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Sample records for free-electron x-ray laser

  1. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray ...

  2. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biological systems from a limited number of crystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Authors: Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin ; Zeldin, Oliver B. ; Lyubimov, Artem Y. ; Hattne, Johan Search SciTech Connect for

  3. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluences (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Authors: Schreck, Simon ; Beye, Martin ; Sellberg, Jonas A. ; McQueen, Trevor ; Laksmono, Hartawan ; Kennedy, Brian ; Eckert, Sebastian ; Schlesinger, Daniel ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Ogasawara, Hirohito ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Segtnan,

  4. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a Transverse Gradient Undulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser ...

  5. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, C.; ,

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  6. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Atac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G. . Rocketdyne Div.); Gallardo

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitablee for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M.; Rosen, Mordecai D.

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  8. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  9. The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser August 17, 2010 - 6:19pm Addthis The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu participated in the dedication of the world's first free-electron and most powerful X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In light of this occasion (pun intended), we posted an in-depth look at the innovative

  10. Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transverse-Gradient Undulator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a Transverse-Gradient Undulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Using a Transverse-Gradient Undulator Authors: Huang, Zhirong ; Ding, Yuantao ; Schroeder, Carl B. Publication Date: 2012-11-12 OSTI Identifier: 1101325 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  11. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Focus characterization at an X-ray...

  12. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  13. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  14. Compact x-ray free electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transverse gradient undulator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Compact x-ray free electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a transverse gradient undulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compact x-ray free electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a transverse gradient undulator Authors: Huang, Zhirong ; Ding, Yuantao ; Schroeder, Carl Publication Date: 2012-09-11 OSTI Identifier: 1172711 Report Number(s): LBNL-5931E DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231

  15. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarilymore » by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.« less

  16. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  17. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report Friday, December 2, 2011 - 2:00pm SLAC, Redtail Conference Room (901-108) M. Altarelli, European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg,...

  18. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important

  19. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers We report hard x-ray single-shot spectral measurements of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The spectrometer is based on a 10 {mu}m thick cylindrically bent Si single crystal operating in the symmetric Bragg geometry

  20. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers Authors: Yang X. Publication Date: 2013-12-02 OSTI Identifier: 1132380 Report Number(s): BNL--103817-2014-JA 39KC02000 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS - ACCELERATORS

  1. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report Friday, December 2, 2011 - 2:00pm SLAC, Redtail Conference Room (901-108) M. Altarelli, European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg, Germany The present status of the construction of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg will be reviewed, and challenges in the development of the instrumentation, in order to exploit the time-structure of the superconducting linear accelerator, will be described. Programs

  2. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Glownia, James; Chollet, Matthieu; Nelson, Silke; Robert, Aymeric; Gutt, Christian; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Grübel, Gerhard

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shot based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.

  3. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore » in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  4. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  5. Claudio Pellegrini and the World’s First Hard X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-10-20

    President Obama welcomed SLAC's Claudio Pellegrini inside the Oval Office on Tuesday morning as a recipient of the Enrico Fermi Award, one of the highest honors the U.S. government can give to a scientist. Pellegrini, a visiting scientist and consulting professor at SLAC and distinguished professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles, received the award for research that aided in the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) including SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a DOE Office of Science User Facility that started up in 2009. Here, Pellegrini describes his efforts that contributed to the realization of SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source, the world’s first hard X-ray free-electron laser.

  6. VISA: A Milestone on the Path towards X-Ray Free Electron Lasers | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource VISA: A Milestone on the Path towards X-Ray Free Electron Lasers Friday, June 28, 2002 Figure 1. Figure 1 Intensity distribution of a Single SASE radiation pulse as produced by VISA when operating at saturation. Advances in accelerator technology and in the theoretical understanding of collective instabilities and production of coherent radiation, have been the driving forces of the progress toward brighter synchrotron radiation sources, with scientific

  7. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jrg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valrie

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  8. Sequential single shot X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at the SACLA free electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lehmkühler, Felix; Kwaśniewski, Paweł; Roseker, Wojciech; Fischer, Birgit; Schroer, Martin A.; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Sprung, Michael; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; et al

    2015-11-27

    In this study, hard X-ray free electron lasers allow for the first time to access dynamics of condensed matter samples ranging from femtoseconds to several hundred seconds. In particular, the exceptional large transverse coherence of the X-ray pulses and the high time-averaged flux promises to reach time and length scales that have not been accessible up to now with storage ring based sources. However, due to the fluctuations originating from the stochastic nature of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process the application of well established techniques such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) is challenging. Here we demonstrate a single-shotmore » based sequential XPCS study on a colloidal suspension with a relaxation time comparable to the SACLA free-electron laser pulse repetition rate. High quality correlation functions could be extracted without any indications for sample damage. This opens the way for systematic sequential XPCS experiments at FEL sources.« less

  9. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; KAIST, Daejeon; Cupane, Antonio; et al

    2015-04-02

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations withmore » a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale.« less

  10. Ultrafast myoglobin structural dynamics observed with an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levantino, Matteo; Schirò, Giorgio; Lemke, Henrik Till; Cottone, Grazia; Glownia, James Michael; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Mathieu; Ihee, Hyotcherl; KAIST, Daejeon; Cupane, Antonio; Cammarata, Marco

    2015-04-02

    Light absorption can trigger biologically relevant protein conformational changes. The light induced structural rearrangement at the level of a photoexcited chromophore is known to occur in the femtosecond timescale and is expected to propagate through the protein as a quake-like intramolecular motion. Here we report direct experimental evidence of such ‘proteinquake’ observed in myoglobin through femtosecond X-ray solution scattering measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser. An ultrafast increase of myoglobin radius of gyration occurs within 1 picosecond and is followed by a delayed protein expansion. As the system approaches equilibrium it undergoes damped oscillations with a ~3.6-picosecond time period. Our results unambiguously show how initially localized chemical changes can propagate at the level of the global protein conformation in the picosecond timescale.

  11. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poletto, L. Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P.; Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F.; Finetti, P.; Grazioli, C.; Kivimäki, A.; Stagira, S.; Coreno, M.

    2014-10-15

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

  12. Evidence of High Harmonics from Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation for Seeding X-ray Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; ,

    2012-02-15

    Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.

  13. Nonlinear delayed symmetry breaking in a solid excited by hard x-ray free electron laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, A.; Johnson, J. A. Mariager, S. O.; Grbel, S.; Staub, U.; Huber, T.; Trant, M.; Johnson, S. L.; Zhu, D.; Chollet, M.; Robinson, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Ingold, G.; Beaud, P.; Milne, C.

    2015-04-13

    We have studied the ultrafast changes of electronic states in bulk ZnO upon intense hard x-ray excitation from a free electron laser. By monitoring the transient anisotropy induced in an optical probe beam, we observe a delayed breaking of the initial c-plane symmetry of the crystal that lasts for several picoseconds. Interaction with the intense x-ray pulses modifies the electronic state filling in a manner inconsistent with a simple increase in electronic temperature. These results may indicate a way to use intense ultrashort x-ray pulses to investigate high-energy carrier dynamics and to control certain properties of solid-state materials.

  14. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlett, John; Attwood, David; Byrd, John; Denes, Peter; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Leemans, Wim; Padmore, Howard; Prestemon, Soren; Sannibale, Fernando; Schlueter, Ross; Schroeder, Carl; Staples, John; Venturini, Marco; Warwick, Tony; Wells, Russell; Wilcox, Russell; Zholent, Alexander; Adolphsen, Chris; Arthur, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Cai, Yunhai; Colby, Eric; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Fox, John; Frisch, Josef; Galayda, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Zhirong; Phinney, Nan; Rabedeau, Tom; Raubenheimer, Tor; Reis, David; Schmerge, John; Stöhr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; White, Bill; Xiang, Dao

    2009-06-08

    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft x-ray light source, and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility that is responsive to these requirements is now on the horizon. R&D in some critical areas is needed, however, to demonstrate technical performance, thus reducing technical risks and construction costs. Such a facility most likely will be based on a CW superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on experimental requirements, the individual FELs can be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded, or oscillator mode of operation, including the use of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enhanced harmonic generation (EEHG), harmonic cascade, or other configurations. In this White Paper we identify the overall accelerator R&D needs, and highlight the most important pre-construction R&D tasks required to value-engineer the design configuration and deliverables for such a facility. In Section 1.4 we identify the comprehensive R&D ultimately needed. We identify below the highest-priority requirements for understanding machine performance and reduce risk and costs at this pre-conceptual design stage. Details of implementing the required tasks will be the subject of future evaluation. Our highest-priority R&D program is the injector, which must be capable of delivering a beam with bunches up to a nanocoulomb at MHz repetition rate and with normalized emittance {le} 1 mm {center_dot} mrad. This will require integrated accelerating structure, cathode, and laser systems development. Cathode materials will impact the choice of laser technology in wavelength and energy per pulse, as well as vacuum requirements in the accelerating structure. Demonstration experiments in advanced seeding techniques, such as EEHG, and other optical manipulations to enhance the FEL process are required to reduce technical risk in producing temporally coherent and ultrashort x-ray output using optical seed lasers. Success of EEHG in particular would result in reduced development and cost of laser systems and accelerator hardware for seeded FELs. With a 1.5-2.5 GeV linac, FELs could operate in the VUV-soft x-ray range, where the actual beam energy will be determined by undulator technology; for example, to use the lower energy would require the use of advanced designs for which undulator R&D is needed. Significant reductions in both unit costs and accelerator costs resulting from the lower electron beam energy required to achieve lasing at a particular wavelength could be obtained with undulator development. Characterization of the wakefields of the vacuum chambers in narrow-gap undulators will be needed to minimize risk in ability to deliver close to transform limited pulses. CW superconducting RF technology for an FEL facility with short bunches at MHz rate and up to mA average current will require selection of design choices in cavity frequency and geometry, higher order mode suppression and power dissipation, RF power supply and distribution, accelerating gradient, and cryogenics systems. R&D is needed to define a cost and performance optimum. Developments in laser technology are proceeding at rapid pace, and progress in high-power lasers, harmonic generation, and tunable sources will need to be tracked.

  15. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Luděk; Boháček, Pavel; Přeček, Martin; Wild, Jan; Özkan, Cigdem; Coppola, Nicola; Farahani, Shafagh Dastjani; et al

    2015-01-07

    An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 μJ) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 μm2 was determinedmore » by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was found to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.« less

  16. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kameshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki; RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 ; Horigome, Toshio; Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen; Burt, David; Murao, Hajime

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  17. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Schropp, Andreas; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg; Seiboth, Frank; Feng, Yiping; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Chollet, Matthieu; Lemke, Henrik T.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; et al

    2015-04-14

    X-ray focus optimization and characterization based on coherent scattering and quantitative speckle size measurements was demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Its performance as a single-pulse free-electron laser beam diagnostic was tested for two typical focusing configurations. The results derived from the speckle size/shape analysis show the effectiveness of this technique in finding the focus' location, size and shape. In addition, its single-pulse compatibility enables users to capture pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in focus properties compared with other techniques that require scanning and averaging.

  18. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  19. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers We ...

  20. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers We ...

  1. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; et al

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy andmore » incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.« less

  2. Triple Modulator-Chicane Scheme for Seeding Sub-Nanometer X-Ray Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dao; Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2011-07-06

    We propose a novel triple modulator-chicane (TMC) scheme to convert external input seed to shorter wavelengths. In the scheme high power seed lasers are used in the first and third modulator while only very low power seed is used in the second modulator. By properly choosing the parameters of the lasers and chicanes, we show that ultrahigh harmonics can be generated in the TMC scheme while simultaneously keeping the energy spread growth much smaller than beam's initial slice energy spread. As an example we show the feasibility of generating significant bunching at 1 nm and below from a low power ({approx} 100 kW) high harmonic generation seed at 20 nm assisted by two high power ({approx} 100 MW) UV lasers at 200 nm while keeping the energy spread growth within 40%. The supreme up-frequency conversion efficiency of the proposed TMC scheme together with its unique advantage in maintaining beam energy spread opens new opportunities for generating fully coherent x-rays at sub-nanometer wavelength from external seeds.

  3. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser We have demonstrated flash diffractive imaging of nanostructures using pulses from the first soft-X-ray free-electron...

  4. The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC ( Keynote - 2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drell, Persis [SLAC Director

    2011-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. SLAC National Laboratory Director Persis Drell gives a keynote talk on "The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SLAC" at the 6th Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2011

  5. The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC ( Keynote - 2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drell, Persis [SLAC Director] [SLAC Director

    2011-03-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. SLAC National Laboratory Director Persis Drell gives a keynote talk on "The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SLAC" at the 6th Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2011

  6. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Weis, William I.

    2015-03-17

    There is considerable potential for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to enable determination of macromolecular crystal structures that are difficult to solve using current synchrotron sources. Prior XFEL studies often involved the collection of thousands to millions of diffraction images, in part due to limitations of data processing methods. We implemented a data processing system based on classical post-refinement techniques, adapted to specific properties of XFEL diffraction data. When applied to XFEL data from three different proteins collected using various sample delivery systems and XFEL beam parameters, our method improved the quality of the diffraction data as well as the resulting refined atomic models and electron density maps. Moreover, the number of observations for a reflection necessary to assemble an accurate data set could be reduced to a few observations. These developments will help expand the applicability of XFEL crystallography to challenging biological systems, including cases where sample is limited.

  7. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Weis, William I.

    2015-03-17

    There is considerable potential for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to enable determination of macromolecular crystal structures that are difficult to solve using current synchrotron sources. Prior XFEL studies often involved the collection of thousands to millions of diffraction images, in part due to limitations of data processing methods. We implemented a data processing system based on classical post-refinement techniques, adapted to specific properties of XFEL diffraction data. When applied to XFEL data from three different proteins collected using various sample delivery systems and XFEL beam parameters, our method improved the quality of the diffraction data as well as themore » resulting refined atomic models and electron density maps. Moreover, the number of observations for a reflection necessary to assemble an accurate data set could be reduced to a few observations. These developments will help expand the applicability of XFEL crystallography to challenging biological systems, including cases where sample is limited.« less

  8. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ratner, D.; Abela, R.; Amann, J.; Behrens, C.; Bohler, D.; Bouchard, G.; Bostedt, C.; Boyes, M.; Chow, K.; Cocco, D.; et al

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  9. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore » >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  10. Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

    2015-02-23

    We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. Wemorehave not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.less

  11. Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zastrau, Ulf; Fletcher, Luke B.; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja; Frster, Eckhart; Marschner, Heike; Wehrhan, Ortrud

    2014-09-15

    We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ?E/E = 1.1 ?10{sup ?4} and wave-number resolution of ?k/k = 3 ?10{sup ?3}, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/ in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5??m agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

  12. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  13. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definitionmore » of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.« less

  14. Comments on : Proposal for Raman x-ray free electron laser.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zholents, A.; Zolotorev, M. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); (LBNL)

    2011-05-01

    Equation 13 in this paper defines the force experienced by the electron moving in z direction with velocity v{sub z} due to the X-ray wave propagating in z direction with electric field E{sub 1} pointing in y direction and magnetic field B{sub 1} pointing in x direction as {rvec F}{sub 1}(t) = -eE{sub 1} cos({omega}{sub 1}t - k{sub 1}z){rvec e}{sub y}. In our opinion calculating this force one should also include the impact of the X-ray wave's magnetic field and obtain {rvec F}{sub 1}(t) = -e E{sub 1} = v{sub z}/c B{sub 1} cos({omega}{sub 1}t - k{sub 1}z){rvec e}{sub y} {approx} - eE{sub 1}/2{gamma}{sup 2} cos({omega}{sub 1}t - k{sub 1}z){rvec e}{sub y}. Here c is the speed of light and {gamma} is the electron relativistic factor. In result one would need to change E{sub 1} to E{sub 1}/2{gamma}{sup 2} in all the following equations in the cited paper (except wave propagation equations, Eqs. (23) and (34)). They believe that similar omission in the impact of the magnetic field appears in equation (28). Consequently, the formula for the gaion (Eq. (37) in the cited paper) should also include the factor 1/2{gamma}{sup 2}. This is a rather significant modification considering that relativistic electrons with values of {gamma} ranging from approximately 20 to approximately 300 are used in the numerical examples.

  15. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 . Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  16. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai -Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  17. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; et al

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data revealmore » the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.« less

  18. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation ... TOPICS - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS; Journal Volume: 16 Research Org: Brookhaven National ...

  19. Flexible control of femtosecond pulse duration and separation using an emittance-spoiling foil in x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.; Behrens, C.; Coffee, R.; Decker, F. -J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J.

    2015-06-22

    We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.

  20. Method based on atomic photoionization for spot-size measurement on focused soft x-ray free-electron laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Schoeppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.; Bobashev, S. V.; Domracheva, I. V.; Smirnov, D. N.; Tiedtke, K.; Duesterer, S.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Kuhlmann, M.; Nunez, T.; Ploenjes, E.; Treusch, R.

    2006-11-27

    A method has been developed and applied to measure the beam waist and spot size of a focused soft x-ray beam at the free-electron laser FLASH of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg. The method is based on a saturation effect upon atomic photoionization and represents an indestructible tool for the characterization of powerful beams of ionizing electromagnetic radiation. At the microfocus beamline BL2 at FLASH, a full width at half maximum focus diameter of (15{+-}2) {mu}m was determined.

  1. Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lasers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers Abstract is not available Authors: Ding, Yuantao [1] + Show Author Affiliations SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States) Publication Date: 2015-05-12 OSTI Identifier: 1194669 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal

  2. Science Driver Requirements for Seeded Soft X-ray Free Electron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Driver Requirements for Seeded Soft X-ray Free Electron Lasers Wednesday, December 2, 2015 - 2:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Fulvio Parmigiani,...

  3. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  4. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-12-12

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac is described. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator, or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  5. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; et al

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level ofmore » the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.« less

  6. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Strmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th.; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called molecular movie within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  7. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  8. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth...

  9. Free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    A high gain, single-pass free electron laser formed of a high brilliance electron injector source, a linear accelerator which imparts high energy to the electron beam, and an undulator capable of extremely high magnetic fields, yet with a very short period. The electron injector source is the first stage (gap) of the linear accelerator or a radial line transformer driven by fast circular switch. The linear accelerator is formed of a plurality of accelerating gaps arranged in series. These gaps are energized in sequence by releasing a single pulse of energy which propagates simultaneously along a plurality of transmission lines, each of which feeds the gaps. The transmission lines are graduated in length so that pulse power is present at each gap as the accelerated electrons pass therethrough. The transmission lines for each gap are open circuited at their ends. The undualtor has a structure similar to the accelerator, except that the transmission lines for each gap are substantially short circuited at their ends, thus converting the electric field into magnetic field. A small amount of resistance is retained in order to generate a small electric field for replenishing the electron bunch with the energy lost as it traverses through the undulator structure.

  10. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    laser Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Authors: Aquila, A., Hunter, M. S., Doak, R. B., Kirian, R. A., Fromme, P., White, T. A., Andreasson, J., Arnlund, D., Bajt, S. a., Barends, T. R. M., Barthelmess, M., Bogan, M. J., Bostedt, C., Bottin, H., Bozek, J. D., Caleman, C., Coppola, N., Davidsson, J., DePonte, D. P., Elser, V., Epp, S. W., Erk, B., Fleckenstein, H., Foucar, L., Frank, M., Fromme, R., Graafsma, H., Grotjohann, I., Gumprecht, L.,

  11. Free-Electron Laser | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser is the world's highest-power tunable infrared laser and was developed using the lab's expertise in superconducting ...

  12. Circular free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  13. Toward a Single Mode Free Electron Laser for Coherent Hard X...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Toward a Single Mode Free Electron Laser for Coherent Hard X-Ray Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward a Single Mode Free Electron Laser...

