced water treatment processes.

B.M. Yang; J.K. Liu; C.C. Chien; R.Y. Surampalli; C.M. Kao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

A comparison of biologically active filters for the removal of ozone by-products, turbidity, and particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biofiltration tests were performed at the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California`s 5.5-mgd (21,000 m{sup 3}d) demonstration plant using two 400 ft{sup 2} (37 m{sup 2}) anthracite/sand filters and a 6 ft{sup 2} (0.56 m{sup 2}) granular activated carbon (GAC)/sand filter operated in parallel. The empty-bed contact time (EBCT) within the GAC and anthracite ranged from 2.1-3.1 min. The filters were evaluated based on (1) conventional filtration performance (turbidity, particle removal, and headloss); (2) removal of biodegradable ozone by-products (assimilable organic carbon [AOC], aldehydes, and aldoketoacids) after startup; (3) removal of biodegradable ozone by-products at steady state; and (4) resistance to short-term process upsets such as intermittent chlorination or filter out-of-service time. Approximately 80 percent formaldehyde removal was achieved by the anthracite/sand filter operated at a 2.1-min EBCT (6 gpm/ft{sup 2} [15 m/h]) within 8 days of ozone operation. The GAC/sand filter operated at the same rate achieved 80 percent removal within 1 day, possibly as an additive effect of adsorption and biological removal. In-depth aldehyde monitoring at four depths (0.5-min EBCT intervals) provided additional insight into the removal kinetics. During periods of warmer water temperature, from 20 to 48 percent of the AOC was removed in the flocculation/sedimentation basins by 40-75 percent. This percentage removal typically resulted in AOC concentrations within 40 {mu}g C/L of the raw, unozonated water levels.

Coffey, B.M.; Krasner, S.W.; Sclimenti, M.J.; Hacker, P.A.; Gramith, J.T. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The analysis in this paper is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the United States. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity - unit costs and relative energy price - changes in the trend in resource scarcity for natural gas, bituminous coals, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce resources during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the) 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing resource scarcity trends, an objective effort is made to identify a long run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the United States over the period 1889-1992.

Noel D. Uri

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Glossary | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Glossary Glossary Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Glossary Add.png Add a Definition 2 2-M Probe Survey A Acoustic Logs Acoustic Televiewer Active Seismic Techniques Active Sensors Adaptive Protection Adequacy Adjacent Balancing Authority Advanced Interrupting Switch Advanced Metering Infrastructure Advanced Metering Infrastructure (Ami) / Smart Meters Advanced Transmission Applications Adverse Reliability Impact Aerial Photography Aeromagnetic Survey Air Cooling Airborne Gravity Survey Airborne Gravity Survey Algae Algae fuel Alternating current Alternative-fuel vehicle Alternator Altitude Correction Factor Ampere Analytical Modeling Ancillary Service Ancillary Services Revenue Angle of incidence Anode Anthracite coal Anti-Aliasing Filter Area Control Error Arranged Interchange Artesian Well

110

Evaluation of Activated Carbon Adsorbents for CO2 Capture in Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A linear relationship is also observed for the pore volume of the adsorbents (Figure 8b) when Vp and an estimation of the micropore volume (Vp ? Vmeso) of the adsorbents are plotted against the volume of adsorbed CO2 at 4.1 MPa. ... Modified HMS materials demonstrated to be reversibly adsorb substantially more CO2 than previously obsd. ... The anthracite with the highest CO2 adsorption capacity is the sample activated at 800 °C for 2 h, whose surface area was only 540 m2/g, and the adsorbed amt. of CO2 was 65.7 mg-CO2/g-adsorbent. ...

Trevor C. Drage; James M. Blackman; Cova Pevida; Colin E. Snape

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

111

Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the projects funded did not meet their original goals, the overall objectives of the CPCPC were completed as many new applications for coal-derived feedstocks have been researched. Future research in many of these areas is necessary before implementation into industry.

Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

113

C/H{sub 2}O reaction under supercritical conditions and their repercussions in the preparation of activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two chars prepared by carbonization of oak wood and anthracite were used to perform a comparative study of the gasification with supercritical water (SCW) and with steam. This work reports the effects of the type of char, the activating agent, temperature, flow rate, and particle size employed on the kinetics, mechanism of reaction, and the characteristics of the activated carbons obtained. The results show that the reactivity of the two chars is much higher with SCW than with steam. Although this increase can be explained in terms of the greater penetration of SCW and diffusional effects in the pore structure of the chars, some aspects suggest a possible change in the mechanism of reaction favored by the formation of clusters in SCW. The evolution of porosity was also found to differ when the char was gasified with SCW and with steam, being governed strongly by the starting material. When the oak char was activated with SCW, the smallest microporosity was broadened from the very first moments due to its very open pore structure, providing carbons with larger micropores and some mesoporosity. In contrast, in the case of the anthracite char, with a narrower pore structure, the evolution of the porosity was slower and less uniform, favoring external gasification of the particle. Accordingly, the carbons had a broader distribution of micropores, and mesoporosity was scarce.

Salvador, F.; Senchez-Montero, M.J.; Izquierdo, C. [University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Six years of ABB-CE, petcoke and fluid beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) has constructed twenty circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers and 2 bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers throughout North America. The units were designed to fire a wide range of fuels from anthracite culm to coals, lignites and biomasses. Based on fuels economics, some plants have decided to use petroleum coke as a replacement or supplemental fuel. The fluid bed boiler can inherently handle a wide range of fuel types without requiring modification or down-rating. ABB-CE units have a significant amount of petroleum coke operating experience firing 100% petroleum coke with no supplemental fuel ranging from the first commercial CFB unit at New Brunswick Power to the largest CFB unit at Texas New Mexico Power. Petroleum coke is also being co-fired with anthracite culm at the Scott Paper CFB. The world`s largest operating BFB, the 160 MWe unit at TVA`s Shawnee plant, has also been co-firing petroleum coke. The ability of the fluidized bed technology to fire low volatile fuels such as petroleum cokes, efficiently and in an environmentally acceptable manner will result in the use of this technology as a preferred means of power generation. This report gives a brief description of the petroleum coke firing experiences with ABB-CE fluid bed steam generators over the last six years.

