National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fresh-mined anthracite gener

  1. Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

    2001-05-31

    The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

  2. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power plant in Ukraine with introduction of coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruether, J.; Killmeyer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Schimmoller, B.; Gollakota, S.

    1996-12-31

    A study is being carried out jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the Ukrainian Ministry of Power and Electrification for rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power station in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine. The power station, named Luganskaya GRES, is laboring under deteriorating coal quality (the ash level is ranging towards 40% compared to the design value of 18%) and the physical plant is in need of repair. Approaches under consideration for the rehabilitation include upgrading the existing 200-MW{sub e} (gross) wall-fired boilers, repowering with circulating fluidized bed combustors, and the use of coal preparation. Coal washability tests conducted as part of the study indicate the coal is amenable to washing. The paper describes approaches to coal preparation being considered that provide design value coal for wall-fired boilers while minimizing rejection of Btus and generation of solid waste.

  4. Variation of char structure during anthracite pyrolysis catalyzed by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its influence on char combustion reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xuzhong Gong; Zhancheng Guo; Zhi Wang

    2009-09-15

    Effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the pyrolysis reactivity of demineralized anthracite were investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer, indicating that pyrolysis reactivity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded demineralized anthracite was higher than that of raw demineralized anthracite when temperature is over 500{sup o}C. Chars were prepared from the two coal samples in muffle with heating progress, and their structures were analyzed using SEM, FTIR, XRD, and Raman. FTIR results showed that absorption peaks of functional groups on the surface of char from catalytic pyrolysis at 700{sup o}C were more than that of char from noncatalytic pyrolysis. Raman results demonstrated values of (I{sub D3} + I{sub D4})/IG of chars from catalytic pyrolysis and noncatalytic pyrolysis were 4.76 and 3.86, respectively, indicating that ordering of the char was decreased by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XRD analysis revealed that diffraction angle of the 002 peak did not shift; however, L{sub a} and L{sub c} decreased, indicating degree of graphitization for microcrystalline structure of char from catalytic pyrolysis was decreased. The results of FTIR, XRD, and Raman of the char showed that catalytic pyrolysis improved the formation of free radicals, while hindered polymerization and forming of basic structure units. Finally, combustion reactivity of the three chars, including char of raw demineralized anthracite (char-A), char of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded demineralized anthracite (char-B), and char of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded demineralized anthracite washed by HCl (char-C), was investigated using TG and indicated that their active order was char-B > char-C > char-A. The results corroborated that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} changed structure of anthracite char and improved combustion reactivity.

  5. Page 274 Courses: Chemistry (CHEM) Sonoma State University 2015-2016 Catalog CHeM 125A QuAntitAtive generAL CHeMiStry (5)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    Page 274 Courses: Chemistry (CHEM) Sonoma State University 2015-2016 Catalog CHeM 125A QuAntitAtive generAL CHeMiStry (5) Lecture, 3 hours; discussion 1 hour; laboratory 3 hours (5 units). This one-year analytical general chemistry course is designed for freshmen Chemistry majors, Biochemistry majors, or others

  6. Relationship between textural properties, fly ash carbons, and Hg capture in fly ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Jose B. Parra

    2007-08-15

    In this work, the textural properties of a series of whole anthracitic-derived fly ashes sampled in eight hoppers from the electrostatic precipitators and their sized fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) are investigated. Data from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K, helium density, and mercury porosimetry have contributed to establish a relationship between the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, VTOT, porosity, carbon content (the type of fly ash carbons), and Hg retention in these fly ashes. The unburned carbons in these ashes are macroporous materials, and they are different from the carbons in fly ashes from classes C and F (the latter derived from the combustion of bituminous coals) and show different textural properties. These ashes represent the end member of the fly ash classes C and F with respect to certain textural properties. Although the BET surface area and VTOT values for the studied samples are the lowest reported, they increase with the increase in carbon content, anisotropic carbon content, and particle size of the ashes. Thus, a positive relationship between all these parameters and Hg capture by the coarser ash fractions was found. The finest fraction of carbons ({lt}25 {mu}m) represented an exception. Although it makes a significant contribution to the total carbon of the whole fly ashes and shows relatively higher surface areas and VTOT values, its Hg concentration was found to be the lowest. This suggests that the type of unburned carbons in the finest fraction and/or other adsorption mechanisms may play a role in Hg concentration. Because the textural properties of anisotropic carbons depend on their subtype and on their origin, the need for its differentiation has been evidenced. 54 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Anthracite-Crested butte folio, Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Whitman, 1854-1949.; Eldridge, George Homans, 1854-1905.; Emmons, Samuel Franklin, 1841-1911.

    1894-01-01

    intake relationship to offspring age for black-tailed deer, elk, and white-tailed deer. 61 20 Scalar adjustment to milk energy concentration throughout lactation. 62 21 Scalar adjustment to milk production due to the milk requirement ratio. Milk... and likelihood of return at recreational areas (Swanson et al. 1989, Hastings 1986). Income from hunting operations is a major source of compensatory income for traditional farmers and ranchers (Haney 1983, Hill 1994). While deer are obviously an important...

  8. Anthracite Power & Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump| Open EnergyNew Jersey:

  9. THERMINATOR 2: THERMal heavy IoN generATOR 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikolaj Chojnacki; Adam Kisiel; Wojciech Florkowski; Wojciech Broniowski

    2011-02-01

    We present an extended version of THERMINATOR, a Monte Carlo event generator dedicated to studies of the statistical production of particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The increased functionality of the code contains the following features: The input of any shape of the freeze-out hypersurface and the expansion velocity field, including the 3+1 dimensional profiles, in particular those generated externally with various hydrodynamic codes. The hypersufraces may have variable thermal parameters, which allows for studies departing significantly from the mid-rapidity region, where the baryon chemical potential becomes large. We include a library of standard sets of hypersurfaces and velocity profiles describing the RHIC Au+Au data at sqrt(s_(NN)) = 200 GeV for various centralities, as well as those anticipated for the LHC Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_(NN)) = 5.5 TeV. A separate code, FEMTO-THERMINATOR, is provided to carry out the analysis of femtoscopic correlations which are an important source of information concerning the size and expansion of the system. We also include several useful scripts that carry out auxiliary tasks, such as obtaining an estimate of the number of elastic collisions after the freeze-out, counting of particles flowing back into the fireball and violating causality (typically very few), or visualizing various results: the particle p_T-spectra, the elliptic flow coefficients, and the HBT correlation radii. We also investigate the problem of the back-flow of particles into the hydrodynamic region, as well as estimate the elastic rescattering in terms of trajectory crossings. The package is written in C++ and uses the CERN ROOT environment.

  10. s e c t i o n Building the new grid | white Paper www.generAtinginsights.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global policy makers have begun crafting roadmaps to increase energy efficiency and sustainable, "green"; · Energy distribution grids coping with an increasing amount of de-central "green" energy generation, which emissions by increasing the amount of "green" energy generation; · Increase in overall efficiency of energy

  11. NEWS FEATURE NATURE|Vol 436|21 July 2005 that the reactor will probably be able to gener-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ."Nowthatwehaveasite,wecan finallyproceedintakingthenextstep,"hesays. Fusion research is difficult enough without the politics. The much-vaunted concept of mimicking the Sun and generating power from nuclear fusion has been an unfulfilled promise for some 50 years. But they hope that ITER will at last prove to doubting politi- cians and scientific colleagues that nuclear

  12. Abstract. Cooperative games on antimatroids are cooperative games in which coalition formation is restricted by a combinatorial structure which gener-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

    . Jime´ nez-Losada4 1 Matema´ tica Aplicada II, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, 41092 Sevilla, Spain (e-mail: encarni@matinc.us.es) 2 Matema´ tica Aplicada II (e-mail: mbilbao (e-mail: jrbrink@feweb.vu.nl) 4 Matema´ tica Aplicada II (e-mail: hispan@matinc.us.es) Manuscript

  13. Courses: Physics (PHYS) Page 375Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog pHyS 210B generAL pHySiCS (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    HySiCS (3) Lecture, 3 hours. A basic course in physics for students majoring in Biology, Geology approval. Prerequisite: PHYS 210A or PHYS 114. pHyS 214 introduCtion to pHySiCS ii (4) Lecture, 4 hoursCtory LABorAtory (1) Laboratory, 3 hours. Selected experiments to increase the student's working physical

  14. Toronto Telegraph http://www.torontotelegraph.com 10:45 AM Thursday 06 June 2013 Toronto News Breaking Business News Breaking International News Breaking Financial Markets News Gener

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fung, Benjamin C. M.

    to help fight child porn, catch cyber thieves | Toronto Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch cyber... http://www.torontotelegraph.com/index.php/sid/215016007/scat/03cb86... 1 of 6 a comment... Post to Facebook 0 0 New Researchers develop new search tool to help fight child porn, catch

  15. Isotope study on organic nitrogen of Westphalian anthracites from the Western Middle field of Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) and from the Bramsche

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that nitrogen is released by sedimentary organic matter during diagenesis and metamorphism. Improvements of our

  16. Software codecs and works station video conferences Christian Huitema Thierry Turletti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turletti, Thierry

    codecs use expensive specialized harware, which is gener­ ally packaged with softly carpeted conference

  17. Agron. Sustain. Dev. c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    technologies make it possible to provide first gener- ation biodiesel, ethanol or biogas to the transport

  18. Marine defaunation: Animal loss in the global ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCauley, DJ; Pinsky, ML; Palumbi, SR; Estes, JA; Joyce, FH; Warner, RR

    2015-01-01

    to help ensure that marine mining, energy devel- opment, andtidal/wave energy gener- ation, and marine transport is

  19. State","January","February","March","April","May","June","July...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    83170,6002046,6033658,5122493,5814675,5870216,6499107,6354431,5687251,70423029 "Penn-Anthracite",208257,214452,247783,275896,270870,292055,346609,358493,358670,361751,323095,302528...