  14. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  15. Rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-11-02

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser are provided which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  16. Covariance mapping of two-photon double core hole states in C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 produced by an x-ray free electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mucke, M; Zhaunerchyk, V; Frasinski, L J; Squibb, R J; Siano, M; Eland, J H D; Linusson, P; Salén, P; Meulen, P v d; Thomas, R D; et al

    2015-07-01

    Few-photon ionization and relaxation processes in acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) were investigated at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser (FEL) at SLAC, Stanford using a highly efficient multi-particle correlation spectroscopy technique based on a magnetic bottle. The analysis method of covariance mapping has been applied and enhanced, allowing us to identify electron pairs associated with double core hole (DCH) production and competing multiple ionization processes including Auger decay sequences. The experimental technique and the analysis procedure are discussed in the light of earlier investigations of DCH studies carried out at the same FEL and at thirdmore » generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, we demonstrate the capability of the covariance mapping technique to disentangle the formation of molecular DCH states which is barely feasible with conventional electron spectroscopy methods.« less

  17. Covariance mapping of two-photon double core hole states in C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 produced by an x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mucke, M; Zhaunerchyk, V; Frasinski, L J; Squibb, R J; Siano, M; Eland, J H D; Linusson, P; Salén, P; Meulen, P v d; Thomas, R D; Larsson, M; Foucar, L; Ullrich, J; Motomura, K; Mondal, S; Ueda, K; Osipov, T; Fang, L; Murphy, B F; Berrah, N; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J D; Schorb, S; Messerschmidt, M; Glownia, J M; Cryan, J P; Coffee, R N; Takahashi, O; Wada, S; Piancastelli, M N; Richter, R; Prince, K C; Feifel, R

    2015-07-01

    Few-photon ionization and relaxation processes in acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) were investigated at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser (FEL) at SLAC, Stanford using a highly efficient multi-particle correlation spectroscopy technique based on a magnetic bottle. The analysis method of covariance mapping has been applied and enhanced, allowing us to identify electron pairs associated with double core hole (DCH) production and competing multiple ionization processes including Auger decay sequences. The experimental technique and the analysis procedure are discussed in the light of earlier investigations of DCH studies carried out at the same FEL and at third generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, we demonstrate the capability of the covariance mapping technique to disentangle the formation of molecular DCH states which is barely feasible with conventional electron spectroscopy methods.

  18. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-04-17

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention as a method for producing transform-limited pulses in the soft x-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality and impede production of transform-limited pulses. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  19. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA)more » laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.« less

  20. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  1. Free electron laser designs for laser amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, Donald; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

  2. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  3. Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Free Electron Laser by Varying the Electron Beam Radius Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the ...

  4. Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes Webs of nanotubes on collector ... Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes By James Schultz ...

  5. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Thomas A. Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Holton, James M.; Kirian, Richard A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the serial crystallography methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the serial crystallography methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  6. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  7. Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat Free-Electron Laser Targets Fat April 10, 2006 Free-Electron Laser Scientists Rox Anderson, right, and Free-Electron Laser Scientist Steve Benson, left, discuss laser beam parameters while conducting the experiment on pig fat. Image courtesy: Greg Adams, Jefferson Lab Boston, Mass. - Fat may have finally met its match: laser light. Researchers at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and the Department of

  8. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ...

  9. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  10. Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, D; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2008-12-18

    In this paper, we systematically study the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) free electron laser (FEL). The EEHG FEL uses two modulators in combination with two dispersion sections that allow to generate in the beam a high harmonic density modulation starting with a relatively small initial energy modulation of the beam. After presenting analytical theory of the phenomenon, we address several practically important issues, such as the effect of incoherent synchrotron radiation in the dispersion sections, and the beam transverse size effect in the modulator. Using a representative realistic set of beam parameters, we show how the EEHG scheme enhances the FEL performance and allows to generate a fully (both longitudinally and transversely) coherent radiation. As an example, we demonstrate that 5 nm coherent soft x-rays with GW peak power can be generated directly from the 240 nm seeding laser using the proposed EEHG scheme.

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  12. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N.; Kurosawa, T.; Richter, M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Tiedtke, K.; Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  13. Free electron laser with masked chicane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser (FEL) is provided with an accelerator for outputting electron beam pulses; a buncher for modulating each one of the electron beam pulses to form each pulse into longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons; and a wiggler for generating coherent light from the longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons. The electron beam buncher is a chicane having a mask for physically modulating the electron beam pulses to form a series of electron beam bunches for input to the wiggler. In a preferred embodiment, the mask is located in the chicane at a position where each electron beam pulse has a maximum dispersion.

  14. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko ...

  15. Jefferson Lab's upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first ligh |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first ligh Jefferson Lab's upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first light June 18, 2003 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have produced first light from their 10-kilowatt Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Entrance to Free-Electron Laser building The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility at Jefferson Lab. Researchers have produced first light from the upgraded 10-kW FEL, located on the

  16. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  17. following an electron bunch for free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    A video artist's ultra-slow-motion impression of an APEX-style electron gun firing a continuous train of electron bunches into a superconducting linear accelerator (in reality this would happen a million times a second). As they approach the speed of light the bunches contract, maintaining beam quality. After acceleration, the electron bunches are diverted into one or more undulators, the key components of free electron lasers. Oscillating back and forth in the changing magnetic field, they create beams of structured x-ray pulses. Before entering the experimental areas the electron bunches are diverted to a beam dump. (Animation created by Illumina Visual, http://www.illuminavisual.com/, for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Music for this excerpt, "Feeling Dark (Behind The Mask)" is by 7OOP3D http://ccmixter.org/files/7OOP3D/29126 and is licensed under a Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)

  18. The European XFEL Free Electron Laser at DESY

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weise, Hans [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Germany

    2009-09-01

    The European X-ray Free-Electron laser Facility (XFEL) is going to be built in an international collaboration at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Germany, and the Technical Design Report was published in 2006. The official project is expected for summer 2007. This new facility will offer photon beams at wavelengths as short as 1 angstrom with highest peak brilliance being more than 100 million times higher than present day synchrotron radiation sources. The radiation has a high degree of transverse coherence and the pulse duration is reduced from {approx}100 picoseconds (typ. for SR light sources) down to the {approx}10 femtosecond time domain. The overall layout of the XFEL will be described. This includes the envisaged operation parameters for the linear accelerator using superconducting TESLA technology. The complete design is based on the actually operated FLASH free-electron laser at DESY. Experience with the operation during first long user runs at wavelengths from 30 to 13 nm will be described in detail.

  19. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  20. Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  1. fel 2005 :: Free Electron Laser Conference and Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Submission | Payment | Call for Papers | Exhibitors | Travel 2005 International Free Electron Laser Prize Winner: Avi Gover left to right: John Galayda, Avi Gover (FEL2005...

  2. Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the Electron Beam Radius Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free ...

  3. Purified self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Purified self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers with slippage-boosted filtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Purified self-amplified spontaneous...

  4. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A.; Rosen, Mordecai D.; Strauss, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  5. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  6. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  7. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  8. Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow...

  9. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max

    2001-01-01

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  12. Free electron laser using Rf coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is generated from the energy depleted electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy generated from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy provided by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.

  13. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, Ernst T. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

  14. Modeling and Multidimensional Optimization of a Tapered Free Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Modeling and Multidimensional Optimization of a Tapered Free Electron Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling and Multidimensional Optimization of a Tapered Free Electron Laser Authors: Jiao, Y. ; /SLAC /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. ; Wu, J. ; Cai, Y. ; Chao, A.W. ; Fawley, W.M. ; Frisch, J. ; Huang, Z. ; Nuhn, H.D. ; /SLAC ; Pellegrini, C. ; /SLAC /UCLA ; Reiche, S. ; /PSI, Villigen Publication Date: 2013-03-28 OSTI

  15. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  16. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  17. Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Fromme, P., and Spence, J. C. H. Title: Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein structure determination Source: Current Opinion in ...

  18. Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron ...

  19. In the OSTI Collections: Free-Electron Lasers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Free-Electron Lasers Existing Free-Electron Lasers Using Free-Electron Lasers for Measurement and Defense New Free-Electron Laser Designs References Research Organizations Reports available from OSTI's Information Bridge While most types of laser produce coherent light from electric charges bound within atoms, molecules, or solids, unbound charges are the light source in free-electron lasers. Lasers of this type can operate at higher frequencies

  20. Multifrequency, single pass free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA); Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method for simultaneous amplification of laser beams with a sequence of frequencies in a single pass, using a relativistic beam of electrons grouped in a sequence of energies corresponding to the sequence of laser beam frequencies. The method allows electrons to pass from one potential well or "bucket" to another adjacent bucket, thus increasing efficiency of trapping and energy conversion.

  1. Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, Donald; Haas, Roger A.

    1985-01-01

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  2. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser (*)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhowmik, A.; Lordi, N. . Rocketdyne Div.); Ben-Zvi, I.; Gallardo, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  4. A spectral unaveraged algorithm for free electron laser simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriyash, I.A.; Lehe, R.; Malka, V.

    2015-02-01

    We propose and discuss a numerical method to model electromagnetic emission from the oscillating relativistic charged particles and its coherent amplification. The developed technique is well suited for free electron laser simulations, but it may also be useful for a wider range of physical problems involving resonant field–particles interactions. The algorithm integrates the unaveraged coupled equations for the particles and the electromagnetic fields in a discrete spectral domain. Using this algorithm, it is possible to perform full three-dimensional or axisymmetric simulations of short-wavelength amplification. In this paper we describe the method, its implementation, and we present examples of free electron laser simulations comparing the results with the ones provided by commonly known free electron laser codes.

  5. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  6. Stimulated X-Ray Emission for Spectroscopy | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room 108A Speaker: Clemens Weninger, Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems Program Description The recent advance of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs)...

  7. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1988-02-23

    Free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped. 5 figs.

  8. Wiggler plane focusing in a linear free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1985-11-21

    This disclosure describes a free electron laser apparatus that provides a magnetic centering force to turn or focus a non-axial electron toward the longitudinal axis as desired. The focusing effect is provided by wiggler magnet pole faces that are approximately parabolically shaped.

  9. Simulation of free-electron lasers seeded with broadband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajlekov, Svetoslav; Fawley, William; Schroeder, Carl; Bartolini, Riccardo; Hooker, Simon

    2011-03-10

    The longitudinal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL) radiation can be enhanced by seeding the FEL with high harmonics of an optical laser pulse. The radiation produced by high-harmonic generation (HHG), however, has a fast-varying temporal profile that can violate the slowly varying envelope approximation and limited frequency window that is employed in conventional free-electron laser simulation codes. Here we investigate the implications of violating this approximation on the accuracy of simulations. On the basis of both analytical considerations and 1D numerical studies, it is concluded that, for most realistic scenarios, conventional FEL codes are capable of accurately simulating the FEL process even when the seed radiation violates the slowly varying envelope approximation. We additionally discuss the significance of filtering the harmonic content of broadband HHG seeds.

  10. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  11. A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser Experiment at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pernet, Pierre-Louis; /Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne /SLAC

    2012-01-06

    With the advent of X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs), new methods have been developed to extend capabilities at short wavelengths beyond Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). In particular, seeding of a FEL allows for temporal control of the radiation pulse and increases the peak brightness by orders of magnitude. Most recently, Gennady Stupakov and colleagues at SLAC proposed a new technique: Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG). Here a laser microbunches the beam in an undulator and the beam is sheared in a chicane. This process is repeated with a second laser, undulator and chicane. The interplay between these allows a seeding of the X-ray laser up to the 100th harmonic of the first laser. After introducing the physics of FELs and the EEHG seeding technique, we describe contributions to the experimental effort. We will present detailed studies of the experiment including the choice of parameters and their optimization, the emittance effect, spontaneous emission in the undulators, the second laser phase effect, and measurements of the jitter between RF stations. Finally, the status and preliminary results of the Echo-7 experiment will be outlined.

  12. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    one of the most promising methods to accomplish this. In the hard x-ray regime with high- energy electrons, this method requires a large magnetic chicane to match the path length...

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  15. Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser Joins With Others in New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Electron Laser Joins With Others in New Research Venture Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser Joins With Others in New Research Venture NEWPORT NEWS, VA, April 29, 2009 - The ...

  16. Design Considerations for the Free-Electron Laser with Self-Seeding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Free-Electron Laser with Self-Seeding and Current Enhanced SASE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Considerations for the Free-Electron Laser with Self-Seeding ...

  17. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

  18. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, J.

    1992-05-26

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions. 4 figs.

  19. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höppner, H.; Tanikawa, T.; Schulz, M.; Riedel, R.; Teubner, U.; Faatz, B.; Tavella, F.

    2015-05-15

    High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to many hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation.

  20. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutton, Andrew (Yorktown, VA)

    2009-03-03

    An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be recovered and used again to accelerate the second beam, thus, each electron beam is decelerated by a different structure than that which accelerated it so that energy exchange rather than recovery is achieved resulting in a more compact and highly efficient apparatus.

  1. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, H.; Neil, G.R.

    1998-09-08

    A focused optical has been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, collinear with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM{sub 10} mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron. 4 figs.

  2. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongxiu; Neil, George R.

    1998-01-01

    A focused optical is been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, colinearly with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM.sub.10 mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron.

  3. Nonlinear model for thermal effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, E. Endler, A. Rizzato, F. B.

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, we extend results of a previous paper [Peter et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 12?3104 (2013)] and develop a semi-analytical model to account for thermal effects on the nonlinear dynamics of the electron beam in free-electron lasers. We relax the condition of a cold electron beam but still use the concept of compressibility, now associated with a warm beam model, to evaluate the time scale for saturation and the peak laser intensity in high-gain regimes. Although vanishing compressibilites and the associated divergent densities are absent in warm models, a series of discontinuities in the electron density precede the saturation process. We show that full wave-particle simulations agree well with the predictions of the model.

  4. Thermal effect on prebunched two-beam free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirian, N. S.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-08-15

    A numerical simulation in one-dimension is conducted to study the two-beam free electron laser. The fundamental resonance of the fast electron beam coincides with the fifth harmonic of the slow electron beam in order to generate extreme ultraviolet radiation. Thermal effect in the form of the longitudinal velocity spread is included in the analysis. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, prebunched slow electron beam is considered. The evaluation of the radiation power, bunching parameter, distribution function of energy, and the distribution function of the pondermotive phase is studied. Sensitivity of the power of the fifth harmonic to the jitter in the energy difference between the two beams is also studied. A phase space is presented that shows the trapped electrons at the saturation point.

  5. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser ...

  6. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams...

  7. Making the Old New Again: Measuring Ultrashort X-ray Laser Pulses...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Making the Old New Again: Measuring Ultrashort X-ray Laser Pulses Basic Energy Sciences ... Making the Old New Again: Measuring Ultrashort X-ray Laser Pulses Researchers have ...

  8. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams ...

  9. Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of an x-ray imaging system for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) ...

  10. Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Beam Radius (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the Electron Beam Radius Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the Electron Beam Radius Energy extraction efficiency of a free electron laser (FEL) can be increased when the undulator is tapered after the FEL saturation. By use of ray equation approximation to combine the

  11. Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes Webs of nanotubes on collector plates Webs of nanotubes form on collector plates during the collaboration's FEL experiment (image not actual size). Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser explores promise of carbon nanotubes By James Schultz January 27, 2003 Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser used to explore the fundamental science of how and why nanotubes form, paying close attention to the atomic and molecular details

  12. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be

  13. X-Ray Light Sources | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory The LCLS is the world's first hard x-ray free electron laser facility capable of producing x-rays that ...

  14. A wide bandwidth free-electron laser with mode locking using current modulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kur, E.; Dunning, D. J.; McNeil, B. W. J.; Wurtele, J.; Zholents, A. A. )

    2011-01-20

    A new scheme for mode locking a free-electron laser amplifier is proposed based on electron beam current modulation. It is found that certain properties of the original concept, based on the energy modulation of electrons, are improved including the spectral brightness of the source and the purity of the series of short pulses. Numerical comparisons are made between the new and old schemes and between a mode-locked free-electron laser and self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser. Illustrative examples using a hypothetical mode-locked free-electron laser amplifier are provided. The ability to generate intense coherent radiation with a large bandwidth is demonstrated.

  15. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Gao, Xiang; Barty, Anton; Kang, Yanyong; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; White, Thomas A.; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; et al

    2016-04-12

    Here, serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) is a recent advancement in structural biology for solving crystal structures of challenging membrane proteins, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which often only produce microcrystals. An XFEL delivers highly intense X-ray pulses of femtosecond duration short enough to enable the collection of single diffraction images before significant radiation damage to crystals sets in. Here we report the deposition of the XFEL data and provide further details on crystallization, XFEL data collection and analysis, structure determination, and the validation of the structural model. The rhodopsin-arrestin crystal structure solvedmore » with SFX represents the first near-atomic resolution structure of a GPCR-arrestin complex, provides structural insights into understanding of arrestin-mediated GPCR signaling, and demonstrates the great potential of this SFX-XFEL technology for accelerating crystal structure determination of challenging proteins and protein complexes.« less

  16. Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-02-01

    This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

  17. Efficiency enhancement of a harmonic lasing free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salehi, E.; Maraghechi, B.; Mirian, N. S.

    2015-03-15

    The harmonic lasing free-electron laser amplifier, in which two wigglers is employed in order for the fundamental resonance of the second wiggler to coincide with the third harmonic of the first wiggler to generate ultraviolet radiation, is studied. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations describing the nonlinear evolution of the system, for a long electron bunch, is solved numerically by CYRUS code. Solutions for the non-averaged and averaged equations are compared. Remarkable agreement is found between the averaged and non-averaged simulations for the evolution of the third harmonic. Thermal effects in the form of longitudinal velocity spread are also investigated. For efficiency enhancement, the second wiggler field is set to decrease linearly and nonlinearly at the point where the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of the tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It is found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably. In order to reduce the length of the wiggler, the prebunched electron beam is considered.

  18. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray ...

  19. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  20. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new spectrometer design for the x-ray ...

  1. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering ...

  2. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Höppner, H.; Hage, A.; Tanikawa, T.; Schulz, M.; Riedel, R.; Teubner, U.; Prandolini, M. J.; Faatz, B.; Tavella, F.

    2015-05-15

    High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to manymore » hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation.« less

  3. Compact X-ray Free-Electron Laser from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  4. FREE ELECTRON LASERS AND HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.

    2007-08-31

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation of such beams is too feeble to provide significant cooling: even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about thirteen hours. Decrements of traditional electron cooling decrease rapidly as the high power of beam energy, and an effective electron cooling of protons or antiprotons at energies above 100 GeV seems unlikely. Traditional stochastic cooling still cannot catch up with the challenge of cooling high-intensity bunched proton beams--to be effective, its bandwidth must be increased by about two orders-of-magnitude. Two techniques offering the potential to cool high-energy hadron beams are optical stochastic cooling (OSC) and coherent electron cooling (CEC)--the latter is the focus of this paper. In the early 1980s, CEC was suggested as a possibility for using various instabilities in an electron beam to enhance its interaction with hadrons (i.e., cooling them). The capabilities of present-day accelerator technology, Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), and high-gain Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), finally caught up with the idea and provided the all necessary ingredients for realizing such a process. In this paper, we discuss the principles, and the main limitations of the CEC process based on a high-gain FEL driven by an ERL. We also present, and summarize in Table 1, some numerical examples of CEC for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC.

  5. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Augustoni, A.L.; Gerardo, J.B.; Raymond, T.D.

    1992-12-29

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography is disclosed. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser. 8 figs.