Tanca, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Capture and conversion of SO/sub 2/ RESOX prototype demonstration in Germany  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pilot study tests on a Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation 42 Mw RESOX prototype unit that converts SO/sub 2/-rich effluents from regenerable FGD systems into elemental sulfur by reaction with crushed coal, and was retrofitted to a Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H. FGD unit, showed that the 30% by vol SO/sub 2/ content of the inlet gas from the BF desorber could be reduced to 4% SO2 and 6.5% H/sub 2/S at the outlet side. A second test showed that 54% by vol inlet SO/sub 2/ was reduced to 10% SO/sub 2/ and 3.1% H/sub 2/S. Foster Wheeler laboratory tests on Sophia Jacoba (Ger.) anthracite in a 7.625 in. ID RESOX reactor at less than 2 psig showed SO/sub 2/ conversion rates of 92.5, 89.9, 89.7, and 95.1%. With testing 50% complete, the results indicate good compatibility of the RESOX system with a number of regenerative front-end FGD processes and show the applicability of coals other than anthracite.

Steiner, P.; Dalton, S.M.; Knoblauch, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Excitation-energy dependence of the mechanism for two-photon ionization of liquid H2O and D2O from 8.3to12.4eV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or gener- ate dangerous amounts of hydrogen gas in radioactive waste storage tanks.1 Radiolysis and photolysis experiments pro- vide a window on the underlying chemistry in such systems by revealing information about the important reactions that occur... following ionization in a controlled environment. Each ionization event produces a hydroxyl radical, a hydronium ion, and a solvated electron within the first few picoseconds, as in the case of two-photon ionization. H2O#1;aq#2; + 2h#2;? OH#1;aq#2; + H3O #1...

Elles, Christopher G.; Jailaubekov, Askat E.; Crowell, Robert A.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

118

A study of the Antilles Current using moored current meter arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics of the Savcnius rotor have been reported previously by Gaul (1962). The output from the current meter is a ro11 of 16 mm photographic film containing current direction and speed data, data on case inclination, and timing pulses. An example... the summer npeia ions, wind directions and speeds were typical for this subtropical latitude being gener;illy out of the east at Table 2. Mooring nositioning data. oorlpg; I I IFix No. !:Date, " Time I !I, " L'ST :I ~L*'- 0. ! I ILongitude Il...

Maloney, William Everett

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effects of chronic ingestion of the repartitioning agent clenbuterol on the development of adipose tissue in sheep and cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and decrease fat accretion when fed to sheep (Baker et aL, 1984), cattle (Ricks et aL, 1984), poultry (Dalrymple et al. , 1984), swine (Jones &. t al. , 1985) and rats (Emery et al. , 1984). Although a cellular mechanism for the repa; titioning effects... of clenbuterol has been proposed by Ricks et al. (1984), few metabolic data derived from studies utilizing target species (i. e. , domestic meat animals) have been published. Consequently, this review will discuss the effects of beta-agonists in gener...

Coleman, Michael E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

EIS-0357 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in 7 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA EIS-0357 - Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA Summary This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES

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121

EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Final Environmental Impact Statement Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project, Gilberton, Pennsylvania This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project has been selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

122

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian .............................................. 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama ................................................... .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .................................... .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .......................................................... .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1

123

Definition: Coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Coal A combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from plant remains that have been compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic time (typically millions of years). It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later

124

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Los Alamos Site Office | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Los Alamos Site Office Los Alamos Site Office Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Los Alamos Site Office Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Los Alamos Site Office. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 16, 2013 Anthracite/Total Orange/Black Transfer of Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste to Idaho National Laboratory for Processing and Shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.30 Date: 07/16/2013 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): Los Alamos Site Office November 30, 2012 CX-009798: Categorical Exclusion Determination Foreign Location Source Recovery - Fiscal Year 2013 CX(s) Applied: B2.6 Date: 11/30/2012 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): Los Alamos Site Office November 30, 2012 CX-009524: Categorical Exclusion Determination Foreign Location Source Recovery - Fiscal Year 2013

125

PriceTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

prices prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports. Coking coal, used in the industrial sector only, is a high-quality bitumi- nous coal that is used to make coal coke. Steam coal, which may be used by all sectors, includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite. In the industrial sector, coal consumption is the sum of cok- ing coal and steam coal. The industrial coal price is the quantity- weighted average price of these two components. Imports and exports of coal coke are available only on the national level and are accounted for in the industrial sector. Coal coke imports and ex- ports are reported separately and are not averaged with other coal prices and expenditures. Coking Coal Coking coal is generally more expensive than steam coal; therefore, it is identified separately

126

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

16, 2013 16, 2013 Anthracite/Total Orange/Black Transfer of Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste to Idaho National Laboratory for Processing and Shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.30 Date: 07/16/2013 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): Los Alamos Site Office July 16, 2013 CX-010582: Categorical Exclusion Determination Spring Creek Property Funding CX(s) Applied: B1.25 Date: 07/16/2013 Location(s): Montana Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration July 16, 2013 CX-010581: Categorical Exclusion Determination Little Shell Property Funding CX(s) Applied: B1.25 Date: 07/16/2013 Location(s): Montana Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration July 16, 2013 CX-010858: Categorical Exclusion Determination Demolition of the 745-N Excess Equipment Pad CX(s) Applied: B1.23

127

EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

57: Final Environmental Impact Statement 57: Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0357: Final Environmental Impact Statement Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project, Gilberton, Pennsylvania This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project has been selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

128

Carbon Sequestration 101  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage - Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Capture and Storage November 13-15, 2007 Austin, Texas C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves / Production Ratio 250+ Year Supply at Current Demand Levels ! 258 11.7 9.7 0 100 200 300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Anthracite & Bituminous Sub- Bituminous & Lignite Sources: BP Statistical Review, June 2004, - for coal reserves data - World Energy Council; EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004 - for oil and gas reserves data. C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 80 120 160 200 240 1970 1975 1980

