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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Transport of Bottom Water in the Romanche Fracture Zone and the Chain Fracture Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two moored arrays deployed in the Romanche Fracture Zone and Chain Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean provide two-year-long time series of current and temperature in the Lower North Atlantic Deep Water and the Antarctic Bottom Water. ...

Herlé Mercier; Kevin G. Speer

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Mixing in the Romanche Fracture Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Romanche Fracture Zone is a major gap in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the equator, which is deep enough to allow significant eastward flows of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Brazil Basin to the Sierra Leone and Guinea Abyssal Plains. While ...

Bruno Ferron; Herlé Mercier; Kevin Speer; Ann Gargett; Kurt Polzin

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas rock alteration near fracture zones at temperatures > 150C is characterized by abundant...

4

Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fracture characteristics in the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in the Raft River KGRA of Idaho are analyzed using geological, hydrological and borehole geophysical data from five deep geothermal production wells. Particular emphasis is placed on fracture identification using borehole

5

Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot Sprints geothermal system Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot Sprints geothermal system Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Two types of white micas are found in drillhole samples within the geothermal system at Coso Hot Springs. Low-permeability zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas rock alteration near fracture zones at temperatures > 150°C is characterized by abundant finegrained sericite in association with secondary calcite and quartz and unaltered relict microcline. In this hydrothermal sericite there

6

Fracture process zone : microstructure and nanomechanics in quasi-brittle materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cracks begin (and end) at a crack tip; the "Fracture Process Zone" (FPZ) is a region of damage around the crack tip. The context of this research is the FPZ in quasi-brittle materials, which is characterized by cracking ...

Brooks, Zenzile (Zenzile Z.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The effect of fractures, faults, and sheared shale zones on the hydrology of Bear Creek Burial Grounds A-South, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous hydrologic models of flow in Bear Creek Valley have presented lateral flow as occurring through the Nolichucky Shale in parallel to strike fractures within thin carbonate beds; the effects of faults were not considered. This study presents a ground water flow model that incorporates lateral flow through parallel-to-strike fractures and thrust faults, and perpendicular-to-strike cross valley strike-slip faults. These latter cross-valley structures cause flow to be diverted to other strikeparallel zones of enhanced permeability towards the south side of the valley. Using core, geophysical and hydrologic data from five boreholes in the Bear Creek Burial Grounds three types of potential fluid-flow conduits were identified: fractures, faults, and shale shear zones. Open fractures decrease in abundance with depth and tend to occur most frequently in oolitic limestone beds relative to other carbonate lithologies. Fractures below 1 00 ft BGS in the Nolichucky Shale and below 250 ft in the Maynardville Limestone do not appear to be caused by dissolution; instead, they appear to be the result of a change in the local stress field due to erosion effects. Faults, both cross-valley and thrust faults, and sheared shale zones are interpreted to disrupt the lateral continuity of the bedding and increase the rock-mass permeability of the Nolichucky Shale, permitting ground water to flow these structural zones. This study provided opportunity to interpret DNAPL migration patterns from Burial Ground A-South. DNAPL migration parallel to the valley's axis is affected by parallel-to-strike fractures and thrust faults, and its lateral migration perpendicular to strike is influenced by cross valley strike-slip faults and decreasing collect at depth because of decreasing fracture occurrence and reduced permeability and then migrate laterally along the cross valley strike-slip faults until it encounters and enters a zone of higher permeability parallel to strike.

Hollon, Dwight Mitchell

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing. 6 figs.

Bronson, M.C.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing.

Bronson, Mark C. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Quasi-explicit time-integration schemes for dynamic fracture with set-valued cohesive zone models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate quasi-explicit time-integration schemes for solving dynamic fracture problems with set-valued cohesive zone models. These schemes combine a central difference time-integration scheme and a partially implicit and lumped treatment of the ... Keywords: Cohesive zone model, Finite elements, Time-integration scheme

D. Doyen; A. Ern; S. Piperno

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Upscaling solute transport in naturally fractured porous media with the continuous time random walk method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fracture model for multiphase ?ow in porous media. AIChEsingle- and multiphase transport in fractured porous media

Geiger, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fracture Detection and Water Sweep Characterization Using Single-well Imaging, Vertical Seismic Profiling and Cross-dipole Methods in Tight and Super-k Zones, Haradh II, Saudi Arabia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work was conducted to help understand a premature and irregular water breakthrough which resulted from a waterflooding project in the increment II region of Haradh oilfield in Saudi Arabia using different geophysical methods. Oil wells cannot sustain the targeted oil production rates and they die much sooner than expected when water enters the wells. The study attempted to identify fracture systems and their role in the irregular water sweep. Single-well acoustic migration imaging (SWI), walkaround vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and cross-dipole shear wave measurements were used to detect anisotropy caused by fractures near and far from the borehole. The results from all the different methods were analyzed to understand the possible causes of water fingering in the field and determine the reasons for discrepancies and similarities of results of the different methods. The study was done in wells located in the area of the irregular water encroachment in Haradh II oilfield. Waterflooding was performed, where water was injected in the water injector wells drilled at the flanks of Harahd II toward the oil producer wells. Unexpected water coning was noticed in the west flank of the field. While cross-dipole and SWI measurements of a small-scale clearly identify a fracture oriented N60E in the upper tight zone of the reservoir, the VSP measurements of a large-scale showed a dominating fracture system to the NS direction in the upper highpermeability zone of the same reservoir. These results are consistent with the directions of the three main fracture sets in the field at N130E, N80E and N20E, and the direction of the maximum horizontal stress in the field varies between N50E and N90E. Results suggested that the fracture which is detected by cross-dipole at 2 to 4 ft from the borehole is the same fracture detected by SWI 65 ft away from the borehole. This fracture was described using the SWI as being 110 ft from top to bottom, having an orientation of N60E and having an angle of dip of 12° relative to the vertical borehole axis. The detected fracture is located in the tight zone of the reservoir makes a path for water to enter the well from that zone. On the Other hand, the fractures detected by the large-scale VSP measurements in the NS direction are responsible for the high-permeability in the upper zone of the reservoir.

Aljeshi, Hussain Abdulhadi A.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Investigation and modeling of the elastic-plastic fracture behavior of continuous woven fabric-reinforced ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a study which attempted to extrapolate meaningful elastic-plastic fracture toughness data from flexure tests of a chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC/Nicalon fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite. Fibers in the fabricated composites were pre-coated with pyrolytic carbon to varying thicknesses. In the tests, crack length was not measured and the study employed an estimate procedure, previously used successfully for ductile metals, to derive J-R curve information. Results are presented in normalized load vs. normalized displacements and comparative J{sub Ic} behavior as a function of fiber precoating thickness.

Kahl, W.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Optimizing reservoir management through fracture modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture flow will become increasingly important to optimal reservoir management as exploration of geothermal reservoirs continues and as injection of spent fluid increases. The Department of Energy conducts research focused on locating and characterizing fractures, modeling the effects of fractures on movement of fluid, solutes, and heat throughout a reservoir, and determining the effects of injection on long-term reservoir production characteristics in order to increase the ability to predict with greater certainty the long-term performance of geothermal reservoirs. Improvements in interpreting and modeling geophysical techniques such as gravity, self potential, and aeromagnetics are yielding new information for the delineation of active major conduits for fluid flow. Vertical seismic profiling and cross-borehole electromagnetic techniques also show promise for delineating fracture zones. DOE funds several efforts for simulating geothermal reservoirs. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has adopted a continuum treatment for reservoirs with a fracture component. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed simulation techniques which utilize discrete fractures and interchange of fluid between permeable matrix and fractures. Results of these research projects will be presented to industry through publications and appropriate public meetings. 9 refs.

Renner, J.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Hydraulic fracturing of a moderate permeability reservoir, Kuparuk River Unit  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-five percent of the proven reserves in one of the United States' largest oil fields, the Kuparuk River Unit, are contained in the lower of two producing horizons. This zone, commonly referred to as the ''A'' sand, has a permeability of between 30 and 100 md. Unfortunately this interval is easily damaged during drilling and completion operations. Low initial flow efficiencies have been confirmed by numerous pressure transient tests. A program of hydraulic fracturing was initiated in March 1984 to overcome near wellbore damage and provide stimulation to more efficiently tap ''A'' sand reserves. More than 300 fracture stimulations have been completed to date in the arctic setting of the Kuparuk River Unit. These jobs have used a variety of fluids, proppants, and pumping schedules. The current hydraulic fracture design was evolved by continual interpretation of field results and related data from these previous stimulations. Success of the overall program has been impressive. Average post-fracture flow efficiency has been in excess of 100%. Post-fracture rate increase has averaged approximately 300%, accounting for a total rate increase of over 125,000 BOPD (19,900 m/sup 3//d). Based on these results, fracturing will continue to play an important part in future field development. This paper is the first review of the Kuparuk River Unit fracture program. It provides a case history of the development of a standard fracture design. In addition, the findings of this study would be applicable to reservoirs elsewhere with similar characteristics.

Niemeyer, B.L.; Reinart, M.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

An integrated methodology for characterizing flow and transport processes in fractured rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unsaturated Zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water-Resourcesof the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, NV from three-in fractured tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Vadose Zone Journal,

Wu, Yu-Shu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-permeability gas wells often produce less than predicted after a fracture treatment. One of the reasons for this is that fracture lengths calculated after stimulation are often less than designed lengths. While actual fracture lengths may be shorter due to fracture growth out of zone, improper proppant settling, or proppant flowback, short calculated fracture lengths can also result from incorrect analysis techniques. It is known that fracturing fluid that remains in the fracture and formation after a hydraulic fracture treatment can decrease the productivity of a gas well by reducing the relative permeability to gas in the region invaded by this fluid. However, the relationships between fracture fluid cleanup, effective fracture length, and well productivity are not fully understood. In this work I used reservoir simulation to determine the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, effective fracture length, and well productivity. I simulated water saturation and pressure profiles around a propped fracture, tracked gas production along the length of the propped fracture, and quantified the effective fracture length (i.e., the fracture length under single-phase flow conditions that gives similar performance as for multiphase flow conditions), the "cleanup" fracture length (i.e., the fracture length corresponding to 90% cumulative gas flow rate into the fracture), and the "apparent" fracture length (i.e., the fracture length where the ratio of multiphase to single-phase gas entry rate profiles is unity). This study shows that the proppant pack is generally cleaned up and the cleanup lengths are close to designed lengths in relatively short times. Although gas is entering along entire fracture, fracturing fluid remains in the formation near the fracture. The water saturation distribution affects the gas entry rate profile, which determines the effective fracture length. Subtle changes in the gas rate entry profile can result in significant changes in effective fracture length. The results I derived from this work are consistent with prior work, namely that greater fracture conductivity results in more effective well cleanup and longer effective fracture lengths versus time. This study provides better explanation of mechanisms that affect fracturing fluid cleanup, effective fracture length, and well productivity than previous work.

Lolon, Elyezer P.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

toward the heat source, or into the rock underlying the heatcharacterizing DNAPL source zones in fractured rock at theby a point source injection in fractured rock with multiple

Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING In addition to the recovery processes featured in this series of drawings, hydraulic fracturing is included as an example of technologies that contribute to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Determination of the effect of formation water on fracture-fluid cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Understanding hydraulic-fracture cleanup is essential for improving well stimulation. Residual gel damages fracture conductivity, shortens effective fracture half-length, and limits well productivity. The drive to develop fluids, additives, and procedures that minimize this damage continues to be a dominant theme in fracture-fluid-development programs. Fracture cleanup is a complex problem, and many parameters (e.g., fluid system, job design, flowback procedure, and reservoir conditions) can influence polymer and fluid recovery efficiencies. Often, specific products and methods that work well in one reservoir have little effect in another. Systematic analysis of fluid and polymer returns after a treatment is completed is the only way to quantify fracture cleanup. This is referred to as flowback analysis. This paper discusses a flowback-analysis field study on large hydraulic-fracturing treatments in the Taylor zone of the Cotton Valley formation in east Texas. This is a low-permeability (approximately 0.01 md) tight gas formation. It is a heterogeneous zone with layers of productive sandstone interspersed with relatively impermeable layers of shale. A typical well in this field initially produces approximately 0.75 to 1.3 MMcf/D gas and 35 to 40 bbl of water/MMcf of gas. The returns from 10 wells in this field were analyzed thoroughly.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U. S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal...

24

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on methods to detect naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. This report discusses 3D-3C seismic acquisition and 3D P-wave alternate processing.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Numerical Investigation of Interaction Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of a naturally-fractured reservoir is a challenge for industry, as fractures can have complex growth patterns when propagating in systems of natural fractures in the reservoir. Fracture propagation near a natural fracture (NF) considering interaction between a hydraulic fracture (HF) and a pre-existing NF, has been investigated comprehensively using a two dimensional Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) Model in this thesis. The rock is first considered as an elastic impermeable medium (with no leakoff), and then the effects of pore pressure change as a result of leakoff of fracturing fluid are considered. A uniform pressure fluid model and a Newtonian fluid flow model are used to calculate the fluid flow, fluid pressure and width distribution along the fracture. Joint elements are implemented to describe different NF contact modes (stick, slip, and open mode). The structural criterion is used for predicting the direction and mode of fracture propagation. The numerical model was used to first examine the mechanical response of the NF to predict potential reactivation of the NF and the resultant probable location for fracture re-initiation. Results demonstrate that: 1) Before the HF reaches a NF, the possibility of fracture re-initiation across the NF and with an offset is enhanced when the NF has weaker interfaces; 2) During the stage of fluid infiltration along the NF, a maximum tensile stress peak can be generated at the end of the opening zone along the NF ahead of the fluid front; 3) Poroelastic effects, arising from fluid diffusion into the rock deformation can induce closure and compressive stress at the center of the NF ahead of the HF tip before HF arrival. Upon coalescence when fluid flows along the NF, the poroelastic effects tend to reduce the value of the HF aperture and this decreases the tension peak and the possibility of fracture re-initiation with time. Next, HF trajectories near a NF were examined prior to coalesce with the NF using different joint, rock and fluid properties. Our analysis shows that: 1) Hydraulic fracture trajectories near a NF may bend and deviate from the direction of the maximum horizontal stress when using a joint model that includes initial joint deformation; 2) Hydraulic fractures propagating with higher injection rate or fracturing fluid of higher viscosity propagate longer distance when turning to the direction of maximum horizontal stress; 3) Fracture trajectories are less dependent on injection rate or fluid viscosity when using a joint model that includes initial joint deformation; whereas, they are more dominated by injection rate and fluid viscosity when using a joint model that excludes initial joint deformation.

Xue, Wenxu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Relative permeability through fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

Diomampo, Gracel, P.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Regional Analysis and Characterization of Fractured Aquifers in the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces  

SciTech Connect

Areas related to low-temperature geothermal applications include the recognition of and exploration for deep fracture permeability in crystalline rocks. It is well known that the best currently available downhole techniques to identify the locations of fracture zones in crystalline rocks depend upon the measurement of some thermal parameter such as temperature or heat flow. The temperature-depth profiles and their derivatives provide a direct indication of those fracture zones that conduct water. The exploration for new groundwater resources is considered by many to be the new frontier in the general field of hydrology. The availability of adequate groundwater resources in fractured rocks is a major concern in many areas of the eastern US as well as in the other parts of the world. A geothermal database can therefore become an important source of basic data that can be used to help characterize the nature and extent of hydraulic conductivity in fractured rocks. We plan to continue to augment our web site (http://rglsun1.geol.vt.edu) with new geothermal data as the data become available, and to advertise the increasing residential uses of geothermal energy in the eastern US. This work was originally titled ''Archival of Geothermal Exploration Data,'' and was initiated to make available to the public the extensive geothermal database for the southeastern US. These data include plots of temperature and geothermal gradient logs, scans of 7.5-min quadrangles where appropriate, and annotated location maps.

Costain, J.K.

2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Brian Somerday, Chris San Marchi, and Dorian Balch Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, GA August 30-31, 2005 SNL has 40+ years experience with effects of high-pressure hydrogen gas on materials * Design and maintenance of welded stainless steel pressure vessels for containment of high-pressure H 2 isotopes - Extensive testing of stainless steels exposed to high-pressure H 2 gas * Six-year program in 1970s focused on feasibility of using natural gas pipeline network for H 2 gas - Materials testing in high-pressure H 2 gas using laboratory specimens and model pipeline - Examined fusion zone and heat affected zones of welds * Active SNL staff have authored 70+ papers and organized 6

29

Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures Dictionary.png Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault Fault Intersection Accommodation Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Pull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault Zone Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures Stratigraphic Boundaries Fissure Swarms Caldera Rim Margins Lithologically Controlled Fractures caused by igneous activity creates permeability, allowing water

30

Hydraulic Fracturing (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Vermont prohibits hydraulic fracturing or the collection, storage, or treatment of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing

31

Preferential flow paths and heat pipes: Results from laboratory experiments on heat-driven flow in natural and artificial rock fractures  

SciTech Connect

Water flow in fractures under the conditions of partial saturation and thermal drive may lead to fast flow along preferential localized pathways and heat pipe conditions. Water flowing in fast pathways may ultimately contact waste packages at Yucca Mountain and transport radionuclides to the accessible environment. Sixteen experiments were conducted to visualize liquid flow in glass fracture models, a transparent epoxy fracture replica, and a rock/replica fracture assembly. Spatially resolved thermal monitoring was performed in seven of these experiments to evaluate heat-pipe formation. Depending on the fracture apertures and flow conditions, various flow regimes were observed including continuous rivulet flow for high flow rates, intermittent rivulet flow and drop flow for intermediate flow rates, and film flow for low flow rates and wide apertures. These flow regimes were present in both fracture models and in the replica of a natural fracture. Heat-pipe conditions indicated by low thermal gradients were observed in five experiments. Conditions conducive to heat-pipe formation include an evaporation zone, condensation zone, adequate space for vapor and liquid to travel, and appropriate fluid driving forces. In one of the two experiments where heat pipe conditions were not observed, adequate space for liquid-vapor counterflow was not provided. Heat pipe conditions were not established in the other, because liquid flow was inadequate to compensate for imbibition and the quantity of heat contained within the rock.