  6. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Augustoni, Arnold L.; Gerardo, James B.; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser.

  7. Free-electron laser scientist is one of two newly elected American Physical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Society Fellows at JLab | Jefferson Lab electron laser scientist is one of two newly elected American Physical Society Fellows at JLab Steve Benson Steve Benson of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) group was recently selected as a 2002 Fellow of the American Physical Society Free-electron laser scientist is one of two newly elected American Physical Society Fellows at JLab February 12, 2003 A free-electron laser scientist at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News,

  8. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; Buck, Jens; Ilchen, Markus; Vodungbo, Boris; Mahne, Nicola; Svetina, Cristian; Spezzani, Carlo; Di Mitri, Simone; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovó, Mauro; Fawley, William M.; Rebernik, Primoz R.; Gauthier, David; Grazioli, Cesare; Coreno, Marcello; Ressel, Barbara; Kivimäki, Antti; Mazza, Tommaso; Glaser, Leif; Scholz, Frank; Seltmann, Joern; Gessler, Patrick; Grünert, Jan; De Fanis, Alberto; Meyer, Michael; Knie, André; Moeller, Stefan P.; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Plekan, Oksana; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Demidovich, Alexander; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Abrami, Alessandro; Gautier, Julien; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe; Giannessi, Luca

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independent instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.

  9. Control of the polarization of a vacuum-ultraviolet, high-gain, free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allaria, Enrico; Diviacco, Bruno; Callegari, Carlo; Finetti, Paola; Mahieu, Benoît; Viefhaus, Jens; Zangrando, Marco; De Ninno, Giovanni; Lambert, Guillaume; Ferrari, Eugenio; et al

    2014-12-02

    The two single-pass, externally seeded free-electron lasers (FELs) of the FERMI user facility are designed around Apple-II-type undulators that can operate at arbitrary polarization in the vacuum ultraviolet-to-soft x-ray spectral range. Furthermore, within each FEL tuning range, any output wavelength and polarization can be set in less than a minute of routine operations. We report the first demonstration of the full output polarization capabilities of FERMI FEL-1 in a campaign of experiments where the wavelength and nominal polarization are set to a series of representative values, and the polarization of the emitted intense pulses is thoroughly characterized by three independentmore » instruments and methods, expressly developed for the task. The measured radiation polarization is consistently >90% and is not significantly spoiled by the transport optics; differing, relative transport losses for horizontal and vertical polarization become more prominent at longer wavelengths and lead to a non-negligible ellipticity for an originally circularly polarized state. The results from the different polarimeter setups validate each other, allow a cross-calibration of the instruments, and constitute a benchmark for user experiments.« less

  10. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  11. Three-dimensional simulation of efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser with prebunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitsazi, Mahboobeh; Maraghechi, B.; Rouhani, M. H.

    2010-10-15

    The effect of prebunching of the electron beam and tapering of the wiggler amplitude on the harmonic upconversion in free-electron laser amplifier is studied in three dimensions. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations that describe the three-dimensional simulation of the system is solved numerically. This set of equation describes self-consistently the longitudinal spatial dependence of radiation waists, curvatures, and amplitudes together with the evaluation of the electron beam. The analysis is related to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray emission. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. The effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement, the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It was found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably.

  12. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Lning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely...

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  15. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  16. Absolute timing measurements of the Ni-like Pd and Sn soft-x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.

    2005-10-15

    The absolute time of emission of the x-ray laser output with respect to the arrival of a 100-ps pump pulse has been measured with the aid of a calibrated timing fiducial. The results show the x-ray laser to appear up to 60 ps (80 ps) before the peak of the pump pulse in the case of the Sn (Pd) x-ray laser, which is in good agreement with simulations obtained from the LASNEX and CRETIN codes. The pulse duration was found to be {approx}45 ps for both the Sn and the Pd x-ray lasers.

  17. DOE Science Showcase - Free-Electron Lasers | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    William Watson, Physicist, OSTI staff. Free-Electron Lasers Results in DOE Databases Science.gov Ciencia.Science.gov (Espaol) WorldWideScience.org Energy Citations Database DOE ...

  18. Microbunching-instability-induced sidebands in a seeded free-electron laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Microbunching-instability-induced sidebands in a seeded free-electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbunching-instability-induced sidebands in a seeded free-electron laser Authors: Zhang, Zhen ; Lindberg, Ryan ; Fawley, William M. ; Huang, Zhirong ; Krzywinski, Jacek ; Lutman, Alberto ; Marcus, Gabriel ; Marinelli, Agostino Publication Date: 2016-05-02 OSTI Identifier: 1250549 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357;

  19. Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser Joins With Others in New Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Venture | Jefferson Lab Free-Electron Laser Joins With Others in New Research Venture Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser Joins With Others in New Research Venture NEWPORT NEWS, VA, April 29, 2009 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility will participate in a $777 million federal effort to accelerate scientific breakthroughs. Jefferson Lab will be among nine universities and six DOE labs collaborating with the Carnegie Geophysical Institution of

  20. Design Considerations for the Free-Electron Laser with Self-Seeding and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Current Enhanced SASE (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Design Considerations for the Free-Electron Laser with Self-Seeding and Current Enhanced SASE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Considerations for the Free-Electron Laser with Self-Seeding and Current Enhanced SASE Authors: Zholents, A. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)) Publication Date: 2013-08-06 OSTI Identifier: 1096155 Report Number(s): ANL/APS/LS-335 DOE

  1. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    concentration of Ti (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Low-density foams irradiated by a 20 kJ laser at the Omega laser facility (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY, USA) are shown to convert more than 5% of the laser energy into 4.6 to 6.0 keV x rays. This record

  2. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from

  3. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Gonzlez, Ana; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brewster, Aaron S.; Brunger, Axel T.; Calero, Guillermo; Chang, Joseph F.; Chollet, Matthieu; Ehrensberger, Paul; Eriksson, Thomas L.; Feng, Yiping; Hattne, Johan; Hedman, Britt; Hollenbeck, Michael; Holton, James M.; Keable, Stephen; Kobilka, Brian K.; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Lemke, Henrik T.; Lin, Guowu; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Manglik, Aashish; Mathews, Irimpan I.; McPhillips, Scott E.; Nelson, Silke; Peters, John W.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Smith, Clyde A.; Song, Jinhu; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Tsai, Yingssu; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Vinetsky, Vladimir; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Weis, William I.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Zhu, Diling; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2014-10-31

    The emerging method of femtosecond crystallography (FX) may extend the diffraction resolution accessible from small radiation-sensitive crystals and provides a means to determine catalytically accurate structures of acutely radiation-sensitive metalloenzymes. Automated goniometer-based instrumentation developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source enabled efficient and flexible FX experiments to be performed on a variety of sample types. In the case of rod-shaped Cpl hydrogenase crystals, only five crystals and about 30 min of beam time were used to obtain the 125 still diffraction patterns used to produce a 1.6- resolution electron density map. With smaller crystals, high-density grids were used to increase sample throughput; 930 myoglobin crystals mounted at random orientation inside 32 grids were exposed, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Screening results from cryocooled crystals of ?2-adrenoreceptor and an RNA polymerase II complex indicate the potential to extend the diffraction resolution obtainable from very radiation-sensitive samples beyond that possible with undulator-based synchrotron sources.

  4. Exploring the Wavefront of Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Identifier: 1156629 Report Number(s): SLAC-REPRINT-2014-321 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature Commun. 3:947...

  5. Goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; González, Ana; Aguila, Laura; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Barnes, Christopher O.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brehmer, Winnie; Brewster, Aaron S.; Brunger, Axel T.; et al

    2014-10-31

    The emerging method of femtosecond crystallography (FX) may extend the diffraction resolution accessible from small radiation-sensitive crystals and provides a means to determine catalytically accurate structures of acutely radiation-sensitive metalloenzymes. Automated goniometer-based instrumentation developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source enabled efficient and flexible FX experiments to be performed on a variety of sample types. In the case of rod-shaped Cpl hydrogenase crystals, only five crystals and about 30 min of beam time were used to obtain the 125 still diffraction patterns used to produce a 1.6-Å resolution electron density map. With smaller crystals, high-density grids were usedmore » to increase sample throughput; 930 myoglobin crystals mounted at random orientation inside 32 grids were exposed, demonstrating the utility of this approach. Screening results from cryocooled crystals of β2-adrenoreceptor and an RNA polymerase II complex indicate the potential to extend the diffraction resolution obtainable from very radiation-sensitive samples beyond that possible with undulator-based synchrotron sources.« less

  6. De novo protein crystal structure determination from X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Barends, Thomas, R.M.

    2013-11-25

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data of microcrystals of a lysozyme gadolinium derivative. The data was used to demonstrate de-novo phasing by single anomalous dispersion.

  7. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    2011-02-23

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  8. Femtosecond dark-field imaging with an X-ray free electron laser (CXIDB ID 19)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Martin, A. V.

    2012-08-25

    This data was collected as part of the same experiment as the data deposited in [ID16](id-16.html). Experiment details are given in [Loh, N.D. et al.](http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11222)

  9. Femtosecond dark-field imaging with an X-ray free electron laser (CXIDB ID 19)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Martin, A. V.

    This data was collected as part of the same experiment as the data deposited in [ID16](id-16.html). Experiment details are given in [Loh, N.D. et al.](http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11222)

  10. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser (CXIDB ID 3)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, H. N.

    The diffraction pattern of this entry corresponds to the one shown in **figure 2a** of the corresponding citation.

  11. Accurate macromolecular structures using minimal measurements from X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hattne, Hattne

    2014-03-04

    Diffraction patterns from thermolysin microcrystals and one dark run, collected in December 2011. This data was used for metrology calibration and general cctbx.xfel development.

  12. Fresh-slice double-pulses X-ray Free Electron lasers | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fresh Air That's as Good as Gold Fresh Air That's as Good as Gold July 8, 2013 - 5:25pm Addthis Brookhaven Lab physicists Peter Sutter, Eli Sutter,and Xiao Tong (left to right) with one of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials instruments used to characterize the new nanoparticle structures. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Lab. Brookhaven Lab physicists Peter Sutter, Eli Sutter,and Xiao Tong (left to right) with one of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials instruments used to

  13. Fresh-slice double-pulses X-ray Free Electron lasers | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Description The technique of fresh-slice allows generating intense ultra-short double pulses for pump-probe experiments with control over the delay, color separation and ...

  14. VISA: A Milestone on the Path towards X-Ray Free Electron Lasers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Both, simulation and theory predict the intensity of the 3rd harmonic to be about 1% of ... It confirms experimentally that high quality nonlinear harmonic spectra can be expected ...

  15. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to...

  16. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  17. Using the X-FEL to photo-pump X-ray laser transitions in He-like Ne

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Rohringer, N

    2011-08-30

    Nearly four decades ago H-like and He-like resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes were proposed for producing X-ray lasers. However, demonstrating these schemes in the laboratory has proved to be elusive because of the difficulty of finding a strong resonant pump line. With the advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) we now have a tunable X-ray laser source that can be used to replace the pump line in previously proposed laser schemes and allow researchers to study the physics and feasibility of resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes. In this paper we use the X-FEL at 1174 eV to photo-pump the singly excited 1s2p state of He-like Ne to the doubly excited 2p3p state and model gain on the 2p3p-2p2s transition at 175 eV and the 2p3p-1s3p transition at 1017 eV. One motivation for studying this scheme is to explore possible quenching of the gain due to strong non-linear coupling effects from the intense X-FEL beam We compare this scheme with photo-pumping the He-like Ne ground state to the 1s3p singly excited state followed by lasing on the 3p-2s and 3d-2p transitions at 158 and 151 eV. Experiments are being planned at LCLS to study these laser processes and coherent quantum effects.

  18. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, Christoph

    2012-05-05

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  19. Lab Breakthrough: X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action Lab Breakthrough: X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action July 18, 2012 - 12:51pm Addthis The Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC is the world's most powerful X-ray laser, which helps researchers understand the extreme conditions found in the hearts of stars and giant planets guiding research into nuclear fusion, the mechanism that powers the sun. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. Michael Hess Michael

  20. Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser August 16, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today dedicated the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first and most powerful X-ray laser, at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The LCLS will play an essential role in addressing the scientific needs of the 21st century by exploring new ways to create

  1. Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gradient undulator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse gradient undulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Eigenmode analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser based on a transverse gradient undulator Authors: Baxevanis, Panagiotis ; Huang, Zhirong ; Ruth, Ronald ; Schroeder, Carl B. Publication Date: 2015-01-27 OSTI Identifier: 1181185 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231; AC02-76SF00515

  2. Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Workman, Jonathan B; Cobble, James A; Flippo, Kirk; Gautier, Donald C; Montgomery, David S; Offermann, Dustin T

    2010-01-01

    High-energy x-rays, > 10-keV, can be efficiently produced from ultrafast laser target interactions with many applications to dense target materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These same x-rays can also be applied to measurements of low-density materials inside high-density hohlraum environments. In the experiments presented, high-energy x-ray images of laser-shocked polystyrene are produced through phase contrast imaging. The plastic targets are nominally transparent to traditional x-ray absorption but show detailed features in regions of high density gradients due to refractive effects often called phase contrast imaging. The 200-TW Trident laser is used both to produce the x-ray source and to shock the polystyrene target. X-rays at 17-keV produced from 2-ps, 100-J laser interactions with a 12-micron molybdenum wire are used to produce a small source size, required for optimizing refractive effects. Shocks are driven in the 1-mm thick polystyrene target using 2-ns, 250-J, 532-nm laser drive with phase plates. X-ray images of shocks compare well to 1-D hydro calculations, HELIOS-CR.

  3. The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10 keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line in the 0.9-10 keV range: The high energy x-ray source and some applications The laser integration line (LIL) located at CEA-CESTA is equipped with x-ray

  4. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-15

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radial x-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup of ALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a sample in a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser while probing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cell is placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to the beam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while the sample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparent boron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of (Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observed above 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  5. Five Ways SLAC's X-ray Laser Can Change the Way We Live: 'The...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... The X-ray laser is uniquely capable of mapping the individual sunlight-triggered steps. ... Studies at LCLS have revealed how our DNA protects itself from the sun's ultraviolet rays ...

  6. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems. Resonant scattering with x-rays allow elemental specificity with magnetic contrast, and coherent light leads to speckle in the scattered pattern due to interference from waves exiting the sample.

  7. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma interaction experiments (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Authors: Chen, H ; Bitter, M ; Hazi, A ; Hill, K ; Kerr, S ; Magee, E ; Nagel, S ; Park, J ; Schneider, M ; Stone, G ; Williams, G ; Beiersdorfer, P Publication Date:

  8. Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Satcher, J. H.; May, M. J.; Poco, J. F.; Sorce, C. M.; Colvin, J. D.; Hansen, S. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Moon, S. J.; Davis, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Direction des Application Militaires (CEA/DAM), Ile-de-France, F91297 Arpajon (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Beutler, D. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas have been measured in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx_equal}15 keV at the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The targets' x-ray yields have been studied for variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length, and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx_equal}10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of x rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the x-ray spectral yields, the x-ray temporal waveforms have been measured and it is observed that the emitted x rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted x-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Further, the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities is found to be 2%-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx_equal}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The propagation of the laser heating in the target volume has been characterized with two-dimensional imaging. Source-region heating is seen to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted x-ray power.

  9. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linac Coherent Light Source (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by

  10. Experimental demonstration of laser to x-ray conversion enhancements with low density gold targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shang, Wanli; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Deng, Bo; Dong, Yunsong; Zhu, Tuo; Huang, Chengwu; Zhan, Xiayu; Mei, Yu; et al

    2016-02-12

    The enhancement of laser to x-ray conversion efficiencies using low density gold targets [W. L. Shang, J. M. Yang, and Y. S. Dong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 094105 (2013)] is demonstrated. Laser to x-ray conversion efficiencies with 6.3% and 12% increases are achieved with target densities of 1 and 0.25 g/cm3, when compared with that of a solid gold target (19.3 g/cm3). Experimental data and numerical simulations are in good agreement. Lastly, the enhancement is caused by larger x-ray emission zone lengths formed in low density targets, which is in agreement with the simulation results.

  11. Bunch length compression method for free electron lasers to avoid parasitic compressions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen; Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Tennant, Christopher; Wilson, Guy

    2015-05-26

    A method of bunch length compression method for a free electron laser (FEL) that avoids parasitic compressions by 1) applying acceleration on the falling portion of the RF waveform, 2) compressing using a positive momentum compaction (R.sub.56>0), and 3) compensating for aberration by using nonlinear magnets in the compressor beam line.

  12. Photoionization-pumped, Ne II, x-ray laser studies project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M.C.; Hagelstein, P.L.; Eckart, M.J.; Forsyth, J.M.; Gerrassimenko, M.; Soures, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The energetics of this pumping scheme are shown. Short-pulse (50 to 100 ps) laser irradiation of an appropriate x-ray flashlamp medium generates broad-band emission in the range of 300 to 800 eV which preferentially photoionizes Ne to the /sup 2/S state of Ne II creating an inversion at approximately 27 eV. Although this approach does not depend on precise spectral overlap between the x-ray pump radiation and the medium to be pumped, it does require that the x-ray medium remain un-ionized prior to photoionization by the soft x-ray emission. Well-controlled focus conditions are required to ensure that the x-ray medium is not subjected to electron or x-ray preheat prior to irradiation by the soft x-ray source. The magnitude of the population inversion is predicted to be critically dependent upon rapid photoionization of the two states; therefore, ultra-short pulse irradiation of the laser flashlamps is required.

  13. Measuring the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, F.; Pollock, B. B.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Chen, Y. -H.; Alessi, D.; Pak, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.

    2014-07-22

    This paper presents a new technique to measure the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Measurements are performed with a stacked image plates spectrometer, capable of detecting broadband x-ray radiation up to 1 MeV. It can provide measurements of the betatron x-ray spectrum at any angle of observation (within a 40 mrad cone) and of the beam profile. A detailed description of our data analysis is given, along with comparison for several shots. As a result, these measurements provide useful information on the dynamics of the electrons are they are accelerated and wiggled by the wakefield.

  14. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  15. Study of an HHG-Seeded Free-Electron Laser for the LBNL Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Neil

    2010-10-20

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a high repetition rate free-electron laser facility proposed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The proposed facility will provide multiple FEL lines with varying spectral characteristics to satisfy a broad soft X-ray physics programme. At this stage of the project a number of FEL technologies and concepts are being investigated for possible implementation on the facility. In this report we consider a free-electron laser seeded by a Higher Harmonic Generation (HHG) source in which a high power (and consequently relatively low repetition rate) laser pulse is injected into a chamber of inert gas. Through a process of ionisation and recombination coherent higher harmonics of the laser are emitted from the gas and can be injected into an FEL system as a seed field. Further harmonic upconversion can be done within the FEL system to enable temporally coherent FEL output at wavelengths much shorter than, and pulse energies orders of magnitude higher than, the HHG source emission. The harmonic conversion within the FEL works in the following way. The seed field induces an energy modulation within the electron bunch at the start of the modulator. This energy modulation grows within the modulator due to the FEL interaction and starts to convert into a density modulation, or bunching, at the seed wavelength. However, this bunching also has components at higher harmonics which retain the longitudinal coherence of the initial seed. The beam passes through a magnetic chicane, which shears the longitudinal phase space to maximise the bunching at the required harmonic, then a further undulator which is tuned to this harmonic. If this second undulator is short it acts as a further modulator, and because the beam is pre-bunched at the modulator resonance there is a strong coherent burst of radiation which acts to modulate the electron beam energy in much the same way the input laser seed field acted in the first modulator. This second modulator is followed by a second bunching chicane and then a final long radiator tuned to a yet higher harmonic of the laser seed - the final output wavelength. Alternatively, the second undulator can be the radiator itself, in which case only one harmonic conversion from seed wavelength to final output is necessary. We initially consider the case of a 400kW peak power HHG seed source at wavelength 12nm (currently considered the cutoff wavelength for sufficient seed power to dominate shot noise in the electron beam) which is converted in either one or two stages or harmonic conversion to FEL emission at 1nm. We then consider the implications of a factor of ten reduction in seed power to 40kW.