  20. state","Jan-08","Feb-08","Mar-08","Apr-08","May-08","Jun-08"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81,5811249,5887465,5256668,5426432,5393140,5448433,5736784,4909940,5322693,66108101 "Anthracite",154335,148574,150071,176724,178606,114025,102779,101573,103248,99861,83610,91822,15...

  1. state","Jan","Feb","Mar","Q1 Total","Apr","May","Jun","Q2 Total...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    17627215,4881361,5460677,4947015,15289053,5762846,5401692,5104549,16269087,66178091 "Anthracite",138012,121208,146605,405825,116603,127501,125028,369132,124431,140171,115125,379727...

  2. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    06315,5676994,6248586,5797946,6581929,6684448,6508988,6243095,6315669,76398738 "Penn-Anthracite",351909,365728,388549,353915,459465,402389,332090,421601,463796,407047,400767,405917...

  3. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    65078,6294632,6326533,5366891,6325260,5903254,6504159,6113744,5522825,74618614 "Penn-Anthracite",330403,345467,392189,347795,382155,389622,375580,441233,412280,416842,386822,351835...

  4. State","January","February","March","April","May","June","July...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    79675,6329838,6350516,5383659,6056752,6012412,6467277,5536219,5061189,71647943 "Penn-Anthracite",301572,280403,300555,346639,339825,342671,343862,380783,383882,479009,414527,378223...

  5. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    54446,5555140,5449372,5408316,5900643,5578968,6206261,5518899,4813129,68980715 "Penn-Anthracite",242829,252981,274234,290887,269442,282409,300021,331735,305715,316147,315764,300697...

  6. state","Jan-02","Feb-02","Mar-02","Apr-02","May-02","Jun-02"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    52,6088017,6166795,5672036,5355546,5993918,5932999,6549285,5846411,5793800,71764111 "Anthracite",400356,355236,352396,358130,362765,239871,116199,125846,118958,129848,120223,137893...

  7. state","Jan-03","Feb-03","Mar-03","Apr-03","May-03","Jun-03"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    07,5888081,5844824,5750977,5974585,5898358,5838865,6220715,5326262,6053113,69969345 "Anthracite",143889,130178,129824,133073,131771,123315,122273,120034,126776,139160,118938,123991...

  8. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    69303,4766634,5295693,3957191,4500717,4535782,5094819,5194583,4382131,59699633 "Penn-Anthracite",347446,340291,370259,223201,389053,457052,283975,353680,351317,603102,315263,270984...

  9. State","01/03/2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20693,1154592,1168847,1052752,1117311,961707,995989,1019160,1079300,1060698,1065672 "Anthracite (PA)",35141,37366,38580,39753,40240,36246,38465,33107,34291,35086,37159,36519,36693...

  10. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    54824,5540884,5291690,4818214,5875952,5528621,6647632,5985898,5086492,67941578 "Penn-Anthracite",301555,348925,366738,371258,360909,335421,366824,418292,385294,556885,504933,434382...

  11. state","Jan-10","Feb-10","Mar-10","Apr-10","May-10","Jun-10"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    21,5410707,4833353,5268009,4731596,4968144,4937479,4753464,5001728,5094446,59457449 "Anthracite",119341,118313,144377,158089,140967,151963,93863,98556,98187,124387,133288,135864,15...

  12. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    89452,6505122,6206500,4799983,6089963,5872072,6426919,5425825,3967136,70513931 "Penn-Anthracite",284751,265457,310313,287663,318415,316375,262706,327204,306644,345920,302280,178519...

  13. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    22163,6322471,6744857,5954008,6376903,6318125,7023905,6236668,6655586,76198315 "Penn-Anthracite",333042,347865,467467,355033,333014,370068,386597,422629,415238,447931,383923,415376...

  14. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    32705,5318681,5235951,4797574,6063945,5838390,6775282,5524076,4093463,65381476 "Penn-Anthracite",269482,264021,281506,250029,243464,255701,274385,339417,309279,375747,324341,257708...

  15. state","Jan","Feb","Mar","Q1 Total","Apr","May","Jun","Q2 Total...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16264924,5089471,5057952,5110136,15257559,6034905,5163897,5598759,16797561,65454926 "Anthracite",131036,126151,127417,384604,159864,161567,103152,424583,147423,145690,148093,441206...

  16. state","Jan","Feb","Mar","Q1 Total","Apr","May","Jun","Q2 Total...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16184747,5164431,5730421,5531484,16426336,5787538,6030423,5550719,17368680,67555716 "Anthracite",133480,129360,149128,411968,137000,135432,156673,429105,125414,140118,135144,400676...

  17. state","Jan-05","Feb-05","Mar-05","Apr-05","May-05","Jun-05"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    17,5103701,5014291,5476545,5130768,5693741,5496011,5138956,5362489,4917923,62145874 "Anthracite",127771,123818,142754,160319,158481,183347,209776,234381,226060,210092,241374,170731...

  18. State","January","February","March","April","May","June","July...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    88481,6952483,6257824,4934580,6073601,5834244,7545732,5814266,4898970,71407863 "Penn-Anthracite",339531,336165,396935,299655,403410,505752,407460,409376,381136,447043,386342,395570...

  19. State","January","February","March","April","May","June","July...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    27841,5891227,5285540,4187105,6331975,6274741,6665239,6131421,5073651,70596431 "Penn-Anthracite",286009,286590,342652,277846,284765,260629,196483,310496,299363,298462,271804,232897...

  20. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    58808,4939724,5210250,3997277,4963259,6263729,5945089,5139956,4288038,61575627 "Penn-Anthracite",345873,345561,423423,377657,380721,401964,349499,450478,427660,444728,388041,346801...

  1. State","January","February","March","April","May","June","July...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25041,6375555,6125973,4519778,6541560,6230462,6263463,6077497,5265618,70645423 "Penn-Anthracite",221080,275421,286570,272020,304389,290413,252955,369990,323510,387870,310308,259983...

  2. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94161,6626353,6476452,6577821,6829626,7210127,8063113,6529233,5565043,81036496 "Penn-Anthracite",408860,407603,412318,405377,384091,388007,524523,453613,451511,532977,430962,431579...

  3. State","Jan 2013","Feb 2013","Mar 2013","Q1 2013","Apr 2013"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    13063008,4395291,4690749,4309998,13396038,4688289,4686735,4536312,13911336,55160877 "Anthracite (PA)",183278,171924,187404,542606,185555,195811,190531,571897,173912,185610,170546,5...

  4. state","Jan-11","Feb-11","Mar-11","Apr-11","May-11","Jun-11"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    28,4801880,4865229,5006147,4434364,5164771,4858362,4718313,4892485,4884956,58702384 "Anthracite",140405,134511,151423,142783,144913,150076,144269,170006,159795,155477,162204,161555...

  5. State","January","February","March","April","May","June","July...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    93976,7526073,7233889,5986318,7762297,7003234,5912286,4396423,4873048,77494096 "Penn-Anthracite",299179,262224,292205,239933,397133,308113,404676,457515,445061,366822,349240,339634...

  6. state","Jan-06","Feb-06","Mar-06","Apr-06","May-06","Jun-06"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    87,5519429,5988865,5873182,5346513,5981334,5415089,5353652,5018080,4741215,65979917 "Anthracite",185582,162981,197143,178656,195365,191569,173265,195185,160301,100429,94371,92573,1...

  7. state","Jan-07","Feb-07","Mar-07","Apr-07","May-07","Jun-07"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    15,4902000,5183608,5258090,4989680,5607158,4859877,5477052,5352388,5049374,61870375 "Anthracite",117053,103626,115407,109809,116768,117658,111884,126150,108457,138277,145902,132103...

  8. state","Jan","Feb","Mar","Q1 Total","Apr","May","Jun","Q2 Total...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16614387,4935905,5546763,4807458,15290126,5422409,5298727,4998875,15720011,65189594 "Anthracite",141165,124979,139183,405327,124628,132527,133537,390692,119571,134819,115911,370301...

  9. state","Jan-04","Feb-04","Mar-04","Apr-04","May-04","Jun-04"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    05,5498947,5009688,5734168,5404688,5520733,5450323,5171243,5345943,5333824,65577466 "Anthracite",108472,100673,114789,103614,94288,199830,192222,198655,204869,181386,189915,159957,...