129

Phases Energy Services County Electric Power Assn A N Electric Coop  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alpena Power Co Alpena Power Co Altamaha Electric Member Corp Amana Society Service Co Ambit Energy L P Ambit En ergy L P Maryland Ambit Energy L P New York Ameren Energy Marketing Ameren Energy Marketing Illinois Ameren Illinois Company Ameren Illinois Company Illinois AmeriPower LLC American Electric Power Co Inc American Mun Power Ohio Inc American PowerNet American PowerNet District of Columbia American PowerNet Maine American PowerNet Maryland American PowerNet New Jersey American Samoa Power Authority American Transmission Systems Inc Amicalola Electric Member Corp Amigo Energy Anadarko Public Works Auth Anchorage Municipal Light and Power Aniak Light Power Co Inc Anoka Electric Coop Anthracite Power Light Anza Electric Coop Inc Appalachian Electric Coop

130

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

61 - 22070 of 28,905 results. 61 - 22070 of 28,905 results. Download CX-010875: Categorical Exclusion Determination Routine Maintenance and Custodial Services August 2013 to August 2014 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 08/28/2013 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): River Protection-Richland Operations Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-010875-categorical-exclusion-determination Event FWP Event Mound- Miamisburg, OH FWP Event Mound - Miamisburg, OH http://energy.gov/hss/events/fwp-event-mound-miamisburg-oh-3 Download Anthracite/Total Orange/Black Transfer of Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste to Idaho National Laboratory for Processing and Shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CX(s) Applied: B1.30 Date: 07/16/2013 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): Los Alamos Site Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/anthracitetotal-orangeblack

131

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

132

Microsoft Word - Responses for IRS Notices 2006 24 and 25 May 4 2006.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6-24, Qualifying Advanced Coal Project Program, 6-24, Qualifying Advanced Coal Project Program, IRS Notice 2006-25, Qualifying Gasification Program May 4, 2006 DOE is answering questions related only to DOE certifications. Other questions should be directed to the IRS by calling Doug Kim or Kathy Reed at (202) 622-3110, or by faxing the questions to them at (202) 622-4779. 21. Waste Coal. Is it correct that a low-cost anthracite culm (i.e., culm is defined as coal waste that consists of coal and rock with varying amounts of carbon material remaining after removal of a higher-quality saleable coal) qualifies for clean coal investment tax credits under sections 48A and 48B? Kindly assume that the producer procured the culm from a culm bank (i.e., ubiquitous piles or other depository of culm on

133

Phases Energy Services County Electric Power Assn A N Electric Coop  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alliant Energy Alliant Energy Alpena Power Co Altamaha Electric Member Corp Amana Society Service Co Ambit Energy L P Ambit Energy L P Maryland Ambit Energy L P New York Ameren Energy Marketing Ameren Energy Marketing Illinois Ameren Illinois Company Ameren Illinois Company Illinois AmeriPower LLC American Electric Power Co Inc American Mun Power Ohio Inc American PowerNet American PowerNet District of Columbia American PowerNet Maine American PowerNet Maryland American PowerNet New Jersey American Samoa Power Authority American Transmission Systems Inc Amicalola Electric Member Corp Amigo Energy Anadarko Public Works Auth Anchorage Municipal Light and Power Aniak Light Power Co Inc Anoka Electric Coop Anthracite Power Light Anza Electric Coop Inc Appalachian Electric Coop

134

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Energy Information Administration/Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 Glossary Anthracite: A hard, black, lustrous coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Often referred to as hard coal. Barrel: A volumetric unit of measure equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. Biomass: Organic nonfossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source. Bituminous Coal: A dense, black coal, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, with a moisture content usually less than 20 percent. Often referred to as soft coal. It is the most common coal. Blast Furnace: A shaft furnace in which solid fuel (coke) is burned with an air blast to smelt ore in a continuous operation. Blast Furnace Gas: The waste combustible gas generated in a blast furnace when iron ore is being reduced with coke to

135

The First Coal Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

136

High-performances carbonaceous adsorbents for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Activated carbons (ACs) with controlled microporosity have been prepared and their H2 storage performances have been tested in a gravimetric device. Such adsorbents are natural Chinese anthracites chemically activated with alkaline hydroxides, NaOH or KOH. Outstanding total storage capacities of hydrogen, as high as 6.6wt.% equivalent to excess capacity of 6.2 wt.%, have been obtained at 4MPa for some of these adsorbents. These values of hydrogen adsorption are among the best, if not the highest, ever published so far in the open literature. They are well above those of some commercial materials, e.g. Maxsorb-3, considered as a reference of high-performance adsorbent for hydrogen adsorption. Such exceptional storage capacities may be ascribed to a higher volume of micropores (

Weigang Zhao; Vanessa Fierro; E Aylon; M T Izquierdo; Alain Celzard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Biological stability of groundwater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional (e.g., coagulation, flocculation, and filtration) or membrane filtration treatment trains were used to remove organic compounds from groundwater. For the conventional train with sand-anthracite columns, the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) of the groundwater was reduced from 349 {+-} 127 {micro}g/L C to 54 {+-} 51 {micro}g/L C. For the membrane filtration train, there was no statistical difference between the AOC of the raw water influent (388 {+-} 126 {micro}g C) and that of the membrane permeate (334 {+-} 156 {micro}g/L C), suggesting that this treatment produced biologically unstable water. Similar results were obtained using the heterotrophic growth response (HGR) method. Comparison of the biostability methods showed that HGR was positively correlated with AOC (r = 0.52; P < 0.0001; n = 156), indicating that AOC only partially explains the ability of heterotrophic bacteria to grow in water samples.

Noble, P.A. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center of Marine Biotechnology; Clark, D.L. [Irvine Ranch Water District, CA (United States); Olson, B.H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). School of Social Ecology, Environmental Analysis, and Design

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

Sakurovs, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Characterisation and model fitting kinetic analysis of coal/biomass co-combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The combustion behaviors of biomass, coal and their blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Combustion parameters such as ignition, burnout, peak rate, ignition index, and combustibility index were analyzed. The kinetic parameters were optimized based on experimental results by a double parallel reactions random pore model (DRPM) proposed in this paper. The results show that the combustion characteristic temperature of the biomass is lower and maximum rate of combustion is higher than that of anthracite coal. With the increase of biomass content, ignition temperature and burnout temperature of blends tended to decrease, while the ignition index and combustibility index increased. Compared with the original RPM model, the DRPM model could not only describe the combustion process with a single peak rate, but also the combustion of biomass-coal blends with two rate peaks. The combustion activation energies of blends were extracted by DRPM model in the present study.