  16. Resonant photo-pumping x-ray-laser scheme using intense characteristic x rays for water-window radiation generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2011-12-15

    A line pair for a resonant photo-pumping x-ray-laser scheme is proposed in which the wavelength matching between the aluminum K{alpha}{sub 2} line ({lambda}= 0.833 95 nm) and the 2p{sup 6}-(2p{sub 1/2},4d{sub 3/2}){sub 1} transition of the neonlike zinc ions ({lambda}= 0.834 00 nm) is used. The population kinetics code of the neonlike zinc ions in plasma under irradiation of the aluminum K{alpha} line shows that substantial amplification gain can be generated in the transition of (2p{sub 1/2},3p{sub 1/2}){sub 0}-(2p{sub 1/2},4d{sub 3/2}){sub 1} at a wavelength of 3.5 nm. We also investigate the experimental arrangement of this scheme, which implies that this scheme is feasible with the present ultra-short-pulse-laser technology.

  17. Status of the visible Free-Electron Laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fisher, A.S.; Friedman, A.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.; Kramer, S.; Lin, L.; Rogers, J.T.; Sheehan, J.F.; van Steenbergen, A.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, R. ); Bhowmik, A. . Rocketdyne Div.)

    1991-01-01

    The 500 nm Free-Electron Laser (ATF) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. We present an overview of the ATF, a high-brightness, 50-MeV, electron accelerator and laser complex which is a users' facility for accelerator and beam physics. A number of laser acceleration and FEL experiments are under construction at the ATF. The visible FEL experiment is based on a novel superferric 8.8 mm period undulator. The electron beam parameters, the undulator, the optical resonator, optical and electron beam diagnostics are discussed. The operational status of the experiment is presented. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-12-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  19. Time-dependent simulation of prebunched one and two-beam free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirian, N. S.; Maraghechi, B.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical simulation in one-dimension is conducted to study the slippage effects on prebunched free electron laser. A technique for the simulation of time dependent free electron lasers (FEL) to model the slippage effects is introduced, and the slowly varying envelope approximation in both z and t is used to illustrate the temporal behaviour in the prebunched FEL. Slippage effect on prebunched two-beam FEL is compared with the one-beam modeling. The evaluation of the radiation pulse energy, thermal and phase distribution, and radiation pulse shape in one-beam and two-beam modeling is studied. It was shown that the performance is considerably undermined when the slippage time is comparable to the pulse duration. However, prebunching reduces the slippage. Prebunching also leads to the radiation pulse with a single smooth spike.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  1. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  2. Free Electron Laser Program Program at TJNAF| U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Free Electron Laser Program Program at TJNAF Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington,

  3. Chorus wave amplification: A free electron laser in the Earth's magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soto-Chavez, A. R.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Ng, C. S.

    2012-01-15

    A new theoretical model for whistler-mode chorus amplification in the Earth's magnetosphere is presented. We derive, based on the free-electron laser mechanism in a high-gain amplifier, a new closed set of self-consistent relativistic equations that couple the Hamiltonian equations for particles with Maxwell's equations. We demonstrate that these equations predict, through a cubic equation, whistler amplification levels in good agreement with those observed in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  4. Achieving atomistic understanding of solvation dynamics from X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    free-electron laser measurements | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Achieving atomistic understanding of solvation dynamics from X-ray free-electron laser measurements Wednesday, April 6, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Kasper, Kjaer, PULSE Program Description The efficiency, selectivity, and rate of chemical reactions depend critically on the reaction environment. Solvation, the local organization of the solvent molecules around a solute, plays a

  5. Efficient laser-induced 6-8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and foil-lined cavity targets (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Efficient laser-induced 6-8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient laser-induced 6-8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets The performance of new iron-based laser-driven x-ray sources has been tested at the OMEGA laser facility for production of x rays in the 6.5-8.5 keV range. Two types of targets were

  6. High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Targets (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Authors: Colvin, J D Publication Date: 2012-08-28 OSTI Identifier: 1073135 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-577612 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  7. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trosseille, C. Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C.; Beck, T.; Gazave, J.

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  8. Bright tunable femtosecond x-ray emission from laser irradiated micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Tong-Pu Hu, Li-Xiang; Yin, Yan; Shao, Fu-Qiu; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yang, Xiao-Hu; Luo, Wen; Pukhov, Alexander

    2014-09-15

    It is demonstrated that bright femtosecond X-rays can be obtained by irradiating a moderate laser onto a helium micro-droplet. The laser ponderomotive force continuously sweeps electrons from the droplets and accelerates them forward. The electrons exposed in the outrunning laser field oscillate transversely and emit photons in the forward direction. The total flux of photons with energies above 1?keV is as high as 10{sup 9}/shot which is about 10-fold enhancement compared with betatron oscillation under similar laser conditions. The maximum achieved peak brightness is up to 10{sup 21} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. By adjusting laser and droplet parameters, we can get tunable X-rays with required brightness and energy.

  9. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  10. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hantke, Max, F.

    2014-11-17

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  11. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas

    2011-02-02

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.

  12. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  13. 32.8-nm X-ray laser produced in a krypton cluster jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanova, E P; Vinokhodov, A Yu

    2013-12-31

    We have interpreted the well-known experimental quantum yield data for a 32.8-nm X-ray laser operating at the 3d{sup 9}4d (J = 0) 3d{sup 9}4p (J = 1) transition of Kr{sup 8+} with the use of gaseous krypton or a krypton cluster jet. Proceeding from our model we propose a novel scheme for the 32.8-nm laser produced in a krypton cluster jet. The quantum yield is shown to saturate for a plasma length of ?300 ?m, a krypton ion density n{sub Kr} ? (4 9) 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and an electron temperature Te ? 5000 eV. In this case, the energy conversion coefficient amounts to ?5 10{sup -3} of the pump pulse energy. We propose the experimental setup for producing a highefficiency subpicosecond X-ray laser in a krypton cluster jet. (lasers)

  14. Mixing and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, E.; Endler, A.; Rizzato, F. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2013-12-15

    The present work revisits the subjects of mixing, saturation, and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers. Use is made of the compressibility factor, which proves to be a helpful tool in the related systems of charged beams confined by static magnetic fields. The compressibility allows to perform analytical estimates of the elapsed time until the onset of mixing, which in turn allows to estimate the saturated amplitude of the radiation field. In addition, the compressibility helps to pinpoint space-charge effects and the corresponding transition from Compton to Raman regimes.

  15. Nonlinear study of an ion-channel guiding free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Zhang, Shi-Chang

    2015-04-15

    A nonlinear model and simulations of the output power of an ion-channel guiding free-electron laser (FEL) are presented in this paper. Results show that the nonlinear output power of an ion-channel guiding FEL is comparable to that of an axial guide magnetic field FEL. Compared to an axial guide magnetic field FEL, an ion-channel guiding FEL substantially weakens the negative effect of the electron-beam energy spread on the output power due to its advantageous focusing mechanism on the electron motion.

  16. Stability properties of free-electron laser in Raman regime with thermal electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakhmachi, A.; Maraghechi, B.

    2009-04-15

    In the context of kinetic theory an expression for the growth rate of a free-electron laser, under the weak resonance instability condition, for full dispersion relation has been obtained. The space-charge potential is included in the analysis and the expression for growth rate reduces to that of the Compton regime under the low density condition. With the assumption of a spread in the longitudinal momentum in the form of a Gaussian distribution function, the effect of the thermal electron beam on the growth rate is studied. The results are compared to another linear theory, a computer simulation, and an experiment.

  17. Two-color photoionization in xuv free-electron and visible laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, M.; Cubaynes, D.; O'Keeffe, P.; Orr, P.; Taieeb, R.; Maquet, A.; Duesterer, S.; Radcliffe, P.; Redlin, H.; Azima, A.; Ploenjes, E.; Feldhaus, J.

    2006-07-15

    Two-photon ionization of atomic helium has been measured by combining femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses from the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH at DESY) with intense light pulses from a synchronized neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride laser. Sidebands appear in the photoelectron spectra when the two laser pulses overlap in both space and time. Their intensity exhibits a characteristic dependence on the relative time delay between the ionizing and the dressing pulses and provides an inherent time marker for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The measurements of the sidebands are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and allow for a direct analysis of two-photon ionization, free from processes related to interference between multiple quantum paths.

  18. Key Laser Technologies for X-Ray FELs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaertner, Franz

    2013-08-31

    In the final project period, we demonstrated sub femtosecond timing distribution over a 1.2 km polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-optic link using balanced optical cross-correlators (BOCs) for link stabilization. By eliminating polarization mode dispersion, link operation for 16 days maintained 0.6 fs RMS timing drift and during a 3-day interval only 0.13 fs drift, which corresponds to a stability level of 10-21. To improve the overall system efficiency and robustness, we developed fiber-coupled, hybrid-integrated BOCs using waveguides in periodically-poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP). The measured second-harmonic conversion efficiency in the waveguides is a factor of 50 higher than that of bulk-optic crystals. Characterization of 1st-generation devices shows performance comparable to free-space BOCs, with the potential for significant improvement in future devices. For optical-to-RF conversion, we developed two balanced optical-microwave phase detectors (BOM-PD) based on the Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF extraction using BOM-PDs in phase-locked loops yielded sub-10-fs residual timing jitter for locking bandwidths on the order of several hundred kHz. Finally, we characterized the timing jitter of ultralow-noise Ti:Sapphire oscillators, demonstrating an unprecedented 13 as of jitter integrated over the entire Nyquist band. Our measurements agreed well with theory, confirming our models for quantum-limited laser noise. Measurements of commercially available solid-state lasers at 1550 nm showed that there are laser sources already available with sufficiently low noise to achieve sub-femtosecond performance as master oscillators within a timing distribution system.

  19. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  20. Interaction of high intensity laser with non-uniform clusters and enhanced X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-10-15

    Laser irradiated clusters with non-uniform density variation are shown to broaden surface plasmon resonance very significantly. As the clusters get heated and expand hydro-dynamically, the Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission yield passes through a maximum in time. The maximum yield decreases with increase in non-uniformity in the electron density inside the clusters. At higher laser intensity, the nonlinearity in laser cluster interaction may arise even prior to electron heating, via the relativistic mass variation and the nonlinear restoration force on electrons. For clusters with radius less than one tenth of the laser wavelength, the restoration force nonlinearity dominates.

  1. Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, W.; College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 ; Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ma, Y. Y.; Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 ; Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yu, M. Y.; Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum

    2013-10-21

    The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ≤200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ∼160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ≥5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

  2. Induction accelerators and free-electron lasers at LLNL: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1989-02-15

    Linear induction accelerators have been developed to produce pulses of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capabilities of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multistage induction machine. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high repetition rates practical, and high-average-power capability is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines. In Part A of this paper, we survey the US induction linac technology, emphasizing electron machines. We also give a simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam to illustrate many general issues that designers of high-brightness and high-average-power induction linacs must consider. We give an example of the application of induction accelerator technology to the relativistic klystron, a power source for high-gradient accelerators. In Part B we address the application of LIAs to free-electron lasers. The multikiloampere peak currents available from linear induction accelerators make high-gain, free-electron laser amplifier configurations feasible. High extraction efficiencies in a single mass of the electron beam are possible if the wiggler parameters are appropriately ''tapered'', as recently demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths on the 4-MeV ELF facility. Key issues involved in extending the technology to shorter wavelengths and higher average powers are described. Current FEL experiments at LLNL are discussed. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Influence of space charge wave on quasilinear theory of the free-electron laser saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakhmachi, A.; Maraghechi, B.

    2009-07-15

    A quasilinear theory is presented that describes the self-consistent evolution of the electron beam distribution function and fields in a free-electron laser when the space charge wave is present. In the Raman regime, a high-density electron beam has an appreciable space charge potential. A broad spectrum of waves is assumed in order to have a relatively wide range of resonant particles. A one-dimensional helical magnetic field is considered and the analysis is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Two coupled differential equations are derived, which, in conjunction with conservation laws, describe the quasilinear development by the diffusion of electrons in the momentum space. This leads to the saturation of the free-electron laser instability by the plateau formation. Analytical expressions for the growth rate and for the diffusion coefficient are derived, which reduced to those in the Compton regime under appropriate conditions. By use of the linear growth rate and diffusion coefficient, an analytical expression for efficiency in Raman regime was derived. A numerical analysis is conducted to study the effects of the spectral width of radiation and the thermal spread of the electron beam on the efficiency.

  4. Experiments in sideband suppression on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.J.; Coyle, M.R.; Paxton, A.H. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Laser and Optical R and D Group); O'Shea, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Byrd, D.A.; Feldman, D.W.; Goldstein, J.C.: Pitcher, E.J.; Zaugg, T.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two versions of the Phase-Step Mirror'' (PSM), a novel optical component that prevents the formation of sidebands in a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) were tested on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) APEX FEL. Sideband suppression and frequency control with high extraction efficiency and single line, transform limited operation were demonstrated. The results of our LANL experiments and computer simulations showed that for very high gain applications, the first-order sideband is completely suppressed, but the laser gain is so strong that on about pass 300 the sideband at the second-order or next free spectral range of the PSM appears. This second-order sideband may be suppressed by designing a PSM with grooves having two alternating depths, one chosen to suppress the first-order sideband, and the other, the second-order sideband.

  5. Experiments in sideband suppression on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.J.; Coyle, M.R.; Paxton, A.H. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Laser and Optical R and D Group; O`Shea, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Byrd, D.A.; Feldman, D.W.; Goldstein, J.C.: Pitcher, E.J.; Zaugg, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Two versions of the ``Phase-Step Mirror`` (PSM), a novel optical component that prevents the formation of sidebands in a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) were tested on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) APEX FEL. Sideband suppression and frequency control with high extraction efficiency and single line, transform limited operation were demonstrated. The results of our LANL experiments and computer simulations showed that for very high gain applications, the first-order sideband is completely suppressed, but the laser gain is so strong that on about pass 300 the sideband at the second-order or next free spectral range of the PSM appears. This second-order sideband may be suppressed by designing a PSM with grooves having two alternating depths, one chosen to suppress the first-order sideband, and the other, the second-order sideband.

  6. Synchronizing femtosecond laser with x-ray synchrotron operating at arbitrarily different frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Wonhyuk; Lee, Sooheyong; Eom, Intae; Landahl, Eric C.

    2014-12-15

    The ability to synchronize a femtosecond laser to x-ray pulses is crucial for performing ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering experiments at synchrotrons. Conventionally, the task has been achieved by locking a harmonic frequency of the laser oscillator to the storage ring master radio-frequency (RF). However, when the frequency mismatch between the two sources cannot be compensated by small adjustments to the laser cavity length, synchronization to a harmonic frequency requires modifying the optical components of the laser system. We demonstrate a novel synchronization scheme, which is a flexible alternative for synchronizing these two sources operating at arbitrarily different frequencies. First, we find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the two frequencies that is still within the limited tuning range of the laser cavity length. The GCD is generated by dividing down from the storage ring RF, and is separately multiplied up to provide a feedback signal for synchronizing the laser cavity. Unique to our scheme, the GCD also serves as a harmonic RF source for the laser amplifier such that only laser oscillator pulses at fixed integer multiples of the storage ring RF are selected for amplification and delivery to experiments. Our method is implemented at the Photon Test Facility beamline of Pohang Light Source where timing-jitter less than 4 ps (r.m.s.) is measured using a new shot-to-shot method.

  7. Ultrabright x-ray laser scattering for dynamic warm dense matter physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Doppner, T.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Fortmann, C.; Mao, T.; Millot, M.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Chapman, D. A.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Kao, C. -C.; Nuhn, H.; Welch, J.; Zastrau, U.; Neumayer, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-03-23

    In megabar shock waves, materials compress and undergo a phase transition to a dense charged-particle system that is dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. This complex state, known as warm dense matter, exists in planetary interiors and many laboratory experiments (for example, during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions). Here, we apply record peak brightness X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (ngstrm) scale lengths and to determine their physical properties. Our in situ measurements characterize the compressed lattice and resolve the transition to warm dense matter, demonstrating that short-range repulsion between ions must be accounted for to obtain accurate structure factor and equation of state data. Additionally, the unique properties of the X-ray laser provide plasmon spectra that yield the temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micrometre-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments.

  8. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-02-15

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a{sub 0} ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10{sup −12}) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements.

  9. X-ray diffraction in the pulsed laser heated diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Dalton, D. Allen; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Kantor, Innokenty; Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-11-15

    We have developed in situ x-ray synchrotron diffraction measurements of samples heated by a pulsed laser in the diamond anvil cell at pressure up to 60 GPa. We used an electronically modulated 2-10 kHz repetition rate, 1064-1075 nm fiber laser with 1-100 {mu}s pulse width synchronized with a gated x-ray detector (Pilatus) and time-resolved radiometric temperature measurements. This enables the time domain measurements as a function of temperature in a microsecond time scale (averaged over many events, typically more than 10 000). X-ray diffraction data, temperature measurements, and finite element calculations with realistic geometric and thermochemical parameters show that in the present experimental configuration, samples 4 {mu}m thick can be continuously temperature monitored (up to 3000 K in our experiments) with the same level of axial and radial temperature uniformities as with continuous heating. We find that this novel technique offers a new and convenient way of fine tuning the maximum sample temperature by changing the pulse width of the laser. This delicate control, which may also prevent chemical reactivity and diffusion, enables accurate measurement of melting curves, phase changes, and thermal equations of state.

  10. A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser and energy recovery linac applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baptiste, Kenneth; Corlett, John; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Lidia, Steven; Qiang, Ji; Sannibale, Fernando; Sonnad, Kiran; Staples, John; Virostek, Steven; Wells, Russell

    2008-10-08

    Currently proposed energy recovery linac and high average power free electron laser projects require electron beam sources that can generate up to {approx} 1 nC bunch charges with less than 1 mmmrad normalized emittance at high repetition rates (greater than {approx} 1 MHz). Proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose an approach for a gun fully based on mature RF and mechanical technology that greatly diminishes many of such complications. The concepts for such a source as well as the present RF and mechanical design are described. Simulations that demonstrate the beam quality preservation and transport capability of an injector scheme based on such a gun are also presented.

  11. Improvement of nonlinear harmonics in free electron laser with planar wiggler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazouband, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2012-11-15

    Spontaneous emission of free electron laser with planar wiggler and ion-channel guiding is calculated analytically and possibility of emission at up-shifted wiggler or ion-channel betatron frequency and their harmonics has been found. To investigate the nonlinear odd harmonics, a set of self-consistent nonlinear differential equations that governs the evolution of radiation and electron beam are derived and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. Using the simulation code, gain improvement of third harmonic is studied in the range of microwave frequency by applying ion-channel guiding for a cold beam. It is shown that the combination of the ion-channel and a prebunched electron beam increases the amplitude of the third harmonic of the radiation and decreases its saturation length. The relation between the linear and nonlinear harmonics is discussed.