  10. state","Jan-09","Feb-09","Mar-09","Apr-09","May-09","Jun-09"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    79,5195543,4635374,5113017,4915010,4788010,4845202,5035728,4799116,4985507,60235803 "Anthracite",92612,87013,94768,102665,92903,103130,107606,105271,107167,111394,106360,111618,122...

  11. State","Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","Mau","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    67769,5405520,5452464,4208917,5784398,5235954,5800062,5422621,4659446,62236824 "Penn-Anthracite",308458,325315,403634,368940,364543,367826,336523,457442,411897,453289,439218,383622...

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pennies Gypsum, salt, anthracite coal, and gold ore Worksheets Handouts Directions: Label each plate with a number, 1 through 4. Place each rock sample on the plate that...

  13. Polysulfone and polyacrylate-based zwitterionic coatings for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retention and microal- gal cell attachment, but facilitated good removal of attached microbial biomass by exposure to water-jet apparatus gener- ated hydrodynamic shearing...

  14. Homework Set # 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-00-90

    A uniformly charged infinite rod, standing perpendicular to the complex plane C at z0, gener- ates an electric field at every point in the plane. The intensity of this

  15. Economic Analyses of Three Energy Policy Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.

    2015-01-01

    grid to absorb the unpredictable intermittency of wind generation, many have suggested an increase in energy storagegrid to absorb the unpredictable intermittency of wind gener- ation, many have suggested an increase in energy storage

  16. Increasing Confidence of Protein-Protein Interactomes 1 Increasing Confidence of Protein-Protein Interactomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Limsoon

    associated with true-positive protein interactions--e.g., "new interaction gener- ality" (IG2) and "meso-scale comprises the "new interaction generality" (IG2) and "meso-scale motifs" (NeMoFinder) indices. This g

  17. DOI: 10.1007/s00340-004-1533-3 Appl. Phys. B 79, 193201 (2004)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan 5 Institute of Applied Science and Engineering Research, Academia Sinica oscillator is gener- ally used to provide the seed pulses, and a regenerative or an eight-pass preamplifier

  18. Discriminacin, generalizacin y clasicacin mediante autmatas neuronales con ruido que induce depresin sinptica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marro, Joaquín

    en algunos sistemas neurobiológicos. Se sigue una estrategia que mejora notable- mente otros métodos. Planteamiento Aunque la estrategia del cerebro en relación con los procesos de discriminación, gener- alización

  19. STCT: An Ecient Algorithm for Supervisory Control Design Zhonghua Zhang and W.M.Wonham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wonham, W. M.

    of discrete-event systems. The (so-called) RW theory (often now designated SCT), introduced in [RW87 prior analysis and consequent loss of gener- ality. In this paper we report recent success with an ap

  20. Metabolomic database annotations via query of elemental compositions: Mass accuracy is insufficient even at less than 1 ppm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kind, T; Fiehn, O

    2006-01-01

    and retention time index database gener- ated from plant GC/MC: Comparison of the NCI open database with seven largeOpen Access Metabolomic database annotations via query of

  1. Bond graph models of electromechanical systems. The AC generator case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    Bond graph models of electromechanical systems. The AC generator case Carles Batlle Department. After reviewing electromechanical energy conversion and torque gener- ation, the core element present in any electromechanical system is introduced, and the corresponding electrical and mechanical ports

  2. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2006-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DePaolo, Donald

    2008-01-01

    neutralization of acid mine drainage), ionic strength eleva-Consortia: Response to Acid-Mine Drainage at Lake Coeur d’gener- ation of acid mine drainage and resultant pollutant

  3. Water condensation behavior on the surface of a network of superhydrophobic carbon fibers with high-aspect-ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) [7]. Especially, GDL is composed of microscale CF networks such as CF gases in PEMFC. However, during the PEMFC operation, water is gener- ated from the oxygen reduction

  4. Abstract Different spore types are abundant in the atmo-sphere depending on the weather conditions. Ascospores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levetin, Estelle

    precipitation levels, tempera- ture, dew point, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction and wind gusts humidity and high wind speeds, gener- ally during the warmer afternoon hours (Levetin 1995). Ascospores

  5. The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Frank C. Keil, Joshua Goodstein,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Frank C. Keil, Joshua to gener- ate more public interest when they contain neuroscientific information. Even irrelevant neuroscience information in an explanation of a psychological phenomenon may interfere with people's abilities

  6. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

  7. Carbon Vol. 28, Nos. 213. pp. 261-279, 1990 Printed in Great Britain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and properties of carbon mo- lecular sieves. In each case, the importance of rate processes has been emphasized and properties involve the use of the same scientific principles. Carbon, because of its unique properties, fully. In par- ticular. we envisioned gasifying plentiful anthracite coal, with its attendant mineral matter

  8. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  9. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    20 Diesel Fuel Use Nationally Regulated Single Price, Prices (US dollars/t) [1] Product Gasoline Grade 90# unleaded 93# unleaded 95# unleaded Diesel Jet fuelPrices for Fuels in 35 Major Cities (yuan/t) Anthracite Bituminous Coal Bituminous Coal Coke Gasoline Diesel

  10. Investigating the fate of saxitoxins in biologically active water treatment plant filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayal, N.; Newcombe, G.; Ho, L. [South Australian Water Corp., Salisbury, SA (Australia). Australian Water Quality Centre

    2008-12-15

    The saxitoxins are potent neurotoxins, which can be produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This study assessed the fate of five saxitoxins variants through biologically active laboratory filters containing media sourced from the filters beds of two water treatment plants (WTPs). Decreases in the concentration of the less toxic variants coincided with increases in the concentrations of the more toxic variants through the filters containing anthracite sourced from two different WTPs. No changes in toxin concentrations were evident through parallel filters containing sand. The results strongly suggest that organisms within the biofilm of the anthracite filters possessed the ability to biotransform the saxitoxins variants, which has important implications for drinking water treatment, particularly since this has the potential to increase the toxicity of the filtered water.

  11. (Quickly) Testing the Tester via Path Coverage Laboratory for Reliable Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groce, Alex David

    gener- ation are increasingly accepted in the software engineering community. Random testing [14, 10, 3(Quickly) Testing the Tester via Path Coverage Alex Groce Laboratory for Reliable Software Jet testing framework may grow to a point that the tester itself becomes a significant software artifact

  12. Ris Energy Report 5 Wind 2 In the past 20 years wind energy has proved itself as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a viable and increasingly economic means of generating electricity. The transition from the early days from a virtually standing start, is that wind now gener- ates some 14% of electricity and provides 7 seen in the UsA. When there is a market incentive in place there is dramatic ac- tivity. When

  13. Pyroelectric-field driven defects diffusion along c-axis in ZnO nanobelts under high-energy electron beam irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    electron beam irradiation Yong Ding, Ying Liu, Simiao Niu, Wenzhuo Wu, and Zhong Lin Wang Citation: JournalO nanobelts under high-energy electron beam irradiation Yong Ding,a) Ying Liu, Simiao Niu, Wenzhuo Wu is created around the electron probe due to local beam heating effect, which gener- ates a unidirectional

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide use on California almonds and associated risks to the surrounding environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minghua

    , and abundant sunshine. The Central Valley is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Key environmental conditions. Analyses showed that the use intensities (UI) of insecticides (oils accounted for 86 in California, USA, which produced about 80% of the global almond supply and gener- ated $3.87 billion

  15. SPECIES PROFILE New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan A-323

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    SPECIES PROFILE New Hampshire Wildlife Action Plan A-323 Federal Listing: Not listed State Listing Silver-haired bats do not remain in New Hampshire during the winter (see Izor 1979 for discussion to their summer habitat in New Hampshire (or, more gener- ally, to northern states; Cryan and Veilleux in press

  16. Objects and Synchronous Programming Charles ANDR1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    André, Charles

    gener- ated by a synchronous language compiler, the user must provide an execution machine [AND 93]. Our­ 1 ­ Objects and Synchronous Programming Charles ANDR�1 , Frédéric BOULANGER2 , Marie logical correctness, is the essence of the synchronous paradigm. This paper proposes to combine these two

  17. magnitude too slow to produce v-weakening, except perhaps at temperatures of 500 to 700C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    networks gener- ated by crystal plasticity. Plastic deformation, fracturing, and abrasion presumably crystals (26, 27), also in calcite (28). On this basis, we suggest that the strong anisotropy, A to C, and fig. S1) is similar to the Ashby-Verrall model for super- plasticity by diffusion

  18. Cell, Vol. 92, 401413, February 6, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press TRF2 Protects Human Telomeres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lange, Titia

    -strand tails are only present on half of the chromosome ends, consistent with their being gener- Bas van the scheduled senes- lost their single-stranded G-tails. Therefore, TRF2 may cence point (Bodnar et al., 1998 chromosome ends from dam- been identified. TRF1 was isolatedas a double-strandedaged DNA. Despite

  19. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 22, PAGES 2615-3618, NOVEMBER 15, 2000 Geodetic network optimization for geophysical parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 22, PAGES 2615-3618, NOVEMBER 15, 2000 3615 Geodetic network optimization for geophysical parameters Geoffrey Blewitt Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology is gener- alized here, to seek the network configuration that optimizes the precision of geophysical

  20. Molecular Cell 23, 425438, August 4, 2006 2006 Elsevier Inc. DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.05.042 Destruction or Potentiation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, James

    Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 Summary Yeast prions are protein-based genetic elements that selfMolecular Cell 23, 425­438, August 4, 2006 ª2006 Elsevier Inc. DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2006. Using a distinct mechanism, Hsp104 fragments both prions to gener- ate new prion assembly surfaces

  1. Cosmic Ray Pitch Angle Scattering Through 90 o

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    anisotropy and the amplitude of hydro­magnetic waves gener­ ated by this streaming instability is limited rise to the dominant form of wave dissipation). We also account for ion­cyclotron damping of small wave the quasi­linear scattering with the adiabatic mir­ roring in a small boundary layer in momentum space close

  2. PREPARED FOR THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, UNDER CONTRACT DE-AC02-76CH03073

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the amplitude of hydro-magnetic waves gener- ated by this streaming instability is limited by the presence form of wave dissipation). We also account for ion-cyclotron damping of small wave- length waves the quasi-linear scattering with the adiabatic mir- roring in a small boundary layer in momentum space close

  3. 5782 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2007 Max-SINR ISI/ICI-Shaping Multicarrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schniter, Philip

    5782 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2007 Max-SINR ISI-symbol/inter-car- rier interference (ISI/ICI) subject to orthogonal or biorthogonal constraints. In doubly dispersive channels, however, complete sup- pression of ISI/ICI is impossible, and the ISI/ICI pattern gener- ated

  4. GENERATION OF TRANSITION CLASS MODELS FROM FORMAL QUEUEING NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strelen, Christoph

    stochastic Petri nets (GSPN), UltraSAN [8] for stochastic activity networks, a class of stochastic Petri netsGENERATION OF TRANSITION CLASS MODELS FROM FORMAL QUEUEING NETWORK DESCRIPTIONS Johann Christoph-mail: strelen@cs.uni-bonn.de KEYWORDS Queueing Networks, Tools, Multi-Paradigm Models, Gener- ation, Markov

  5. The Ritel Corpus -An annotated Human-Machine open-domain question answering spoken dialog corpus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a human to ask a general question (f.i. "Who is currently presiding the Senate?" or "How did the price of gas change for the last ten years?") and refine his re- search interactively. This project, natural language gener- ation) and is not only about integrating existing tools but also and mainly about

  6. 30 January 1998 Z .Chemical Physics Letters 283 1998 9196

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    research efforts are being devoted on how to control combustion-gener- ated emissions of this toxic and in planetary atmospheres, are also known to play a major role in hydrocarbon combustion. The reaction of C H investigation of the C HqNO reac-2 tion using a pulse laser photolysis­chemilumines- cence technique, where C H

  7. Mechanism of bistability: Tonic spiking and bursting in a neuron model Andrey Shilnikov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calabrese, Ronald

    . The methods of qualitative theory of slow-fast sys- tems applied to biophysically realistic neuron models can Neurons are observed in one of three fundamental, gener- ally defined modes: silence, tonic spiking formation 3,4 . Neurons in bursting mode differ in their ability to transmit information and respond

  8. Unitary Irreducible Representations of a Lie Algebra for Open Matrix Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner

    or correlation functions. Sometimes, the symmetry of a system puts such a powerful constraint on its behavior. This basically involves identifying a symmetry of a physical system and a set of generators gener- 1) funded by a grant from the Danish National Research Foundation. #12; ating this symmetry transformation

  9. Statistical Model Checking in Uppaal: Lets Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Alexandre

    analysis of hybrid systems. It does not suf- fer from decidability issues or state-space explosion compared to tradi- tional model-checking. Furthermore, it is applicable to more powerful formalisms correctness of systems and an analysis technique to study performance. The idea behind SMC is to gener- ate

  10. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim722 wileyonlinelibrary.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    of nanostructures lead to the conclusion that electrochemical reaction and mechanical degradation are material' effect. In oxide nanowires, discrete cracks in ZnO nanowires are gener- ated near the lithiation reaction front, leading to leapfrog cracking, while a mobile dislocation cloud at the reaction front is observed

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Invariance in species-abundance distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storch, David

    -normal distributions, suggesting that multiplicative models gener- ating log-normal-like SADs (including the power, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK e-mail: a are common to virtually all real SADs. These include that they are markedly right-skewed (i

  12. Reply: Davies et al. (2012), Hydraulic fractures: How far can they go? Richard J. Davies a,*, Gillian R. Foulger a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    are stimulated to increase the rate of fluid flow from low permeability oil and gas reservoirs (e.g. shale and natural hydraulic fractures caused by high fluid pressure from eight sedimentary successions from around propagating stimulated hydraulic fractures, gener- ated by fracking operations for gas and oil exploitation

  13. ISSN13300008 CODENFIZAE4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ve?a, Damir

    . SOLTANOLKOTABI and M. H. NADERI Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran, the initial atomic coherence locks the field phase and unlike ordinary lasers and masers there is no longer predicted. One of the key concepts in lasers and masers is population inversion. It is gener- ally the case

  14. ISSN1330--0008 CODENFIZAE4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ve?a, Damir

    . SOLTANOLKOTABI and M. H. NADERI Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran, the initial atomic coherence locks the field phase and unlike ordinary lasers and masers there is no longer predicted. One of the key concepts in lasers and masers is population inversion. It is gener­ ally the case

  15. Proceedings of the 12th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation, pages 4249, Athens, Greece, 30 31 March 2009. c 2009 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    make exten- sive use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS); however, despite an explosion such data. One of the challenges these systems face is the gener- ation of geographic descriptions referring on this topic); · often the underlying data sets contain little explicit geographic information for a generation

  16. June 23, 2009 RAMSEY-LIKE CARDINALS II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Philip

    June 23, 2009 RAMSEY-LIKE CARDINALS II VICTORIA GITMAN AND PHILIP WELCH Abstract. This paper continues the study of the Ramsey-like large cardinals introduced in [Git09] and [WS08]. Ramsey-like cardinals are defined by gener- alizing the "existence of elementary embeddings" characterization of Ramsey

  17. Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and Jurgen Muller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Jürgen

    Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and J¨urgen M¨uller Abstract. We provide involutory symmetric generating sets of finitely gener- ated Coxeter groups, fulfilling a suitable finiteness. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000). 20F55, 20F05. Keywords. symmetric generation, symmetric

  18. Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and Jurgen Muller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Jürgen

    Symmetric generation of Coxeter groups Ben Fairbairn and JË?urgen MË?uller Abstract. We provide involutory symmetric generating sets of finitely gener­ ated Coxeter groups, fulfilling a suitable finiteness Subject Classification (2000). 20F55, 20F05. Keywords. symmetric generation, symmetric presentation

  19. Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2011: the 12th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, pages 817, Portland, Oregon, June 17-18, 2011. c 2011 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ´alez-Brenes and Jack Mostow Project LISTEN Language Technologies Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon differences matter by describing dialogues as feature vectors constructed from the logs of dialogs gener- ated construct and select subsets of features in order to build a good predictor. We focus our attention

  20. A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the successful use of piezoelectric transducers in applications ranging from hybrid motor design The capability of piezoelectric materials to both actuate and sense derives from the noncentrosym- metric nature stresses also alter the ionic configuration which gener- ates the voltages measured in piezoelectric

  1. A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the successful use of piezoelectric transducers in applications ranging from hybrid motor design to struct The capability of piezoelectric materials to both actuate and sense derives from the noncentrosym­ metric nature stresses also alter the ionic configuration which gener­ ates the voltages measured in piezoelectric

  2. Dissolution of carbon dioxide bubbles and microfluidic multiphase flows Ruopeng Sun and Thomas Cubaud*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    . Introduction Carbon dioxide gas is widespread in natural and industrial processes. At the small scale microfluidic flow pattern consists of elongated gas bubbles separated by liquid plugs. When the liquid wets-sections. The liquid gener- ally fills the corners and gas slugs are separated from the walls by thin liquid films.11

  3. Acoustic near-field characteristics of a conical, premixed flame Doh-Hyoung Lee and Tim C. Lieuwena)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    processing,1 solid and liquid rockets,2,3 ramjets,4 afterburners, and land-based gas turbines.5.g., solid rockets , liquid e.g., liquid rockets or aircraft engines , or gaseous fuel e.g., land- based gas system failure. They gener- ally occur at frequencies associated with the combustor's natural

  4. Speeding up protein folding: mutations that increase the rate at which Rop folds and unfolds by over four orders of magnitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regan, Lynne

    Speeding up protein folding: mutations that increase the rate at which Rop folds and unfolds. Introduction When a protein folds, the backbone and sidechain atoms organize from the extensive number protein folding usually occurs on the order of milliseconds to seconds, it is gener- ally accepted

  5. Minimalist Representations and the Importance of Nearest Neighbor Effects in Protein Folding Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Minimalist Representations and the Importance of Nearest Neighbor Effects in Protein Folding First principle models of protein folding gener- ally are preferred over statistical approaches because a knowledge-based approach and a more funda- mental methodology. Our present focus is on whether protein