Guangwei Wang; Jianliang Zhang; Jiugang Shao; Shan Ren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

B  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B B l a c k H i l l s R e g io n Northern Anthracite Field S o u t h e r n A n t h r a c i t e F i e l d E. Middle Anthracite F ield Rhode Island Meta-Anthrac ite Terling ua Coal Field Coos Bay Coal Field Turtle Montain Coal Field North Central Coal Region San Juan Basin G u l f C o a s t C o a l R e g i o n Ft. Union Coal Re gion (Willist on Basin) Northern Appalachian Ba sin Powder Rive r Ba sin Uinta Basin Cheroke e P la tform Ce nt ra l Appalachian Ba sin Gr ea te r Gr ee n Ri ve r Ba si n T e r t i a r y L a k e B e d s R e g i o n Arkom a Ba sin Pic eance Ba sin Big Horn Ba sin Wind River Ba sin R a to n B as in Black Mesa Basin Taylorville Basin D e e p R i v e r B a s i n N. & Mid. Park Basins C u l p e p p e r B a s in Ha nna -Carbon Ba sin J a c k s o n H o le C o a l F ie ld He nr y Mo u nta ins Co al F iel d Rock Creek Coal Field Glacier Coal Field Goshen Hole Coal Field D a n R i v e r - D a n v i l l e B a s i n Goose Creek Field

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effectiveness of AOC removal by advanced water treatment systems: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, the appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in the water treatment system and effluent of the treatment plant has brought more attention to the environmental engineers. In this study, AOC removal efficiency at the Cheng-Ching Lake water treatment plant (CCLWTP) was evaluated. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the treatability of AOC by the advanced treatment system at the CCLWTP, (2) assess the relativity of AOC and the variations of other water quality indicators, (3) evaluate the effects of sodium thiosulfate on AOC analysis, and (4) evaluate the efficiency of biofiltration process using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anthracite as the fillers. Results show that the averaged influent and final effluent AOC concentrations at the CCLWTP were approximately 124 and 30 ?g acetate-C/L, respectively. Thus, the treatment plant had an AOC removal efficiency of about 76%, and the AOC concentrations in the final effluent met the criteria established by the CCLWTP (50 ?g acetate-C/L). Results indicate that the biofiltration process might contribute to the removal of the trace AOC in the GAC filtration process. Moreover, the removal of AOC had a correlation with the decrease in concentrations of other drinking water indicators. Results from a column test show that GAC was a more appropriate material than anthracite for the AOC removal. Results from this study provide us insight into the mechanisms of AOC removal by advanced water treatment processes. These findings would be helpful in designing a modified water treatment system for AOC removal and water quality improvement.

C.C. Chien; C.M. Kao; C.D. Dong; T.Y. Chen; J.Y. Chen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Thermal Scout Pinpoints Hard-to-Find Problems in CSP Fields (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

receiver survey system uses an infrared camera, receiver survey system uses an infrared camera, GPS technology, and computer software to rapidly analyze concentrating solar power fields and locate defective receivers. In a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) system, collectors reflect the sun's rays onto long, tubular receivers that convert the sunlight into heat that is used to gener- ate electricity. The long-term performance of these receivers-designed to minimize heat loss to the environment while absorbing as much sunlight as possible-is critical for high efficiency and sustained performance. Traditionally, locating problems with receivers has been a costly, time-consuming, and labor- intensive effort, often requiring manual inspection of tens of thousands of receiver tubes. In most cases, operators must assess the entire output of a plant and roughly estimate the

144

Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Thermal Gas Turbine Thermal Performance-Ames Laboratory Background Developing turbine technologies to operate on coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), hydrogen fuels, and oxy-fuels is critical to the development of advanced power gener-ation technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and the deployment of near-zero-emission type power plants with capture and separation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Turbine efficiency and service life are strongly affected by the turbine expansion process, where the working fluid's high thermal energy gas is converted into mechanical energy to drive the compressor and the electric generator. The most effective way to increase the efficiency of the expansion process is to raise the temperature of the turbine's

145

World Oil Price, 1970-2020  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

World Oil Price, 1970-2020 World Oil Price, 1970-2020 (1999 dollars per barrel) 17.09 50- 45 - 40 - I Nominal dollars 35- 1995 _2020 15 - J 9, AE02000 5- 10 - HHistory Projections 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 35AS0570 ^a .i^ Petroleum Supply, Consumption, and Imports, 1970-2020 (million barrels per day) 30- History Projections 25 - 20 - 20~ Consumption _ Net imports 15 - Domestic supply . _ 5- 0 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 '-'e^~~~ u,~~ ~35AS0570 ., te Petroleum Consumption by Sector, 1970-2020 (million barrels per day) 20- History Projections 15- XTransportation 10 Industrial Eect i city gener - 5- 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 .n 35AS0570 r-N Crude Oil Production by Source, 1970-2020 (million barrels per day) 8 History Projections 6- Lower 48 conventional 4- Lower 48 offshore 2- lasa k r 0 § ^.^^^r"_ "^^"' ^Lower 48 EOR

146

Disastrous Equations J. Douglas Wright Drexel University Department  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Disastrous Disastrous Equations J. Douglas Wright Drexel University Department of Mathematics Science on Saturday 1 Earthquakes far out in the ocean gener- ate massive water waves called tsunami. When such waves hit coastlines they can cause massive damage. 2 The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: 100' waves. 230,000 deaths. (photo by David Rydevik) 3 The 2011 T¯ ohoku Tsunami: 130' waves. 15,000 deaths + Nuclear accidents. (photo from National Geographic) 4 The 2011 T¯ ohoku Tsunami: 130' waves. 15,000 deaths + Nuclear accidents. (photo from National Geographic) 5 6 7 8 Tsunami behavior The waves which leave from the quake zone: 1. are NOT very high, around five feet; 2. are extremely wide, around one hundred miles; 3. move very fast, order of 500 mph; 4. go long distances, like halfway around the world, and do not "disperse" as they travel. 9 Tsunami behavior So long as they are in deep water,