Kneafsey, T.J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials  

SciTech Connect

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

Becker, T.L.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR PREDICTING THE FLUID FLOW ATTRIBUTES OF NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS FROM QUANTITATIVE GEOLOGIC DATA AND MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work carried out during the period of September 29, 2000 to September 28, 2001 under DOE Research Contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15308. Our goal is to establish an integrated methodology of fractured reservoir characterization and show how that can be incorporated into fluid flow simulation. We have made progress in the characterization of mineral infilling of natural fractures. The main advancement in this regard was to recognize the strong interplay between diagenetic and mechanical processes. We accomplished several firsts in documenting and quantifying these processes, including documenting the range of emergent threshold in several formations and quantifying the internal structures of crack-seal bridges in fractures. These results will be the basis for an appreciation of fracture opening and filling rates that go well beyond our original goals. Looking at geochemical modeling of fracture infilling, our theoretical analysis addressed the problem of calcite precipitation in a fracture. We have built a model for the deposition of calcite within a fracture. The diagenetic processes of dissolution and partial cementation are key controls on the creation and distribution of natural fractures within hydrocarbon reservoirs. Even with extensive data collection, fracture permeability still creates uncertainty in reservoir description and the prediction of well performance. Data on the timing and stages of diagenetic events can provide explanation as to why, when and where natural fractures will be open and permeable. We have been pursuing the fracture mechanics testing of a wide range of rocks, particularly sandstone using a key rock property test that has hitherto not been widely applied to sedimentary rocks. A major accomplishment in this first year has been to identify sample suites available in the core repository at the University of Texas that represent a wide range of diagenetic alteration and to begin to test these samples. The basis for the fluid flow simulations to be carried out in this part of the project is the adequate spatial characterization of fracture networks. Our initial focus has been on the tendency of fracture sets to cluster into highly fracture zones that are often widely separated. Our preliminary modeling work shows the extent of this clustering to be controlled by the subcritical fracture index of the material. With continued progress, we move toward an integrated fracture characterization methodology that will ultimately be applied through detailed reservoir simulation.

Jon E. Olson; Larry W. Lake; Steve E. Laubach

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

1960-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

35

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal outflow occurs most commonly at the terminations of individual faults and where multiple faults interact. These areas of fault propagation and interaction are sites of elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal flow despite potential clogging of fractures due to mineral precipitation. As

36

Incorporating Rigorous Height Determination into Unified Fracture Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing plays an important role in increasing production rate in tight reservoirs. The performance of the reservoir after fracturing can be observed from the productivity index. This parameter is dependent on the fracture geometry; height, length and width. Unified fracture design (UFD) offers a method to determine the fracture dimensions providing the maximum productivity index for a specific proppant amount. Then, in order to achieve the maximum productivity index, the treatment schedules including the amount of liquid and proppant used for each stage must be determined according to the fracture dimensions obtained from the UFD. The proppant number is necessary for determining the fracture geometry using the UFD. This number is used to find the maximum productivity index for a given proppant amount. Then, the dimensionless fracture conductivity index corresponding to the maximum productivity index can be computed. The penetration ration, the fracture length, and the propped fracture width can be computed from the dimensionless fracture conductivity. However, calculating the proppant number used in UFD requires the fracture height as an input. The most convenient way to estimate fracture height to input to the UFD is to assume that the fracture height is restricted by stress contrast between the pay zone and over and under-lying layers. In other words, the fracture height is assumed to be constant, independent of net pressure and equal to the thickness of the layer which has the least minimum principal stress. However, in reality, the fracture may grow out from the target formation and the height of fracture is dependent on the net pressure during the treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to couple determination of the fracture height with determination of the other fracture parameters. In this research, equilibrium height theory is applied to rigorously determine the height of fracture. Solving the problem iteratively, it is possible to incorporate the rigorous fracture height determination into the unified fracture design.

Pitakbunkate, Termpan

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hydraulic fracturing-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Fracture detection and mapping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intensity and localization of flows in fractured media have promoted the development of a large range of different modeling approaches including Discrete Fracture Networks, pipe networks and equivalent continuous media. While benchmarked usually within ... Keywords: Benchmark, Fractured media, Single-phase flow, Stochastic model

Jean-Raynald De Dreuzy; GéRaldine Pichot; Baptiste Poirriez; Jocelyne Erhel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Predicting the occurrence of open natural fractures in shale reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Prolific oil and gas production has been established from naturally fractured shale reservoirs. For example, in the last few years over 4 Tcf of gas reserves have been established within the self-sourcing Antrim Shale of the Michigan Basin. Historically, locating subsurface fracture systems essential for commercial production has proven elusive and costly. An integrated exploration approach utilizing available geologic, geophysical, and remote sensing data has successfully located naturally fractured zones within the Antrim Shale. It is believed that fracturing of the Antrim shale was a result of basement involved tectonic processes. Characteristic integrated stacked signatures of known fracture systems within the Antrim were built using gravity and magnetic data, structure maps, fracture identification logs, and Landsat imagery. Wireline fracture logs pinpointed the locations and geometries of subsurface fracture systems. Landsat imagery was interpreted to reveal surficial manifestations of subsurface structures.

Decker, A.D.; Klawitter, A.L. (Advanced Resources International, Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Corporation Commission Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation Commission Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing Joint Committee on Energy Commission What is Hydraulic Fracturing d H D It W k?and How Does It Work? · Stimulates a well to increase by Stanolind Oil Company. 2 #12;Kansas Corporation Commission Are Hydraulic Fracture Jobs Performed in Kansas

Peterson, Blake R.

42

Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing.

Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The Virginia Blue Ridge And Piedmont Provinces Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers In The Virginia Blue Ridge And Piedmont Provinces Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Areas related to low-temperature geothermal applications include the recognition of and exploration for deep fracture permeability in crystalline rocks. It is well known that the best currently available downhole techniques to identify the locations of fracture zones in crystalline rocks depend upon the measurement of some thermal parameter such as temperature or heat flow. The temperature-depth profiles and their derivatives provide a direct indication of those fracture zones that

44

Fracture characterization study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First, the origin, nature, and significance of fractures in general are discussed. Next, discussions are directed toward the designation and classification of fractures. Some typical fracture measurement techniques are discussed. Finally, geothermal fracture systems are investigated and correlations made to determine which fracture technologies from oil field work are applicable to geothermal systems. (MHR)

Kehrman, R.F.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fracturing results in diatomaceous earth formations, South Belridge Field, California  

SciTech Connect

The company began fracturing diatomaceous earth zones in the San Joaquin Valley (CA) in 1976. Fracturing has proved an effective method of exploiting these previously noncommercial reservoirs. Nevertheless, productivity behavior is typified by high initial rates followed by rapid decline. Reasons for this decline have been evaluated and are discussed. Also discussed are laboratory experiments performed to determine an appropriate fracture design for this formation.

Strubhar, M.K.; Andreani, F.S.; Medlin, W.L.; Nabi, S.M.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unconventional gas has become an important resource to help meet our future energy demands. Although plentiful, it is difficult to produce this resource, when locked in a massive sedimentary formation. Among all unconventional gas resources, tight gas sands represent a big fraction and are often characterized by very low porosity and permeability associated with their producing formations, resulting in extremely low production rate. The low flow properties and the recovery factors of these sands make necessary continuous efforts to reduce costs and improve efficiency in all aspects of drilling, completion and production techniques. Many of the recent improvements have been in well completions and hydraulic fracturing. Thus, the main goal of a hydraulic fracture is to create a long, highly conductive fracture to facilitate the gas flow from the reservoir to the wellbore to obtain commercial production rates. Fracture conductivity depends on several factors, such as like the damage created by the gel during the treatment and the gel clean-up after the treatment. This research is focused on predicting more accurately the fracture conductivity, the gel damage created in fractures, and the fracture cleanup after a hydraulic fracture treatment under certain pressure and temperature conditions. Parameters that alter fracture conductivity, such as polymer concentration, breaker concentration and gas flow rate, are also examined in this study. A series of experiments, using a procedure of “dynamical fracture conductivity test”, were carried out. This procedure simulates the proppant/frac fluid slurries flow into the fractures in a low-permeability rock, as it occurs in the field, using different combinations of polymer and breaker concentrations under reservoirs conditions. The result of this study provides the basis to optimize the fracturing fluids and the polymer loading at different reservoir conditions, which may result in a clean and conductive fracture. Success in improving this process will help to decrease capital expenditures and increase the production in unconventional tight gas reservoirs.

Correa Castro, Juan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Explosive fracturing method  

SciTech Connect

A method of inducing a fracture system and multiple cavities in earthen formations is described. A first explosive, preferably nuclear, is buried at a sufficient depth so that its subsequent detonation is fully contained within the earth. Thereafter a second explosive, also preferably nuclear, is buried a predetermined distance from the situs of the first explosive. After detonation of the first explosive, time is allowed to elapse during which the cavity formed by the first explosive collapses to form a rubblized chimney. Thereafter, the second explosive is detonated to create a second chimney parallel to that of the first explosive together with a zone of enhanced permeability between the first and second. (10 claims)

Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

1973-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

48

Automatic fracture density update using smart well data and artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new methodology to continuously update and improve fracture network models. We begin with a hypothetical model whose fracture network parameters and geological information are known. After generating the ''exact'' fracture network ... Keywords: ANN, Fracture networks, Production data, Smart wells, Static data, Static model

A. Al-Anazi; T. Babadagli

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past six months we have adapted our 3-D elastic, anisotropic finite difference code by implementing the rotated staggered grid (RSG) method to more accurately represent large contrasts of elastic moduli between the fractures and surrounding formation, and applying the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition to minimize boundary reflections. Two approaches for estimating fracture spacing from scattered seismic energy were developed. The first relates notches in the amplitude spectra of the scattered wavefield to the dominant fracture spacing that caused the scattering. The second uses conventional FK filtering to isolate the backscattered signals and then recovers an estimate of the fracture spacing from the dominant wavelength of those signals. Both methods were tested on synthetic data and then applied to the Emilio field data. The spectral notch method estimated the Emilio fracture spacing to be about 30 to 40 m, while the FK method found fracture spacing of about 48 to 53 m. We continue to work on two field data sets from fractured carbonate reservoirs provided by our industry sponsors--the offshore Emilio Field data (provided by ENIAGIP), and an onshore reservoir from the Middle East (provided by Shell). Calibration data in the form of well logs and previous fracture studies are available for both data sets. In previous reports we showed the spatial distribution fractures in the Emilio Field based on our calculated scattering index values. To improve these results we performed a map migration of all the scattering indices. The results of this migration process show a very strong correlation between the spatial distribution and orientation of our estimated fracture distribution and the fault system in the field. We observe that the scattering index clusters tend to congregate around the fault zones, particularly near multiple faults and at fault tips. We have also processed a swath of data from the second data set (the onshore carbonate field). FMI data are available from a number of wells for comparison to our seismic scattering analysis results. The agreement is very good, providing confidence that these methods can be applied to land seismic data that do not have the ideal azimuthal coverage.

Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

..., ASM International, 1996, p 371â??380ASM Handbook, Vol 19, Fatigue And FractureS.D. Antolovich and B.F. Antolovich, An Introduction to Fracture

51

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Interwell tracer analyses of a hydraulically fractured granitic geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field experiments using fluorescent dye and radioactive tracers (Br{sup 82} and I{sup 131}) have been employed to characterize a hot, low-matrix permeability, hydraulically-fractured granitic reservoir at depths of 2440 to 2960 m (8000 to 9700 ft). Tracer profiles and residence time distributions have been used to delineate changes in the fracture system, particularly in diagnosing pathological flow patterns and in identifying new injection and production zones. The effectiveness of one- and two-dimensional theoretical dispersion models utilizing single and multiple porous, fractured zones with velocity and formation dependent effects are discussed with respect to actual field data.

Tester, J.W.; Potter, R.M.; Bivins, R.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect

The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

54

Interactive fracture design model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer program is described that can be used to design a fracture stimulation treatment for a geothermal reservoir. The program uses state-of-the-art methods to calculate the temperature of the fracture fluid as a function of time and distance in the fracture. This information is used to determine the temperature dependent properties of the fracture fluid. These fluid properties are utilized to calculate the fracture geometry as a function of time. The fracture geometry and temperature distribution of the fracture fluid are coupled so the subroutines that calculate these distributions have been made interactive.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Dorchester County- Renewable Zoning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Dorchester County zoning codes specifically permit solar arrays and small wind turbines in many zoning districts.

56

Mapping Fractures In The Medicine Lake Geothermal System | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fractures In The Medicine Lake Geothermal System Fractures In The Medicine Lake Geothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Mapping Fractures In The Medicine Lake Geothermal System Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A major challenge to energy production in the region has been locating high-permability fracture zones in the largely impermeable volcanic host rock. An understanding of the fracture networks will be a key to harnessing geothermal resources in the Cascades Author(s): Steven Clausen, Michal Nemcok, Joseph Moore, Jeffrey Hulen, John Bartley Published: GRC, 2006 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Core Analysis At Medicine Lake Area (Clausen Et Al, 2006) Medicine Lake Geothermal Area Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mapping_Fractures_In_The_Medicine_Lake_Geothermal_System&oldid=388927

57

Student Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Student Zone Student Zone Homework Helpers All About Atoms - Learn about the parts of the atom! Virginia State Standards of Learning Practice Tests - Practice taking the SOL tests! Subjects currently include algebra, math, science and technology. Table of Elements - Basic physical and historical information about the elements! [Printable Version] Questions and Answers - Have a question? Need an answer? Check here first! Glossary of Science Terms - Definitions of some of the terms used on this site. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour - How do scientists explore inside atoms? Video Resources Frostbite Theater - Short science experiments using liquid nitrogen, static electricity and more! Physics Out Loud - Jefferson Lab scientists and other experts explain some of the common words and terms used in nuclear physics research.

58

High velocity impact fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

Teng, Xiaoqing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Location of hydraulic fractures using microseismic techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microearthquakes with magnitudes ranging between -6 and -2 have been observed in three successive massive injections of water at the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy demonstration site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The injection was part of a program to increase the heat transfer area of hydraulic fractures and to decrease the flow-through impedance between wells. The microearthquakes were used in mapping the location of the extended hydraulic fractures. A downhole triaxial system positioned approximately 200 m vertically above the injection point in a shut-in production well was used for detection. The microearthquakes occurred in a north-northwest striking zone 400 m in length passing through the injection point. During a third substantially larger injection, microearthquakes occurred in a dispersed volume at distances as great as 800 m from the zone active in the first two injections.

Albright, J.A.; Pearson, C.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterMonitoring during hydraulic fracturing using the TG-2 well,fracture processes in hydraulic fracturing, Quarterly Report

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh downhole environment. Two deep wells were drilled to approximately 15,000 ft (4.6 km); formation temperatures are in excess of 600/sup 0/F (315/sup 0/C). The wells were drilled during 1979 to 1981, inclined at 35 degrees, one above the other, and directionally drilled in an azimuthal direction orthogonal to the least principal in-situ crustal stress field. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the two wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in insolation liners and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of three-dimensional fracture growth that requires very large volumes of injected water. Two fractured zones have been formed by hydraulic fracturing and defined by close-in, borehole deployed, microseismic detectors. Initial operations were focused in the injection wellbore near total depth, where water injection treatments totalling 51,000 bbls (8100 m/sup 3/) were accomplished by pumping through a cemented-in 4-1/2 in. liner/PBR assembly. Retrievable casing packers were used to inject 26,000 bbls (4100 m/sup 3/) in the upper section of the open hole. Surface injection pressures (ISIP) varied from 4000 to 5900 psi (27 to 41 MPa) and the fracture gradient ranged from 0.7 to 0.96 psi/ft.

Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.; Sinclair, A.R.; Nicholson, R.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Brittle fracture phenomena: An hypothesis  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed that: volumetric dilation is a fundamental requirement for brittle fracture involving shear; such dilation commonly involves or is expressed as zonal overpressures; the overpressured zones radiate particle motions which are significant to or dominate seismic radiation from blasting; the overpressures are commonly significant to and may dominate the energetics of blastings. Outstanding problems and gaps in our knowledge regarding fragmentation are discussed. It is argued that there is a common missing factor, dilatancy. Supporting evidence is presented from soils and rock mechanics, blasting experimental data and blasting experience. Computer modeling of fragmentation is discussed and the necessity for the inclusion of dilatancy established. Implications are discussed and a test of the hypothesis proposed.