  12. High-power beam injectors for 100 KW free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, A. M.; Wood R. L.; Bluem, H.; Young, L. M.; Wiseman, M.; Schultheiss, T.; Schrage, D. L.; Russell, S. J.; Rode, C. H.; Rimmer, R.; Nguyen, D. C.; Kelley, J. P.; Kurennoy, S.; wood, r

    2003-01-01

    A key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL operation is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. We describe two ongoing programs to produce 100 mA injectors as drivers for 100 kW free-electron lasers. In one approach, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, we are fabricating a 750 MHz superconducting RF cryomodule that will be integrated with a room-temperature DC photocathode gun and tested at the Laboratory. In the other approach, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a high-current 700 MHz, normal-conducting, RF photoinjector is being designed and will undergo thermal management testing at the Laboratory. We describe the design, the projected performance and the status of both injectors.

  13. Applications of free electron lasers and synchrotrons in industry and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, William A. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Synchrotron radiation sources have had a profound effect on both science and technology from their beginnings decades ago as parasitic operations on accelerators for high energy physics. Now the general area of photon science has opened up new experimental techniques which have become the mainstay tools of materials science, surface physics, protein crystallography, and nanotechnology. With the promise of ultra-bright beams from the latest generation of storage rings and free electron lasers with full coherence, the tools of photon science promise to open a new area of mesoscale science and technology as well as prove to be a disruptive wildcard in the search for sustainable energy technologies. This review will survey a range of applications and explore in greater depth the potential applications to EUV lithography and to technologies for solar energy.

  14. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  15. Single-shot measurements of plasmons in compressed diamond with an x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Gauthier, M.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Zastrau, U.; MacDonald, M. J.; Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O.

    2015-05-15

    Strong plasmon resonances characteristics of electron density fluctuations have recently been observed in dynamically compressed diamond for the first time at the Linac Coherent Light Source. These experiments observe the forward scattering spectra from 8 keV x-ray pulses at record peak brightness to probe laser-compressed diamond foils at the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument. We demonstrate single-shot measurements of the x-ray scattering spectrum, which are sensitive to the temperatures and densities of the compressed samples. The inferred values from the inelastic scattering are compared to simulations, finding good agreement with the temperature and demonstrating the need to include solid state effects in the modeling of the plasmon oscillation.

  16. Breakthrough: X-ray Laser Captures Atoms and Molecules in Action

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-05-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC is the world's most powerful X-ray laser. Just two years after turning on in 2009, breakthrough science is emerging from the LCLS at a rapid pace. A recent experiment used the X-rays to create and probe a 2-million-degree piece of matter in a controlled way for the first time-a significant leap toward understanding the extreme conditions found in the hearts of stars and giant planets, and a finding which could further guide research into nuclear fusion, the mechanism that powers the sun. Upcoming experiments will investigate the fundamental, atomic-scale processes behind such phenomena as superconductivity and magnetism, as well as peering into the molecular workings of photosynthesis in plants.

  17. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  18. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Giant Mimivirus Particle with an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ekeberg, Tomas

    2015-05-26

    This dataset contains the diffraction patterns that were used for the first three-dimensional reconstruction of a virus using FEL data. The sample was the giant mimivirus particle, which is one of the largest known viruses with a diameter of 450 nm. The dataset consists of the 198 diffraction patterns that were used in the analysis.

  19. Development of a Laser-Produced Plasma X-ray source for Phase-Contrast Radiography of DT Ice layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, N; Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Landen, O L; Koch, J A

    2008-07-21

    Refraction enhanced x-ray phase contrast imaging is crucial for characterization of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer roughness in optically opaque inertial confinement fusion capsules. To observe the time development of DT ice roughness over {approx} second timescales, we need a bright x-ray source that can produce an image faster than the evolution of the ice surface roughness. A laser produced plasma x-ray source is one of the candidates that can meet this requirement. We performed experiments at the Janus laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and assessed the characteristics of the laser produced plasma x-ray source as a potential backlight for in situ target characterization.

  20. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-15

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  1. Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electron laser (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser Authors: Emma, C. ; /UCLA, Los Angeles ; Pellegrini, C. ; /UCLA, Los Angeles /SLAC ; Wu, Juhao ; /SLAC ; , Publication Date: 2014-05-05 OSTI Identifier: 1131466 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15940 arXiv:1403.5305 DOE Contract Number:

  2. Evolution of Elastic X-ray Scattering in Laser-Shocked Warm Dense Li

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C; Brown, C; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-06-02

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4 ns long laser pulses. Separate 1 ns long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-{alpha} photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120{sup o} using a HOPG crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state {bar Z}, and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  3. A New Gated X-Ray Detector for the Orion Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, David D.; Aragonez, Robert J.; Archuleta, Thomas N.; Fatherley, Valerie E.; Hsu, Albert H.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Mares, Danielle; Oertel, John A.; Oades, Kevin; Kemshall, Paul; Thomas, Philip; Young, Trevor; Pederson, Neal

    2012-08-08

    Gated X-Ray Detectors (GXD) are considered the work-horse target diagnostic of the laser based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. Recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has constructed three new GXDs for the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom. What sets these three new instruments apart from the what has previously been constructed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is: improvements in detector head microwave transmission lines, solid state embedded hard drive and updated control software, and lighter air box design and other incremental mechanical improvements. In this paper we will present the latest GXD design enhancements and sample calibration data taken on the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the newly constructed instruments.

  4. A tapered undulator experiment at the ELBE far infrared hybrid-resonator oscillator free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgekar, V.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.

    2012-01-15

    A tapered undulator experiment was carried out at the ELBE far-infrared free electron laser (FEL). The oscillator FEL makes use of a hybrid optical resonator. The main motivation was to see whether the presence of a dispersive medium in the form of a waveguide in the resonator has any effect on the outcome. The FEL saturated power and the wavelength shifts have been measured as a function of both positive as well as negative undulator field amplitude tapering. In contrast to the typical high-gain FELs where positive tapering proves beneficial for the output power we observed an improvement of performance at negative taper. During the same experiments we studied the characteristics of the detuning curves. The width of the curves indicates a maximum small signal gain for zero taper while the output peak power increases with negative taper. The saturated power output, the detuning curve characteristics, and the wavelength shifts agrees with the theoretical predictions. Details of the experiment are presented.

  5. Efficiency enhancement of nonlinear odd harmonics in thermal free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazouband, F.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-05-07

    The effect of axial energy spread on the radiation of third harmonic is studied in the free electron laser with planar wiggler and ion-channel guiding. Spread in the longitudinal momentum and so in the initial energy of electron beam, without any spread in the transverse velocity, is assumed in the form of Gaussian distribution function. The technique that is employed is a one-dimensional and steady-state simulation. A set of self consistent nonlinear differential equations that describes the system is solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. Due to the sensitivity of harmonics to thermal effects, gain improvement of third harmonic radiation is achieved by using ion-channel guiding technique and efficiency enhancement is applied by tapering the magnetic field of wiggler to optimize radiation. The bunching parameter of the electron beam is also studied. It is found that the growth of the magnitude of the bunching parameter that is caused by the ponderomotive wave stops before the saturation point of the radiation. This means that ponderomotive wave saturates at a shorter distance compared to the radiation.

  6. Performance of the accelerator driver of Jefferson Laboratory's free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, C.L.; Benson, S.; Biallas, G.

    1999-04-01

    The driver of Jefferson Lab's kW-level infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a superconducting, recirculating accelerator that recovers about 75% of the electron-beam power and converts it to radiofrequency power. In achieving first lasing, the accelerator operated straight-ahead to deliver 38 MeV, 1.1 mA cw current through the wiggler for lasing at wavelengths in the vicinity of 5 {mu}m. Just prior to first lasing, measured rms beam properties at the wiggler were 7.5{+-}1.5 mm-mr normalized transverse emittance, 26{+-}7 keV-deg longitudinal emittance, and 0.4{+-}0.1 ps bunch length which yielded a peak current of 60{+-}15A. The waste beam was then sent directly to a dump, bypassing the recirculation loop. Stable operation at up to 311 W cw was achieved in this mode. Commissioning the recirculation loop then proceeded. As of this Conference, the machine has recirculated cw average current up to 4 mA, and has lased cw with energy recover up to 710 W.

  7. Airborne megawatt class free-electron laser for defense and security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Whitney; David Douglas; George Neil

    2005-03-01

    An airborne megawatt (MW) average power Free-Electron Laser (FEL) is now a possibility. In the process of shrinking the FEL parameters to fit on ship, a surprisingly lightweight and compact design has been achieved. There are multiple motivations for using a FEL for a high-power airborne system for Defense and Security: Diverse mission requirements can be met by a single system. The MW of light can be made available with any time structure for time periods from microseconds to hours, i.e. there is a nearly unlimited magazine. The wavelength of the light can be chosen to be from the far infrared (IR) to the near ultraviolet (UV) thereby best meeting mission requirements. The FEL light can be modulated for detecting the same pattern in the small fraction of light reflected from the target resulting in greatly enhanced targeting control. The entire MW class FEL including all of its subsystems can be carried by large commercial size airplanes or on an airship. Adequate electrical power can be generated on the plane or airship to run the FEL as long as the plane or airship has fuel to fly. The light from the FEL will work well with relay mirror systems. The required R&D to achieve the MW level is well understood. The coupling of the capabilities of an airborne FEL to diverse mission requirements provides unique opportunities.

  8. Proposed Laser-driven, Dielectric Microstructure Few-cm Long Undulator for Attosecond Coherent X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plettner, T; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U., Ginzton Lab.

    2011-09-16

    This article presents the concept of an all-dielectric laser-driven undulator for the generation of coherent X-rays. The proposed laser-driven undulator is expected to produce internal deflection forces equivalent to a several-Tesla magnetic field acting on a speed-of-light particle. The key idea for this laser-driven undulator is its ability to provide phase synchronicity between the deflection force and the electron beam for a distance that is much greater than the laser wavelength. The potential advantage of this undulator is illustrated with a possible design example that assumes a small laser accelerator which delivers a 2 GeV, 1 pC, 1 kHz electron bunch train to a 10 cm long, 1/2 mm period laser-driven undulator. Such an undulator could produce coherent X-ray pulses with {approx}10{sup 9} photons of 64 keV energy. The numerical modeling for the expected X-ray pulse shape was performed with GENESIS, which predicts X-ray pulse durations in the few-attosecond range. Possible applications for nonlinear electromagnetic effects from these X-ray pulses are briefly discussed.

  9. X-ray microtomography and laser ablation in the analysis of ink distribution in coated paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myllys, M.; Hkknen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Backfolk, K.; Sirvi, P.; Timonen, J.

    2015-04-14

    A novel method was developed for studying the ink-paper interface and the structural variations of a deposited layer of ink. Combining high-resolution x-ray tomography with laser ablation, the depth profile of ink (toner), i.e., its varying thickness, could be determined in a paper substrate. X-ray tomography was used to produce the 3D structure of paper with about 1??m spatial resolution. Laser ablation combined with optical imaging was used to produce the 3D structure of the printed layer of ink on top of that paper with about 70?nm depth resolution. Ablation depth was calibrated with an optical profilometer. It can be concluded that a toner layer on a light-weight-coated paper substrate was strongly perturbed by protruding fibers of the base paper. Such fibers together with the surface topography of the base paper seem to be the major factors that control the leveling of toner and its penetration into a thinly coated paper substrate.

  10. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Wednesday, 26 March 2008 00:00 Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the

  11. Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward TW-Level, Hard X-Ray Pulses at LCLS Coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules such as proteins requires a large number (e.g., {approx} 10{sup 13}/pulse) of hard X-ray photons within a time scale of {approx} 10 fs or less. This corresponds to a peak power of {approx} 1 TW, much larger than that currently generated by LCLS or other proposed X-ray free electron lasers (FELs). We study

  12. Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kublak, Glenn D.; Richardson, Martin C. (CREOL

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultra violet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10.sup.11 -10.sup.12 watts/cm.sup.2) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10-30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle.

  13. Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kublak, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1996-11-19

    Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10{sup 11}--10{sup 12} watts/cm{sup 2}) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10--30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle. 5 figs.

  14. High Resolution Simulation of Beam Dynamics in Electron Linacs for Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryne, R.D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.A.; Qiang, J.

    2009-01-05

    In this paper we report on large scale multi-physics simulation of beam dynamics in electron linacs for next generation free electron lasers (FELs). We describe key features of a parallel macroparticle simulation code including three-dimensional (3D) space-charge effects, short-range structure wake fields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake fields, and treatment of radiofrequency (RF) accelerating cavities using maps obtained from axial field profiles. A macroparticle up-sampling scheme is described that reduces the shot noise from an initial distribution with a smaller number of macroparticles while maintaining the global properties of the original distribution. We present a study of the microbunching instability which is a critical issue for future FELs due to its impact on beam quality at the end of the linac. Using parameters of a planned FEL linac at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we show that a large number of macroparticles (beyond 100 million) is needed to control numerical shot noise that drives the microbunching instability. We also explore the effect of the longitudinal grid on simulation results. We show that acceptable results are obtained with around 2048 longitudinal grid points, and we discuss this in view of the spectral growth rate predicted from linear theory. As an application, we present results from simulations using one billion macroparticles of the FEL linac under design at LBNL. We show that the final uncorrelated energy spread of the beam depends not only on the initial uncorrelated energy spread but also depends strongly on the shape of the initial current profile. By using a parabolic initial current profile, 5 keV initial uncorrelated energy spread at 40 MeV injection energy, and improved linac design, those simulations demonstrate that a reasonable beam quality can be achieved at the end of the linac, with the final distribution having about 100 keV energy spread, 2.4 GeV energy, and 1.2 kA peak current.

  15. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Hansen, S. B.; Zhidkov, A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Abdallah, J.; Sakaki, H.; et al

    2015-09-02

    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 1021 W/cm2 is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by “hot” electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E4–5 of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in thismore » regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~1017 W/cm2, there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. As a result, femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.« less

  16. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Hansen, S. B.; Zhidkov, A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Abdallah, J.; Sakaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Kanasaki, M.; Hasegawa, N.; Nishikino, M.; Kando, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Kawachi, T.; Masuda, S.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.

    2015-09-02

    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 1021 W/cm2 is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by “hot” electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E4–5 of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in this regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~1017 W/cm2, there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. As a result, femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.

  17. X-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  18. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sbastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  19. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  20. X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, Mordecai D.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

  1. Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely

  2. Refraction-Enhanced X-ray Radiography for Inertial Confinement Fusion and Laser-Produced Plasma Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Kozioziemski, B J; Izumi, N; Dewald, E L; Salmonson, J D; Hammel, B A

    2008-08-26

    We explore various laser-produced plasma and inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) applications of phase-contrast x-ray radiography, and we show how the main features of these enhancements can be considered from a geometrical optics perspective as refraction enhancements. This perspective simplifies the analysis, and often permits simple analytical formulae to be derived that predict the enhancements. We explore a raytrace approach to various material interface applications, and we explore a more general example of refractive bending of x-rays by an implosion plasma. We find that refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography of implosions may provide a means to quantify density differences across shock fronts as well as density variations caused by local heating due to high-Z dopants. We also point out that refractive bending by implosions plasmas can blur fine radiograph features, and can also provide misleading contrast information in area-backlit pinhole imaging experiments unless its effects are taken into consideration.

  3. Single-crystal diamond refractive lens for focusing X-rays in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antipov, S.; Baryshev, Sergey; Butler, J. E.; Antipova, O.; Liu, Zunping; Stoupin, S.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication and performance evaluation of single-crystal diamond refractive X-ray lenses of which the surfaces are paraboloids of revolution for focusing X-rays in two dimensions simultaneously are reported. The lenses were manufactured using a femtosecond laser micromachining process and tested using X-ray synchrotron radiation. Such lenses were stacked together to form a standard compound refractive lens (CRL). Owing to the superior physical properties of the material, diamond CRLs could become indispensable wavefront-preserving primary focusing optics for X-ray free-electron lasers and the next-generation synchrotron storage rings. They can be used for highly efficient refocusing of the extremely bright X-ray sources for secondary optical schemes with limited aperture such as nanofocusing Fresnel zone plates and multilayer Laue lenses.

  4. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  5. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  6. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve

  7. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve

  8. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve

  9. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve

  10. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve

  11. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  12. Mapping the ionization state of laser-irradiated Ar gas jets with multiwavelength monochromatic x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Doeppner, T.; Kemp, A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Schaeffer, D.

    2010-10-15

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx_equal}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultrahigh intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 50 TW) Ti:sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {mu}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {mu}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {mu}m along the laser axis.

  13. The x-ray calibration facility of the laser integration line...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A x-ray flat photocathode detector sensitivity calibration recently performed for a CEA Z-pinch facility is also presented. Authors: Hubert, S. ; Dubois, J. L. 1 ; Gontier, D. ; ...

  14. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lar'kin, A. Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  15. Simultaneous near-field and far-field imaging of the 11.9-nm Ni-like Sn soft-x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.; Bajt, S.

    2004-07-01

    We report on two-dimensional near-field imaging experiments of the 11.9-nm Sn x-ray laser that were performed with a set of Mo/Y multilayer mirrors having reflectivities of up to {approx}45% at normal and at 45 deg. incidence. Second-moment analysis of the x-ray laser emission was used to determine values of the x-ray beam propagation factor M{sup 2} for a range of irradiation parameters. The results reveal a reduction of M{sup 2} with increasing prepulse amplitude. The spatial size of the output is a factor of {approx}2 smaller than previously measured for the 14.7-nm Pd x-ray laser, while the distance of the x-ray emission with respect to the target surface remains roughly the same.

  16. A dual-channel, curved-crystal spectrograph for petawatt laser, x-ray backlighter source studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Nilson, P. M.; Storm, M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hey, D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Shepherd, R.; Snavely, R. A.; Key, M. H.; King, J. A.; Zhang, B.; Stephens, R. B.; Akli, K. U.; Highbarger, K.; Daskalova, R. L.; and others

    2009-08-15

    A dual-channel, curved-crystal spectrograph was designed to measure time-integrated x-ray spectra in the {approx}1.5 to 2 keV range (6.2-8.2 A wavelength) from small-mass, thin-foil targets irradiated by the VULCAN petawatt laser focused up to 4x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. The spectrograph consists of two cylindrically curved potassium-acid-phthalate crystals bent in the meridional plane to increase the spectral range by a factor of {approx}10 compared to a flat crystal. The device acquires single-shot x-ray spectra with good signal-to-background ratios in the hard x-ray background environment of petawatt laser-plasma interactions. The peak spectral energies of the aluminum He{sub {alpha}} and Ly{sub {alpha}} resonance lines were {approx}1.8 and {approx}1.0 mJ/eV sr ({approx}0.4 and 0.25 J/A sr), respectively, for 220 J, 10 ps laser irradiation.

  17. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  18. Compound refractive lenses as prefocusing optics for X-ray FEL radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Philip; MacDonald, Michael; Nagler, Bob; Lee, Hae Ja; Galtier, Eric; Arnold, Brice; Xing, Zhou

    2016-01-27

    The performance of X-ray free-electron laser beamlines may be limited by the angular aperture. Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) can be employed to prefocus the X-ray beam, thereby increasing the beamline transmission. A prefocusing CRL was implemented in the X-ray transport of the Matter under Extreme Conditions Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. A significant improvement in the beamline transmission was calculated over the 3–10 keV photon energy range. At 5 keV, the relative X-ray intensity was measured and a factor of four increase was seen in the beamline transmission. As a result, the X-ray focus was also determined bymore » the ablation imprint method.« less

  19. Physics study of the application of an IFEL (Induction Free-Electron Laser) to CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1990-05-22

    The ECH system requirements on CIT might be met by microwaves generated by an induction free-electron laser (IFEL). Design studies have assumed that the system is windowless, thus eliminating one of the most highly stressed components of the ECH system. The trade-off for this advantage is that the IFEL is exposed to tritium diffusing from CIT. As reported in the attached appendix, we have investigated the use of cryopumping to control the tritium diffusion to the IFEL. With one to three pumping stations (depending on size) we can reduce the level of tritium in the IFEL to a level that may not pose a breathing hazard after one year of operation. In addition, adding pumping may allow hands-on maintenance after one year. Preliminary indications are that likely accident scenarios will occur slowly enough to permit valves to be closed before the IFEL is significantly contaminated.