147

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Coal Mining Productivity 7 Coal Mining Productivity Total, 1949-2011 By Mining Method, 2011 By Location, 2011 By Mining Method, 1 1949-2011 By Region and Mining Method, 2011 210 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Mississippi 1 For 1979 forward, includes all coal; prior to 1979, excludes anthracite. Note: Beginning in 2001, surface mining includes a small amount of refuse recovery. Source: Table 7.7. 2.68 15.98 East of the West of the 0 5 10 15 20 Short Tons per Employee Hour 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 2 4 6 8 Short Tons per Employee Hour Mississippi 2.76 8.86 Underground Surface 0 3 6 9 12 Short Tons per Employee Hour 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 3 6 9 12 Short Tons per Employee Hour 2.52 3.03 5.54 19.34 Underground Surface Underground Surface 0 6 12 18 24 Short Tons

148

Annual Coal Distribution Tables  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143 Arkansas 13 - 13 Colorado 32,427 894 33,321 Illinois 33,997 285 34,283 Indiana 36,714 - 36,714 Kansas 176 - 176 Kentucky Total 131,546 2,821 134,367 East 107,000 2,707 109,706 West 24,547 114 24,660 Louisiana 3,746 - 3,746 Maryland 4,671 319 4,990 Mississippi 475 - 475 Missouri 366 - 366 Montana 38,459 485 38,944 New Mexico 28,949 - 28,949 North Dakota 30,449 - 30,449 Ohio 25,463 12 25,475 Oklahoma 1,710 - 1,710 Pennsylvania Total 64,392 6,005 70,397 Anthracite 2,852 205 3,057 Bituminous 61,540 5,800 67,340 Tennessee 3,346 28 3,374 Texas 45,019 31 45,050 Utah 24,761 2,144 26,905 Virginia 25,685 7,071 32,756 Washington 4,623 - 4,623 West Virginia Total 144,584

149

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 31. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 106.57 - - - 106.57 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 37.54 Illinois 53.08 - - - 53.08 Indiana 52.01 - - - 52.01 Kentucky Total 63.12 - - - 63.12 Kentucky (East) 75.62 - - - 75.62 Kentucky (West) 48.67 - - - 48.67 Louisiana - - w - w Maryland 55.67 - - - 55.67 Mississippi - - w - w Missouri w - - - w Montana w 17.60 w - 18.11 New Mexico w w - - 36.74 North Dakota - - 17.40 - 17.40 Ohio 47.80 - - - 47.80 Oklahoma 59.63 - - - 59.63 Pennsylvania Total 72.57

150

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Coal NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) Total United States 311 Food 9.12 0.26 0.00 53.43 90.85 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6.30 0.29 0.00 51.34 50.47 311221 Wet Corn Milling 4.87 0.48 0.00 47.74 50.47 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 5.02 0.31 0.00 53.34 236.66 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 9.78 0.27 0.00 90.59 0.00 3115 Dairy Products 11.21 0.10 0.00 103.12 0.00 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

151

file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\ICR\My%20Documents\Coal\Di  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Release Date: September 2003 Release Date: September 2003 Next Release Date: Summer 2004 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2002 (Thousand Short Tons) State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 15,552 3,425 18,977 Alaska 847 311 1,158 Arizona 12,971 - 12,971 Arkansas 12 - 12 Colorado 33,904 843 34,748 Illinois 32,719 21 32,740 Indiana 35,391 - 35,391 Kansas 205 - 205 Kentucky Total 123,129 791 123,920 East 98,492 791 99,284 West 24,636 - 24,636 Louisiana 3,810 - 3,810 Maryland 4,632 413 5,044 Mississippi 2,906 - 2,906 Missouri 203 - 203 Montana 37,050 180 37,230 New Mexico 27,555 - 27,555 North Dakota 31,011 - 31,011 Ohio 20,919 68 20,987 Oklahoma 1,394 - 1,394 Pennsylvania Total 59,764 5,530 65,294 Anthracite 2,436 251 2,687 Bituminous 57,328 5,279 62,607 Tennessee 3,229 52 3,281 Texas 45,638 33

152

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2012 Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 3. Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Continuous 2 Conventional and Other 3 Longwall 4 Total Alabama 139 20 12,410 12,570 Arkansas 96 - - 96 Colorado 757 - 22,889 23,646 Illinois 18,969 - 23,868 42,837 Indiana 15,565 - - 15,565 Kentucky Total 56,179 2,018 - 58,198 Kentucky (East) 22,090 2,010 - 24,100 Kentucky (West) 34,089 9 - 34,098 Maryland 797 - - 797 Montana - - 5,708 5,708 New Mexico - - 4,960 4,960 Ohio 3,903 7 14,214 18,125 Oklahoma 349 - - 349 Pennsylvania Total 11,367 52 33,623 45,041 Pennsylvania (Anthracite)

153

 

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 April 2008 Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas Colorado Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Total Louisiana Maryland Mississippi Missouri Montana New Mexico North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Pennsylvania Total Tennessee Texas Utah Virginia Washington West Virginia Total Wyoming Appalachian Total Interior Total Western Total East of Miss. River West of Miss. River U.S. Total State / Region Domestic Foreign 19,449 1,398 8,027 4 33,125 31,076 36,379 437 125,333 98,027 27,306 4,257 7,689 3,593 391 41,570 26,473 30,265 23,139 1,920 73,815 2,902 70,913 2,633 44,531 24,519 31,789 2,580 145,321 42,435 102,886 449,638 401,863 149,893 617,595 500,216 669,134 1,169,350 Total East West Anthracite Bituminous Northern Southern 13,425 964 8,027 4 32,326 30,836 36,379 437 121,621 94,315 27,306 4,257 7,277 3,593

154

file://J:\mydocs\Coal\Distribution\2003\distable1.HTML  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2003 and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2003 (Thousand Short Tons) State / Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 16,639 3,902 20,541 Alaska 856 232 1,088 Arizona 12,093 - 12,093 Arkansas 6 - 6 Colorado 34,997 898 35,895 Illinois 31,751 55 31,806 Indiana 35,350 - 35,350 Kansas 154 - 154 Kentucky Total 113,241 906 114,146 East 92,391 890 93,282 West 20,849 15 20,865 Louisiana 3,959 - 3,959 Maryland 4,955 596 5,551 Mississippi 3,739 - 3,739 Missouri 345 - 345 Montana 36,181 541 36,721 New Mexico 27,138 - 27,138 North Dakota 31,077 - 31,077 Ohio 21,770 176 21,945 Oklahoma 1,645 - 1,645 Pennsylvania Total 57,362 3,562 60,924 Anthracite 2,805 68 2,873 Bituminous 54,557 3,494 58,051 Tennessee 2,551 2 2,553 Texas 47,506 8 47,513 Utah 23,276 318 23,594 Virginia 26,000 6,117 32,117 Washington 6,232 - 6,232 West Virginia Total 134,359