Britton, K.; Walton, O.R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a full-scale implementation. The SVE well, monitoring point arrays and four fracturing wells were installed and the well testing has been completed. Four fractures were successfully created the week of July 25, 2005. The fractures were created in an open area at the bottom of steel well casing by using a water jet to create a notch in the soil and then injecting a guar-sand slurry into the formation. The sand-filled fractures increase the effective air permeability of the subsurface formation diffusion path lengths for contaminant removal. The primary metrics for evaluation were an increase in SVE flow rates in the zone of contamination and an increase in the zone of influence. Sufficient testing has been performed to show that fracturing in the Upland Unit accelerates SVE solvent remediation and fracturing can increase flow rates in the Upland Unit by at least one order of magnitude.

Riha, B

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Development of the T+M coupled flow-geomechanical simulator to describe fracture propagation and coupled flow-thermal-geomechanical processes in tight/shale gas systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a hydraulic fracturing simulator by coupling a flow simulator to a geomechanics code, namely T+M simulator. Modeling of the vertical fracture development involves continuous updating of the boundary conditions and of the data connectivity, ... Keywords: Double porosity, Fracture propagation, Hydraulic fracturing, Poromechanics, Shale gas, Tensile failure

Jihoon Kim, George J. Moridis

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Modeling the fracture of ice sheets on parallel computers.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. Dramatic illustrations of fracture-induced phenomena most notably include the recent collapse of ice shelves in Antarctica (e.g. partial collapse of the Wilkins shelf in March of 2008 and the diminishing extent of the Larsen B shelf from 1998 to 2002). Other fracture examples include ice calving (fracture of icebergs) which is presently approximated in simplistic ways within ice sheet models, and the draining of supraglacial lakes through a complex network of cracks, a so called ice sheet plumbing system, that is believed to cause accelerated ice sheet flows due essentially to lubrication of the contact surface with the ground. These dramatic changes are emblematic of the ongoing change in the Earth's polar regions and highlight the important role of fracturing ice. To model ice fracture, a simulation capability will be designed centered around extended finite elements and solved by specialized multigrid methods on parallel computers. In addition, appropriate dynamic load balancing techniques will be employed to ensure an approximate equal amount of work for each processor.

Waisman, Haim (Columbia University); Bell, Robin (Columbia University); Keyes, David (Columbia University); Boman, Erik Gunnar; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Technology Zones (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Virginia’s 26 designated Technology Zones offer tax relief in the form of abatements, credits, deductions, deferrals, exemptions, or rebates. Local governments may designate technology zones to...

68

A Rare Isolated Trapezoid Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toh S, Tsubo K, et al. An occult fracture of the trapezoiddue to concern for an occult fracture revealed a comminuted

Afifi, Negean; Lu, Jenny J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Hydraulic Fracturing in Particulate Materials .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For more than five decades, hydraulic fracturing has been widely used to enhance oil and gas production. Hydraulic fracturing in solid materials (e.g., rock) has… (more)

Chang, Hong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

J. Conca

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

71

Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Abstract Borehole televiewer, temperature, and flowmeter datarecorded in six wells penetrating a geothermalreservoir associated with the Stillwater fault zone inDixie Valley, Nevada, were used to investigate therelationship between reservoir permeability and thecontemporary in situ stress field. Data from wellsdrilled into productive and nonproductive segments ofthe Stillwater fault zone indicate that permeability inall wells is dominated by a relatively small number offractures striking parallel to the local trend of

72

Fold Catastrophe Model of Fracture Propagation of Hydraulic Fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to energy conservation from the destruction of rock catastrophe, a new calculation method of the length of fracture propagation in hydraulic fracturing is proposed, and assuming the crack extends to approximate ellipse, the width calculation ... Keywords: hydraulic fracture, fold catastrophe, fracture parameters

Zhaowan Chun; Wan Tingting; Ai Chi; Ju Guoshuai

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, and evaluation is made of (1) the use of both electromagnetic and acoustic radar to map far-field fractures, (2) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, (3) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone, (4) the use of passive microseismic methods to determine the orientation and extent of hydraulic fractures, and (5) the application of signal processing techniques to fracture mapping including tomography, holography, synthetic aperture, image reconstruction, and the relative importance of phase and amplitude information. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. The range of acoustic radar is five to seven times greater than that of VHF radar when compared on the basis of equal resolution, i.e., equal wavelengths. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. A new model of hydraulic fracturing is presented which indicates that a hydraulic fracture is dynamically unstable; consequently, improvements in locating the crack tip may be possible. The importance of phase in signal processing is stressed and those techniques which employ phase data are emphasized for field use.

Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Reservoir-scale fracture permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wellbore image data recorded in six wells penetrating a geothermal reservoir associated with an active normal fault at Dixie Valley, Nevada, were used in conjunction with hydrologic tests and in situ stress measurements to investigate the relationship between reservoir productivity and the contemporary in situ stress field. The analysis of data from wells drilled into productive and non-productive segments of the Stillwater fault zone indicates that fractures must be both optimally oriented and critically stressed to have high measured permeabilities. Fracture permeability in all wells is dominated by a relatively small number of fractures oriented parallel to the local trend of the Stillwater Fault. Fracture geometry may also play a significant role in reservoir productivity. The well-developed populations of low angle fractures present in wells drilled into the producing segment of the fault are not present in the zone where production is not commercially viable.

Barton, C.A.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics; Hickman, S. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Morin, R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Benoit, D. [Oxbow Geothermal Corp., Reno, NV (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Measuring and Modeling Flow in Welded Fractured Tuffs  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out a series of in situ liquid-release experiments in conjunction with a numerical modeling study to examine the effect of the rock matrix on liquid flow and transport occurring primarily through the fracture network. Field experiments were conducted in the highly fractured Topopah Spring welded tuff at a site accessed from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESFS), an underground laboratory in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the experiment, wetting-front movement, flow-field evolution, and drainage of fracture flow paths were evaluated. Modeling was used to aid in experimental design, predict experimental results, and study the physical processes accompanying liquid flow through unsaturated fractured welded tuff. Field experiments and modeling suggest that it may not be sufficient to conceptualize the fractured tuff as consisting of a single network of high-permeability fractures embedded in a low-permeability matrix. The need to include a secondary fracture network is demonstrated by comparison to the liquid flow observed in the field.

R. Salve; C. Doughty; J.S. Wang

2001-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fracturing fluids -- then and now  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing fluid provides the means by which the hydraulic fracturing process can take place. All applications of well stimulation by fracturing must include selection of fracturing fluid in the initial phases of fracture design and treatment planning. Fracturing fluid has two important purposes: (1) to provide sufficient viscosity to suspend and transport proppant deep into the created fracture system and (2) to decompose, or break, chemically to a low viscosity to allow flowback of a major part of the fluid to the surface for fracture cleanup after the treatment is completed. Because of the importance of its rheological properties and behavior in the fracture under reservoir conditions during (and immediately after) the treatment, service company research laboratories have spent millions of dollars on R and D of fracturing fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr. [Enhanced Well Stimulation Inc., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

Shah, S.N. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Geomechanical Development of Fractured Reservoirs During Gas Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within fractured reservoirs, such as tight gas reservoir, coupled processes between matrix deformation and fluid flow are very important for predicting reservoir behavior, pore pressure evolution and fracture closure. To study the coupling between gas desorption and rock matrix/fracture deformation, a poroelastic constitutive relation is developed and used for deformation of gas shale. Local continuity equation of dry gas model is developed by considering the mass conservation of gas, including both free and absorbed phases. The absorbed gas content and the sorption-induced volumetric strain are described through a Langmiur-type equation. A general porosity model that differs from other empirical correlations in the literature is developed and utilized in a finite element model to coupled gas diffusion and rock mass deformation. The dual permeability method (DPM) is implemented into the Finite Element Model (FEM) to investigate fracture deformation and closure and its impact on gas flow in naturally fractured reservoir. Within the framework of DPM, the fractured reservoir is treated as dual continuum. Two independent but overlapping meshes (or elements) are used to represent these kinds of reservoirs: one is the matrix elements used for deformation and fluid flow within matrix domain; while the other is the fracture element simulating the fluid flow only through the fractures. Both matrix and fractures are assumed to be permeable and can accomodate fluid transported. A quasi steady-state function is used to quantify the flow that is transferred between rock mass and fractures. By implementing the idea of equivalent fracture permeability and shape-factor within the transfer function into DPM, the fracture geometry and orientation are numerically considered and the complexity of the problem is well reduced. Both the normal deformation and shear dilation of fractures are considered and the stress-dependent fracture aperture can be updated in time. Further, a non-linear numerical model is constructed by implementing a poroviscoelastic model into the dual permeability (DPM)-finite element model (FEM) to investigate the coupled time-dependent viscoelastic deformation, fracture network evolution and compressible fluid flow in gas shale reservoir. The viscoelastic effect is addressed in both deviatoric and symmetric effective stresses to emphasize the effect of shear strain localization on fracture shear dilation. The new mechanical model is first verified with an analytical solution in a simple wellbore creep problem and then compared with the poroelastic solution in both wellbore and field cases.

Huang, Jian

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CONTINUOUSLY SENSITIVE BUBBLE CHAMBER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector of the bubble chamber class is described which is continuously sensitive and which does not require the complex pressure cycling equipment characteristic of prior forms of the chamber. The radiation sensitive element is a gas-saturated liquid and means are provided for establishing a thermal gradient across a region of the liquid. The gradient has a temperature range including both the saturation temperature of the liquid and more elevated temperatures. Thus a supersaturated zone is created in which ionizing radiations may give rise to visible gas bubbles indicative of the passage of the radiation through the liquid. Additional means are provided for replenishing the supply of gas-saturated liquid to maintaincontinuous sensitivity.

Good, R.H.

1959-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and T. W. Keech (1977), Hydraulic fracture mapping usingpotential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP Monitoring during hydraulic fracturing using the TG-2

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Hydraulic Fracturing Poster | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Educational poster graphically displaying the key components of hydraulic fracturing. Teachers: If you would like hard...

84

Enterprise Zone Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone Program provides eligible businesses that relocate or expand to a designated zone with tax incentives such as: 1) an investment tax credit; 2) a job tax credit for each job...

85

MODIFIED ZONE METHOD CALCULATOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zone Method is recommended for R-value calculations in steel stud walls by the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals ASHRAE 1997. The Modified Zone Method is similar to the...

86

Reinvestment Zones (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Reinvestment Zones a local economic development tool used by municipalities and counties throughout the state of Texas. These zones can be created for the purpose of granting local businesses ad...

87

A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The Geysers  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The Geysers Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In this project we developed a method for using seismic S-wave data to map the patterns and densities of sub-surface fractures in the NW Geysers Geothermal Field/ (1) This project adds to both the general methods needed to characterize the geothermal production fractures that supply steam for power generation and to the specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be

88

ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Subtype A Subtype B Subtype C Climate Zone Number 1 Zone 1A Zone 1B NA Climate Zone Number 2 Zone 2A Zone 2B NA Climate Zone...

89

Estimating fracture parameters from p-wave velocity profiles about a geothermal well  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of locating fracture zones and estimating their crack parameters was examined using an areal well shoot method centered on Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1, Beaver County, Utah. High-resolution travel time measurements were made between a borehole sensor and an array of shot stations distributed radially and azimuthally about the well. Directional velocity behavior in the vicinity of the well was investigated by comparing velocity logs derived from the travel time data. Three fracture zones were identified form the velocity data, corroborating fracture indicators seen in other geophysical logs conducted in Well 9-1. Crack densities and average crack aspect ratios for these fracture zones were estimated using a self-consistent velocity theory (O'Connell and Budiansy 1974). Probable trends of these fracture zones were established from a combination of the data from the more distant shot stations and the results of a gravity survey. The results of this study indicate that the areal well shoot is a potentially powerful tool for the reconnaisance of fracture-controlled fluid and gas reservoirs. Improvements in methodology and hardware could transform it into an operationally viable survey method.

Jenkinson, J.T.; Henyey, T.L.; Sammis, C.G.; Leary, P.C.; McRaney, J.K.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: This project aims to improve understanding of the subsurface fracture system in the Coso geothermal field, located in the east central California. We applied shear-wave splitting technique on a set of high quality, locally recorded microearthquake (MEQ) data. Four major fracture directions have been identified from the seismograms recorded by the permanent sixteen-station down-hole array: N10- 20W, NS, N20E, and N40-45E,

91

Comparison of pressure ransient response in intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive analytical model is presented to study the pressure transient behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir with a continuous matrix block size distribution. Geologically realistic probability density functions of matrix block size are used to represent reservoirs of varying fracture intensity and uniformity. Transient interporosity flow is assumed and interporosity skin is incorporated. Drawdown and interference pressure transient tests are investigated. The results show distinctions in the pressure response from intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs in the absence of interporosity skin. Also, uniformly and nonuniformly fractured reservoirs exhibit distinct responses, irrespective of the degree of fracture intensity. The pressure response in a nonuniformly fractured reservoir with large block size variability, approaches a nonfractured (homogeneous) reservoir response. Type curves are developed to estimate matrix block size variability and the degree of fracture intensity from drawdown and interference well tests.

Johns, R.T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Comparison of pressure transient response in intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive analytical model is presented to study the pressure transient behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir with a continuous matrix block size distribution. Geologically realistic probability density functions of matrix block size are used to represent reservoirs of varying fracture intensity and uniformity. Transient interporosity flow is assumed and interporosity skin is incorporated. Drawdown and interference pressure transient tests are investigated. The results show distinctions in the pressure response from intensely and sparsely fractured reservoirs in the absence of interporosity skin. Also, uniformly and nonuniformly fractured reservoirs exhibit distinct responses, irrespective of the degree of fracture intensity. The pressure response in a nonuniformly fractured reservoir with large block size variability, approaches a nonfractured (homogeneous) reservoir response. Type curves are developed to estimate matrix block size variability and the degree of fracture intensity from drawdown and interference well tests.

Johns, R.T.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

David S. Schechter

2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

94

theoretical and applied fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

example.A steam generator tubing severely affected by the stress corrosion cracking is studied during most of stress corrosion cracking in the tube expansion transition zone. 1. Introduction Steam generator (SG corrosion cracking (SCC)in the tube expansion transition zone seems presently to be the leading degradation

Cizelj, Leon

95

Single fracture aperture patterns: Characterization by slit-island fractal analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single fracture measurements are difficult to obtain, but they are the only means we have to observe and study natural fracture morphology. The character of the fracture openings (apertures) is often one of the primary factors controlling fluid flow in the fracture. In particular, the shape, distribution, and connectivity of contact areas and flow channels can affect the relative permeability of wetting and non-wetting fluid phases in unsaturated systems. In this paper we use three methods of fractal analysis (the slit-island, the divider, and the variogram) as well as statistical and geostatistical analysis to characterize the geometry of measured fracture apertures obtained from two different fractured rock specimens from the field. One of these is a granitic fracture (crack) of homogeneous lithology and no displacement, the other is a fracture (fault) obtained from a highly altered fault zone, containing striations and slickensides. We discuss the fractal and geostatistical analysis of these two fractures in the context of what information is most helpful for making predictions about fluid flow in single fractures.

Cox, B.L.; Wang, J.S.Y.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Breakthrough in fracture mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Fracture mechanics, the science of calculating material characteristics, stress, and flaws in plant equipment to evaluate structural integrity, usually spares the owners of nuclear power plants unnecessary expense. Instead of replacing equipment prematurely or waiting for costly, unscheduled materials failures that can take months to repair and cost thousands of dollars a day for replacement power, utilities use fracture mechanics techniques to carefully consider their options. If analyses show repair is unnecessary, plant operation can confidently be resumed. If repair is required, it can either be done immediately or, if deferrable, be scheduled for a later, more convenient outage.

Lihach, N.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Fracture characterization of multilayered reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracture treatment optimization techniques have been developed using Long-Spaced-Digital-Sonic (LSDS) log, pumpin-flowback, mini-frac, and downhole treating pressure data. These analysis techniques have been successfully applied in massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) of ''tight gas'' wells. Massive hydraulic fracture stimulations have been used to make many tight gas reservoirs commercially attractive. However, studies have shown that short highly conductive fractures are optimum for the successful stimulation of wells in moderate permeability reservoirs. As a result, the ability to design and place optimal fractures in these reservoirs is critical. This paper illustrates the application of fracture analysis techniques to a moderate permeability multi-layered reservoir. These techniques were used to identify large zonal variations in rock properties and pore pressure which result from the complex geology. The inclusion of geologic factors in fracture treatment design allowed the placement of short highly conductive fractures which were used to improve injectivity and vertical sweep, and therefore, ultimate recovery.