  20. High speed optical and X-ray methods for evaluating laser-generated shock-wave in materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.; Swift, D.

    2000-11-01

    Optical diagnostic techniques including interferometry, electronic streak photography, and transient x-ray diffraction are used to study the dynamic material response to shock loading by direct laser irradiation and impact by laser-launched plates. The Los Alamos Trident laser is one of several lasers that have been used to generate shocks of 10 Kbar to several Mbar in single crystal and polycrystalline materials. Incorporating optical velocity interferometry (line-VISAR and point-VISAR) with transient x-ray diffraction can provide a complete understanding of the dynamic material response to shock compression and release. Laser-launched flyer plates provide an ideal method to generate one-dimensional shocks in materials. The quality of the one-dimensionality of the launch and acceleration of plates is evaluated by line-imaging VISA.R. The line-imaging VISAR images the fringes along a line across the diameter of the plate. Each fringe maxima and minima provide acceleration and velocity information at the specific point on the plate. By varying the fringe constant number of fringes and fringe spacing on the plate, detailed experimental data can be obtained. For our experiments, most plates are 3-mm diameter and accelerated to 0.2-->6 km/sec.

  1. Soft X-ray microscopy in the spectral region of 'carbon window' with the use of multilayer optics and a laser-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artyukov, I. A. Vinogradov, A. V.; Bugayev, Ye. A.; Devizenko, A. Yu.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Kasyanov, Yu. S.

    2009-11-15

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of multilayer mirrors for X-ray optical systems operating in the 'carbon window' region (at wavelengths from 4.5 to 5.0 nm) and the results of their application in soft X-ray imaging of the internal structure of organic objects. The developed approaches to the fabrication and control of graded Co/C multilayer coatings have made it possible to create an X-ray multimirror system with a maximum known entrance aperture and throughput. The use of the developed high-spatial-resolution X-ray optics can significantly extend the field of practical application of soft X-ray absorption microscopy based on compact laser-plasma sources.

  2. Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-07-29

    Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

  3. Electron beam magnetic switch for a plurality of free electron lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for forming and utilizing a sequence of electron beam segments, each of the same temporal length (substantially 15 nsec), with consecutive beams being separated by a constant time interval of the order of 3 nsec. The beam sequence is used for simultaneous inputs to a plurality of wiggler magnet systems that also accept the laser beams to be amplified by interaction with the co-propagating electron beams. The electron beams are arranged substantially in a circle to allow proper distribution of and simultaneous switching out of the beam segments to their respective wiggler magnets.

  4. Study of electron acceleration and x-ray radiation as a function of plasma density in capillary-guided laser wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.; Dpp, A.; Cros, B.; Svensson, K.; Genoud, G.; Wojda, F.; Burza, M.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlstrm, C.-G.; Ferrari, H.

    2013-08-15

    Laser wakefield electron acceleration in the blow-out regime and the associated betatron X-ray radiation were investigated experimentally as a function of the plasma density in a configuration where the laser is guided. Dielectric capillary tubes were employed to assist the laser keeping self-focused over a long distance by collecting the laser energy around its central focal spot. With a 40 fs, 16 TW pulsed laser, electron bunches with tens of pC charge were measured to be accelerated to an energy up to 300 MeV, accompanied by X-ray emission with a peak brightness of the order of 10{sup 21} ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. Electron trapping and acceleration were studied using the emitted X-ray beam distribution to map the acceleration process; the number of betatron oscillations performed by the electrons was inferred from the correlation between measured X-ray fluence and beam charge. A study of the stability of electron and X-ray generation suggests that the fluctuation of X-ray emission can be reduced by stabilizing the beam charge. The experimental results are in good agreement with 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation.

  5. The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; et al

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 4–24 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  6. The X-ray PumpProbe instrument at the LinacCoherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; Ramsey, Kelley; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Stefanescu, Daniel; Srinivasan, Venkat; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray PumpProbe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 424 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  7. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    2015-02-10

    This entry contains ten diffraction patterns, and reconstructions images, of individual living Cyanobium gracile cells, imaged using 517 eV X-rays from the LCLS XFEL. The Hawk software package was used for phasing. The Uppsala aerosol injector was used for sample injection, assuring very low noise levels. The cells come from various stages of the cell cycle, and were imaged in random orientations.

  8. Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schoenlein, Robert [Deputy Director, Advanced Light Source

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science.

  9. Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schoenlein, Robert [Deputy Director, Advanced Light Source

    2010-01-08

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science.

  10. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-08-26

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  11. Attosecond Light and Science at the Time-scale of the Electron - Coherent X-Rays from Tabletop Ultrafast Lasers

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Margaret, Murnane [University of Colorado, Boulder and NIST

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources at very short wavelengths, even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths < 1nm, have brightened considerably. This advance is possible by taking nonlinear optics techniques to an extreme - physics that is the direct result of a new ability to manipulate electrons on the fastest, attosecond, time-scales of our natural world. Several applications have already been demonstrated, including making a movie of how electrons rearrange in a chemical bond changes shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. Nature 460, 1088 (2009); Science 317, 775 (2007); Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009); Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010); Nature 463, 214 (2010); Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  12. Study of beam loading and its compensation in the Compact Ultrafast Terahertz Free-Electron Laser injector linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lal, Shankar Pant, K. K.

    2014-12-15

    The RF properties of an accelerating structure, and the pulse structure and charge per bunch in the electron beam propagating through it are important parameters that determine the impact of beam loading in the structure. The injector linac of the Compact Ultrafast Terahertz Free-Electron Laser (CUTE-FEL) has been operated with two different pulse structures during initial commissioning experiments and the effect of beam loading on the accelerated electron beam parameters has been studied analytically for these two pulse structures. This paper discusses the analytical study of beam loading in a Standing Wave, Plane Wave Transformer linac employed in the CUTE-FEL setup, and a possible technique for its compensation for the electron beam parameters of the CUTE-FEL. A parametric study has been performed to study beam loading for different beam currents and to optimize injection time of the electron beam to compensate beam loading. Results from the parametric study have also been used to explain previously observed results from acceleration experiments in the CUTE-FEL setup.

  13. Study of beam transverse properties of a thermionic electron gun for application to a compact THz free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Tongning E-mail: yjpei@ustc.edu.cn; Qin, Bin; Tan, Ping; Chen, Qushan; Yang, Lei; Pei, Yuanji E-mail: yjpei@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Ji

    2014-10-15

    A novel thermionic electron gun adopted for use in a high power THz free electron laser (FEL) is proposed in this paper. By optimization of the structural and radiofrequency (RF) parameters, the physical design of the gun is performed using dynamic calculations. Velocity bunching is used to minimize the bunch's energy spread, and the dynamic calculation results indicate that high quality beams can be provided. The transverse properties of the beams generated by the gun are also analyzed. The novel RF focusing effects of the resonance cavity are investigated precisely and are used to establish emittance compensation, which enables the injector length to be reduced. In addition, the causes of the extrema of the beam radius and the normalized transverse emittance are analyzed and interpreted, respectively, and slice simulations are performed to illustrate how the RF focusing varies along the bunch length and to determine the effects of that variation on the emittance compensation. Finally, by observation of the variations of the beam properties in the drift tube behind the electron gun, prospective assembly scenarios for the complete THz-FEL injector are discussed, and a joint-debugging process for the injector is implemented.

  14. The effect of shot noise on the start up of the fundamental and harmonics in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, H. P.; Miner, W. H. Jr.; Giannessi, L.

    2008-12-15

    The problem of radiation start up in free-electron lasers (FELs) is important in the simulation of virtually all FEL configurations including oscillators and amplifiers in both seeded master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) modes. Both oscillators and SASE FELs start up from spontaneous emission due to shot noise on the electron beam, which arises from the random fluctuations in the phase distribution of the electrons. The injected power in a MOPA is usually large enough to overwhelm the shot noise. However, this noise must be treated correctly in order to model the initial start up of the harmonics. In this paper, we discuss and compare two different shot noise models that are implemented in both one-dimensional wiggler-averaged (PERSEO) and non-wiggler-averaged (MEDUSA1D) simulation codes, and a three-dimensional non-wiggler-averaged (MEDUSA) formulation. These models are compared for examples describing both SASE and MOPA configurations in one dimension, in steady-state, and time-dependent simulations. Remarkable agreement is found between PERSEO and MEDUSA1D for the evolution of the fundamental and harmonics. In addition, three-dimensional correction factors have been included in the MEDUSA1D and PERSEO, which show reasonable agreement with MEDUSA for a sample MOPA in steady-state and time-dependent simulations.

  15. CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Volume 1. Lasers and masers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes various types of lasers and masers. The following topics are discussed in detail: types and comparisons of laser sources, crystal and glass lasers, semiconductor lasers, organic dye and other liquid lasers, free-electron and x-ray lasers, masers and laser safety.

  16. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the Laser Mega Joule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, M.; Normand, S.; Turk, G.; Darbon, S.

    2011-07-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a DT micro-balloon during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an X-ray imaging system which can operate in the radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties, most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low X-ray absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range, that does not permit the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12%w Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27%w Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z{sub eff} close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus be detected with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by {gamma}-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  17. Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N.; Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-08-15

    Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 μm (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

  18. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  19. Efficient multi-keV x-ray source generated by nanosecond laser pulse irradiated multi-layer thin foils target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, Shao-yong; Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 ; Hu, Guang-yue Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian; Miao, Wen-yong; Yuan, Yong-teng; Zhan, Xia-yu; Hou, Li-fei; Jiang, Shao-en; Ding, Yong-kun

    2014-04-15

    A new target configuration is proposed to generate efficient multi-keV x-ray source using multiple thin foils as x-ray emitters. The target was constructed with several layers of thin foils, which were placed with a specific, optimized spacing. The thin foils are burned though one by one by a nanosecond-long laser pulse, which produced a very large, hot, underdense plasma. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations show that the emission region and the multi-keV x-ray flux generated by multi-layer thin foil target are similar to that of the low-density gas or foam target, which is currently a bright multi-keV x-ray source generated by laser heating. Detailed analysis of a range of foil thicknesses showed that a layer-thickness of 0.1 μm is thin enough to generate an efficient multi-keV x-ray source. Additionally, this type of target can be easily manufactured, compared with the complex techniques for fabrication of low-density foam targets. Our preliminary experimental results also verified that the size of multi-keV x-ray emission region could be enhanced significantly by using a multi-layer Ti thin foil target.

  20. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levantino, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Schirò, G.; Glownia, M.; Cupane, A.; Cammarata, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM) time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (~70 fs) relaxation preceding a slower (~400 fs) one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  1. The X-ray correlation spectroscopy instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Caronna, Chiara; Chollet, Matthieu; Curtis, Robin; Damiani, Daniel S.; Defever, Jim; Feng, Yiping; Flath, Daniel L.; Glownia, James M.; Lee, Sooheyong; et al

    2015-03-03

    The X-ray Correlation Spectroscopy instrument is dedicated to the study of dynamics in condensed matter systems using the unique coherence properties of free-electron lasers. It covers a photon energy range of 4–25 keV. The intrinsic temporal characteristics of the Linac Coherent Light Source, in particular the 120 Hz repetition rate, allow for the investigation of slow dynamics (milliseconds) by means of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Double-pulse schemes could probe dynamics on the picosecond timescale. In addition, a description of the instrument capabilities and recent achievements is presented.

  2. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopya)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levantino, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Schir, G.; Glownia, M.; Cupane, A.; Cammarata, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM) time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (~70 fs) relaxation preceding a slower (~400 fs) one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  3. Mode couplings in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohsenpour, Taghi Alirezaee, Hajar

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the method of perturbation has been applied to obtain the dispersion relation (DR) of a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an ion-channel with all relativistic effects on waves. This DR has been solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. Numerical solutions of DR show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream free-electron laser. In group II orbits, with relatively large wiggler induced velocities, new couplings are found. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the instabilities has also been investigated in this study. Moreover, the effect of the ion-channel density on the maximum growth rate of FEL resonance has been analyzed.

  4. Self-field effects on instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohsenpour, Taghi Rezaee Rami, Omme Kolsoum

    2014-07-15

    Free electron lasers (FEL) play major roles in the Raman Regime, due to the charge and current densities of the beam self-field. The method of perturbation has been applied to study the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. A dispersion relation for two-stream free electron lasers with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field has been found. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to investigate the influence of self-fields on the FEL coupling and the two-stream instability. It was found that self-fields can produce very large effects on the FEL coupling, but they have almost negligible effects on two-stream instability.

  5. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; et al

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore » is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  6. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sbastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  7. Optimizing laser produced plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Photon sources produced by laser beams with moderate laser intensities, up to 10{sup 14?}W/cm{sup 2}, are being developed for many industrial applications. The performance requirements for high volume manufacture devices necessitate extensive experimental research supported by theoretical plasma analysis and modeling predictions. We simulated laser produced plasma sources currently being developed for several applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography using 13.5%??1% nm bandwidth, possibly beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography using 6. nm wavelengths, and water-window microscopy utilizing 2.48?nm (La-?) and 2.88?nm (He-?) emission. We comprehensively modeled plasma evolution from solid/liquid tin, gadolinium, and nitrogen targets as three promising materials for the above described sources, respectively. Results of our analysis for plasma characteristics during the entire course of plasma evolution showed the dependence of source conversion efficiency (CE), i.e., laser energy to photons at the desired wavelength, on plasma electron density gradient. Our results showed that utilizing laser intensities which produce hotter plasma than the optimum emission temperatures allows increasing CE for all considered sources that, however, restricted by the reabsorption processes around the main emission region and this restriction is especially actual for the 6.?nm sources.

  8. Plasma Interactions in Laser Irradiated Semi-Cylindrical Cavities Studied with Soft X-Ray Interferometry Using a Capillary Discharge Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, M A; Grava, J; Filevich, J; Marconi, M; Rocca, J J; Moon, S J; Dunn, J; Nilsen, J; Shlyaptsev, V N; Jankowska, E

    2007-09-19

    Soft x-ray interferometry was used to measure the evolution of dense converging plasmas created by laser irradiation of 500 {micro}m diameter semi-cylindrical carbon targets. Optical laser pulses with an intensity of {approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} and 120 ps duration were used to heat the surface of the cavities. The dense plasma formed expands from the walls converging slightly off the semi-cylinder's axis, giving rise to a bright localized high density plasma region. A sequence of electron density maps were measured using a 46.9 nm wavelength tabletop capillary discharge soft x-ray laser probe and a amplitude division interferometer based on diffraction gratings. The measured density profiles are compared with simulations conducted using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HYDRA. The benchmarked model was then used to simulate particle trajectories which reveal that the increase in electron density near the axis is mainly the result of the convergence of plasma that originated at the bottom of the groove during laser irradiation.

  9. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  10. Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malmerberg, Erik; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Zwart, Petrus H.

    2015-03-20

    X-ray scattering images collected on timescales shorter than rotation diffusion times using a (partially) coherent beam result in a significant increase in information content in the scattered data. These measurements, named fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), are typically performed on an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and can provide fundamental insights into the structure of biological molecules, engineered nanoparticles or energy-related mesoscopic materials beyond what can be obtained with standard X-ray scattering techniques. In order to understand, use and validate experimental FXS data, the availability of basic data characteristics and operational properties is essential, but has been absent up to this point.more » In this communication, an intuitive view of the nature of FXS data and their properties is provided, the effect of FXS data on the derived structural models is highlighted, and generalizations of the Guinier and Porod laws that can ultimately be used to plan experiments and assess the quality of experimental data are presented.« less

  11. Soft x-ray laser using pumping of 3p and 4p levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-07-05

    X-ray laser method and apparatus for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of at least 40 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like N, O, F, C or rare gases, with associated laser transition gains of 4 to 50 cm/sup -1/.

  12. Soft X-ray laser using pumping of 3P and 4P levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray laser method and apparatus for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of at least 40 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like N, O, F, C or rare gases, with associated laser transition gains of 4-50 cm.sup.-1.

  13. Tunable coherent soft X-ray source based on the generation of high-order harmonic of femtosecond laser radiation in gas-filled capillaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkov, Yu A; Yashunin, D A; Kiselev, A M; Stepanov, A N; Andreev, N E

    2014-05-30

    We have carried out experimental and theoretical investigations of a tunable coherent soft X-ray radiation source in the 30 – 52 nm wavelength range based on the generation of high-order harmonics of femtosecond laser radiation propagating in a dielectric xenon-filled capillary. The long path of laser pulse propagation through the capillary permits tuning the generated harmonic wavelengths to almost completely span the range under consideration. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  14. Demonstartion of density dependence of x-ray flux in a laser-driven hohlraum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P E; Rosen, M D; Hammer, J H; Hsing, W S; Glendinning, S G; Turner, R E; Kirkwood, R; Schein, J; Sorce, C; Satcher, J; Hamza, A; Reibold, R A; Hibbard, R; Landen, O; Reighard, A; McAlpin, S; Stevenson, M; Thomas, B

    2008-02-11

    Experiments have been conducted using laser-driven cylindrical hohlraums whose walls are machined from Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} foams of 100 mg/cc and 4 g/cc densities. Measurements of the radiation temperature demonstrate that the lower density walls produce higher radiation temperatures than the high density walls. This is the first experimental demonstration of the prediction that this would occur [M. D. Rosen and J. H. Hammer, Phys. Rev. E 72, 056403 (2005)]. For high density walls, the radiation front propagates subsonically, and part of the absorbed energy is wasted by the flow kinetic energy. For the lower wall density, the front velocity is supersonic and can devote almost all of the absorbed energy to heating the wall.

  15. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimei Wang

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam energy at ~5MeV. Simulation shows that in the 3+1/2 DC- C injector, there is a region the beam could be over focused by RF electromagnetic field and the transverse emittance in the transport line up to linac will increase instantly due to over focusing. In order to eliminate this effect on beam emittance, several solutions are investigated to avoid over focusing. This result is very important for beam loading experiment for low bunch charge operation. Meanwhile, different merger structures are compared in terms of error sensitivity and emittance increase with space charge effect. In recirculation beam line, a new symmetric 180{degree} arc structure is designed. It fulfills the achromatic condition and adjustable bunch compression. These two parameters are controlled by different Quads knob. With this novel structure, the recirculation lattice can achieve path length adjustment, bunch compression and decompression in a large range. With beamline error, the beam central orbit will deviate from the designed trajectory. An orbit correction system is optimized, which balances between cost and performance of orbit after correction at design level. Different methods are used to estimate its robustness. The BBU instability, especially multi-pass BBU imposed a potentially severe limitation to the average current that can be accelerated in an ERL. Simulation gives the harmful HOMs and predicts that the threshold average current in this machine is much higher than the possible operation current. This work is based on the existing facility in PKU, so it provides guidelines for the facility operation and upgrade in the future. The theoretical analysis of ERL requirement and FEL requirement on beam transport line and beam property paves the way for future ERL research.

  16. X-ray polarization spectroscopy to study anisotropic velocity distribution of hot electrons produced by an ultra-high-intensity laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inubushi, Y.; Okano, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Cai, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Kai, T.; Fujioka, S.; Nakamura, T.; Johzaki, T.; Mima, K.; Kawamura, T.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Redaelli, R.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Malka, G.