  6. IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. QE-22, NO. 4, APRIL 1986 509 Cd Recombination Laser in a Plasma Generatedby an Electron Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. QE-22, NO. 4, APRIL 1986 509 Cd Recombination Laser in a Plasma Generatedby an Electron Beam Abstract-Laser action was obtained in the 1.40, 1.43, and 1.65 pm lines of CdI following electron-ion recombination in a plasma gener- ated by an electron beam

  7. 1488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 A Design-Specific and Thermally-Aware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 A Design-Specific and Thermally-Aware Methodology for Trading-Off Power and Performance in Leakage a gener- alized design optimization metric for simultaneously trading-off power and performance--As CMOS technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, factors such as leakage power and chip

  8. THUMBNAILDJ: VISUAL THUMBNAILS OF MUSIC Ya-Xi Chen Ren Klber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    representation. Beat Histogram [11] is a temporal representation of beat strength in audio signals (see Figure 1a thumbnail can be automatically gener- ated for an audio file, including information of tempo, volume, genre an audio file as se- quential stripes. Bright colors correspond to speech or singing, and purple and blue

  9. VOLUME 82, NUMBER 12 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 22 MARCH 1999 Generation of Spin-Wave Envelope Dark Solitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VOLUME 82, NUMBER 12 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 22 MARCH 1999 Generation of Spin-Wave point, the generated localized wave acquires an induced spatial phase shift accumulated during its gener be generated by an input pulse without initially introduced phase modulation. We propose a theoretical

  10. Today's electrical transmission system delivers high levels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    #12;Today's electrical transmission system delivers high levels of reliability, and society's needs for electricity demand that reliability be maintained as we transition to clean electricity generation of conventional and superconducting conductors. The power grid is a complex machine in which electricity is gener

  11. Automatic Provenance Collection and Publishing in a Science Data Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janée, Greg

    lineage throughout the product generation process, and to implement methods for automatically informing phenom- ena are continuous in space and time, the data products are typically gener- ated and exchangedPOSTER Automatic Provenance Collection and Publishing in a Science Data Production Environment

  12. Structural variation in generated health reports Catalina Hallett and Donia Scott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structural variation in generated health reports Catalina Hallett and Donia Scott Centre.hallett,d.scott}@open.ac.uk Abstract We present a natural language gener- ator that produces a range of medi- cal reports for "loose paraphrases" between the various reports on a given patient, with a high degree of semantic

  13. Design and Analysis of a Dynamic Scheduling Strategy with Resource Estimation for Large-Scale Grid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.

    computational data that are being gener- ated in the high energy and nuclear physics experiments de- mand new energy and nuclear physi- cists located at 40 institutions in the United States, France, Russia, Germany volume loads) on a Grid environment when the resource availability at sinks varies randomly over time

  14. PaNeCS: A Modeling Language for Passivity-based Design of Networked Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    to check for passivity and a code gener- ator for simulation in MATLAB/Simulink using the TrueTime platform modeling toolbox. The resulting designs are by construction more robust to platform effects). Real-world CPSs such as automotive vehicles, building automation systems, and groups of unmanned air

  15. Engineering Options for the U.S. Fusion Demo* M.S. Tillack1, M. Billone2, L. El-Guebaly3, D.K. Sze2, L. M. Waganer4, C. Wong5,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    power producer will choose to purchase one as its next electric gener- ating plant. A fusion power plant successful operation, the U.S. Fusion Demo must be sufficiently convincing that a utility or independent for an attractive tokamak fusion power core is not unlimited; previous studies have shown that advanced low

  16. Adriano Mazzini D. Duranti R. Jonk J. Parnell B. T. Cronin A. Hurst M. Quine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    migration in the shallow crust is a wide- spread phenomenon which is increasingly gaining atten- tion migration. Fluids can follow different pathways, gener- ating diverse geological structures and phenomena. Examples of gas, and occasionally oil, leaking from reservoirs include seeps from the Gulf of Mexico

  17. INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued:ld absorption Jnd lead poisoning. Such JCtivities for children will continue to be necessary until sources

  18. High-temperature high-pressure phases of lithium from electron force field (eFF) quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    University), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea; and b Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 Contributed National Laboratory, Z-Pinch at Sandia National Laboratory) that gener- ate data about materials under

  19. Proceedings of OMAE98 17th Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    Proceedings of OMAE98 17th Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering July 5­7, Lisbon transfer function'' (NTF) method. The basic goal of this method is to require the use of a gener­ ally, there is an on­ going trend toward increasingly detailed, numerically com­ plex analysis methods (e.g., Nakos

  20. Proceedings of OMAE98 17th Conference on O shore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    Proceedings of OMAE98 17th Conference on O shore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering July 5-7, Lisbon transfer function" NTF method. The basic goal of this method is to require the use of a gener- ally, there is an on- going trend toward increasingly detailed, numerically com- plex analysis methods e.g., Nakos

  1. Multivariate proteomic analysis of murine embryonic stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Multivariate proteomic analysis of murine embryonic stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation responses, we employ a multivariate systems analysis of proteomic data gener- ated from combinatorial-4 expression levels. This data- driven, multivariate (16 conditions 31 components 3 time points 1

  2. Nuclear Physics A 768 (2006) 99117 Quasi-particle interaction in nuclear matter from chiral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weise, Wolfram

    2006-01-01

    in these approaches is a repulsive contribution to the energy per particle ¯E(kf ) gener- ated by Pauli blockingNuclear Physics A 768 (2006) 99­117 Quasi-particle interaction in nuclear matter from chiral pion 20 January 2006 Abstract Based on a recent chiral approach to nuclear matter we calculate the in

  3. AO17: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 441639

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    AO17: Ash detection and characterisation in IASI data Candidate number: 441639 Supervisors: Dr E. Carboni and Dr R. G. Grainger Word count: 4275 Abstract Methods for the fast detection of volcanic ash aircraft of the presence of volcanic ash. Previous methods for detecting ash can gener- ate many false

  4. The FINITE STRING Newsletter Program Workshop: The Lexicon, Parsing, and Semantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology Corp. ] Know~edge Management Support for Language Processing 12:00 Lunch 1:30 Fredrick Damerau:30 Robert Ingria [ Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. ] Requirements on the Lexicon for Parsing and Gener- ation 4 and Bolts of Lexical Access 10:00 Robert Amsler and Donald Walker [ Bell Communi- cations Research ] Text

  5. Characterization and Control of Biological Microrobots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    magnetic system is five orders-of-magnitude less than the propulsion force gener- ated by the flagellum proposed for propulsion: extracting energy from an ex- ternal magnetic field [4], or extracting energy from of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment

  6. 74th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY--2007 Regular Session Senate Bill 1054

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    and gener- ation; and Whereas the technology for harnessing wave energy is rapidly evolving in many. Whereas wave energy is a renewable power source with a great potential to reduce our de- pendence on oil and other fossil fuels; and Whereas the Oregon coast is particularly well suited for wave energy development

  7. Electron Injection by Dephasing Electrons with Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    mechanism, resultant beams will be similar due to wave structure. Also, most schemes employ the same basic. INTRODUCTION Laser-plasma based acceleration coupled with CPA laser technology has become the topic of much for x-ray gener- ation or high-energy physics has yet to be demonstrated by use of laser wake- elds

  8. Relational-Grammar-Based Generation in the JETS Japanese-English Machine Translation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relational-Grammar-Based Generation in the JETS Japanese-English Machine Translation System David E This paper describes the design and func- tioning of the English generation phase in JETS, a limited transfer This paper discusses relational-grammar-based gener- ation in the context of JETS, a Japanese-English machine

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of corn stover and switchgrass for lignocellulosic ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    ethanol production Naveen Narayanaswamy a , Ahmed Faik b , Douglas J. Goetz a , Tingyue Gu a, a Department). Increased demand in biofuels cannot be met by the use of corn and sugarcane. In the US, corn ethanol has in and Liska, 2007). The production of lignocellulosic ethanol from biomass gener- ally involves four major

  10. 618 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 3, MAY 2004 Automotive Power Generation and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    618 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 3, MAY 2004 Automotive Power Generation developments in the application of power electronics to automotive power gener- ation and control. A new load be implemented within the existing manufacturing infrastructure. Index Terms--Automotive power generation, boost

  11. Online Submission ID: 236 Cable Route Planning in Complex Environments Using Constrained Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    algorithm precomputes a global roadmap of the environment by using a variant of the probabilistic roadmap configurations, we compute an approximate path using the initial roadmap gener- ated on the contact space. We shooting approach. The resulting global roadmap com- puted this way lies near the C

  12. Efficient Generation of Large Random Networks Vladimir Batagelj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandes, Ulrik

    to randomly generate networks according to the most commonly used models. Their running time and space, biological networks, river basins, or social networks, have significantly increased the interest in modeling be gener- ated efficiently by presenting generators that are asymp- totically optimal both in terms

  13. Teacakes, Trains, Taxicabs and Toxins: A Bayesian Account of Predicting the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenenbaum, Josh

    Teacakes, Trains, Taxicabs and Toxins: A Bayesian Account of Predicting the Future Thomas L fgruffydd,jbtg@psych.stanford.edu Abstract This paper explores how people make predictions about the future the future suggested by J. R. Gott (1993). A gener­ alized Bayesian form of Gott's method is presented