Britt, L.K.; Larsen, M.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

New observations of infiltration through fractured alluvium in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: A preliminary field investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional tectonics coupled with the subsurface detonation of nuclear explosives has caused widespread fracturing of the alluvium of Yucca Flat. Fractures deeper than 30 meters have been observed in boreholes. Some of these fractures are large enough to capture significant amounts of runoff during storm events. Evidence of stream capture by fractures and observations of runoff flowing into open fractures give qualitative evidence of infiltration to depths greater than several meters and possibly to the saturated zone. Our field observations contradict the assumption that little infiltration occurs on Yucca Flat. The larger, hydrologically important fractures are associated with geologic faults or the regional stress field. Additional field studies are needed to investigate the impact of fractures on the transport of contaminants.

Kao, C.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Smith, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful development of shale gas reservoirs is highly dependent on hydraulic fracture treatments. Many questions remain in regards to the geometry of the created fractures. Production data analysis from some shale gas wells quantifies a much smaller stimulated pore volume than what would be expected from microseismic evidence and reports of fracturing fluids reaching distant wells. In addition, claims that hydraulic fracturing may open or reopen a network of natural fractures is of particular interest. This study examines hydraulic fracturing of shale gas formations with specific interest in fracture geometry. Several field cases are analyzed using microseismic analysis as well as net pressure analysis of the fracture treatment. Fracture half lengths implied by microseismic events for some of the stages are several thousand feet in length. The resulting dimensions from microseismic analysis are used for calibration of the treatment model. The fracture profile showing created and propped fracture geometry illustrates that it is not possible to reach the full fracture geometry implied by microseismic given the finite amount of fluid and proppant that was pumped. The model does show however that the created geometry appears to be much larger than half the well spacing. From a productivity standpoint, the fracture will not drain a volume more than that contained in half of the well spacing. This suggests that for the case of closely spaced wells, the treatment size should be reduced to a maximum of half the well spacing. This study will provide a framework for understanding hydraulic fracture treatments in shale formations. In addition, the results from this study can be used to optimize hydraulic fracture treatment design. Excessively large treatments may represent a less than optimal approach for developing these resources.

Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Rigid Body Simulation with Local Fracturing Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Focusing on the real-time and interactive ability features in the Virtual Reality application, we propose a fracture pattern based on local fracture mechanism. Taking advantage of the experience analysis or the offline computation verified fracture characteristic, ... Keywords: Rigid Body, pre-fracture, fracture pattern, local fracture, dynamics

Wu Bo; Zeng Liang; Wu Yagang

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir Abstract Borehole televiewer, temperature and flowmeter logs and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements conducted in six wells penetrating a geothermal reservoir associated with the Stillwater fault zone in Dixie Valley, Nevada, were used to investigate the relationship between reservoir permeability and the contemporary in situ stress field. Data from wells drilled into productive and nonproductive segments of the Stillwater fault zone indicate that permeability in all wells is dominated by a relatively

103

Sand control method employing special hydraulic fracturing technique  

SciTech Connect

A novel sand control method is disclosed wherein high viscosity, high sand concentration, fracturing fluids are pumped through sets of vertically oriented perforations in borehole casings located in unconsolidated or loosely consolidated pay zones. Various techniques are utilized to insure that sand fills disposed on either side of the borehole casing cover and substantially overlap each borehole casing perforation set. Procedures are then followed to bring the well into production without washing out the sand fills in these areas, whereby the resulting perforation-sand fill configurations effectively control sand production from the treated zone.

Medlin, W.L.; Mullins, L.D.; Zumwalt, G.L.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

104

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the International Symposium ''Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rocks: Concepts and Recent Advances'' held at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on February 10-12, 1999. This Symposium is organized in Honor of the 80th Birthday of Paul A. Witherspoon, who initiated some of the early investigations on flow and transport in fractured rocks at the University of California, Berkeley, and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a key figure in the development of basic concepts, modeling, and field measurements of fluid flow and contaminant transport in fractured rock systems. The technical problems of assessing fluid flow, radionuclide transport, site characterization, modeling, and performance assessment in fractured rocks remain the most challenging aspects of subsurface flow and transport investigations. An understanding of these important aspects of hydrogeology is needed to assess disposal of nu clear wastes, development of geothermal resources, production of oil and gas resources, and remediation of contaminated sites. These Proceedings of more than 100 papers from 12 countries discuss recent scientific and practical developments and the status of our understanding of fluid flow and radionuclide transport in fractured rocks. The main topics of the papers are: Theoretical studies of fluid flow in fractured rocks; Multi-phase flow and reactive chemical transport in fractured rocks; Fracture/matrix interactions; Hydrogeological and transport testing; Fracture flow models; Vadose zone studies; Isotopic studies of flow in fractured systems; Fractures in geothermal systems; Remediation and colloid transport in fractured systems; and Nuclear waste disposal in fractured rocks.

Faybishenko, B. (ed.)

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Geothermal: Educational Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Educational Zone Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About...

107

Renaissance Zones (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Renaissance Zones allow qualifying businesses and individuals to claim one or more tax incentives for purchasing, leasing, or making improvements to real property located in a North Dakota...

108

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A physically based numerical approach for modeling fracture-matrix interaction in fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media. 3.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR PREDICTING THE FLUID FLOW ATTRIBUTES OF NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS FROM QUANTITATIVE GEOLOGIC DATA AND MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work carried out during the period of September 29, 2000 to January 15, 2004 under DOE Research Contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15308. High temperatures and reactive fluids in sedimentary basins dictate that interplay and feedback between mechanical and geochemical processes significantly influence evolving rock and fracture properties. Not only does diagenetic mineralization fill in once open fractures either partially or completely, it modifies the rock mechanics properties that can control the mechanical aperture of natural fractures. In this study, we have evolved an integrated methodology of fractured reservoir characterization and we have demonstrated how it can be incorporated into fluid flow simulation. The research encompassed a wide range of work from geological characterization methods to rock mechanics analysis to reservoir simulation. With regard to the characterization of mineral infilling of natural fractures, the strong interplay between diagenetic and mechanical processes is documented and shown to be of vital importance to the behavior of many types of fractured reservoirs. Although most recent literature emphasizes Earth stress orientation, cementation in fractures is likely a critically important control on porosity, fluid flow attributes, and even sensitivity to effective stress changes. The diagenetic processes of dissolution and partial cementation are key controls on the creation and distribution of open natural fractures within hydrocarbon reservoirs. The continuity of fracture-porosity is fundamental to how fractures conduct fluids. In this study, we have made a number of important discoveries regarding fundamental properties of fractures, in particular related to the prevalence of kinematically significant structures (crack-seal texture) within otherwise porous, opening-mode fractures, and the presence of an aperture size threshold below which fractures are completely filled and above which porosity is preserved. These observations can be linked to models of quartz cementation. Significant progress has been made as well in theoretical fracture mechanics and geomechanical modeling, allowing prediction of spatial distributions of fractures that mimic patterns observed in nature. Geomechanical modeling shows the spatial arrangement of opening mode fractures (joints and veins) is controlled by the subcritical fracture index of the material. In particular, we have been able to identify mechanisms that control the clustering of fractures in slightly deformed rocks. Fracture mechanics testing of a wide range of clastic rocks shows that the subcritical index is sensitive to diagenetic factors. We show geomechanical simulations of fracture aperture development can be linked to diagenetic models, modifying fracture porosity as fractures grow, and affect the dynamics of fracture propagation. Fluid flow simulation of representative fracture pattern realizations shows how integrated modeling can give new insight into permeability assessment in the subsurface. Using realistic, geomechanically generated fracture patterns, we propose a methodology for permeability estimation in nonpercolating networks.

Jon E. Olson; Larry W. Lake; Steve E. Laubach

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Uncertainty in the maximum principal stress estimated from hydraulic fracturing Measurements due to the presence of the induced fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory study of hydraulic fracturing pressure data?Howevaluation of hydraulic fracturing stress measurementreopening during hydraulic fracturing stress determinations.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-fu; Stephansson, Ove

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Analysis Of Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal Well  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal Well Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal Well Eps-1, Soultz-Sous-Forets, France Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Analysis Of Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal Well Eps-1, Soultz-Sous-Forets, France Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: An exhaustive analysis of 3000 macroscopic fractures encountered in the geothermal Hot Dry Rock borehole, EPS-1, located inside the Rhine graben (Soultz-sous-Forets, France), was done on a continuous core section over a depth interval from 1420 to 2230 m: 97% of the macroscopic structures were successfully reorientated with a good degree of confidence by comparison between core and acoustic borehole imagery. Detailed structural analysis of the fracture population indicates that fractures are

114

Identification of MHF (massive hydraulic fracturing) fracture planes and flow paths: A correlation of well log data with patterns in locations of induced seismicity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the critical steps in developing a hot dry rock geothermal system is the creation of flow paths through the rock between two wellbores. To date, circulation systems have only been created by drilling one wellbore, hydraulically fracturing the well (which induces microearthquakes), locating the microearthquakes and then drilling a second wellbore through the zone of seismicity. A technique for analyzing the pattern of seismicity to determine where fracture planes are located in the seismically active region has recently been developed. This allows us to distinguish portions of the seismically active volume which are most likely to contain significant flow paths. We applied this technique to seismic data collected during a massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatment and found that the fracture planes determined by the seismic method are confirmed by borehole temperature and caliper logs which indicate where permeable fractures and/or zones of weakness intersect the wellbores. A geometric model based on these planes and well log data has enhanced our understanding of the reservoir flow paths created by fracturing and is consistent with results obtained during production testing of the reservoir.

Dreesen, D.; Malzahn, M.; Fehler, M.; Dash, Z.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

MULTI-ATTRIBUTE SEISMIC/ROCK PHYSICS APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

This project consists of three key interrelated Phases, each focusing on the central issue of imaging and quantifying fractured reservoirs, through improved integration of the principles of rock physics, geology, and seismic wave propagation. This report summarizes the results of Phase I of the project. The key to successful development of low permeability reservoirs lies in reliably characterizing fractures. Fractures play a crucial role in controlling almost all of the fluid transport in tight reservoirs. Current seismic methods to characterize fractures depend on various anisotropic wave propagation signatures that can arise from aligned fractures. We are pursuing an integrated study that relates to high-resolution seismic images of natural fractures to the rock parameters that control the storage and mobility of fluids. Our goal is to go beyond the current state-of-the art to develop and demonstrate next generation methodologies for detecting and quantitatively characterizing fracture zones using seismic measurements. Our study incorporates 3 key elements: (1) Theoretical rock physics studies of the anisotropic viscoelastic signatures of fractured rocks, including up scaling analysis and rock-fluid interactions to define the factors relating fractures in the lab and in the field. (2) Modeling of optimal seismic attributes, including offset and azimuth dependence of travel time, amplitude, impedance and spectral signatures of anisotropic fractured rocks. We will quantify the information content of combinations of seismic attributes, and the impact of multi-attribute analyses in reducing uncertainty in fracture interpretations. (3) Integration and interpretation of seismic, well log, and laboratory data, incorporating field geologic fracture characterization and the theoretical results of items 1 and 2 above. The focal point for this project is the demonstration of these methodologies in the Marathon Oil Company Yates Field in West Texas.

Gary Mavko

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Practical simulation of hierarchical brittle fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel practical method for brittle fracture simulation is presented. Our fracture model is represented by a tree structure, and all elementary fracture pieces are hierarchically connected. Each node in a fracture tree has a glue table to define connections ... Keywords: fluid, fracture, rigid body

Seungtaik Oh; Seunghyup Shin; Hyeryeong Jun

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice-Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate and geometrical properties of the fracture were investigated, and the optimal conditions for wormhole formation determined.

Szymczak, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development Opportunity Zone Credit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Development Opportunity Zone Credits incent new and expanding businesses in the Cities of Beloit, Janesville and Kenosha by providing non-refundable tax credits to assist with the creation and...

120

Keystone Opportunity Zones (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Keystone Opportunity Zones allows businesses located within designated areas to qualify for a tax exemption, deduction, credit, or abatement of state and local taxes such as sales and use tax,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Deep Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOE’s most...

122

Queen Anne's County- Solar Zoning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Queen Anne's County zoning code allows for ground mounted solar arrays in areas zoned as "open space," "agricultural," and "countryside" districts.

123

Interferometric hydrofracture microseism localization using neighboring fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting high-pressure fluids into a reservoir to induce fractures and thus improve reservoir productivity. Microseismic event localization is used to locate created fractures. ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

124

Evaluation of fracturing results in deviated wellbores through on-site measurements  

SciTech Connect

Four adjacent oil wells in the Kuparuk River oil field, with deviated angles of 6{sup 0}5', 24{sup 0}6', 27{sup 0} and 36{sup 0}7' from the vertical at the perforations, were analyzed with prefracturing tests. The total fluid volume for these tests varied from 645 to 840 bbl(103 to 134 m/sup 3/) of either clean lease oil or water-based fracturing fluid at low to intermediate rates (up to 15bbl/min(2.4m/sup 3/)). These wells were subsequently fractured with proppant-laden fluid. A series of instantaneous shut-in pressures (ISIO's) was obtained for each well. ISIP's and fracturing pressures decreased with time in two of the four wells with a relatively high friction pressure at the end of the pumping. A radially propagating fracture from a point source of pressure explains this decreasing pressure with time. The elasticity theory predicts that a fracture in a deviated, cased wellbore should intersect the wellbore at one location. Only when the deviated wellbore azimuth is near that of the fracture orientation does the fracture sweep the entire perforated zone. This observation of the fracture orientation relative to the wellbore azimuth based on the pressure analysis is enhanced further by postfracture temperature surveys. It appears that only a relatively small volume of proppant could be displaced in a deviated wellbore. The degree of deviation, however, did not appear to be a major concern in the treatment of size.

Kim, C.M. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (USA)); Champion, J.H. (Arco Alaska Inc. (US)); Cooper, G.D. (Guydon Software Services (US))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to address the deficiencies. This document lays the foundation for the INEEL Site-wide vadose zone roadmap.

Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Experimental study of the transition from brittle shear fractures to joints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current geologic thinking is that there are two, and only two, distinct types of brittle fractures, joints and shear fractures (faults). For over half a century, it has been debated that a third type of fracture, referred to as hybrid fractures, could exist and that joints and shear fractures may be end members of a continuous spectrum of brittle fractures. Hybrid fractures are hypothesized to form under mixed compressive and tensile stress states and have structural characteristics intermediate to those of joints and shear fractures. While this hypothesis is accepted in many modern structural geology textbooks used at the college and graduate level, no unchallenged evidence exists for the existence of hybrid fractures. Following the general methodology of a previously performed study by W.F. Brace (1964), but incorporating several key modifications to the experimental methods, a series of dog-bone triaxial experiments were performed on Carrara marble at room temperature, an axial extension rate of 2x10?² mm s?¹, and confining pressures between 7.5 and 170 MPa. The experiments provide strong evidence for the existence of hybrid fractures on the basis of the progressive change in fracture orientation, surface morphology, and failure strength between end-member joints and shear fractures. At the lowest confining pressures (7.5 to 60 MPa), fractures are oriented approximately parallel to the maximum principal stress, []?, form at an axial stress []?, of approximately -7.75 MPa (i.e. the uniaxial tensile strength), and display fracture surfaces characterized by many reflective cleavage faces, consistent with jointing. At the highest confining pressures (130 to 170 MPa), fractures are oriented from 13.4? to 21.6? to []?, form under completely compressive stress states with []? between 0 and 4.3 MPa, and are characterized by powdery white surfaces with short slip lineations, consistent with shear fracturing. At intermediate confining pressures (70 to 120 MPa), fractures are oriented from 3.7? to 12.4? to []?, form under mixed stress conditions with s3 ranging from -10.6 to -3.0 MPa, and display both reflective cleavage faces and powdery white surfaces with short slip lineations, consistent with hybrid fracturing.

Ramsey, Jonathan Michael

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Meshless animation of fracturing solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new meshless animation framework for elastic and plastic materials that fracture. Central to our method is a highly dynamic surface and volume sampling method that supports arbitrary crack initiation, propagation, and termination, while ... Keywords: elasticity, fracture, meshless methods, physics-based animation, plasticity

Mark Pauly; Richard Keiser; Bart Adams; Philip Dutré; Markus Gross; Leonidas J. Guibas

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

NETL: Discrete Fracture Reservoir Simulation Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discrete Fracture Reservoir Simulation FRACGENNFFLOW Shale Gas Flow Simulation Shale Gas Flow Simulation FRACGENNFFLOW, a fractured reservoir modeling software developed by the...

130

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and T. W. Keech (1977), Hydraulic fracture mapping usingpotential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of Bunterbetween electrical and hydraulic flow patterns from rock

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Some Fundamental Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation focuses mainly on three topics: (1) mixed-mode branching and segmentation of hydraulic fractures in brittle materials, (2) hydraulic fracture propagation in particulate materials,… (more)

Wu, Ruiting

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture...

133

“Hanging” Pelvic Gallbladder Simulating Occult Hip Fracture Versus Appendicitis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pelvic Gallbladder Simulating Occult Hip Fracture Versuspossibility of either an occult hip fracture or a subacute

Dolbec, Katherine W D; Higgins, George L; Jung, Michale W

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Downhole tool sniffs out fractures  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that a new tool has been designed and successfully tested that can designate which direction from a borehole a particular fracture is located. Albuquerque-based Sandia National Laboratories tested the new tool. The prototype was built by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio. During field tests, the tool detected simulated fractures more than 30 ft away from a test borehole. It determines fracture direction by transmitting highly directional and powerful radar pulses in a known direction. The pulses last eight billionths of a second and their frequency spectrum range up to the VHF (very high frequency) band. Discontinuities in the rock interrupt and reflect radar signals so that a signal's return to the tool indicates the presence of fractures. The return signal's time delay translates into distance from the borehole. The transmitter and receiver rotate in place, permitting the tool to scan for fractures in all directions.