155

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. World recoverable coal reserves as of January 1, 2009 2. World recoverable coal reserves as of January 1, 2009 billion short tons Recoverable reserves by coal rank Region/country Bituminous and anthracite Subbituminous Lignite Total 2010 production Reserves-to- production ratio (years) World total 445.0 285.9 215.2 946.1 7.954 119 United Statesa 118.4 107.2 33.1 258.6 1.084 238 Russia 54.1 107.4 11.5 173.1 0.359 482 China 68.6 37.1 20.5 126.2 3.506 36 Other non-OECD Europe and Eurasia 42.2 18.9 39.9 100.9 0.325 311 Australia and New Zealand 40.9 2.5 41.4 84.8 0.473 179 India 61.8 0.0 5.0 66.8 0.612 109 OECD Europe 6.2 0.9 54.5 61.6 0.620 99 Africa 34.7 0.2 0.0 34.9 0.286 122 Other non-OECD Asia 3.9 3.9 6.8 14.7 0.508 29 Other Central and South America 7.6 1.0 0.0 8.6 0.085 101

156

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012 Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 29. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Alabama w - w 107.73 Arkansas w - - w Colorado w - 37.18 w Illinois 48.08 - 59.51 54.18 Indiana 52.94 - - 52.94 Kentucky Total w w - 62.24 Kentucky (East) w w - 79.23 Kentucky (West) 50.18 - - 50.18 Maryland w - - w Montana - - w w New Mexico - - w w Ohio w - w 49.39 Oklahoma w - - w Pennsylvania Total 94.53 w 65.01 w Pennsylvania (Anthracite) w w - 82.71 Pennsylvania (Bituminous) w - w 72.67 Tennessee w - - w Utah w - 34.99

157

Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Distribution of thermogenic methane in Carboniferous coal seams of the Donets Basin (Ukraine): “Applications to exploitation of methane and forecast of mining hazards”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main purpose of this contribution is to estimate methane production and to define its migration paths and storage in the Donets Basin formations for exploitation of methane and forecast of mining hazards. In order to study methane migration and storage, maps of production calculated by 2D modelling, adsorption capacity of methane in coal, and present-day methane contents were constructed for an altitude of ? 300 m (close to 500 m depth) in this basin. The results show that three principal factors influenced the methane migration and accumulation in Donets Basin: 1) faults that acted as migration pathways, 2) a replacement of thermogenic methane by endogenic CO2 in the central and SE parts, and 3) the occurrence of magmatic events in some areas in this basin. Finally, in Donbas, the areas with the highest methane potential and the maximum risk of outburst are not the areas with anthracite that produce the highest volume of methane, but areas with volatile bituminous coals where an impermeable cover preserved the accumulated gas until the Cenozoic and where dextral shear belts facilitated its migration.

D. Alsaab; M. Elie; A. Izart; R.F. Sachsenhofer; V.A. Privalov; I. Suarez-Ruiz; L. Martinez; E.A. Panova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hazard recognition and adjustment in northern Appalachia: examples of coal-mine subsidence in small communities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mine subsidence is a pervasive hazard in the northern Appalachian coal fields and is associated with both active and abandoned mines. Causative factors include the method of mining, geological and hydrologic conditions, and surface activities. Its economic costs include surface property damages and depreciations plus costs of mitigation. Environmental impacts include derangement of surface drainage and loss of aquifer. These topics are reviewed here, and on subsidence cognition and the research findings are discussed. One bituminous and three anthracite area boroughs in Pennsylvania served as case studies. Local officials and planners were informally interviewed and surveys of residents conducted. The present study differs from most in the traditional hazard-perception genus in several ways. It addresses the salience of hazard amid other pressing community concerns. Salience, rather than perceived seriousness, provides greater insights into residents' coping responses. Consideration is given to institutional and other contextual influences on individuals' adjustment strategies. Finally, coal mine subsidence is a technological hazard, albeit one which is geological in character.

Barnes, K.B.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

Croft, Gregory D. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Patzek, Tad W. [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@mail.utexas.edu

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Injury experience in coal mining, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 247 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Western Region of the United States. Although the Western Region includes Alaska, coal data from this state will often be cited apart from the Western Region data from the lower United States. This is the third of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Western Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, rank, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 3 tabs.

Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, . Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, 2002 through 2012 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear 2002 10,314 10,641 9,533 10,442 2003 10,297 10,610 9,207 10,422 2004 10,331 10,571 8,647 10,428 2005 10,373 10,631 8,551 10,436 2006 10,351 10,809 8,471 10,435 2007 10,375 10,794 8,403 10,489 2008 10,378 11,015 8,305 10,452 2009 10,414 10,923 8,159 10,459 2010 10,415 10,984 8,185 10,452 2011 10,444 10,829 8,152 10,464 2012 10,498 10,991 8,039 10,479 Coal includes anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coal. Waste coal and synthetic coal are included starting in 2002. Petroleum includes distillate fuel oil (all diesel and No. 1 and No. 2 fuel oils), residual fuel oil (No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils and bunker C fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke, and waste oil.