    2010-03-15

    The anisotropy of the hot-electron velocity distribution in ultra-high-intensity laser produced plasma was studied with x-ray polarization spectroscopy using multilayer planar targets including x-ray emission tracer in the middle layer. This measurement serves as a diagnostic for hot-electron transport from the laser-plasma interaction region to the overdense region where drastic changes in the isotropy of the electron velocity distribution are observed. These polarization degrees are consistent with analysis of a three-dimensional polarization spectroscopy model coupled with particle-in-cell simulations. Electron velocity distribution in the underdense region is affected by the electric field of the laser and that in the overdense region becomes wider with increase in the tracer depth. A full-angular spread in the overdense region of 22.4 deg.{sub -2.4}{sup +5.4} was obtained from the measured polarization degree.

  17. Efficient laser-induced 6-8 keV x-ray production from iron oxide aerogel and foil-lined cavity targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, F.; Kay, J. J.; Patterson, J. R.; Kane, J.; May, M.; Emig, J.; Colvin, J.; Gammon, S.; Satcher, J. H. Jr.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Villette, B.; Girard, F.; Reverdin, C. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Sorce, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of Rochester - Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Rd, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Jaquez, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The performance of new iron-based laser-driven x-ray sources has been tested at the OMEGA laser facility for production of x rays in the 6.5-8.5 keV range. Two types of targets were experimentally investigated: low-density iron oxide aerogels (density 6-16 mg/cm{sup 3}) and stainless steel foil-lined cavity targets (steel thickness 1-5 {mu}m). The targets were irradiated by 40 beams of the OMEGA laser (500 J/beam, 1 ns pulse, wavelength 351 nm). All targets showed good coupling with the laser, with <5% of the incident laser light backscattered by the resulting plasma in all cases (typically <2.5%). The aerogel targets produced T{sub e}=2 to 3 keV, n{sub e}=0.12-0.2 critical density plasmas yielding a 40%-60% laser-to-x-ray total conversion efficiency (CE) (1.2%-3% in the Fe K-shell range). The foil cavity targets produced T{sub e}{approx} 2 keV, n{sub e}{approx} 0.15 critical density plasmas yielding a 60%-75% conversion efficiency (1.6%-2.2% in the Fe K-shell range). Time-resolved images illustrate that the volumetric heating of low-density aerogels allow them to emit a higher K-shell x-ray yield even though they contain fewer Fe atoms. However, their challenging fabrication process leads to a larger shot-to-shot variation than cavity targets.

  18. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  19. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; et al

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge-induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  20. Relativistic self-focusing of ultra-high intensity X-ray laser beams in warm quantum plasma with upward density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2014-05-15

    The results of a numerical study of high-intensity X-ray laser beam interaction with warm quantum plasma (WQP) are presented. By means of an upward ramp density profile combined with quantum factors specially the Fermi velocity, we have demonstrated significant relativistic self-focusing (RSF) of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in the WQP where the Fermi temperature term in the dielectric function is important. For this purpose, we have considered the quantum hydrodynamics model that modifies refractive index of inhomogeneous WQPs with the inclusion of quantum correction through the quantum statistical and diffraction effects in the relativistic regime. Also, to better illustration of the physical difference between warm and cold quantum plasmas and their effect on the RSF, we have derived the envelope equation governing the spot size of X-ray laser beam in Q-plasmas. In addition to the upward ramp density profile, we have found that the quantum effects would be caused much higher oscillation and better focusing of X-ray laser beam in the WQP compared to that of cold quantum case. Our computational results reveal the importance of the use of electrons density profile and Fermi speed in enhancing self-focusing of laser beam.

  1. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for measure-and-sort at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  2. Modeling energy dependence of the inner-shell x-ray emission produced by femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of xenon clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgan, James P

    2008-01-01

    We employ the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes to model the inner-shell x-ray emission spectrum of xenon and compare results with those obtained via high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of xenon clusters irradiated by 30 fs Ti:Sa laser pulses. We find that the commonly employed configuration average approximation breaks down and significant spin-orbit splitting necessitates a detailed level accounting. Additionally, we reproduce an interesting spectral trend for a series of experimental spectra taken with varying pulse energy for fixed pulse duration. To simulate the experimental measurements at increasing beam energies, we find that spectral modeling requires an increased hot electron fraction, but decreased atomic density and bulk electron temperature. We believe these latter conditions to be a result of partial cluster destruction due to the increased energy in the laser prepulse.

  3. Formation and propagation of laser-driven plasma jets in an ambient medium studied with X-ray radiography and optical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dizière, A.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Pikuz, S.; Koenig, M.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we present experimental results obtained on the LULI2000 laser facility regarding structure and dynamics of astrophysical jets propagating in interstellar medium. The jets, generated by using a cone-shaped target, propagate in a nitrogen gas that mimics the interstellar medium. X-ray radiography as well as optical diagnostics were used to probe both high and low density regions. In this paper, we show how collimation of the jets evolves with the gas density.

  4. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    more ; Bogan, Michael J. ; Harada, Yoshihisa ; Nilsson, Anders ; Fhlisch, Alexander less Publication Date: 2014-10-06 OSTI Identifier: 1180829 Type: Publisher's ...

  5. Soft x-ray laser using pumping of 3P and 4P levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.

    1982-03-26

    X-ray laser method and apparatus for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of 40 to 189 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like rare gases or N, O, F, or C gases, with associated laser transition gains of 20 to 50 cm/sup -1/.

  6. Soft X-ray laser using pumping of 3P and 4P levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1987-04-21

    X-ray laser method and apparatus are disclosed for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of at least 40 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like N, O, F, C or rare gases, with associated laser transition gains of 4-50 cm[sup [minus]1]. 8 figs.

  7. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, Joshua J.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Hwang, Harold Y.; Zarem, Alex; Schlotter, William F.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Staub, Urs; Johnson, Steven; et al

    2015-04-11

    This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm⁻¹ electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed.

  8. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  9. Design Features of a Planar Hybrid/Permanent Magnet Strong Focusing Undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) And Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatchyn, Roman; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their own natural focusing fields. Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap. In this paper we present design studies of a flexible high-field hybrid/PM undulator with strong superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance. Attainable field parameters, tuning modes, and potential applications of the proposed structure are discussed.

  10. Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2010-09-30

    A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

  11. Effects of electron recirculation on a hard x-ray source observed during the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with thin Au targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Courtois, C.; Lefebvre, E.; Bourgade, J. L.; Landoas, O.; Thorp, K.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-12-15

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse on the preplasma of a high-Z solid target produced by the pulse's pedestal generates high-energy electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the solid target and produce bremsstrahlung photons, generating an x-ray source which can be used for photonuclear studies or to radiograph high area density objects. The source characteristics are compared for targets with thin (20 μm) and thick (100 μm) Au foils on the Omega EP laser at Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Simulations using the particle-in-cell code CALDER show that for a 20 μm thickness Au target, electrons perform multiple round-trips in the target under the effect of the laser ponderomotive potential and the target electrostatic potential. These relativistic electrons have random transverse displacements, with respect to the target normal, attributed to electrostatic fluctuation fields. As a result, the x-ray spot size is increased by a factor 2 for thin target compared to thick targets, in agreement with experimental results. In addition, the computed doses agree with the measured ones provided that electron recirculation in the thin target is taken into account. A dose increase by a factor 1.7 is then computed by allowing for recirculation. In the 100 μm target case, on the other hand, this effect is found to be negligible.

  12. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  13. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M. Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?{sub 1}- and L?{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  14. Single-pulse picking at kHz repetition rates using a Ge plasma switch at the free-electron laser FELBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J. Helm, M.; Winnerl, S.; Seidel, W.; Schneider, H.; Bauer, C.; Gensch, M.

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate a system for picking of mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) radiation pulses from the free-electron laser (FEL) FELBE operating at a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Single pulses are reflected by a dense electron-hole plasma in a Ge slab that is photoexcited by amplified near-infrared (NIR) laser systems operating at repetition rates of 1 kHz and 100 kHz, respectively. The peak intensity of picked pulses is up to 400 times larger than the peak intensity of residual pulses. The required NIR fluence for picking pulses at wavelengths in the range from 5 ?m to 30 ?m is discussed. In addition, we show that the reflectivity of the plasma decays on a time scale from 100 ps to 1 ns dependent on the wavelengths of the FEL and the NIR laser. The plasma switch enables experiments with the FEL that require high peak power but lower average power. Furthermore, the system is well suited to investigate processes with decay times in the ?s to ms regime, i.e., much longer than the 77 ns long pulse repetition period of FELBE.

  15. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, L.N.

    1992-05-01

    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  16. Transverse Coherence of the LCLS X-Ray Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Self-amplifying spontaneous radiation free-electron lasers, such as the LCLS or the European X-FEL, rely on the incoherent, spontaneous radiation as the seed for the amplifying process. Though this method overcomes the need for an external seed source one drawback is the incoherence of the effective seed signal. The FEL process allows for a natural growth of the coherence because the radiation phase information is spread out within the bunch due to slippage and diffraction of the radiation field. However, at short wavelengths this spreading is not sufficient to achieve complete coherence. In this presentation we report on the results of numerical simulations of the LCLS X-ray FEL. From the obtained radiation field distribution the coherence properties are extracted to help to characterize the FEL as a light source.

  17. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; et al

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a newmore » generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.« less

  18. DarkLight: A Search for Dark Forces at the Jefferson Laboratory Free-Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balewski, Jan; Bernauer, J.; Bertozzi, William; Bessuille, Jason; Buck, B.; Cowan, Ray; Dow, K.; Epstein, C.; Fisher, Peter; Gilad, Shalev; Ihloff, Ernest; Kahn, Yonatan; Kelleher, Aidan; Kelsey, J.; Milner, Richard; Moran, C.; Ou, Longwu; Russell, R.; Schmookler, Barak; Thaler, J.; Tschalar, C.; Vidal, Christopher; Winnebeck, A.; Benson, Stephen; Gould, Christopher; Biallas, George; Boyce, James; Coleman, James; Douglas, David; Ent, Rolf; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fenker, Howard; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Huang, Jia; Jordan, Kevin; Legg, Robert; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven; Neil, George; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn; Zhang, Shukui; Freytsis, M.; Fiorito, Ralph; O'Shea, P.; Alarcon, Ricardo; Dipert, R.; Ovanesyan, G.; Gunter, Thoth; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kohl, M.; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Horn, Tanja; Gunarathne, D. S.; Martoff, C. J.; Olvitt, D. L.; Surrow, Bernd; Lia, X.; Beck, Reinhard; Schmitz, R.; Walther, D.; Brinkmann, K.; Zaunig, H.

    2014-05-01

    We give a short overview of the DarkLight detector concept which is designed to search for a heavy photon A' with a mass in the range 10 MeV/c^2 < m(A') < 90 MeV/c^2 and which decays to lepton pairs. We describe the intended operating environment, the Jefferson Laboratory free electon laser, and a way to extend DarkLight's reach using A' --> invisible decays.

  19. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of {approx}100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to a {approx}1 {mu}m spot at 12 keV. A high-contrast symmetric diffraction pattern of the nanocube is observed in the forward far field. An image of the nanocube is successfully reconstructed by an iterative phasing method and its half-period resolution is 3.0 nm. This method does not only dramatically improve the spatial resolution of x-ray microscopy but also is a key technology for realizing single-pulse diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  20. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of high-power laser-irradiated under-dense silica aerogels and agar foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Estabrook, K.G.; Bauer, J.D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments in which a high-power laser was used to irradiate low density (4 - 9 mg/cm{sup 3}) silica aerogel and agar foam targets. The laser-solid interaction and energy transport through the material were monitored with time-resolved imaging diagnostics, and the data show the production and propagation of an x-ray emission front in the plasma. The emission-front trajectory data are found to be in significant disagreement with detailed simulations, which predict a much more rapid heating of the cold material, and the data suggest that this discrepancy is not explainable by target inhomogeneities. Evidence suggests that energy transport into the cold material may be dominated by thermal conduction; however, no completely satisfactory explanation for the discrepancies is identified, and further experimental and theoretical research is necessary in order to resolve this important problem in laser-plasma interaction physics.

  1. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  2. Following the dynamics of matter with femtosecond precision using the X-ray streaking method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    David, C.; Karvinen, P.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Vartiainen, I.; Milne, C. J.; Mozzanica, A.; Kayser, Y.; Diaz, A.; Mohacsi, I.; et al

    2015-01-06

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) can produce extremely intense and very short pulses, down to below 10 femtoseconds (fs). Among the key applications are ultrafast time-resolved studies of dynamics of matter by observing responses to fast excitation pulses in a pump-probe manner. Detectors with sufficient time resolution for observing these processes are not available. Therefore, such experiments typically measure a sample's full dynamics by repeating multiple pump-probe cycles at different delay times. This conventional method assumes that the sample returns to an identical or very similar state after each cycle. Here we describe a novel approach that can provide amore » time trace of responses following a single excitation pulse, jitter-free, with fs timing precision. We demonstrate, in an X-ray diffraction experiment, how it can be applied to the investigation of ultrafast irreversible processes.« less

  3. Following the dynamics of matter with femtosecond precision using the X-ray streaking method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, C.; Karvinen, P.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Vartiainen, I.; Milne, C. J.; Mozzanica, A.; Kayser, Y.; Diaz, A.; Mohacsi, I.; Carini, G. A.; Herrmann, S.; Färm, E.; Ritala, M.; Fritz, D. M.; Robert, A.

    2015-01-06

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) can produce extremely intense and very short pulses, down to below 10 femtoseconds (fs). Among the key applications are ultrafast time-resolved studies of dynamics of matter by observing responses to fast excitation pulses in a pump-probe manner. Detectors with sufficient time resolution for observing these processes are not available. Therefore, such experiments typically measure a sample's full dynamics by repeating multiple pump-probe cycles at different delay times. This conventional method assumes that the sample returns to an identical or very similar state after each cycle. Here we describe a novel approach that can provide a time trace of responses following a single excitation pulse, jitter-free, with fs timing precision. We demonstrate, in an X-ray diffraction experiment, how it can be applied to the investigation of ultrafast irreversible processes.

  4. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  5. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-15

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  6. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  7. Modeling of ns and ps laser-induced soft X-ray sources using nitrogen gas puff target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrba, P.; Vrbova, M.; Zakharov, S. V.

    2014-07-15

    Gas puff laser plasma is studied as a source of water window radiation with 2.88?nm wavelength, corresponding to quantum transition 1s{sup 2} ? 1s2p of helium-like nitrogen ions. Spatial development of plasma induced by Nd:YAG laser beam is simulated by 2D Radiation-Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic code Z*. The results for nitrogen gas layer (0.72?mm thickness, 1?bar pressure) and two different laser pulses (600 mJ/7?ns and 525 mJ/170 ps), corresponding to the experiments done in Laser Laboratory Gottingen are presented.

  8. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  9. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imam, H.; Ahmed, Doaa; Eldakrouri, Ashraf; Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  10. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. Themore » system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.« less

  11. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; Faillace, L.; Verma, A.; Kim, Y.; Buaphad, P.; Andrews, A.; Berls, B.; Eckman, C.; Folkman, K.; Knowles-Swingle, A.; O’Neill, C.; Smith, M.; Grandsaert, T.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Berg, W. J.; Sereno, N. S.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. The system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.

  12. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  13. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  14. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  15. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  16. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; et al

    2015-04-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure andmore » its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source.« less

  17. Simulation study of 3–5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, G. E. Colvin, J. D.; Fournier, K. B.; May, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Patel, M. V.; Scott, H. A.; Marinak, M. M.

    2015-05-15

    Tailored, high-flux, multi-keV x-ray sources are desirable for studying x-ray interactions with matter for various civilian, space and military applications. For this study, we focus on designing an efficient laser-driven non-local thermodynamic equilibrium 3–5 keV x-ray source from photon-energy-matched Ar K-shell and Ag L-shell targets at sub-critical densities (∼n{sub c}/10) to ensure supersonic, volumetric laser heating with minimal losses to kinetic energy, thermal x rays and laser-plasma instabilities. Using HYDRA, a multi-dimensional, arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, radiation-hydrodynamics code, we performed a parameter study by varying initial target density and laser parameters for each material using conditions readily achievable on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser. We employ a model, benchmarked against Kr data collected on the NIF, that uses flux-limited Lee-More thermal conductivity and multi-group implicit Monte-Carlo photonics with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, detailed super-configuration accounting opacities from CRETIN, an atomic-kinetics code. While the highest power laser configurations produced the largest x-ray yields, we report that the peak simulated laser to 3–5 keV x-ray conversion efficiencies of 17.7% and 36.4% for Ar and Ag, respectively, occurred at lower powers between ∼100–150 TW. For identical initial target densities and laser illumination, the Ag L-shell is observed to have ≳10× higher emissivity per ion per deposited laser energy than the Ar K-shell. Although such low-density Ag targets have not yet been demonstrated, simulations of targets fabricated using atomic layer deposition of Ag on silica aerogels (∼20% by atomic fraction) suggest similar performance to atomically pure metal foams and that either fabrication technique may be worth pursuing for an efficient 3–5 keV x-ray source on NIF.

  18. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald; He, Fei; Lau, Yue-Ying

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  19. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  20. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  1. High-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on spherically bent crystals for investigations of femtosecond laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Price, D.F.; Shepherd, R.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Letardi, T.; Grilli, A.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1998-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, laser-produced plasmas have become very interesting laboratory sources to study spectroscopically due to their very high densities and temperatures, and the high laser-induced electromagnetic fields present. Typically, these plasmas are of very small volume and very low emissivity. Thus, studying these near point source plasmas requires advanced experimental techniques. We present a new spectrometer design called the focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-2D) based on a spherically bent crystal which provides simultaneous high spectral ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}10{sup 4}) and spatial resolution ({approx}10thinsp{mu}m) as well as high luminosity (high collection efficiency). We described in detail the FSSR-2D case in which a small, near point source plasma is investigated. An estimate for the spectral and spatial resolution for the spectrometer is outlined based on geometric considerations. Using the FSSR-2D instrument, experimental data measured from both a 100 fs and a nanosecond pulse laser-produced plasma are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets You are ...

  3. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 l) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (1015 m) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 ) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  4. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.

  5. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-08-11

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessarymore » to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. In addition, the features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.« less

  6. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Thor, Jasper J.; Madsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL) operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI) must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe”) which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF,more » in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.« less

  7. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  8. Density and x-ray emission profile relationships in highly ionized high-Z laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryoichi; Ejima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Sunahara, Atsushi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Yanagida, Tatsuya

    2015-03-23

    We present a benchmark measurement of the electron density profile in the region where the electron density is 10{sup 19?}cm{sup 3} and where the bulk of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission occurs from isotropically expanding spherical high-Z gadolinium plasmas. It was found that, due to opacity effects, the observed EUV emission is mostly produced from an underdense region. We have analyzed time-resolved emission spectra with the aid of atomic structure calculations and find the multiple ion charge states around 18+ during the laser pulse irradiation.

  9. X-ray Spectral Measurements and Collisional Radiative Modeling of Hot, Gold Plasmas at the Omega Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, M J; Schneider, M B; Hansen, S B; Chung, H; Hinkel, D E; Baldis, H A; Constantin, C

    2008-07-02

    M-Band and L-Band Gold spectra between 3 to 5 keV and 8 to 13 keV, respectively, have been recorded by a photometrically calibrated crystal spectrometer. The spectra were emitted from the plasma in the laser deposition region of a 'hot hohlraum'. This is a reduced-scale hohlraum heated with {approx} 9 kJ of 351 nm light in a 1 ns square pulse at the OMEGA laser. The space- and time-integrated spectra included L-Band line emission from Co-like to Ne-like gold. The three L-Band line features were identified to be the 3s {yields} 2p, 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 2p{sub 1/2} transitions at {approx}9 keV, {approx}10 keV and {approx}13 keV, respectively. M-Band 5f {yields} 3d, 4d {yields} 3p, and 4p {yields} 3s transition features from Fe-like to P-like gold were also recorded between 3 to 5 keV. Modeling from the radiation-hydrodynamics code LASNEX, the collisional-radiative codes FLYCHK and SCRAM, and the atomic structure code FAC were used to model the plasma and generate simulated spectra for comparison with the recorded spectra. Through these comparisons, we have determined the average electron temperature of the emitting plasma to be between 6.0 and 6.5 keV. The electron temperatures predicted by LASNEX appear to be too large by a factor of about 1.5.