Not Available

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Active and passive seismic imaging of a hydraulic fracture in diatomite  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a comprehensive set of experiments including remote- and treatment-well microseismic monitoring, interwell shear-wave shadowing, and surface tiltmeter arrays, that was used to monitor the growth of a hydraulic fracture in the Belridge diatomite. To obtain accurate measurements, and extensive subsurface network of geophones was cemented spanning the diatomite formation in three closely spaced observation wells around the well to be fracture treated. Data analysis indicates that the minifracture and main hydraulic fracture stimulations resulted in a nearly vertical fracture zone (striking N26{degrees}E) vertically segregated into two separate elements, the uppermost of which grew 60 ft above the perforated interval. The interwell seismic effects are consistent with a side process zone of reduced shear velocity, which remote-well microseismic data independently suggest may be as wide as 40 ft. The experiments indicate complicated processes occurring during hydraulic fracturing that have significant implications for stimulation, waterflooding, in fill drilling, and EOR. These processes are neither well understood nor included in current hydraulic fracture models.

Vinegar, H.J.; Wills, P.B.; De Martini, D.C. (Shell Development Co. (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Lisburne Formation fracture characterization and flow modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of fractured reservoirs for fluid flow and optimal well placement is often very complicated. In general, fractures enhance permeability and increase access to matrix surface, but their random aspects create difficulties for analysis and performance prediction. Each reservoir has unique aspects which require individual assessment. This study examined fracture properties in a part of the Carboniferous Lisburne Formation. Field study of outcrops yielded information on two sets of large-scale fractures (NNW and ENE orientations) from the lower Wahoo Limestone in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Several statistical methods were used on these data to find appropriate models describing the megafracture properties. For NNW fracture height and ENE fracture spacing, the gamma model appears to adequately describe the distribution. NNW fracture spacing and ENE fracture height are lognormally distributed. Results of the statistical analyses were used as input for fracture set generation and modeling using "FracMan". Modeling different borehole orientations in the fractured domain revealed that horizontal wells with 60? azimuth have an optimal trajectory, resulting in the maximum number and area of fracture connections. The orientation maximizing the number of fracture connections did not necessarily give the maximum area. Conductivity analysis showed that the fracture network is weakly anisotropic and above the percolation threshold. The fracture conductance is strongly dependent on the NNW fracture set; larger fractures influence fluid flow more than smaller fractures. Fracture strike and dip variability increased the system interconnectivity, but did not affect the optimal wellbore orientation. Incorporating ENE fracture termination against the NNW fractures decreased the system conductance and shifted the optimal wellbore trajectory towards the direction perpendicular to the NNW set. Reservoir engineering implications of this study include: guidelines for optimal wellbore orientations, the relative placement of injectors and producers along the bisectors between the two fracture sets, and the importance of including fracture terminations. Further work should investigate the influence of variations in fracture aperture and transmissivities, and drainage area, and extend the analysis to additional units of the Lisburne Group.

Karpov, Alexandre Valerievich

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

Mark D. Habana

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Fully Coupled Geomechanics and Discrete Flow Network Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing for Geothermal Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of our current research is to develop a computational test bed for evaluating borehole techniques to enhance fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Simulating processes resulting in hydraulic fracturing and/or the remobilization of existing fractures, especially the interaction between propagating fractures and existing fractures, represents a critical goal of our project. To this end, we are continuing to develop a hydraulic fracturing simulation capability within the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC), a combined FEM/DEM analysis code with explicit solid-fluid mechanics coupling. LDEC simulations start from an initial fracture distribution which can be stochastically generated or upscaled from the statistics of an actual fracture distribution. During the hydraulic stimulation process, LDEC tracks the propagation of fractures and other modifications to the fracture system. The output is transferred to the Non-isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to capture heat transfer and flow at the reservoir scale. This approach is intended to offer flexibility in the types of analyses we can perform, including evaluating the effects of different system heterogeneities on the heat extraction rate as well as seismicity associated with geothermal operations. This paper details the basic methodology of our approach. Two numerical examples showing the capability and effectiveness of our simulator are also presented.

Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Hao, Y; Carrigan, C R

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

139

Progress toward using hydraulic data to diagnose lost circulation zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several wellbore hydraulic models have been examined to determine their applicability in measuring the characteristics of lost circulation zones encountered in geothermal drilling. Characteristics such as vertical location in the wellbore, fracture size, effective permeability, and formation pressure must be known in order to optimize treatment of such zones. The models that have been examined to date are a steady-state model, a standpipe-pressure model, a raising-the-drill-bit model, a mud-weight model, a hydrofracture model, and several time-dependent models. None of these models yet have been found to adequately match the field data obtained from six loss zones in three geothermal wells. The development of these models is presented in this paper, and a discussion of their limitations is provided.

Mansure, A.J.; Glowka, D.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Near-field/altered-zone models report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for the first underground repository for permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors as well as for other types high-level nuclear waste. Emplacement of high-level radioactive waste, especially commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. The heating rate will decrease with time, creating a thermal pulse. Over a period of several thousand years, the rock temperature will rise initially, then drop when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. Besides raising the rock temperature, much of this heat will vaporize water, which will then condense in cooler regions. The condensate is likely to form a gravity-driven heat pipe above the repository, creating the possibility that water may drain back onto the waste packages (WPs) or that it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. The long-term importance of these effects has been investigated through the development, testing, and application of thermohydrologic (TH) models. Other effects, such coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may also influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. A recent report on thermally driven coupled processes (Hardin and Chesnut, 1997) provides a qualitative assessment of the probable significance of these processes for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) and is the phenomenological framework for the present report. This report describes the conceptual and numerical models that have been developed to predict the thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and chemical responses to the cumulative heat production of the potential host rock at Yucca Mountain. As proposed, the repository horizon will be situated within the Topopah Spring tuff, in the adjacent middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and presentation of contributions are intended to show the iterative development of understand

Hardin, E. L., LLNL

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation Page Documentation Page 1. Report No. DE - FC 21 - 92MC29077 2. 3. Recipient's Accession No. 5. Report Date August 31, 2000 4. Title and Subtitle Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility 6. 7. Author(s) The University of Oklahoma 8. Performing Organization Rept. No. 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address The University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center T301 100 E Boyd St Norman, OK 73019 11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) No. DOE:DE FC21 92 MC29077 13. Type of Report & Period Covered Final Report 09 30 92 - 03 31 00 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address US Dept of Energy - FETL 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26505 14. 15. Supplementary Notes Several technical papers were prepared and presented at various Society of Petroleum Engineers Conferences and US

142

SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND COMPACTION COMPACTION  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND COMPACTION COMPACTION IN NATURAL URANIUM IN NATURAL URANIUM UNDER SHOCK UNDER SHOCK - - WAVE LOADING WAVE LOADING O.A. O.A. Tyupanova Tyupanova , S.S. , S.S. Nadezhin Nadezhin , A.N. , A.N. Malyshev Malyshev , , O.N. O.N. Ignatova Ignatova , V.I. , V.I. Skokov Skokov , V.N. , V.N. Knyazev Knyazev , , V.A. V.A. Raevsky Raevsky , N.A. , N.A. Yukina Yukina Russian Federal Nuclear Center Russian Federal Nuclear Center - - VNIIEF, VNIIEF, Sarov Sarov , Russia , Russia Introduction Introduction  Nucleation and growth of defects inside a solid under pulse tensile stresses signify a necessity to consider it as a damaged medium.  A certain volume of experimental data, obtained in correct tests, which are sensitive to a characteristic under study, is necessary

143

Subduction Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Subduction Zone Subduction Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Subduction Zone Dictionary.png Subduction Zone: A tectonic process in which one tectonic plate is forced beneath another and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot Non-Tectonic Strike-Slip A classic cartoon illustrating a typical simplified subduction zone. http://www.columbia.edu/~vjd1/subd_zone_basic.htm Subduction zones occur where one tectonic plate is pulled under another. Most often the subducting plate is oceanic crust and contains many hydrous minerals. As the oceanic plate subducts it dewaters into the mantle,

144

Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology  

SciTech Connect

Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

146

Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in porous andmultiphase, multicomponent fluids in permeable (fractured and porous)multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation in fractured porous

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media.flows of multiphase, multicomponent fluids in permeable (fractured and porous) media (

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

TMS Continuing Education Home  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Continuing Education Home. TMS is dedicated to encouraging the lifelong education of materials science and engineering professionals through ...

149

Fracture of aluminum naval structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural catastrophic failure of naval vessels due to extreme loads such as underwater or air explosion, high velocity impact (torpedoes), or hydrodynamic loads (high speed vessels) is primarily caused by fracture. ...

Galanis, Konstantinos, 1970-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Fracture detection and mapping for geothermal reservoir definition: an assessment of current technology, research, and research needs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The detection and mapping of fractures and other zones of high permeability, whether natural or manmade, has been a subject of considerable economic and scientific interest to the pertroleum industry and to the geothermal community. Research related to fractured geothermal reservoirs has been conducted under several past DOE geothermal energy development programs. In this paper we review the present state of technology in fracture detection and mapping. We outline the major problems and limitations of the ''conventional'' techniques, and current research in new technologies. We also present research needs.

Goldstein, N.E.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Accommodation Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Accommodation Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Accommodation Zone Dictionary.png Accommodation Zone: Accommodation zones occur at fault intersections consisting of belts of interlocking, oppositely dipping normal faults. Multiple subsurface fault intersections in these zones are a favorable host for geothermal activity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones

152

Temporary Sealing of Fractures | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporary Sealing of Fractures Temporary Sealing of Fractures Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Temporary Sealing of Fractures 2 Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Temporary Sealing of Fractures Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Temporary Sealing of Fractures Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

153

Ductile Fracture Handbook: Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-volume Ductile Fracture Handbook provides the structural analyst with computational methods for evaluating the integrity of flawed structures that are fabricated from ductile materials or have loads that may produce significant plasticity, specifically easy-to-use fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of problems dealing with cylinders subjected to several types of elastic-plastic loading. Volume 2 presents new solutions and significant expansion of previous solutions, typically in the ...

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Ductile Fracture Handbook: Volume 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-volume Ductile Fracture Handbook provides the structural analyst with computational methods for evaluating the integrity of flawed structures that are fabricated from ductile materials or have loads that may produce significant plasticity, specifically easy-to-use fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of problems dealing with cylinders subjected to several types of elastic-plastic loading. Volume 3 presents solutions for axial part-throughwall cracks, cracks in elbows, tees, and nozzles...

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Estimation of unsaturated zone traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, using a source-responsive preferential-flow model  

SciTech Connect

Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated zone takes place as preferential flow, faster than would be predicted by the coupled Richards' and advection-dispersion equations with hydraulic properties estimated by traditional means. At present the hydrologic community has not achieved consensus as to whether a modification of Richards' equation, or a fundamentally different formulation, would best quantify preferential flow. Where the fastest contaminant transport speed is what needs to be estimated, there is the possibility of simplification of the evaluation process. One way of doing so is by a two-step process in which the first step is to evaluate whether significant preferential flow and solute transport is possible for the media and conditions of concern. The second step is to carry out (a) a basic Richards' and advection-dispersion equation analysis if it is concluded that preferential flow is not possible or (b) an analysis that considers only the fastest possible preferential-flow processes, if preferential flow is possible. For the preferential-flow situation, a recently published model describable as a Source-Responsive Preferential-Flow (SRPF) model is an easily applied option. This report documents the application of this two-step process to flow through the thick unsaturated zones of Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site. Application of the SRPF model involves distinguishing between continuous and intermittent water supply to preferential flow paths. At Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain this issue is complicated by the fact that contaminant travel begins at a location deep in the subsurface, where there may be perched water that may or may not act like a continuous supply, depending on such features as the connectedness of fractures and the nature of impeding layers. We have treated this situation by hypothesizing both continuous and intermittent scenarios for contaminant transport to the carbonate aquifer and reporting estimation of the fastest speed for both of these end members.

Brian A. Ebel; John R. Nimmo

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

2000-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

157

Vaporizing Flow in Hot Fractures: Observations from Laboratory Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding water seepage in hot fractured rock is important in a number of fields including geothermal energy recovery and nuclear waste disposal. Heat-generating high-level nuclear waste packages which will be emplaced in the partially saturated fractured tuffs at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, if it becomes a high-level nuclear waste repository, will cause significant impacts on moisture distribution and migration. Liquid water, which occupies anywhere from 30 to 100% of the porespace, will be vaporized as the temperature reaches the boiling temperature. Flowing primarily in fractures, the vapor will condense where it encounters cooler rock, generating mobile water. This water will flow under gravitational and capillary forces and may flow back to the vicinity of the emplaced waste where it may partially escape vaporization. Water flowing down (sub-) vertical fractures may migrate considerable distances through fractured rock that is at above-boiling temperatures; thus, flowing condensate may contact waste packages, and provide a pathway for the transport of water-soluble radionuclides downward to the saturated zone. Thermally-driven flow processes induced by repository heat may be as important or even more important for repository performance than natural infiltration. For a nominal thermal loading of 57 kW/acre, vaporization may generate an average equivalent percolation flux from condensate of 23.1 mm/yr over 1,000 years, and 5.2 mm/yr over 10,000 years. These numbers are comparable to or larger than current estimates of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. This condensate, which is generated in the immediate vicinity (meters) of the waste packages, will likely have a larger impact on waste package and repository performance than a similar amount of water introduced at the land surface.

Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Zones to Climate Zones to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Research Innovations Research Tools Building Science Education Climate-Specific Guidance Solution Center Partnerships Meetings Publications Home Energy Score Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Challenge Home Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals

159

Rift Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rift Zone Rift Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Rift Zone Dictionary.png Rift Zone: A divergent plate boundary within a continent Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot Non-Tectonic Strike-Slip The Rio Grande Rift exemplifies rift zone tectonics - increased volcanic activity and the formation of graben structures (reference: science-art.com) Rift valleys occur at divergent plate boundaries, resulting in large graben structures and increased volcanism. The East African Rift is an example of a continental rift zone with increased volcanism, while the Atlantic's spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge is host to an enormous amount of geothermal

160

The Enterprise Zone (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone offers tax incentives to business expanding their workforce by 5% at facilities in designated enterprise zones. The tax credit is equal to 50% of the annual wages paid to a new...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

162

Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso geothermal field, CA Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso geothermal field, CA Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In crystalline rock of the Coso Geothermal Field, CA, fractures are the primary source of permeability. At reservoir depths, borehole image, temperature, and mud logs indicate fluid flow is concentrated in extensively fractured damage zones of large faults well-oriented for slip.

163

A physically based numerical approach for modeling fracture-matrix interaction in fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.flow through unsaturated fractured porous media, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.flow through unsaturated fractured porous media, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Essential Work of Fracture Method Applied to Mode II Interlaminar Fracture in Fiber Reinforced Polymers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a new method for determining mode II interlaminar fracture toughness in fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) using the essential work of fracture (EWF)… (more)

McKinney, Scott D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Hydraulic fracture optimization using hydraulic fracture and reservoir modeling in the Piceance Basin, Colorado.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulic fracturing is an important stimulation method for producing unconventional gas reserves. Natural fractures are present in many low-permeability gas environments and often provide important… (more)

Reynolds, Harris Allen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing seismic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing seismic Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing seismic guided waves from microearthquake data Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing seismic guided waves from microearthquake data Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Active fault systems usually provide high-permeability channels for hydrothermal outflow in geothermal fields. Locating such fault systems is of a vital importance to plan geothermal production and injection drilling, since an active fault zone often acts as a fracture-extensive low-velocity wave guide to seismic waves. We have located an active fault zone in the Coso geothermal field, California, by identifying and analyzing

168

A Site-Scale Model For Fluid And Heat Flow In The Unsaturated Zone Of Yucca  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Site-Scale Model For Fluid And Heat Flow In The Unsaturated Zone Of Yucca Site-Scale Model For Fluid And Heat Flow In The Unsaturated Zone Of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Site-Scale Model For Fluid And Heat Flow In The Unsaturated Zone Of Yucca Mountain, Nevada Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A three-dimensional unsaturated-zone numerical model has been developed to simulate flow and distribution of moisture, gas and heat at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste. The model takes into account the simultaneous flow dynamics of liquid water, vapor, air and heat in the highly heterogeneous, fractured porous rock in the unsaturated zone (UZ). This model is intended for use in the prediction of the current and future conditions in the UZ so

169

CO2 Emissions - Panama Canal Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Panama Canal Zone Graphics CO2 Emissions from Panama Canal Zone Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Panama Canal Zone...

170

Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transition Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Transition Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Transition Zone Geothermal Region edit Details...

171

TMS Continuing Education Page  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Education Development. If you are interested in developing a continuing education activity, please review the specific course options and requirements below.