170

table7.2_02.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; 2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Bituminous and NAICS Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Code(a) Subsector and Industry TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Coal Lignite Coke Coke Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1.1 2.1 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.9 1.4 0.7 0.9 311 Food 6.42 113.78 0 1.46 W 1.46 0 5.18 0 311221 Wet Corn Milling 3.11 106.84 0 1.32 0 1.32 0 0 0 31131 Sugar 3.14 80.39 0 1.65 W 1.64 0 5.18 0 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 7.09 103.28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 7.53 123.52 0 2.32 0 2.32 0 0 0 3121 Beverages 7.96 124.83

171

RS-NWPA [National Waste Policy Act]  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Minning (OCRWM) Minning (OCRWM) I 586-4349 Ed Nugent DOE 586-3288 6. C k K T : F I C A T E O F A G E N C Y R E P R E S E N T A T I V E r - . . REQUEST FOR RECORDS DISPOSITION AUTHORITY (See tnstructions on reverse) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS SERVICE. WASHINGTON, DC 20408 i F ROha (AECnc? or rstcblishmcnt) a % - e ~ - - - Office of C i v i l f a n R a d i o a c t i v e Naste Mar -gement - 3 M I N O R S U B D l V l S l O N - - 6 N A M E O F P E R S O N W l T P W H O M T O C O N F E R I 5. TELEPHONE E X T . I hereby cert~fy that I am authorized to act for thls agency In ms.ter: perta~ning to the disposal of the aoency's record: that the records proposed for drsposal In this Request of ' 2 ' page(s) are not now needed for the business o f th agency or w ~ i l not be needed after ;he retention per~ods speclf~ed; and that written concurrence from the Gener:

172

Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. U.S. Coal Production by Coal-Producing Region and State, 2006 - 2010 2. U.S. Coal Production by Coal-Producing Region and State, 2006 - 2010 (Million Short Tons) Coal-Producing Region and State 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Percent Change 2009 - 2010 Appalachia Total 391.2 377.8 390.2 341.4 334.3 -2.1 Alabama 18.8 19.3 20.6 18.8 20.2 7.6 Kentucky, Eastern 93.6 87.1 90.3 74.7 67.4 -9.7 Maryland 5.1 2.3 2.9 2.3 2.5 7.4 Ohio 22.7 22.6 26.3 27.5 27.3 -0.8 Pennsylvania Total 66.0 65.0 65.4 57.9 58.0 0.1 Anthracite 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 0.3 Bituminous 64.5 63.5 63.7 56.2 56.3 0.1 Tennessee 2.8 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.7 -16.1 Virginia 29.7 25.3 24.7 21.0 21.6 2.9 West Virginia Total 152.4 153.5 157.8 137.1 135.6 -1.1 Northern 42.4 42.2 41.1 38.4 41.4 7.9 Southern 110.0 111.3 116.7 98.7 94.2 -4.6

173

Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Panther Creek: A flexible approach to plant enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Panther Creek Energy Facility (PCEF), an 83 MW waste coal-fired Independent Power Producer in Nesquehoning, Pennsylvania, offers an excellent education on project turnaround. Managed by Panther Creek Partners and operated and maintained by Constellation Operating Services, the facility, designed and built by Bechtel Power Corporation, consists of two Pyroflow Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers each rated 380,000 lbs/hr, 1500 psig, 955{degrees}F, supplying steam to a GEC-Alsthom turbine generator. Since the beginning of commercial operation in October 1992, PCEF was plagued by numerous operational and reliability problems with the fuel- and ash-handling systems, primarily due to the use of below-design specification fuel. The facility was designed to burn 1488 tons per day of anthracite waste fuel (culm) specified at 7760 Btu/lb, sized 1/4 inch minus and 10% moisture. Unfortunately, miscalculations of the supply of this fuel in the vicinity made this level impossible to achieve without considerable transportation expenses. Contractual and permit obligations also required the plant to utilize the on-site culm. Nonetheless, the use of the on-site culm meant that the plant would face other expenditures because of its loss of efficiency. Given the below-design fuel, PCEF faced a 51% increase in fuel consumption, 113% increase in ash generation, and a 50% increase in limestone usage. Likewise, due to the increased demand on the material-handling facilities, the plant was incapable of achieving full load on a daily basis. PCEF had a lost capacity of 5.7% (6.4% overall when accounting for planned outages) during the period of 1993 and 1994.

Gawel, R. [Panther Creek Energy Facility, Nesquehoning, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

The structural alignment of coal and the analogous case of Argonne Upper Freeport coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that coal is somewhat aligned. Multiple techniques imply a structural alignment but its quantification has been challenging. Moreover, discrepancies exist among techniques as to whether low-rank coals are aligned. The extent of structural alignment for the rank range was quantified directly via image analysis of high-resolution transmission electron micrograph lattice fringes. Alignment was quantified, for each coal, by the contribution to the total fringe length within the prominent 45° of orientation over random orientation (1/4 of the possible orientations). It was evident that there is structural alignment across the rank range. Thus it is time for the community to desist from making the erroneous statement that: low-rank coals are randomly oriented. The slight orientation was similar for low-rank Beulah-Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coals (24% and 22%) with Pocahontas (lvb) coal showing slightly greater (39%) alignment with extensive alignment (65%) in the case of an anthracite coal. The degree of ordering is illustrated with the aid of false-color lattice fringe images and Rose diagrams. The fringe contribution 90° opposed to the maximum length contribution had the minimum or near minimum percentage length contribution for all coals except Upper Freeport and to a lesser degree Illinois No. 6. For the Upper Freeport coal the alignment is lower than expected given its mvb rank (14% over random) and is attributed to a variant of T-stacking for the small aromatic moieties sited perpendicular and between horizontal displaced fringes.

Jonathan P. Mathews; Atul Sharma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Establishment and maintenance of a coal sample bank and data base. Final report, April 8, 1988--September 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE contract continued support for the DOE Coal Sample Bank and Data Base at Penn State. At the beginning of the contract, a new type of container was evaluated for long-term storage of coal samples ranging in quantity from a few grams to over 10 kg (22 lbs). Gieseler fluid behavior, oxidation of pyrite to sulfates, loss of heating value, and other properties were monitored over time. Based on preliminary results, these foil and polyethylene laminate bags were believed to be a significant improvement over the drums, buckets and cans previously used. Use of the bags was therefore instituted with DECS-1, the first sample collected under the contract. Twenty-two DECS samples were collected, ranging in rank from lignite to anthracite and representing the five most productive coal provinces of the US. Over 6500 containers of DECS samples were created under the contract and 750 containers of 34 PSOC samples are supported by the contract. Each sample was characterized by proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic (vitrinite reflectance and maceral) analysis, physical and thermoplastic testing, and inorganic element analysis. The resulting data, and geologic data on each sample, were entered in a data base which can be used to produce a formatted five-page or one-page printout for each sample. An interactively operated data base can be searched, sorted or summarized to produce tables of selected data or to identify samples meeting a requestor`s criteria. During the period covered, 2,313 printouts, and 204 special data reports resulting in distribution of data on 34,086 samples, were provided on request.