  14. Engine Remanufacturing and Energy Savings Sahil Sahni1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy

    in a Passenger Car [3, 4]. . . . . . . 6 5 Engine Use phase calculation for a new engine of 1987. . . . . 7 6 for on-road Passenger Cars[6]. . 12 9 Use phase energy consumption for engines of different gener- ation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11 Economic Analysis of Passenger Car Engine Remanufacturing. 16 12 Fuel Energy Distribution

  15. A Unigram Orientation Model for Statistical Machine Translation Christoph Tillmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    how often a block occurs to the left or to the right of some predecessor block. The orientation model the input sentence is seg- mented from left to right and the target sentence is gener- ated from bottom example taken from the devtest set. The Arabic words are roman- ized. section 3, block swapping where only

  16. Triple oxygen isotope variations in sedimentary rocks Naomi E. Levin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . However, recent oxygen isotope measurements of terrestrial rocks, minerals and waters also reveal common for various equilibrium and kinetic mechanisms. Here we pres- ent triple oxygen isotope data on sedimentary; Pack and Herwartz, 2014), but they are gener- ally overlooked in analysis of terrestrial rocks

  17. Statistical Science 2013, Vol. 28, No. 4, 510520

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

    , the phrase earthquake prediction has a specific definition: it is the identification of a meaningfully small. An example of earthquake predictions are those gener- ated by the M8 method (Keilis-Borok and Kossobokov on smoothed historical seismicity (Geller et al., 1997; Zechar and Jordan, 2008). Earthquake prediction can

  18. Multiple Criteria Decision Support by Evolutionary Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zitzler, Eckart

    1 Multiple Criteria Decision Support by Evolutionary Computation Marco Laumanns, Eckart Zitzler difficult or impossible. In addition, they can handle multiple criteria simultaneously, being able to gener of these variables form the set of decision alternatives. The criteria to judge each decision relate to the output

  19. Deriving Realtime Monitors System Requirements Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    determines if the observed behaviour is consistent with a given specification. When designing safety such that it accepts only executions representing accept­ able system behaviour. Investigation into the design (i.e. satisfying the above three criteria) to gener­ ate a software monitor that will determine

  20. Deriving Real-time Monitors System Requirements Documentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    determines if the observed behaviour is consistent with a given specification. When designing safety executions representing accept- able system behaviour. Investigation into the design of such a monitor (i.e. satisfying the above three criteria) to gener- ate a software monitor that will determine

  1. Reactivity of pulverized coals during combustion catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Guo, Zhancheng; Wang, Zhi

    2010-02-15

    Effects of CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on combustion reactivity of several fuels, including three ranks of coals, graphite and anthracite chars, were investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results indicated that the combustion reactivity of all the samples except lignite was improved with CeO{sub 2} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. It was interesting to note that the ignition temperatures of anthracite were decreased by 50 C and 53 C, respectively, with CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition and that its combustion rates were increased to 15.4%/min and 12.2%/min. Ignition temperatures of lignite with CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition were 250 C and 226 C, and the combustion rates were 12.8% and 19.3%/min, respectively. When compared with those of lignite without catalysts, no obvious catalytic effects of the two catalysts on its combustion reactivity were revealed. The results from the combustion of the three rank pulverized coals catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicated significant effects of the two catalysts on fixed carbon combustion. And it was found that the higher the fuel rank, the better the catalytic effect. The results of combustion from two kinds of anthracite chars showed obvious effects of anthracite pyrolysis catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its combustion reactivity. (author)

  2. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  3. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  4. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  5. Water filtration optimization by geometric programming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Duane Jimmy

    1970-01-01

    important as a means of removing suspended and colloidal matter. Sand is the most commonly used filter media but is rapidly being replaced by a combination of anthracite, sand, and garnet for faster filtration rates. Due to the complexity... of the filtering process, the design of these filters has remained an art without ever progressing to a science. Filters are in general designed from experience and rules of thumb without any assurance that maximum efficiency is attained at minimum cost. A...

  6. Pinch Technology-Theory into Practice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saboo, A.; Craw, I.; Hindmarsh, E.; Boland, D.

    1986-01-01

    (on-plant utiliz tion or export) o Effective Utilization of Waste Heat tors are selected on the basis of the power and hea The most suitable type of power gener demand of the process. The profile matching proc dure for integrating of the heat.... CHP System Interaction CHP analysis indicates that after implementation of low temperature heat recovery schemes in the power station and other plants, there will be a net surplus of LP steam. Efforts should be made to generate intermediate...

  7. Cost of Capital and Regulator’s Preferences: Investigation into a new method of estimating regulatory bias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sancetta, Alessio; Satchell, Stephen E.

    ’s electricity transmission and gas distribution networks are located throughout the United Kingdom and in the north-eastern section of the United States. They also own liquefied natural gas storage facilitites in Britain and provide infrastructure services... for the pharmaceutical and manufacturing sectors, and supplies natural gas. SPW LN Equity: Scottish Power Plc Scottish Power plc is an integrated power and energy group, which gener- ates, trades and supplies electricity, in addition to providing electrical power systems...

  8. Unsupervised State-Space Modelling Using Reproducing Kernels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Felipe; Djuri?, Petar M.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-06-22

    gradient- based methods. These include ridge regression (RR) in the offline case, and least mean square (LMS) and recursive least squares (RLS) in online cases. These linear estimation algorithms are the basis of kernel adaptive filters. [ACCEPTED... in red. the observation signal yt using kernels and an LMS-based update rule; see [41]. Kernel State-Space Model (KSSM): The adaptive version of the proposed method, where the predictions are gener- ated by propagating the particles of the state according...

  9. Integrated circuit mask generation using a raster scanned laser trimming system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourley, Kevin Dwayne

    1982-01-01

    and developed . for the production of integrated circuit master reticles. The novelty of this approach is the use of a commercial Nd:YAG laser trimming system as a raster scanning laser reticle generator. A previous method employing an ESI Model 44 Laser... Integrated Circuit Mask Making), supports designs of even very large scale integration (VLSI) complexities. Low cost and high versatility makes the use of a commercial laser trimmer as a mask gener ation system very attractive for research applications...

  10. Anomalous behaviour of molybdenum in steel welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhary, Habib Ullah

    their applications to other areas, like steam generators and heaters. The range of applications includes chemical reactor vessels, nuclear power gener- ation components and also superheaters of steam generators. They have recently been used in hydrotreating vessels... hardening effect. Typical applications are: pres- sure vessels for transport and storage, submarines, heavy road vehicles etc. 1.2.1 The Effect of Molybdenum on Weld Metal There is a microstructural effect which is especially prominent in molybdenum...

  11. Appendix to Hierarchical Infinite Divisibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carin, Lawrence

    distribution inference. The Gener- alized Inverse Gaussian (GIG) distribution is denoted by: GIG(x; a, b, p; (6) p(i|-) GIG(x2 i 0, 1 i , -0.5); (7) p(i|-) GIG(2, 1 i , 1 n - 1); (8) p(|-) Ga(c0 + 1 2 n, d0 to [3]. For the EM estimation, if we want a point estimate of i, we can get it by the mode of GIG

  12. Transformation Strain and Crystallographic Texture in Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Saurabh

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.5.2 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.6 Evolution of martensitic transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 v CONTENTS vi 2.6.1 Koistinen-Marburger equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6.2 Justification... TEXTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Chapter 1 Introduction Displacive transformations in steels such as bainite and martensite gener- ate dilatational and shear strains of about 0.03 and 0.22-0.26 respectively [1]. However, the shear strains associated...

  13. Dow and Independent Power-- Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunt, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    made in Dow-owned pipelines to collect the gas from local producers. The technology was steam boiler turbine generators. During the 1950s, Dow stayed with this proven strategy and rapidly expanded power/steam gener ation capacity to meet a rising.... Antitrust laws must be enforced. Cross subsidies between utili ties and their affiliates must be avoided. Competitive bidding/contract negotiations must be conducted in a fair and equitable manner to all parties. Changes in PURPA are neither necessary...

  14. Electrostatically Directed Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Supramolecular Polymer Microcapsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Richard M.; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yu; Coulston, Roger J.; Smith, Clive A.; Salmon, Andrew R.; Yu, Ziyi; Scherman, Oren A.; Abell, Chris

    2015-05-26

    by bulk emulsifi cation tech- niques often exhibit high polydispersity. [ 23 ] The microemulsion of immiscible fl uids offers an alternative route to hollow microcapsules, with the interfa- cial polymerization of segregated monomer solutions widely... guests, through multiple noncovalent interactions. [ 36 ] Their extremely high affi nity in water is reported to be driven by the release of high energy water from the CB[8] cavity. [ 37 ] A key step in the development of this approach is to gener...