172

Continuous Sludge Leaching  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Sludge Leaching Reid Peterson and Renee Russell - Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Terry Sams and Bill Brasel - Parsons 2 What is CSL? * Process diagram * Full scale...

173

Nonisothermal injection tests in fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The paper extends the analysis of nonisothermal pressure transient data to fractured reservoirs. Two cases are considered: reservoirs with predominantly horzontal fractures and reservoirs with predominantly vertical fractures. Effects of conductive heat transfer between the fractures and the rock matrix are modeled, and the resulting pressure transients evaluated. Thermal conduction tends to retard the movement of the thermal front in the fractures, which significantly affects the pressure transient data. The purpose of the numerical simulation studies is to provide methods for analyzing nonisothermal injection/falloff data for fractured reservoirs.

Cox, B.L.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Continuity Volume Four ---  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and key resources (CIKR) and the execution of the $50m per year Buffer Zone Protection grant programme. He is also responsible for developing plans to imple ment multiple CIKR national protection pro grammes for the nation's most critical CIKR. Mr Norman joined DHS in 2004 and started as the Program Manager

Kemner, Ken

176

Liquid zone seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Structural geology of Shawneetown fault zone, Southeastern Illinois  

SciTech Connect

Vertical movements of crustal blocks along the narrow east-west-trending Shawneetown fault zone in southeastern Illinois occurred between Early Permian and Late Cretaceous. The main blocks moved vertically and retured to roughly their orignal positions so that strata now show little relative offset across the fault zone. However, individual faults with displacements up to 3,500 ft (1,070 m) bound narrow slices of steeply tilted or overturned strata resulting in a juxtaposition of Kinderhookian (Lower Mississippian) and Upper Devonian strata with Lower Pennsylvanina strata. The bedrock is intensely fractured, commonly brecciated, and cemented with either silica or calcite. Slickensides and mullion display various orientations within the zone and on individual outcrops. The dominant movement, however, appears to be vertical with no evidence for significant strike-slip movements. Pleistocene deposits do not exhibit offsets across the fault zone, indicating that no tectonic activity has occurred since the beginning of that epoch. The trend of the fault zone changes abruptly from east-west in southern Gallatin and easternmost Saline Counties to south-southwest in southern Saline and northeastern Pope Counties, where it joins the Fluorspar area fault complex. Here the zone widens and develops a braided pattern as the amount of displacement along individual faults decreases. The Shawneetown fault zone and Flourspar area fault complex in part are younger than the Cottage Grove fault system to the northwest and the Wabash Valley fault system to the north. The hope of finding structural traps near the junctions of the fuel systems has spurred recent oil exploration in the area.

Lumm, D.K.; Nelson, W.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic Fracturing Jump to: navigation, search More info on OpenEI Oil and Gas Gateway Federal Environmental Statues Federal Oil and Gas Statutes Oil and Gas Companies United States Oil and Gas Boards International Oil and Gas Boards Other Information Fracking Regulations by State Wells by State Fracking Chemicals Groundwater Protection Related Reports A Perspective on Health and Natural Gas Operations: A Report for Denton City Council Just the Fracking Facts The Politics of 'Fracking': Regulating Natural Gas Drilling Practices in Colorado and Texas Addressing the Environmental Risks from Shale Gas Development Water Management Technologies Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Methane contamination of drinking wateraccompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing

179

Method for directional hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Continuations and Web Servers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Programming web applications in direct style with the help of continuations is a much simpler, safer, modular and better-performing technology than the current dominating "page-centric" technology combining CGI scripts, active pages or servlets. This ... Keywords: WWW, continuations, hypertext, scheme

Christian Queinnec

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Continuations and transducer composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-line transducers are an important class of computational agent; we construct and compose together many software systems using them, such as stream processors, layered network protocols, DSP networks and graphics pipelines. We show an interesting use ... Keywords: calculus, continuation-passing style (CPS), continuations, coroutines, flow analysis, functional languages, fusion, lambda, language design, program analysis, stream processing

Olin Shivers; Matthew Might

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: An evaluation of the continuum approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because the continuum approach is relatively simple and straightforward to implement, it has been commonly used in modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. However, the usefulness of this approach can be questioned in terms of its adequacy for representing fingering flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock. The continuum approach thus needs to be evaluated carefully by comparing simulation results with field observations directly related to unsaturated flow and transport processes. This paper reports on such an evaluation, based on a combination of model calibration and prediction, using data from an infiltration test carried out in a densely fractured rock within the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Comparisons between experimental and modeling results show that the continuum approach may be able to capture important features of flow and transport processes observed from the test. The modeling results also show that matrix diffusion may have a significant effect on the overall transport behavior in unsaturated fractured rocks, which can be used to estimate effective fracture-matrix interface areas based on tracer transport data. While more theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies are needed to provide a conclusive evaluation, this study suggests that the continuum approach is useful for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated, densely fractured rock.

Liu, Hui-Hai; Haukwa, Charles B.; Ahlers, C. Fredrik; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Flint, Alan L.; Guertal, William B.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Seismic studies of a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment carried out at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, 850 microearthquakes, ranging in magnitudes from -3 to 0, were located reliably using arrival times recorded at a set of 5 downhole geophone stations. A subset of these events were located using an upgraded hodogram technique. The seismicity defines a tabular zone with horizontal extent of 900 m, vertical extent of 800 m, and thickness of 150 m. This zone strikes N340/sup 0/E, and dips 75/sup 0/ to the east; its position indicates that no hydraulic connection between the two predrilled wells could be achieved by the fracturing. The distribution of locations obtained from arrival times shows good agreement with those derived from hodograms. Well constrained fault plane solutions were determined for 26 of the larger microearthquakes observed at a surface seismic net. Most solutions display one nearly vertical nodal plane that strikes close to N - S, and a T axis that trends roughly E - W, in agreement with regional indicators of the least principal stress direction. 9 refs., 6 figs.

House, L.; Keppler, H.; Kaieda, H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 5C Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 5 and Climate Zone Subtype C. Climate Zone...

185

Acoustic Character Of Hydraulic Fractures In Granite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fractures in homogeneous granitic rocks were logged with conventional acoustic-transit-time, acoustic-waveform, and acoustic-televiewer logging systems. Fractured intervals ranged in depth from 45 to 570m. and ...

Paillet, Frederick I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Effects of dry fractures on matrix diffusion in unsaturated fractured rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symposium on Multiphase Transport in Porous Media, ASMEmultiphase heat and mass flow in unsaturated fractured porous

Seol, Yongkoo; Liu, Hui Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of fluid motion through an unsaturated fracture and fracture junction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase fluid motion in unsaturated fractures and fracture networks involves complicated fluid dynamics, which is difficult to model using grid-based continuum methods. In this paper, the application of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a relatively ... Keywords: Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), Fracture, Fracture flow, Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), Weight functions

Moubin Liu; Paul Meakin; Hai Huang

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Summary of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...in this Volume."Stress Intensity Factors"A brief summary of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) concepts

189

Development of a fixation device for robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures: A biomechanical study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures provides precise alignment while reducing the amount of intraoperative imaging. The connection between the robot and the fracture fragment should allow conventional intramedullary nailing, ... Keywords: Robot, femur shaft, fracture reduction, interface

T. S. Weber-Spickschen; M. Oszwald; R. Westphal; C. Krettek; F. Wahl; T. Gosling

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Optimizing fracture stimulation using treatment-well tiltmeters and integrated fracture modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper covers the optimization of hydraulic fracture treatments in a new coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir in Wyoming. A multiwell pilot project was conducted in the Copper Ridge (CR) field to assess future development potential. Hydraulic fracture mapping was successfully performed with treatment-well tiltmeters on six wells including the first-ever used on propped treatments. The mapped fracture height was then used to calibrate the fracture model, perform on-site fracture-design changes, and optimize future fracture treatments. This paper shows how early use of fracture diagnostics can assist in the development of a new reservoir.

Mayerhofer, M.; Stutz, L.; Davis, E.; Wolhart, S. [Pinnacle Technology Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Applied Earth Science, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Closed continuous-flow centrifuge rotor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A blood separation centrifuge rotor having a generally parabolic core disposed concentrically and spaced apart within a housing having a similarly shaped cavity. Blood is introduced through a central inlet and into a central passageway enlarged downwardly to decrease the velocity of the entrant blood. Septa are disposed inside the central passageway to induce rotation of the entrant blood. A separation chamber is defined between the core and the housing wherein the whole blood is separated into red cell, white cell, and plasma zones. The zones are separated by annular splitter blades disposed within the separation chamber. The separated components are continuously removed through conduits communicating through a face seal to the outside of the rotor.

Breillatt, Jr., Julian P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Remenyik, Carl J. (Knoxville, TN); Sartory, Walter K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Penland, William Z. (Bethesda, MD)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Natural and Induced Fracture Diagnostics from 4-D VSP Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Tight gas sand reservoirs generally contain thick gas-charged intervals that often have low porosity and very low permeability. Natural and induced fractures provide the only means of production. The objective of this work is to locate and characterize natural and induced fractures from analysis of scattered waves recorded on 4-D (time lapse) VSP data in order to optimize well placement and well spacing in these gas reservoirs. Using model data simulating the scattering of seismic energy from hydraulic fractures, we first show that it is possible to characterize the quality of fracturing based upon the amount of scattering. In addition, the picked arrival times of recorded microseismic events provide the velocity moveout for isolating the scattered energy on the 4-D VSP data. This concept is applied to a field dataset from the Jonah Field in Wyoming to characterize the quality of the induced hydraulic fractures. The time lapse (4D) VSP data from this field are imaged using a migration algorithm that utilizes shot travel time tables derived from the first breaks of the 3D VSPs and receiver travel time tables based on the microseismic arrival times and a regional velocity model. Four azimuthally varying shot tables are derived from picks of the first breaks of over 200 VSP records. We create images of the fracture planes through two of the hydraulically fractured wells in the field. The scattered energy shows correlation with the locations of the microseismic events. In addition, the azimuthal scattering is different from the azimuthal reflectivity of the reservoir, giving us more confidence that we have separated the scattered signal from simple formation reflectivity. Variation of the scattered energy along the image planes suggests variability in the quality of the fractures in three distinct zones.

Mark E. Willis; Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Continuous sulfur removal process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

196

Business Continuity Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article considers various strategies for protecting an organisation from both natural and man-made disasters. The differences between business continuity planning, and disaster recovery planning are recognised. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, ...

Martin Nemzow

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Size effect and fracture characteristics of composite laminates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the size effect on the nominal strength of notched specimens of fiber composite laminates are reported. Tests were conducted on graphite/epoxy crossply and quasi-isotropic laminates. The specimens were rectangular strips of widths 6.4, 12.7, 25.4 and 50.8 mm (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 in.) geometrically similar in two dimensions. The gage lengths were 25, 51, 102 and 203 mm (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 in.). One set of specimens had double-edge notches and a [0/92{sub 2}]{sub s} crossply layup, and another set had a single-sided edge notch and a [0/{+-}45/90]{sub s} quasi-isotropic layup. It has been found that there is a significant size effect on the nominal strength. It approximately agrees with the size effect law proposed by Bazant, according to which the curve of the logarithm of the nominal strength versus the logarithm of size represents a smooth transition from a horizontal asymptote, corresponding to the strength criterion (plastic limit analysis), to an inclined asymptote of {minus}0.5 slope, corresponding to linear elastic fracture mechanics. Optimum fits of the test results to identify the material fracture characteristics, particularly the fracture energy and the effective length of the fracture process zone. Finally, the R-curves are also identified on the basis of the maximum load data. The results show that in design situations with notches or large initial traction-free cracks the size effect on the nominal strength of fiber composite laminates must be taken into account.

Bazant, Z.P.; Daniel, I.M.; Li, Z. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

IMCRA ZONE GROOTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The views and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Government or the Minister for the Environment and Heritage. Acknowledgments WWF-Australia would like to thank the Natural Heritage Trust and Department of Environment and Heritage for providing funding to key elements of the WWF Marine Debris Program over time. Previously, a Coast and Clean Seas Grant funded the development of the WWF Net Kit, while funds received in 2003 allowed WWF and partners to continue to monitor the marine debris washing ashore in northern Australia. WWF would also like to thank all partner organisations that supported the 2004 marine debris surveys and particularly those that participated in the surveys. Their hard work and enthusiasm ensured the successful continuation of the WWF Marine Debris Program.

Damian White; Imcra Zone Cobourge; Wildlife Rangers; Garry Williams; John Williams Who Provided

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Symmetric continued fractions  

SciTech Connect

Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

Panprasitwech, Oranit [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Laohakosol, Vichian [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Chaichana, Tuangrat [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

Hein, J.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

DOE Solar Decathlon: Comfort Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Decathlon Comfort Zone Contest, teams design their houses to keep temperature and humidity steady, uniform, and comfortable. Full points are awarded for maintaining narrow...

202

Interfacial Transition Zone Bibliography Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Saito, M., and Kawamura, M., Effect of Fly Ash and Slag on the Interfacial Zone Between Cement and Aggregate , in ACI SP 114: Fly Ash, Silica ...

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fracture Permeability and in Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have collected and analyzed fracture and fluid flow data from wells both within and outside the producing geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley. Data from wellbore imaging and flow tests in wells outside the producing field that are not sufficiently hydraulically connected to the reservoir to be of commercial value provide both the necessary control group of fracture populations and an opportunity to test the concepts proposed in this study on a regional, whole-reservoir scale. Results of our analysis indicate that fracture zones with high measured permeabilities within the producing segment of the fault are parallel to the local trend of the Stillwater fault and are optimally oriented and critically stressed for frictional failure in the overall east-southeast extensional stress regime measured at the site. In contrast, in the non-producing (i.e., relatively impermeable:) well 66-21 the higher ratio of S{sub hmin} to S{sub v} acts to decrease the shear stress available to drive fault slip. Thus, although many of the fractures at this site (like the Stillwater fault itself) are optimally oriented for normal faulting they are not critically stressed for frictional failure. Although some of the fractures observed in the non-producing well 45-14 are critically stressed for frictional failure, the Stillwater fault zone itself is frictionally stable. Thus, the high horizontal differential stress (i.e., S{sub Hmax}-S{sub hmin}) together with the severe misorientation of the Stillwater fault zone for normal faulting at this location appear to dominate the overall potential for fluid flow.

M. D. Zoback

1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

204

Determining the adaptive decision zone of discrete lot sizing model with changes of total cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) zone is beneficial for giving some latitude in picking the lot sizes in a continuous time inventory problem, but it is not suitable for a discrete time inventory problem, the discrete lot sizing (DLS) problem. In this ... Keywords: Alternative solutions, Decision making, Discrete lot sizing, EOQ zone

Dong-Shang Chang; Fu-Chiao Chyr; Fu-Chiang Yang

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Method for enhancement of sequential hydraulic fracturing using control pulse fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing where two wells are utilized comprising: (a) drilling and completing a first and second well so that the wells will be in fluid communication with each other after subsequent fracturing in each well; (b) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method in the second well; (c) thereafter hydraulically fracturing the reservoir via the first well thereby creating fractures in the reservoir and afterwards shutting-in the first well without any induced pressure; (d) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the reservoir via the second well in an amount sufficient to fracture the reservoir thereby forming a first hydraulic fracture perpendicular to the least principal in-situ stress; (e) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the reservoir while pumping via the second well alternate slugs of a thin-fluid spacer and a temporary blocking agent having a proppant therein whereupon a second hydraulic fracture is initiated; (f) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the second well while pumping alternate slugs of spacer and blocking agent into the second hydraulic fracture thereby causing the second hydraulic fracture to propagate away from the first hydraulic fracture in step (e) in a curved trajectory which intersects a fracture created in the first well; (g) maintaining the hydraulic pressure while pumping as in step (f) whereupon another hydraulic fracture initiates causing another curved fracture trajectory to form and intersect the fracture created in the first well; and (h) repeated steps (f) and (g) until a desired number of hydraulic fractures are created which allows a substantial improvement in removing a natural resource from the reservoir.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Strubhar, M.K.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

207

RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

Abbas Firoozabadi

2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a method by which microseismic events can be discriminated/detected that correspond to only the portion of the hydraulic fracture that contains the proppant material and can be expected to be conductive to the flow of oil and gas. July 3, 2013 Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Figure 1: A graph of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature for the anti-perovskite Li3OCl. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Applications: Oil and gas production Geophysical exploration Benefits: Tracks the disposition of material in a hydraulic fracturing

210

Hydrodynamics of a vertical hydraulic fracture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed a numerical algorithm, HUBBERT, to simulate the hydrodynamics of a propagating vertical, rectangular fracture in an elastic porous medium. Based on the IFD method, this algorithm assumes fracture geometry to be prescribed. The breakdown and the creation of the incipient fracture is carried out according to the Hubbert-Willis theory. The propagation of the fracture is based on the criterion provided by Griffith, based on energy considerations. The deformation properties of the open fracture are based on simple elasticity solutions. The fracture is assumed to have an elliptical shape to a distance equal to the fracture height, beyond which the shape is assumed to be parallel plate. A consequence of Griffith's criterion is that the fracture must propagate in discrete steps. The parametric studies carried out suggest that for a clear understanding of the hydrodynamics of the hydraulic fracture many hitherto unrecognized parameters must be better understood. Among these parameters one might mention, efficiency, aperture of the newly formed fracture, stiffness of the newly formed fracture, relation between fracture aperture and permeability, and well bore compliance. The results of the studies indicate that the patterns of pressure transients and the magnitudes of fracture length appear to conform to field observations. In particular, the discrete nature of fracture propagation as well as the relevant time scales of interest inferred from the present work seem to be corroborated by seismic monitoring in the field. The results suggest that the estimation of least principal stress can be reliably made either with shut in data or with reinjection data provided that injection rates are very small.