Davis, A.; Glick, D.C.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Subsurface definition of the Allegheny Group coalbed methane prospect interval in Southwestern Pennsylvania and new gas content results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary reconnaissance of coalbed methane gas content data from exploratory coal cores and pre-existing data implies that the greater the depth and rank, the greater the total and cumulative gas content. The coal seams studied, ranging in age from the Pennsylvanian-Permian Dunkard Group to the Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Group, are from the Main Bituminous Field and two of the anthracite fields. Consequently, the Pennsylvania Geological Survey and the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey conducted a mapping investigation to evaluate the regional geology of the coal-bearing intervals and its influence on coalbed methane potential. Phase I of this study involved the entire Pennsylvanian coal-bearing interval; Phase II focused on a stratigraphic delineation and evaluation of Allegheny coalbeds and associated sandstones. A variety of cross sections and isopach maps show several prospective coalbeds and facies relationships with channel-fill sandstones. This suggests that some of these sandstones may be traps for coalbed methane. Often overlooked in reservoir characterization is the quality of a coal seam. Coal rank, grade, and type influence the reserves and production of coalbed methane; the higher the rank, the greater adsorptive capacity of the coal. The integration of coal quality with other critical tools of exploration may increase the success rate of finding {open_quotes}sweet spots.{close_quotes} Additional Pennsylvania Geological Survey drilling occurred in Beaver, Lawrence, Somerset, and Washington counties. Gas contents were graphically displayed against depth, thickness, and time for a variety of samples from 21 coal seams; average gas composition and Btu values were determined for selected samples.

Markowski, A.K. [Pennsylvania Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources-Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Coalbed methane potential of the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparison of the more important geologic attributes of coal beds in the coalbed methane producing regions of the United States to Permian coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia indicates a high potential for commercial coalbed methane production. Although the depositional and structural histories, as well as the age, of the coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are different than coal beds in U.S. basins, coal quality attributes are similar. The more prospective part of the coal-bearing sequence is as thick as 1600 m and contains more than 150 coal beds that individually are as thick as 4 m. These coal beds are composed primarily of rank ranges from subbituminous to anthracite (,0.5->2.5% R[sub 0]), with the highest rank coal located near the city of Vorkuta. Published data indicates that the gas content of coals is as high as 28-35 m[sup 3]/ton, with an average value of 18 m[sup 3]/ton. About 700 MMCM of gas per year is emmitted from coal mines. Pore pressures in the coal beds are unknown, however, interbedded sandstones in some parts of the basin are overpressured. The commonly occurring problem, in mid-latitude coalbed methane well, of excessive amounts of water may be alleviated in this high-latitude coal field. We suggest that the wide-spread occurrence of permafrost in the Pechora Coalfield may form an effective barrier to down-dip water flow, thereby facilitating the dewatering state. In summary, the quality of coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are similar to methane producing coal beds in the United States and should, therefore, be favorable for commercial rates of gas production.

Yakutseni, V.P.; Petrova, Y.E. (VNIGRI, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Law, B.E.; Ulmishek, G.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fresh-mined anthracite gener" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Coalbed methane potential of the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparison of the more important geologic attributes of coal beds in the coalbed methane producing regions of the United States to Permian coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia indicates a high potential for commercial coalbed methane production. Although the depositional and structural histories, as well as the age, of the coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are different than coal beds in U.S. basins, coal quality attributes are similar. The more prospective part of the coal-bearing sequence is as thick as 1600 m and contains more than 150 coal beds that individually are as thick as 4 m. These coal beds are composed primarily of rank ranges from subbituminous to anthracite (,0.5->2.5% R{sub 0}), with the highest rank coal located near the city of Vorkuta. Published data indicates that the gas content of coals is as high as 28-35 m{sup 3}/ton, with an average value of 18 m{sup 3}/ton. About 700 MMCM of gas per year is emmitted from coal mines. Pore pressures in the coal beds are unknown, however, interbedded sandstones in some parts of the basin are overpressured. The commonly occurring problem, in mid-latitude coalbed methane well, of excessive amounts of water may be alleviated in this high-latitude coal field. We suggest that the wide-spread occurrence of permafrost in the Pechora Coalfield may form an effective barrier to down-dip water flow, thereby facilitating the dewatering state. In summary, the quality of coal beds in the Pechora Coalfield are similar to methane producing coal beds in the United States and should, therefore, be favorable for commercial rates of gas production.

Yakutseni, V.P.; Petrova, Y.E. [VNIGRI, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Law, B.E.; Ulmishek, G.F. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795–1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejão). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most significant and severe impacts on the environment. Over 20 waste piles exist in the old mining areas, geographically dispersed, and three of them are presently burning. Their ignition was caused by forest fires during the summer of 2005. Samples from the burning and unburned zones of the waste piles were studied as were the gas from vents and the minerals resulting after combustion. Geochemical processes and mineralogical transformations in the burning coal waste pile were investigated. Microscopic analyses of the samples identified some particular aspects related with combustion: oxidation of pyrite, the presence of iron oxides, organic particles with cracks and rims with lowered (suppressed) Rr, devolatilization vacuoles and some char structures. The occurrence of vitreous (glassy) material as well as Fe–Al spinels in the burning coal waste provide evidences that the combustion temperature could have reached values above 1000 °C. Due to combustion, and as expected, the samples studied reported high ash yields. Samples taken from the burning zones reported an increase of As, Cr, Li, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and LREE concentrations and a decrease in Zr and HREE concentrations. Enrichment in Cs, Li and Rb was noted when comparing with the geochemical composition of black shales and world coals composition that is related with the contribution of granitic rocks in the sediments that originated the main lithologies of the Douro Coalfield (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenites). Cluster analyses (R-type and Q-type) were performed to understand the trend between the unburned and burning samples and it seems that some chemical variations are responsible for this separation. Elemental sulphur and salammoniac (ammonium salt) are the coal fire gas minerals neoformed on the surface of piles, near the burning zones. They were identified by different techniques, mainly SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR. Relatively high concentrations of several aromatic compounds were detected in the gas collected at the studied areas, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons. The highest concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in gas samples from S. Pedro da Cova waste pile. The exposure to hazardous compounds present in the gas is a serious risk to human health and the environment.

J. Ribeiro; E. Ferreira da Silva; D. Flores

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z