  15. Quantum Field Effects in Stationary Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Yerchuck; Vyacheslav Stelmakh; Yauhen Yerchak; Alla Dovlatova

    2015-01-28

    It is proved on the example of electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of anthracites, that by strong electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions the formation of the coherent system of the resonance phonons takes place. The acoustic quantum Rabi oscillations were observed for the first time in ESR-spectroscopy. Its Rabi frequency value on the first damping stage was found to be equal 920.6 kHz, being to be independent on the microwave power level in the range 20 - 6 dB [0 dB corresponds to 100 mW]. By the subsequent increase of the microwave power the stepwise transition to the phenomenon of nonlinear quantum Rabi oscillations, characterised by splitting of the oscillation group of lines into two subgroups with doubling of the total lines' number takes place. Linewidth of an individual oscillation line becomes approximately the twofold narrower, being to be equal the only to $0.004 \\pm 0.001$ G. Along with the absorption process of EM-field energy the emission process was observed. It was found, that the emission process is the realization of the acoustic spin resonance, the source of acoustic wave power in which is the system of resonance phonons, accumulated in the samples by the registration with AFC. It has been found, that the lifetime of coherent state of a collective subsystem of resonance phonons in anthracites is very long and even by room temperature it is evaluated by the value exceeding 4.6 minutes. The model of new kinds of instantons was proposed. They are considered to be similar in the mathematical structure to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger solitons with "propagation" direction along time $t$-axis instead of space $z$-axis. The proof, that the superconductivity state in the anthracite samples studied is produced at the room temperature in ESR conditions in the accordance with the theory of the quantised acoustic field, has experimentally been obtained.

  16. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Economics Research Service, Washington, DC (United States). National Resources and Environment Div.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  17. EIS-0357- Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

  18. Extraction of palladium from acidic solutions with the use of carbon adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O.N. Kononova; N.G. Goryaeva; N.B. Dostovalova; S.V. Kachin; A.G. Kholmogorov [Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    We studied the sorption of palladium(II) on LKAU-4, LKAU-7, and BAU carbon adsorbents from model hydrochloric acid solutions and the solutions of spent palladium-containing catalysts. It was found that sorbents based on charcoal (BAU) and anthracite (LKAU-4) were characterized by high sorption capacities for palladium. The kinetics of the saturation of carbon adsorbents with palladium(II) ions was studied, and it was found that more than 60% of the initial amount of Pd(II) was recovered in a 1-h contact of an adsorbent with a model solution. This value for the solutions of spent catalysts was higher than 35%.

  19. MTCI advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, M.N.; Chandran, R.R. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    MTCI is pursuing the development and commercialization of several advanced combustion and gasification systems based on pulse combustion technology. The systems include indirectly heated thermochemical reactor, atmospheric pressure pulse combustor, pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, direct coal-fired gas turbine pulse combustor island, and advanced concept second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustor island. Although the systems in toto are capable of processing lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coals in an efficient, economical and environmentally acceptable manner, each system is considered ideal for certain coal types. Brief descriptions of the systems, applications, selected test results and technology status are presented.

  20. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the projects funded did not meet their original goals, the overall objectives of the CPCPC were completed as many new applications for coal-derived feedstocks have been researched. Future research in many of these areas is necessary before implementation into industry.

  1. Factors affecting the removal of geosmin and MIB in drinking water biofilters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhadi, S.L.N.; Huck, P.M.; Slawson, R.M. [Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. for Biology

    2006-08-15

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted using four parallel dual-media filter columns containing biologically active anthracite or granular activated carbon media and sand. The factors under investigation were low-(8{sup o}C) and high-(20{sup o}C) temperature operations, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) concentration, media type, and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) level. Source water consisted of dechlorinated tap water to which geosmin and MIB were added, as well as a cocktail of easily biodegradable organic matter (i.e., typical ozonation by-products). Phase 1 experiments used a high BOM level (280 {mu} g/L carbon) to simulate water that had been subjected to ozonation before filtration. Phase 2 experiments used a low BOM level (28 {mu} g/L C) to simulate nonozonated water. Factorial design experiments showed that all four main factors (temperature, concentration, media, and BOM level) were important to both geosmin and MIB removal. Temperature and media interaction and concentration and BOM level interaction were significant for geosmin removal only. Temperature and BOM level interaction as well as media and BOM level interaction were significant for the removal of both geosmin and MIB. Overall, removals of geosmin and MIB were lower in phase 2 (low BOM level), in particular in the anthracite media filters. Biomass levels in the filters appeared to have a significant effect upon the removal efficiencies of both odor compounds.

  2. A study of the Antilles Current using moored current meter arrays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, William Everett

    1967-01-01

    characteristics of the Savcnius rotor have been reported previously by Gaul (1962). The output from the current meter is a ro11 of 16 mm photographic film containing current direction and speed data, data on case inclination, and timing pulses. An example... the summer npeia ions, wind directions and speeds were typical for this subtropical latitude being gener;illy out of the east at Table 2. Mooring nositioning data. oorlpg; I I IFix No. !:Date, " Time I !I, " L'ST :I ~L*'- 0. ! I ILongitude Il...

  3. An Experiment with Digital Lighting in Adding Machine: A Musical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esfandiary, Rana; Reaney, Mark

    2014-01-01

    of house position. Virtual scenic elements were Figure 1. Mr. Zero at the office. Note the animation clip of swirling numbers visible on the stage floor. by Rana Esfandiary and Mark Reaney an experiment with digital l ighting in Adding Machine: A... in this production was two pair of computers and digital projectors, one mounted house left, the other house right, from which lighting effects could be gener- ated in real time using a series of recorded video sequences and real-time video manipulation software...

  4. Electricity Reform in Chile: Lessons for Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2006-03-14

    of available hydroelectric capacity it has necessitated expensive substitution of fuel oil for gas. The cost of fuel substitition is estimated at $32m over 6 months. Second, it has raised the possible requirement for investment in expensive liquid natural gas... but since the arrival of natural gas from Argentina in 1997, which sparked a lot of new building of gas fired plants, returns have been more modest. In 2003 historic cost rate of return on equity for Colbun was 14.8%, AES-Gener was 6.6% and Endesa was 5...

  5. Stability of fluid-loaded structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arzoumanian, Sevag Hrair

    2011-06-07

    and AcknowledgementsThis dissertation is the result of my own work and includes nothing which is the out-come of work done in collaboration or as part of another degree or diploma. Parts ofchapters 2 through 4 and chapter 9 have been published as an ASME paper (Arzou... sed to a "modal sup er pos ition"-- view of the flutte r ing plat e problem. First, we derive the energy balance relations for the extende d plate (i.e., plate with two sided flow, spring found ation and plate pretension) and define a gener alized...

  6. Radial heat transfer from a moving plasma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, James Randall

    1966-01-01

    devices are presently being con- sideredd both f r propulsion and attitude control. For the gener'ation of electrical power - the future, the controlled thermonuclear pro- cess or, , uclear fusion holds great promise. Whether the e. ergy created in.... this process is removed in the form of heat or some other means, the fusion gas will exist as a plasma. Also, chemical processing at pre- sent appears to be another area for future application of plasma jets '". which heat transfer data will be needed...

  7. A rationale for teaching literature-compositon courses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratchford, Suzanne Marie

    1988-01-01

    in the Total Literary Experience The Total Literary Experience Student as Creator of Text 68 69 72 14 The Milieux -- Literary and Gener a I 76 15 Teacher Dominant in Mi1 ieux 78 16 A Study of the Scarlet Letter 79 17 A Study o-F The Adventures...; it is what prevents the de+inition from becoming too unwieldy. Literature is used as a basis +or classroom study. It serves an educational pur pose. Some may disagree ? does this mean r eading The I 1 iad at home for pleasure makes the w'ork not a work...

  8. Structure and Collective Excitations of He-4 Clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Siu A.; KROTSCHECK, E.

    1992-01-01

    . INTRODUCTION The study of finite He clusters and, more gener- ally, quantum liquids in confined geometries, is currently an active area of experimental and theoretical re- search. Helium clusters are unique in that they are the only known bosonic... than the calculation of ground-state energy. We shall return to this important point later on in our d 1scussrons. On the most advanced level, the many-particle Schrodinger equation is solved by the Green s- function ~ 22 or the diffusion2 s Monte...

  9. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  10. The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, R.

    1999-07-01

    The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

  11. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1989-01-01

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  12. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  13. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Signatures of symmetry-induced quantum-interference effects observed in above-threshold-ionization spectra of molecules RID A-7617-2010 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grasbon, F.; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Chin, Siu A.; Walther, H.; Muth-Bohm, J.; Becker, A.; Faisal, F. H. M.

    2001-01-01

    s , and 300 MWth in surf a c e ships . Newer desi gns use jet pump propul s i on instead of propell e r s , and aim at an all elec tri c a l syst e m desi gn, incl ud i n g the weap o n s sy st ems such as elect r o ma gn e t i c guns . 2. Historical... evolution I n the USA, initi a l l y the Gener a l Elect r i c (GE) Compa n y devel o p e d a liqui d metal react o r concep t ; and the Westing h o u s e Compan y , a pressur i z e d water reactor concep t . Each company buil t an Atomi c Energy Com mi...