Narasimhan, T.N.

1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

211

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

Blau, M.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Simulating the Upper Barren Zone and the Ore Zone tests performed with the EMC logging tool  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of the Multispectral Nuclear Logging project is to assess the effectiveness of applying nuclear borehole-logging techniques to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) program, adapt the technology to improve these capabilities, and transfer that technology to industry. The purpose of the Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP is to predict the minimum concentration levels for environmental contaminants that could be detected by Multispectral Logging (MSL). The Monte Carlo code used for this type of simulation, MCNP, should be benchmarked against experimental data to show that the user can accurately reproduce the proper gamma-ray spectrum. Experimental data was obtained from Westinghouse-Hanford Company using the Environmental Measurements Corp. (EMC) logging tool in the Upper Barren Zone (UBZ) and Ore Zone (OZ) calibration models at Grand Junction. This paper continues the discussion of benchmarking MCNP using the UBZ and OZ data.

Frankle, S.C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

4D imaging of fracturing in organic-rich shales during heating1 Maya Kobchenko1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 4D imaging of fracturing in organic-rich shales during heating1 2 Maya Kobchenko1 , Hamed Panahi1-rich17 Green River shale. At about 350°C cracks nucleated in the sample, and as the temperature18 continued to increase, these cracks propagated parallel to shale bedding and coalesced, thus19 cutting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

4D imaging of fracturing in organic-rich shales during heating Maya Kobchenko,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4D imaging of fracturing in organic-rich shales during heating Maya Kobchenko,1 Hamed Panahi,1 shale. At about 350°C cracks nucleated in the sample, and as the temperature continued to increase, these cracks propagated parallel to shale bedding and coalesced, thus cutting across the sample

Mazzini, Adriano

215

THE STATE OF THE ART OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF THERMOHYDROLOGIC FLOW IN FRACTURED ROCK MASSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improving production by hydraulic fracturing 8 the focus otfor fractures. (d) Hydraulic Fracturing: The model has been

Wang, J.S.Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Hydraulic fracturing of jointed formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured by volume, North America's largest hydraulic fracturing operations have been conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico to create geothermal energy reservoirs. In the largest operation 21,000 m/sup 3/ of water were injected into jointed granitic rock at a depth of 3.5 km. Microearthquakes induced by this injection were measured with geophones placed in five wells drilled into, or very close, to the reservoir, as well as 11 surface seismometers. The large volume of rock over which the microearthquakes were distributed indicates a mechanism of hydraulic stimulation which is at odds with conventional fracturing theory, which predicts failure along a plane which is perpendicular to the least compressive earth stress. A coupled rock mechanics/fluid flow model provides much of the explanation. Shear slippage along pre-existing joints in the rock is more easily induced than conventional tensile failure, particularly when the difference between minimum and maximum earth stresses is large and the joints are oriented at angles between 30 and 60 degrees to the principal earth stresses, and a low viscosity fluid like water is injected. Shear slippage results in local redistribution of stresses, which allows a branching, or dendritic, stimulation pattern to evolve, in agreement with the patterns of microearthquake locations. These results are qualitatively similar to the controversial process known as ''Kiel'' fracturing, in which sequential injections and shut-ins are repeated to create dendritic fractures for enhanced oil and gas recovery. However, we believe that the explanation is shear slippage of pre-existing joints and stress redistribution, not proppant bridging and fluid blocking as suggested by Kiel. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murphy, H.D.; Fehler, M.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Discrete Fracture Network Models for Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A software package called DFNModeler has been developed to assess the potential risks associated with carbon sequestration in coal. Natural fractures provide the principal conduits for fluid flow in coal-bearing strata, and these fractures present the most tangible risks for the leakage of injected carbon dioxide. The objectives of this study were to develop discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling tools for risk assessment and to use these tools to assess risks in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, where coal-bearing strata have high potential for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. DFNModeler provides a user-friendly interface for the construction, visualization, and analysis of DFN models. DFNModeler employs an OpenGL graphics engine that enables real-time manipulation of DFN models. Analytical capabilities in DFNModeler include display of structural and hydrologic parameters, compartmentalization analysis, and fluid pathways analysis. DFN models can be exported to third-party software packages for flow modeling. DFN models were constructed to simulate fracturing in coal-bearing strata of the upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin. Outcrops and wireline cores were used to characterize fracture systems, which include joint systems, cleat systems, and fault-related shear fractures. DFN models were constructed to simulate jointing, cleating, faulting, and hydraulic fracturing. Analysis of DFN models indicates that strata-bound jointing compartmentalizes the Pottsville hydrologic system and helps protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. Analysis of fault zones, however, suggests that faulting can facilitate cross-formational flow. For this reason, faults should be avoided when siting injection wells. DFN-based flow models constructed in TOUGH2 indicate that fracture aperture and connectivity are critical variables affecting the leakage of injected CO{sub 2} from coal. Highly transmissive joints near an injection well have potential to divert a large percentage of an injected CO{sub 2} stream away from a target coal seam. However, the strata-bound nature of Pottsville fracture systems is a natural factor that mitigates the risk of long-range leakage and surface seepage. Flow models indicate that cross-formational flow in strata-bound joint networks is low and is dissipated by about an order of magnitude at each successive bedding contact. These models help confirm that strata-bound joint networks are self-compartmentalizing and that the thick successions of interbedded shale and sandstone separating the Pottsville coal zones are confining units that protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. DFN models are powerful tools for the simulation and analysis of fracture networks and can play an important role in the assessment of risks associated with carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Importantly, the stochastic nature DFN models dictates that they cannot be used to precisely reproduce reservoir conditions in a specific field area. Rather, these models are most useful for simulating the fundamental geometric and statistical properties of fracture networks. Because the specifics of fracture architecture in a given area can be uncertain, multiple realizations of DFN models and DFN-based flow models can help define variability that may be encountered during field operations. Using this type of approach, modelers can inform the risk assessment process by characterizing the types and variability of fracture architecture that may exist in geologic carbon sinks containing natural fractures.

Jack Pashin; Guohai Jin; Chunmiao Zheng; Song Chen; Marcella McIntyre

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.

Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Well test analysis in fractured media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. These models are based on the assumption that a fracture system under well test conditions may be represented by two concentric regions, one representing a small number of fractures that dominates flow near the well, and the other representing average conditions farther away from the well. Type curves are presented that can be used to find the flow parameters of these two regions and the extent of the inner concentric region. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented.

Karasaki, K.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Nonlinear Hertzian indentation fracture mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Indentation cracking under blunt indenters is analyzed using nonlinear fracture mechanics. The usual assumptions of linear elastic fracture mechanics have been replaced with a nonlinear load vs load-point displacement curve while assuming the material is linear elastic. The load, the load-point displacement, and a function of the crack area have been related to the crack driving force, J, while assuming a cone fracture under the Hertzian sphere. Experimentally, it was found that the load-displacement curve during loading, cracking, and unloading is nonlinear. The crack length is empirically shown to be proportional to the load-point displacement for several indenters. The experimentally measured relations between indenter load, load-point displacement, and crack geometries are then analyzed with mechanical energy balances based on the similitude of crack lengths with load-point displacements. The Hertz hardness that describes the nonlinear load vs load-point displacement relation during cracking is derived on the constant J line in load-displacement space. Finally, well-known experimental expressions that relate load to crack length are shown to be indistinguishable from the load-point displacement analysis reported.

Burns, S.J.; Chia, K.Y. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Annual report, September 1993--September 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an annual summarization of an ongoing research in the field of modeling and detecting naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The current research is in the Piceance basin of Western Colorado. The aim is to use existing information to determine the most optimal zone or area of fracturing using a unique reaction-transport-mechanical (RTM) numerical basin model. The RTM model will then subsequently help map subsurface lateral and vertical fracture geometries. The base collection techniques include in-situ fracture data, remote sensing, aeromagnetics, 2-D seismic, and regional geologic interpretations. Once identified, high resolution airborne and spaceborne imagery will be used to verify the RTM model by comparing surficial fractures. If this imagery agrees with the model data, then a further investigation using a three-dimensional seismic survey component will be added. This report presents an overview of the Piceance Creek basin and then reviews work in the Parachute and Rulison fields and the results of the RTM models in these fields.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

new fracture surface by hydraulic fracturing. Termination ofwas impossible until hydraulic fracturing was applied. ForFor conventional hydraulic fracturing, this is not crucial

Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Acoustic Emission in a Fluid Saturated Hetergeneous Porous Layer with Application to Hydraulic Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responses during hydraulic fracturing, and aid developmentFracture Monitoring Hydraulic fracturing is a method forfluids" used for hydraulic fracturing, the above frequencies

Nelson, J.T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The origin of high-temperature zones in vapor-dominated geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor-dominated geothermal systems are proposed to originate by downward extension (by the ''heat pipe'' mechanism) into hot dry fractured rock above a large cooling igneous intrusion. High temperature zones found by drilling are shallow parts of the original hot dry rock where the penetration of the vapor reservoir was limited, and hot dry rock may extend under much of these reservoirs. An earlier hot water geothermal system may have formed during an early phase of the heating episode.

Truesdell, Alfred H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key to producing gas from tight gas reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive flow path, via the placement of a hydraulic fracture, to stimulate flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Viscous fluid is used to transport proppant into the fracture. However, these same viscous fluids need to break to a thin fluid after the treatment is over so that the fracture fluid can be cleaned up. In shallower, lower temperature (less than 250°F) reservoirs, the choice of a fracture fluid is very critical to the success of the treatment. Current hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional tight gas reservoirs have been developed largely through ad-hoc application of low-cost water fracs, with little optimization of the process. It seems clear that some of the standard tests and models are missing some of the physics of the fracturing process in low-permeability environments. A series of the extensive laboratory "dynamic fracture conductivity" tests have been conducted. Dynamic fracture conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. Test results indicate that increasing gel concentration decreases retained fracture conductivity for a constant gas flow rate and decreasing gas flow rate decreases retained fracture conductivity. Without breaker, the damaging effect of viscous hydraulic fracturing fluids on the conductivity of proppant packs is significant at temperature of 150°F. Static conductivity testing results in higher retained fracture conductivity when compared to dynamic conductivity testing.

Marpaung, Fivman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key to producing gas from tight gas reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive flow path, via the placement of a hydraulic fracture, to stimulate flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Viscous fluid is used to transport proppant into the fracture. However, these same viscous fluids need to break to a thin fluid after the treatment is over so that the fracture fluid can be cleaned up. In shallower, lower temperature (less than 250oF) reservoirs, the choice of a fracture fluid is very critical to the success of the treatment. Current hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional tight gas reservoirs have been developed largely through ad-hoc application of low-cost water fracs, with little optimization of the process. It seems clear that some of the standard tests and models are missing some of the physics of the fracturing process in low-permeability environments. A series of the extensive laboratory “dynamic fracture conductivity” tests have been conducted. Dynamic fracture conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. Test results indicate that increasing gel concentration decreases retained fracture conductivity for a constant gas flow rate and decreasing gas flow rate decreases retained fracture conductivity. Without breaker, the damaging effect of viscous hydraulic fracturing fluids on the conductivity of proppant packs is significant at temperature of 150oF. Static conductivity testing results in higher retained fracture conductivity when compared to dynamic conductivity testing.

Marpaung, Fivman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Using seismic tomography to characterize fracture systems induced by hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing have been studied by many investigators to characterize fracture systems created by the fracturing process and to better understand the locations of energy resources in the earth`s subsurface. The pattern of the locations often contains a great deal of information about the fracture system stimulated during the hydraulic fracturing. Seismic tomography has found applications in many areas for characterizing the subsurface of the earth. It is well known that fractures in rock influence both the P and S velocities of the rock. The influence of the fractures is a function of the geometry of the fractures, the apertures and number of fractures, and the presence of fluids in the fractures. In addition, the temporal evolution of the created fracture system can be inferred from the temporal changes in seismic velocity and the pattern of microearthquake locations. Seismic tomography has been used to infer the spatial location of a fracture system in a reservoir that was created by hydraulic fracturing.

Fehler, M.; Rutledge, J.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Weathering of the Rio Blanco Quartz Diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling Oxidation, Dissolution, And Fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the mountainous Rio Icacos watershed in northeastern Puerto Rico, quartz diorite bedrock weathers spheroidally, producing a 0.2-2 m thick zone of partially weathered rock layers ({approx}2.5 cm thickness each) called rindlets, which form concentric layers around corestones. Spheroidal fracturing has been modeled to occur when a weathering reaction with a positive {Delta}V of reaction builds up elastic strain energy. The rates of spheroidal fracturing and saprolite formation are therefore controlled by the rate of the weathering reaction. Chemical, petrographic, and spectroscopic evidence demonstrates that biotite oxidation is the most likely fracture-inducing reaction. This reaction occurs with an expansion in d (0 0 1) from 10.0 to 10.5 {angstrom}, forming 'altered biotite'. Progressive biotite oxidation across the rindlet zone was inferred from thin sections and gradients in K and Fe(II). Using the gradient in Fe(II) and constraints based on cosmogenic age dates, we calculated a biotite oxidation reaction rate of 8.2 x 10{sup -14} mol biotite m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Biotite oxidation was documented within the bedrock corestone by synchrotron X-ray microprobe fluorescence imaging and XANES. X-ray microprobe images of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at 2 {micro}m resolution revealed that oxidized zones within individual biotite crystals are the first evidence of alteration of the otherwise unaltered corestone. Fluids entering along fractures lead to the dissolution of plagioclase within the rindlet zone. Within 7 cm surrounding the rindlet-saprolite interface, hornblende dissolves to completion at a rate of 6.3 x 10{sup -13} mol hornblende m{sup -2} s{sup -1}: the fastest reported rate of hornblende weathering in the field. This rate is consistent with laboratory-derived hornblende dissolution rates. By revealing the coupling of these mineral weathering reactions to fracturing and porosity formation we are able to describe the process by which the quartz diorite bedrock disaggregates and forms saprolite. In the corestone, biotite oxidation induces spheroidal fracturing, facilitating the influx of fluids that react with other minerals, dissolving plagioclase and chlorite, creating additional porosity, and eventually dissolving hornblende and precipitating secondary minerals. The thickness of the resultant saprolite is maintained at steady state by a positive feedback between the denudation rate and the weathering advance rate driven by the concentration of pore water O{sub 2} at the bedrock-saprolite interface.

Buss, H.L.; Sak, P.B.; Webb, S.M.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

229

Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture.

Warpinski, Norman R. (Albuquerque, NM); Steinfort, Terry D. (Tijeras, NM); Branagan, Paul T. (Las Vegas, NV); Wilmer, Roy H. (Las Vegas, NV)

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

231

Injection into a fractured geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed study is made on the movement of the thermal fronts in the fracture and in the porous medium when 100{sup 0}C water is injected into a 300{sup 0}C geothermal reservoir with equally spaced horizontal fractures. Numerical modeling calculations were made for a number of thermal conductivity values, as well as different values of the ratio of fracture and rock medium permeabilities. One important result is an indication that although initially, the thermal front in the fracture moves very fast relative to the front in the porous medium as commonly expected, its speed rapidly decreases. At some distance from the injection well the thermal fronts in the fracture and the porous medium coincide, and from that point they advance together. The implication of this result on the effects of fractures on reinjection into geothermal reservoirs is discussed.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A finite element model for three dimensional hydraulic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development of a model for the numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing processes with 3d fracture propagation. It takes into account the effects of fluid flow inside the fracture, fluid leak-off through fracture walls ... Keywords: boundary elements, finite elements, hydraulic fracturing, petroleum recovery

Philippe R. B. Devloo; Paulo Dore Fernandes; Sônia M. Gomes; Cedric Marcelo Augusto Ayala Bravo; Renato Gomes Damas

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Countdown Continues INSIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 1996 1, 1996 Number 11 The Countdown Continues INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: Elmhurst College 4 DOE Reviews DZero Upgrade 5 Griffing Appointed ES&H Head 10 Laboratory Adopts More Efficient Payroll System Only a month remains before fixed-target experiments will resume at Fermilab. As the days dwindle down to a precious few, experi- menters and staff throughout the Laboratory scramble to get ready. The last issue of FermiNews reported on countdown activities for the Accelerator and Computing Divisions and the Facilities Engineering Services Section. For this issue the Research Division, the Physics Section and five of the 10 experiments f continued on page 6 Photo by Reidar Hahn described their down-to-the-wire preparations. "It's nip and tuck in terms of building the

234

Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 1 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 1B is defined as Dry with...

235

Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 8 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 8B is defined as Subarctic...