  10. Development of a focussing-crystal spectrograph for x-rays from laser-fusion targets. Final report for the period ending September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaakobi, B.; Burek, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The report is arranged in five major sections, Section II describes the measurements of mica and lithium fluoride crystal properties before and after the cylindrical bending required for a Von-Hamos spectrograph. It also describes the property of mosaic focussing and the measurements of the spatial as well as spectral resolutions of bent crystals. Section III describes the imaging calculations which relate the instrument focussing capability to source misalignment. These calculations demonstrate the necessity to maintain fabrication and alignment precision which is about equal to the radiation source size, if the full potential of the instrument is to be realized. Section IV shows x-ray spectra obtained on the OMEGA 24 laser facility at LLE. The targets used were plastic shells, coated with copper either on the outside or the inside surface, germania shells, and krytpon-filled glass shells. The data indicate deeper heat penetration on the target surface, than predicted by a flux-limited heat transport model. In Section V, we list new spectral lines involving multiple electron excitation, which are observed here for the first time and whose wavelengths are calculated using Hartrer-Fock methods.

  11. Goniometer-based femtosecond X-ray diffraction of mutant 30S ribosomal subunit crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dao, E. Han; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Coey, Aaron; Larsen, Kevin; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; et al

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we collected radiation-damage-free data from a set of cryo-cooled crystals for a novel 30S ribosomal subunit mutant using goniometer-based femtosecond crystallography. Crystal quality assessment for these samples was conducted at the X-ray Pump Probe end-station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using recently introduced goniometer-based instrumentation. These 30S subunit crystals were genetically engineered to omit a 26-residue protein, Thx, which is present in the wild-type Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit. We are primarily interested in elucidating the contribution of this ribosomal protein to the overall 30S subunit structure. To assess the viability of this study, femtosecondmore » X-ray diffraction patterns from these crystals were recorded at the LCLS during a protein crystal screening beam time. During our data collection, we successfully observed diffraction from these difficult-to-grow 30S ribosomal subunit crystals. Most of our crystals were found to diffract to low resolution, while one crystal diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. These data suggest the feasibility of pursuing high-resolution data collection as well as the need to improve sample preparation and handling in order to collect a complete radiation-damage-free data set using an X-ray Free Electron Laser.« less

  12. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; ,

    2011-08-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

  13. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  14. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  15. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma ...

  16. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma interaction ...

  17. New focusing multilayer structures for X-ray plasma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibishkin, M S; Luchin, V I; Salashchenko, N N; Chernov, V V; Chkhalo, N I; Kazakov, E D; Shevelko, A P

    2008-02-28

    New focusing short-period multilayer structures are developed which opens up wide possibilities for X-ray and VUV spectroscopy. Multilayer structures are deposited on a flat surface of a mica crystal which is then bent to a small-radius cylinder. The use of this structure in a von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray laser plasma diagnostics is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  18. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  19. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  20. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  1. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; et al

    2015-04-22

    Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  2. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  3. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  4. The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation Exposures at the OMEGA Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test ...

  5. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities...

  6. The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation Exposures at the OMEGA Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The X-Ray Source ...

  7. The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barke, Ingo; Hartmann, Hannes; Rupp, Daniela; Flckiger, Leonie; Sauppe, Mario; Adolph, Marcus; Schorb, Sebastian; Bostedt, Christoph; Treusch, Rolf; Peltz, Christian; Bartling, Stephan; Fennel, Thomas; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Mller, Thomas

    2015-02-04

    The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth. In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favoured only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures. For individual free silver particles, which can be considered frozen in space for the duration of photon exposure, both shape and orientation are uncovered from measured scattering images. We identify regular shapes, including species with fivefold symmetry and surprisingly large aspect ratio up to particle radii of the order of 100 nm. Our approach includes scattering effects beyond Borns approximation and is remarkably efficientopening up new routes in ultrafast nanophysics and free-electron laser science

  8. The 3D-architecture of individual free silver nanoparticles captured by X-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barke, Ingo; Hartmann, Hannes; Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Sauppe, Mario; Adolph, Marcus; Schorb, Sebastian; Bostedt, Christoph; Treusch, Rolf; Peltz, Christian; et al

    2015-02-04

    The diversity of nanoparticle shapes generated by condensation from gaseous matter reflects the fundamental competition between thermodynamic equilibration and the persistence of metastable configurations during growth. In the kinetically limited regime, intermediate geometries that are favoured only in early formation stages can be imprinted in the finally observed ensemble of differently structured specimens. Here we demonstrate that single-shot wide-angle scattering of femtosecond soft X-ray free-electron laser pulses allows three-dimensional characterization of the resulting metastable nanoparticle structures. For individual free silver particles, which can be considered frozen in space for the duration of photon exposure, both shape and orientation are uncoveredmore » from measured scattering images. We identify regular shapes, including species with fivefold symmetry and surprisingly large aspect ratio up to particle radii of the order of 100 nm. Our approach includes scattering effects beyond Born’s approximation and is remarkably efficient—opening up new routes in ultrafast nanophysics and free-electron laser science« less

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  10. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    attoseconds pulse, 1 nm coherent X-ray radiation using a 60 A electron beam out of the linac and 200 nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the ...

  11. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  12. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  13. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}; as-deposited amorphous, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Jan H. Tominaga, Junji; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alex V.; Ueda, Shigenori; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ishimaru, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2014-02-10

    We have investigated the electronic structure of as-deposited, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using high resolution, hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A shift in the Fermi level as well as a broadening of the spectral features in the valence band and the Ge 3d level between the amorphous and crystalline state is observed. Upon amorphization, Ge 3d and Sb 4d spectra show a surprisingly small breaking of resonant bonds and changes in the bonding character as evidenced by the very similar density of states in all cases.

  14. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  15. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  16. In vacuo X-ray data collection from graphene-wrapped protein crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Anna J.; Crawshaw, Adam D.; Trincao, Jose; Aller, Pierre; Alcock, Simon; Nistea, Ioana; Salgado, Paula S.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2015-09-26

    A method is reported for collecting room-temperature data from protein crystals under vacuum by protecting them with a thin graphene layer. The measurement of diffraction data from macromolecular crystal samples held in vacuo holds the promise of a very low X-ray background and zero absorption of incident and scattered beams, leading to better data and the potential for accessing very long X-ray wavelengths (>3 ) for native sulfur phasing. Maintaining the hydration of protein crystals under vacuum is achieved by the use of liquid jets, as with serial data collection at free-electron lasers, or is side-stepped by cryocooling the samples, as implemented at new synchrotron beamlines. Graphene has been shown to protect crystals from dehydration by creating an extremely thin layer that is impermeable to any exchanges with the environment. Furthermore, owing to its hydrophobicity, most of the aqueous solution surrounding the crystal is excluded during sample preparation, thus eliminating most of the background caused by liquid. Here, it is shown that high-quality data can be recorded at room temperature from graphene-wrapped protein crystals in a rough vacuum. Furthermore, it was observed that graphene protects crystals exposed to different relative humidities and a chemically harsh environment.

  17. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  18. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hastings, Jerome B. ; Lee, Sooheyong ; Lemke, Henrik T. ; Robert, Aymeric ; Turner, James L. ; Feng, Yiping Publication Date: 2014-09-13 OSTI Identifier: 1156631 Report Number(s):...

  19. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full Text View Full Text DOI: ...

  20. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Emma, P. 1 ; Fairley, D. 1 ; Feng, Y. 1 ; Field, C. 1 ; Flechsig, U. 2 ; ... J. 1 ; Walz, D. 1 ; Welch, J. 1 ; Wu, J. 1 less + Show Author Affiliations ...

  1. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Title: X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) The primary interactions of ...

  2. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  3. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid,...

  4. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  5. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  6. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  7. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  8. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  9. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  10. Axial interaction free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-09-02

    Electron orbits from a helical axial wiggler in an axial guide field are absolutely unstable as power is extracted from the particles. For off-axis beams an axial FEL mechanism exists when the axial electric field in a TM mode is wiggled to interact with the axial velocity of the electrons that form the beam. The interaction strength is comparable to that for helical FELs and is insensitive to beam orbit errors. The orbits for this mechanism are extremely stable in the absence of space charge and lead to high extraction efficiencies without particle phasing incoherence or interception. This interaction mechanism is suitable for use with intense annular electron beams for high power generation at microwave frequencies. 5 figs.

  11. Axial interaction free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1997-01-01

    Electron orbits from a helical axial wiggler in an axial guide field are absolutely unstable as power is extracted from the particles. For off-axis beams an axial FEL mechanism exists when the axial electric field in a TM mode is wiggled to interact with the axial velocity of the electrons that form the beam. The interaction strength is comparable to that for helical FELs and is insensitive to beam orbit errors. The orbits for this mechanism are extremely stable in the absence of space charge and lead to high extraction efficiencies without particle phasing incoherence or interception. This interaction mechanism is suitable for use with intense annular electron beams for high power generation at microwave frequencies.

  12. Two-color X-rays Give Scientists 3-D View of the Unknown | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    with a pair of precisely tuned X-ray laser pulses of different colors, or photon energies. ... photocathode with a train of two laser pulses separated in time by a few picoseconds. ...

  13. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  14. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  15. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  16. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  17. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission

  18. A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: A Proof-of-Principle Echo-enabled Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser Experiment at SLAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Proof-of-Principle...

  19. 7 Resolution in Protein 2-Dimentional-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction at Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrini, Bill; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Capitani, Guido; Padeste, Celestino; Hunter, Mark; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Barty, Anton; Benner, Henry; Boutet, Sebastien; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Kirian, Rick; Kupitz, Christopher; Messerschmidt, Marc; Ogren, John I.; Pardini, Tommaso; Segelke, Brent; Williams, Garth J.; Spence , John C.; Abela, Rafael; Coleman, Matthew A.; Evans, James E.; Schertler, Gebhard; Frank, Matthias; Li, Xiao-Dan

    2014-06-09

    Membrane proteins arranged as two-dimensional (2D) crystals in the lipid en- vironment provide close-to-physiological structural information, which is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of protein function. X-ray diffraction from individual 2D crystals did not represent a suitable investigation tool because of radiation damage. The recent availability of ultrashort pulses from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (X-FELs) has now provided a mean to outrun the damage. Here we report on measurements performed at the LCLS X-FEL on bacteriorhodopsin 2D crystals mounted on a solid support and kept at room temperature. By merg- ing data from about a dozen of single crystal diffraction images, we unambiguously identified the diffraction peaks to a resolution of 7 A, thus improving the observable resolution with respect to that achievable from a single pattern alone. This indicates that a larger dataset will allow for reliable quantification of peak intensities, and in turn a corresponding increase of resolution. The presented results pave the way to further X-FEL studies on 2D crystals, which may include pump-probe experiments at subpicosecond time resolution.

  20. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Paulus, Michael J.; Mullens, James A.

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  1. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  2. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  3. SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam line 14-3b is a bending magnet side station dedicated to X-ray imaging and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological, biomedical, materials, and geological samples. ...

  4. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  5. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  6. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  7. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  8. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  9. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  10. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  11. Monochromatic x-ray sampling streak imager for fast-ignitor plasma observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Fujiwara, Takashi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-10-15

    Ultrafast two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging is required to investigate the dynamics of fast-heated core plasma in inertial confinement fusion research. A novel x-ray imager, consisting of two toroidally bent Bragg crystals and an ultrafast 2D x-ray imaging camera, has been demonstrated. Sequential and 2D monochromatic x-ray images of laser-imploded core plasma were obtained with a temporal resolution of 20 ps, a spatial resolution of 31 {mu}m, and a spectral resolution of over 200, simultaneously.

  12. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube.

  13. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-03-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat for conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.

  14. An experimental apparatus for diffraction-limites soft x-ray nanofocusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merthe, Daniel; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Yuan, Sheng; McKinney, Wayne; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory; Rakawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-10-21

    Realizing the experimental potential of high-brightness, next generation synchrotron and free-electron laser light sources requires the development of reflecting x-ray optics capable of wavefront preservation and high-resolution nano-focusing. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline 5.3.1, we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad slope measurement accuracy for diffraction-limited Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors. The at-wavelength methodology we are developing relies on a series of wavefront-sensing tests with increasing accuracy and sensitivity, including scanning-slit Hartmann tests, grating-based lateral shearing interferometry, and quantitative knife-edge testing. We describe the original experimental techniques and alignment methodology that have enabled us to optimally set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a focused, FWHM spot size of 150 nm, with 1 nm (1.24 keV) photons at 3.7 mrad numerical aperture. The predictions of wavefront measurement are confirmed by the knife-edge testing.The side-profiled elliptically bent mirror used in these one-dimensional focusing experiments was originally designed for a much different glancing angle and conjugate distances. This work demonstrates that high-accuracy, at-wavelength wavefront-slope feedback can be used to optimize the pitch, roll, and mirror-bending forces in situ, using procedures that are deterministic and repeatable.

  15. Capture and X-ray diffraction studies of protein microcrystals in a microfluidic trap array

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Murray, Thomas D.; Koehl, Antoine; Araci, Ismail Emre; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Cohen, Aina E.; Soltis, S. Michael; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Brewster, Aaron S.; et al

    2015-03-27

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) promise to enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from samples that are refractory to data collection at synchrotron sources. At present, however, more efficient sample-delivery methods that minimize the consumption of microcrystalline material are needed to allow the application of XFEL sources to a wide range of challenging structural targets of biological importance. Here, a microfluidic chip is presented in which microcrystals can be captured at fixed, addressable points in a trap array from a small volume (<10 µl) of a pre-existing slurry grown off-chip. The device can be mounted on a standard goniostat formore » conducting diffraction experiments at room temperature without the need for flash-cooling. Proof-of-principle tests with a model system (hen egg-white lysozyme) demonstrated the high efficiency of the microfluidic approach for crystal harvesting, permitting the collection of sufficient data from only 265 single-crystal still images to permit determination and refinement of the structure of the protein. This work shows that microfluidic capture devices can be readily used to facilitate data collection from protein microcrystals grown in traditional laboratory formats, enabling analysis when cryopreservation is problematic or when only small numbers of crystals are available. Such microfluidic capture devices may also be useful for data collection at synchrotron sources.« less

  16. X-ray crystal spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 8-18 A spectral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    range at the LULI laser facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray crystal spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 8-18 A spectral range at the LULI laser facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray crystal spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 8-18 A spectral range at the LULI laser facility An x-ray crystal spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 8-18 A spectral range with an average spectral resolution of

  17. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  18. Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2011-12-13

    Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  19. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths ({approx} micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  20. X-Ray Diffraction > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction...

  1. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is 0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  2. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  3. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  4. Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation study of 3-5 ...

  5. High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and ...

  6. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  7. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  9. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  10. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  11. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Inubushi, Yuichi

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  12. A Low-Charge, Hard X-Ray FEL Driven with an X-band Injector and Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; Adolphsen, Chris; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    After the successful operation of FLASH (Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg) and LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source), soft and hard X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) are being built, designed or proposed at many accelerator laboratories. Acceleration employing lower frequency RF cavities, ranging from L-band to C-band, is usually adopted in these designs. In the first stage bunch compression, higher-frequency harmonic RF system is employed to linearize the beam's longitudinal phase space, which is nonlinearly chirped during the lower frequency RF acceleration process. In this paper, a hard X-ray FEL design using an all X-band accelerator at 11.424 GHz (from photo-cathode RF gun to linac end) is presented, without the assistance of any harmonic RF linearization. It achieves LCLS-like performance at low charge using X-band linac drivers, which is more versatile, efficient and compact than ones using S-band or C-band rf technology. It employs initially 42 microns long (RMS), low charge (10 pC) electron bunches from an X-band photoinjector. An overall bunch compression ratio of roughly 100 times is proposed in a two stage bunch compressor system. The start-to-end macro-particle 3-D simulation employing several computer codes is presented in this paper, where space charge, wakefields, incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) effects are included. Employing an undulator with a short period of 1.5 cm, a Genesis FEL simulation shows successful lasing at a wavelength of 0.15 nm with a pulse length of 2 fs and a power saturation length as short as 20 meters, which is equivalent to LCLS low charge mode. Its overall length of both accelerators and undulators is 180 meters (much shorter than the effective LCLS overall length of 1230 meters, including an accelerator length of 1100 meters and an undulator length of 130 meters), which makes it possible to be built in places where only limited space is available.

  13. X-rays only when you want them: Optimized pump–probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertlein, M. P.; Scholl, A.; Cordones, A. A.; Lee, J. H.; Engelhorn, K.; Glover, T. E.; Barbrel, B.; Sun, C.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D. S.

    2015-04-02

    Laser pump–X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported. In this mode the X-ray repetition rate is fully adjustable from single shot to 500 kHz, allowing it to be matched to typical laser excitation pulse rates. Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shot X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device (CCD) camera are also demonstrated.

  14. X-rays only when you want them: Optimized pump–probe experiments using pseudo-single-bunch operation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hertlein, M. P.; Scholl, A.; Cordones, A. A.; Lee, J. H.; Engelhorn, K.; Glover, T. E.; Barbrel, B.; Sun, C.; Steier, C.; Portmann, G.; et al

    2015-04-02

    Laser pump–X-ray probe experiments require control over the X-ray pulse pattern and timing. Here, the first use of pseudo-single-bunch mode at the Advanced Light Source in picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption experiments on solutions and solids is reported. In this mode the X-ray repetition rate is fully adjustable from single shot to 500 kHz, allowing it to be matched to typical laser excitation pulse rates. Suppressing undesired X-ray pulses considerably reduces detector noise and improves signal to noise in time-resolved experiments. In addition, dose-induced sample damage is considerably reduced, easing experimental setup and allowing the investigation of less robust samples. Single-shotmore » X-ray exposures of a streak camera detector using a conventional non-gated charge-coupled device (CCD) camera are also demonstrated.« less

  15. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; et al

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  16. X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    program (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be reconstructed by a single Fourier transform; this is known as Fourier transform holography. The problem of getting sufficiently coherent x-rays onto and off of the sample in a...

  18. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  19. X-ray image intensifier phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-12-01

    Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

  20. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography Authors: Chapman, H.N., Fromme, P., Barty, A., White, T.A., Kirian, R.A., Aquila, A., Hunter, M.S., Schulz, J., DePonte, D.P.,...

  1. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  2. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  3. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  4. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  5. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

  6. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  7. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression ...

  8. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ... September 3, 2016 Title: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ...

  9. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  10. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  11. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ... More Documents & Publications X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of ...

  12. Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Biological Systems Title: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of ...

  13. Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicros...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray ...

  14. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient ...

  15. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae Prev Next Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence ...

  16. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  17. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  18. Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser Tailored, high-flux, multi-keV x-ray sources are desirable for

  19. The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation Exposures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at the OMEGA Laser (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation Exposures at the OMEGA Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation Exposures at the OMEGA Laser Authors: Fournier, K B ; Rekow, V ; Emig, J ; Fisher, J H ; Newlander, C D ; Horton, R H ; Davis, J Publication Date: 2012-04-04 OSTI Identifier: 1090015 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-547051 DOE

  20. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methodsray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modelingto investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.