  15. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification of Chinese typical coal samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanping Chen; Zhiwu Luo; Haiping Yang; Fudong Ju; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2008-03-15

    This paper aims to understand the pyrolysis and gasification behavior of different Chinese coal samples at different pressures. First, the pyrolysis of four typical Chinese coals samples (Xiaolongtan brown coal, Shenfu bituminous coal, Pingzhai anthracite coal, and Heshan lean coal) were carried out using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at ambient pressure and 3 MPa, respectively. The surface structure and elemental component of the resultant char were measured with an automated gas adsorption apparatus and element analyzer. It was observed that higher pressure suppressed the primary pyrolysis, while the secondary pyrolysis of coal particles was promoted. With respect to the resultant solid char, the carbon content increased while H content decreased; however, the pore structure varied greatly with increasing pressure for different coal samples. For Xiaolongtan brown coal (XLT) char, it decreased greatly, while it increased obviously for the other three char types. Then, the isothermal gasification behavior of solid char particles was investigated using an ambient thermal analyzer with CO{sub 2} as the gasifying agent at 1000{sup o}C. The gasification reactivity of solid char was decreased greatly with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the extent of change displayed a vital relation with the characteristics of the original coal sample. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Prospects for coal briquettes as a substitute fuel for wood and charcoal in US Agency for International Development Assisted countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.; Stevenson, G.G.; Shelton, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    Fuelwood shortages and potential shortages are widespread throughout the developing world, and are becoming increasingly more prevalent because of the clearing of land for subsistence and plantation agriculture, excessive and inefficient commercial timber harvesting for domestic and export construction, and charcoal production to meet rising urban demands. Further, the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the resulting deforestation are both pervasive and complex. This report focuses on the substitution of coal briquettes for fuelwood. Although substantial adverse health effects could be expected from burning non-anthracite coal or coal briquettes, a well-developed technique, carbonization, exists to convert coal to a safer form for combustion. The costs associated with briquetting and carbonizing coal indicate that ''smokeless'' coal briquettes can be produced at costs competitive with fuelwood and charcoal. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is working on implementing this energy option in Haiti and Pakistan by (1) evaluating resources, (2) assessing markets, (3) analyzing technologies, (4) studying government policy and planning, and (5) packaging the idea for the private sector to implement. 26 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  18. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  19. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

  20. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-12-15

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  1. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Exergetic, thermal, and externalities analyses of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, M.B.; Curtiss, P.; Blanton, P.H.; McBrayer, T.B.

    2006-02-15

    A thermodynamic study of an 88.4 MW cogeneration plant located in the United States is presented in this paper. The feedstock for this actual plant is culm, the waste left from anthracite coal mining. Before combustion in circulating fluidized bed boilers, the usable carbon within the culm is separated from the indigenous rock. The rock and ash waste from the combustion process fill adjacent land previously scared by strip mining. Trees and grass are planted in these areas as part of a land reclamation program. Analyses based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics using actual operating data are first presented to acquaint the reader with the plant's components and operation. Using emission and other relevant environmental data from the plant, all externalities study is outlined that estimates the plant's effect on the local population. The results show that the plant's cycle performs with a coefficient of utilization of 29% and all approximate exergetic efficiency of 34.5%. In order to increase these values, recommended improvements to the plant are noted. In addition, the externality costs associated with the estimated SO{sub 2} and NOx discharge from the culm fed plant are lower (85-95%) than those associated with a similarly sized coal fed plant. The plant's cycle efficiencies are lower than those associated with more modern technologies; such as all integrated gas turbine combined cycle. However, given the abundant, inexpensive supply of feedstock located adjacent to the plant and the environmental benefit of removing culm banks, the plant's existing operation is unique from an economical and environmental viewpoint.

  3. Evaluation of five biocarriers as supports for immobilized bacteria: Comparative performance during high chemical loading, acid shocking, drying and heat shocking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Adams, W.J. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States). Environmental Sciences Center); Camel, V. (Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielle de Paris, (France))

    1993-06-01

    Immobilized bacteria technology (IBT) utilizes inert biocarriers to support high concentrations of chemical-degrading bacteria in reactors designed to provide optimal conditions for microbial activity. This study evaluated IBT performance inpacked bed reactors (PBRs) using a porous inorganic biocarrier (diatomaceous earth), nonporous biocarriers (glass beads), and organic biocarriers having carbon adsorption properties (granular activated carbon) with different porosity. Each reactor was challenged with high chemical loading, acid, dryness, and heat shock conditions. Benchtop PBSs inoculated with a p-nitrophenol (PNP)-degrading Pseudomonas sp. and fed a synthetic waste containing 100 to 1,300 mg/L of PNP showed removal of PNP from effluents within 24 h of start-up. Chemical loading studies showed maximum PNP removal rates of 6.45 to 7.35 kg/m[sup 3]/d for bacteria in PBRs containing diatomaceous earth beads, glass beads, and activated coconut carbon. A lower PNP removal rate of 1.47 kg/m[sup 3]/d was determined for the activated anthracite carbon, and this PBR responded more slowly to increases in chemical loading. The PBR containing bacteria immobilized on activated coconut carbon showed exceptional tolerance to acid shocking, drying, and heat shocking by maintaining PNP removal rates > 85% throughout the entire study. The other biocarriers showed nearly complete loss of PNP degradation during the perturbations, but all recovered high rates of PNP degradation (> 98% removal) within 48 h after an acid shock at pH2, within 8 d after an acid shock at pH 1.0, within 24 h after drying for 72 h, and within 48 h of heat shocking. The resiliency and high chemical removal efficiency demonstrated by immobilized bacteria in this study support the concept of using IBT for the biotreatment of industrial wastes..

  4. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  5. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that the Limerick plant could withdraw a larger volume of river water. The report also included a description of several other proposed facilities that were planning to use mine pool water. In early 2006, NETL directed Argonne to revisit the sites that had previously been using mine pool water and update the information offered in the previous report. This report describes the status of mine pool water use as of summer 2006. Information was collected by telephone interviews, electronic mail, literature review, and site visits.

  6. Analysis of HLA-DP association with beryllium disease susceptibility in pooled exposed populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cesare Saltini, Massimo Amicosante

    2009-12-19

    Berylliosis or Chronic Beryllium Disease is a chronic granulomatous disorder primarily involving the lung associated with the exposition to low doses of Beryllium (Be) in the workplace. Berylliosis risk has been associated with the presence of a glutamate at position 69 of the HLA-DP beta chain (HLA-DPbetaGlu69) that is expressed in about 97% of disease cases and in 27% of the unaffected Be-exposed controls (p<0.0001) (Richeldi et al. Science 1993; 262: 242-244.12). Since this first observation of an immunogenetic association between berylliosis and HLA-DPbetaGlu69 a number of studies have confirmed the role of this marker as the primary gene of susceptibility of berylliosis (Richeldi et al Am J Ind Med. 1997; 32:337-40; Wang et al J. Immunol. 1999; 163: 1647-53; Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94). Moreover, a structure/function interaction between HLA-DP molecules carrying Glu69 and beryllium in driving and developing the immune response against beryllium itself has been observed as: (1) Be-specific T-cells clones obtained from berylliosis patients recognize beryllium as antigen only when presented in the context of the HLA-DP{beta}Glu69 molecules but not in the context of HLA-DP allelic variants carrying Lys69 (Lombardi G et al. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3549-3555), and (2) beryllium presents an affinity for the HLA-DP2, carrying the berylliosis marker of susceptibility HLA-DPGlu69, from 40 to 100 times higher that the HLA-DP molecule carrying Lys69 (Amicosante M. et al Hum. Immunol. 2001; 62: 686-93). However, although the immunogenetic studies performed have been addressed a number of different questions about the genetic association between berylliosis and/or beryllium sensitization, exposure levels to beryllium and HLA markers, a number of questions are still open in the field mainly due to the limitation imposed by the low number of subjects carrying berylliosis or beryllium sensitization enrolled in each immunogenetic study. In this context, the populations of the study already performed in this field by the University of Modena and Rome (by Prof. C. Saltini) and the University of Pennsylvania (by Prof. M. Rossman) have been evaluated by using similar HLA molecular typing methodologies and that both populations have now been followed up for a period of 4 to 7 years. The general objective of this study has to generate a larger data base comprising the two population with which analyze gene disease association with greater statistical power and ascertain the effect of lesser common gener variants which may be missed when analyzing associations on small populations. In particular addressing the role suggested in previous study such as: (1) the role of HLA-DP rare alleles and polymorphisms, and (2) the role of the HLA markers in disease progression from sensitization. The two populations from the already published studies (Saltini et al Eur Respir J. 2001 18:677-84; Rossman et al Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 165:788-94) present similar aspects about: ethnicity, type and length of exposure to Be dust, a broadly similar association between beryllium related abnormalities and HLA. The two population have been pooled and evaluated using common criteria of diagnosis (Sensitized subject: at least 2 positive BeLPT tests each with 2 positive wells; CBD-affected subject: identification of well formed non-caseating granulomas on biopsy), follow up and HLA typing technique (complete HLA-DRB, DQB, DPB high resolution typing using amplification with sequence specific primers or sequence based typing). The two populations included 137 subjects with Beryllium hypersensitized (BH) and 155 Be-exposed controls. Inclusion criteria were met by one hundred and six subjects with Be-hypersensitivity of whom 55 were affected by CBD (age 52 {+-} 11 years; 50 caucasians, 2 African-Americans 2 Hispanics and 1 Asian; 46 males and 9 females; mean duration of Be-exposure 15 {+-} 9 years) and 51 showed Be-sensitization without lung granulomas detected by trans-bronchial biopsy (ag