236

Analyzing Unsatirated Flow Patterns in Fractured Rock Using an Integrated Modeling Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated fractured rock has posed a greater challenge to modeling investigations than comparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature of unsaturated media and the great number of variables impacting unsaturated flow. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The modeling approach integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modeling analyses. It takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. Modeling results are examined against different types of field-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptualizations and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. In particular, this model provides a much clearer understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repository performance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain's flow system is demonstrated to provide a practical modeling tool for characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurface systems.

Y.S. Wu; G. Lu; K. Zhang; L. Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson

2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

237

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the 2002 update of this manual, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been extremely active in its efforts to expand continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) requirements through a variety of regulatory instruments. Additional monitoring requirements have resulted from EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule and Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. EPA attempted to impose mercury (Hg) monitoring requirements in its now-vacated Clean Air Mercury Rule. Most recently, EPA has proposed mercury, particulate mat...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Continuous steel production and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

Peaslee, Kent D. (Rolla, MO); Peter, Jorg J. (McMinnville, OR); Robertson, David G. C. (Rolla, MO); Thomas, Brian G. (Champaign, IL); Zhang, Lifeng (Trondheim, NO)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

239

Climate Zones | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Buildings » Building America » Climate Zones Residential Buildings » Building America » Climate Zones Climate Zones Building America determines building practices based on climate zones to achieve the most energy savings in a home. This page offers some general guidelines on the definitions of the various climate regions based on heating degree-days, average temperatures, and precipitation. You can also view the Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County. Hot-Humid A hot-humid climate is generally defined as a region that receives more than 20 in. (50 cm) of annual precipitation and where one or both of the following occur: A 67°F (19.5°C) or higher wet bulb temperature for 3,000 or more hours during the warmest 6 consecutive months of the year; or A 73°F (23°C) or higher wet bulb temperature for 1,500 or more

240

The Performance of Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal wells have been used to increase reservoir recovery, especially in unconventional reservoirs, and hydraulic fracturing has been applied to further extend the contact with the reservoir to increase the efficiency of development. In the past, many models, analytical or numerical, were developed to describe the flow behavior in horizontal wells with fractures. Source solution is one of the analytical/semi-analytical approaches. To solve fractured well problems, source methods were advanced from point sources to volumetric source, and pressure change inside fractures was considered in the volumetric source method. This study aims at developing a method that can predict horizontal well performance and the model can also be applied to horizontal wells with multiple fractures in complex natural fracture networks. The method solves the problem by superposing a series of slab sources under transient or pseudosteady-state flow conditions. The principle of the method comprises the calculation of semi-analytical response of a rectilinear reservoir with closed outer boundaries. A statistically assigned fracture network is used in the study to represent natural fractures based on the spacing between fractures and fracture geometry. The multiple dominating hydraulic fractures are then added to the natural fracture system to build the physical model of the problem. Each of the hydraulic fractures is connected to the horizontal wellbore, and the natural fractures are connected to the hydraulic fractures through the network description. Each fracture, natural or hydraulically induced, is treated as a series of slab sources. The analytical solution of superposed slab sources provides the base of the approach, and the overall flow from each fracture and the effect between the fractures are modeled by applying superposition principle to all of the fractures. It is assumed that hydraulic fractures are the main fractures that connect with the wellbore and the natural fractures are branching fractures which only connect with the main fractures. The fluid inside of the branch fractures flows into the main fractures, and the fluid of the main fracture from both the reservoir and the branch fractures flows to the wellbore. Predicting well performance in a complex fracture network system is extremely challenged. The statistical nature of natural fracture networks changes the flow characteristic from that of a single linear fracture. Simply using the single fracture model for individual fracture, and then adding the flow from each fracture for the network could introduce significant error. This study provides a semi-analytical approach to estimate well performance in a complex fracture network system.

Lin, Jiajing

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Hydraulic fracturing and shale gas extraction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the past decade the technique of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has been improved so much that it has become a cost effective method… (more)

Klein, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Injection through fractures  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Injection through fractures Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot...

243

Fatigue and Fracture I - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Fretting Corrosion Induced Fracture of a Floating Bearing Base Plate in a 250 Tons Yankee Paper Drum: Pierre Dupont1; 1Schaeffler Belgium ...

244

Hydraulic fractures traced by monitoring microseismic events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture...

245

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Fracture of Thin Films and Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Fracture Toughness of SPD-Deformed Nanostructured Rail Steels and Its Implications on the In-Service Behaviour: Christoph Kammerhofer1; ...

247

Deformation and Fracture - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Investigations on the crack propagation resistance showed an increasing fracture resistance with crack extension, so-called R-curve behavior.

248

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture stimulation of...

249

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermoset Fracture with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of resin chain extensibility and dilution on fracture behavior are studied by testing a variety of molecular systems. The molecular bases for precursors ...

250

MML Leads Discussion of Dynamic Fracture Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Fracture in Steel. ... More recently, the pipeline industry has been adopting the CTOA ... fatigue characteristics of new pipeline steels, as these ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Well test analysis in fractured media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study the behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented. This model develops an explicit solution in the porous matrix as well as in the discrete fractures. Because the model does not require the assumptions of the conventional double porosity approach, it may be used to simulate cases where double porosity models fail.

Karasaki, K.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Hydraulic fracturing: insights...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search...

253

Fracturing of simulated high-level waste glass in canisters  

SciTech Connect

Waste-glass castings generated from engineering-scale developmental processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are generally found to have significant levels of cracks. The causes and extent of fracturing in full-scale canisters of waste glass as a result of cooling and accidental impact are discussed. Although the effects of cracking on waste-form performance in a repository are not well understood, cracks in waste forms can potentially increase leaching surface area. If cracks are minimized or absent in the waste-glass canisters, the potential for radionuclide release from the canister package can be reduced. Additional work on the effects of cracks on leaching of glass is needed. In addition to investigating the extent of fracturing of glass in waste-glass canisters, methods to reduce cracking by controlling cooling conditions were explored. Overall, the study shows that the extent of glass cracking in full-scale, passively-cooled, continuous melting-produced canisters is strongly dependent on the cooling rate. This observation agrees with results of previously reported Pacific Northwest Laboratory experiments on bench-scale annealed canisters. Thus, the cause of cracking is principally bulk thermal stresses. Fracture damage resulting from shearing at the glass/metal interface also contributes to cracking, more so in stainless steel canisters than in carbon steel canisters. This effect can be reduced or eliminated with a graphite coating applied to the inside of the canister. Thermal fracturing can be controlled by using a fixed amount of insulation for filling and cooling of canisters. In order to maintain production rates, a small amount of additional facility space is needed to accomodate slow-cooling canisters. Alternatively, faster cooling can be achieved using the multi-staged approach. Additional development is needed before this approach can be used on full-scale (60-cm) canisters.

Peters, R.D.; Slate, S.C.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective ... Keywords: Fractal dimension, Global sensitivity, Hydraulic fracturing, Optimization, Surrogate model

Mingjie Chen, Yunwei Sun, Pengcheng Fu, Charles R. Carrigan, Zhiming Lu, Charles H. Tong, Thomas A. Buscheck

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio) Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Local Government StateProvincial Govt Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home...

256

Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transition Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Transition Zone Geothermal Region edit Details Areas (5) Power Plants (0) Projects...

257

Faulting, fracturing, and sealing in foreland thrust belts: Examples from the subalpine chains  

SciTech Connect

The hydrocarbon potential of foreland thrust belts arises from source and reservoir rocks juxtaposed by the movement of thrust sheets, promoting maturation by loading and generating structural traps. Deformation in thrust belts can be localized on fault zones or distributed throughout thrust sheets; different deformation mechanisms operate to increase and decrease permeability. Migration and reservoir properties may be enhanced or reduced by faulting and fault-related deformation. These processes are examined in detail using examples from the northwest subalpine chains of France, a fold-and-thrust belt of well-differentiated Mesozoic shales and carbonates. Seeps of bitumen in foreland basin sediments indicate some migration of hydrocarbons along faults linking probable source and reservoir areas. Detailed examination of fault rocks and thrust sheets shows that fracture formation is an important strain mechanism which has the potential to form regions of enhanced permeability in structures such as hanging wall anticlines. However, the fractures observed are in general recemented, forming with crack-seal crystal growth. The faults themselves are complex zones up to tens of meters thick of subparallel anastomosing gouge, fractures, stylolites, and crystalline calcite, indicating synchronous cataclasis and pressure solution. The range of scales of fracturing suggests stick-slip (microseismic) fault activity. Permeability of the fault zones is enhanced during seismic fault slip and is otherwise steadily decreased by pressure solution and calcite deposition. The available migration pathways, and hence the location of potential reservoirs, is controlled by the timing, mechanisms, and extent of fault activity in this common and productive tectonic regime.

Bowler, S.; Butler, R.W.H.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Analyzing flow patterns in unsaturated fractured rock of YuccaMountain using an integrated modeling approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a series of modeling investigations to characterize percolation patterns in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. The investigations are conducted using a modeling approach that integrates a wide variety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical field data into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model through model calibration. This integrated modeling approach, based on a dual-continuum formulation, takes into account the coupled processes of fluid and heat flow and chemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain's highly heterogeneous, unsaturated fractured tuffs. In particular, the model results are examined against different types of field-measured data and used to evaluate different hydrogeological conceptual models and their effects on flow patterns in the unsaturated zone. The objective of this work to provide understanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through the unsaturated zone, which is a crucial issue in assessing repository performance.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Pan, Lehua; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

2003-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

259

Inflatable Evergreen Polar Zone Dome (EPZD) Settlements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustaining human life at the Earth antipodal Polar Regions is very difficult especially during Winter when water-freezing air temperature, blizzards and whiteouts make normal human existence dangerous. To counter these environmental stresses, we offer the innovative artificial Evergreen Polar Zone Dome (EPZD), an inflated half-hemisphere with interiors continuously providing a Mediterranean Sea-like climate. The Evergreen EPZD structural theory is developed, substantiated by key computations that show it is possible for current building technology to construct and heat large enclosed volumes inexpensively. Specifically, a satisfactory result is reached by using sunlight reflectors and a special double thin film, which concentrates all available solar energy inside the EPZD while, at the same time markedly decreasing the heat loss to exterior Polar Region air. Someday a similar, but remarkably more technological, EPZD design may be employed at proposed Moon and Mars settlements. Key words: artificial hemisphere, inflatable film building, Polar Region homes, solar energy concentrator.

Alexander Bolonkin; Richard Cathcart

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

The essential work of fracture as a means for characterizing the influence of particle size and volume fraction on the fracture toughness of plates of Al/SiC composites  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 20 years, particulate-reinforced aluminium-matrix composites have been increasingly considered for weight-saving applications in the automotive and aerospace industries. The addition of ceramic particles can lead to higher modulus, yield strength and tensile strength. However, the low ductility and fracture toughness of MMCs remain a major obstacle for applications. When the particle volume fraction is high and when plane strain conditions prevail, the inelastic zone surrounding the crack tip is generally small enough as to allow the testing of fracture toughness on laboratory size specimens using conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) methods. However, for composites containing low volume fractions of particles and/or for samples in the shape of thin plates, extensive yielding invalidates LEFM methods. In such cases, fracture toughness may be measured using the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach. This work aims at investigating the application of the EWF method for measuring the fracture toughness of Al/SiC composite plates with different reinforcement sizes and volume fractions. It will be shown that this method allows to highlight the respective contributions of reinforcement size and matrix strain hardening to the toughness of the plates.

Marchal, Y.; Delannay, F. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences des Materiaux et des Procedes; Froyen, L. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Dept. Metaalkunde en Toegepaste Materiaalkunde

1996-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

GMINC - A MESH GENERATOR FOR FLOW SIMULATIONS IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media, Watergovern fluid flow in fractured porous media. These are (i)for Modeling Fluid and Heat Flow in fractured Porous Media,

Pruess, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Ductile fracture modeling : theory, experimental investigation and numerical verification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fracture initiation in ductile materials is governed by the damaging process along the plastic loading path. A new damage plasticity model for ductile fracture is proposed. Experimental results show that fracture ...

Xue, Liang, 1973-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

1974-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

264

Continuous chain bit development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The continuous chain drill is a diamond drill bit in which the cutting surface can be replaced while the bit is still in the hole. The first prototype of the chain drill system was fabricated and tested in 1977. Problems were encountered with the mechanism used to cycle the bit. A second prototype bit was designed to circumvent these problems. An accelerated development and test program has provided field test results on Prototype II in less than 2 years. Field testing at Nevada Test Site has proven the feasibility of the downhole changing mechanism. The development and testing of this prototype are described.

St. Clair, J.A.; Duimstra, F.A.; Varnado, S.G.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

NEW AND NOVEL FRACTURE STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF EXISTING GAS STORAGE WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Gas storage wells are prone to continued deliverability loss at a reported average rate of 5% per annum (in the U.S.). This is a result of formation damage due to the introduction of foreign materials during gas injection, scale deposition and/or fines mobilization during gas withdrawal, and even the formation and growth of bacteria. As a means to bypass this damage and sustain/enhance well deliverability, several new and novel fracture stimulation technologies were tested in gas storage fields across the U.S. as part of a joint U.S. Department of Energy and Gas Research Institute R&D program. These new technologies include tip-screenout fracturing, hydraulic fracturing with liquid CO{sub 2} and proppant, extreme overbalance fracturing, and high-energy gas fracturing. Each of these technologies in some way address concerns with fracturing on the part of gas storage operators, such as fracture height growth, high permeability formations, and fluid sensitivity. Given the historical operator concerns over hydraulic fracturing in gas storage wells, plus the many other unique characteristics and resulting stimulation requirements of gas storage reservoirs (which are described later), the specific objective of this project was to identify new and novel fracture stimulation technologies that directly address these concerns and requirements, and to demonstrate/test their potential application in gas storage wells in various reservoir settings across the country. To compare these new methods to current industry deliverability enhancement norms in a consistent manner, their application was evaluated on a cost per unit of added deliverability basis, using typical non-fracturing well remediation methods as the benchmark and considering both short-term and long-term deliverability enhancement results. Based on the success (or lack thereof) of the various fracture stimulation technologies investigated, guidelines for their application, design and implementation have been developed. A final research objective was to effectively deploy the knowledge and experience gained from the project to the gas storage industry at-large.

Unknown

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT  

SciTech Connect

This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086-2.20-00) (LANL 2003 [DIRS 161725]) and is described in Section 6.4 of this report. FEHM is a three-dimensional (3-D), finite-volume, finite-element, heat and mass flow-and-transport code. This report documents the features and capabilities of the site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the SZ at Yucca Mountain in support of the TSPA-LA. Correlative flow-model calculations using FEHM are carried out and documented in the model report ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). The velocity fields are calculated by the flow model independent of the transport processes and supplied as a part of the output package from the flow model, which is then used as inputs to the transport model. Several SZ analysis model reports provide information and data needed as feed-ins for this report, and this report in turn provides technical product outputs that feed into other SZ reports. The details of inputs to the site-scale transport model are provided in Section 4.

S. KELLER

2004-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

267

Table C10A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zone ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 All Buildings ..... 1,086 1,929 1,243 1,386 879 11,529 ...

268

Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at yucca mountain, nevada  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain is an arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Low rainfall (approximately 170 mm/yr) and a thick unsaturated zone (500-1000 m) are important physical attributes of the site because the quantity of water likely to reach the waste and the paths and rates of movement of the water to the saturated zone under future climates would be major factors in controlling the concentrations and times of arrival of radionuclides at the surrounding accessible environment. The framework for understanding the hydrologic processes that occur at this site and that control how quickly water will penetrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table has evolved during the past 15 yr. Early conceptual models assumed that very small volumes of water infiltrated into the bedrock (0.5-4.5 mm/yr, or 2-3 percent of rainfall), that much of the infiltrated water flowed laterally within the upper nonwelded units because o f capillary barrier effects, and that the remaining water flowed down faults with a small amount flowing through the matrix of the lower welded, fractured rocks. It was believed that the matrix had to be saturated for fractures to show. However, accumulating evidence indicated that infiltration rates were higher than initially estimated, such as infiltration modeling based on neutron borehole data, bomb-pulse isotopes deep in the mountain, perched water analyses and thermal analyses. Mechanisms supporting lateral diversion did not apply at these higher fluxes, and the flux calculated in the lower welded unit exceeded the conductivity of the matrix, implying vertical flow of water into the high permeability fractures of the potential repository host rock, and disequilibrium between matrix and fracture water potentials. The development of numerical modeling methods and parameter values evolved concurrently with the conceptual model in order to account for the observed field data, particularly fracture flow deep in the unsaturated zone. This paper presents the history of the evolution of conceptual models of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Flint, A.L., Flint, L.E., Kwicklis, E.M., Bodvarsson, G.S., Fabryka-Martin, J.M., 2001. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain. Reviews of Geophysics in press). This retrospective is the basis for recommendations for optimizing the efficiency with which a viable and robust conceptual model can be developed for a complex site. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [References: 87

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Modeling the cracking process of rocks from continuity to discontinuity using a cellular automaton  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rock discontinuous cellular automaton (RDCA) was developed for modeling rock fracturing processes from continuous to discontinuous deformation under mechanical loading. RDCA is an integration of the following basic concepts: (1) representation of heterogeneity ... Keywords: Cracking process, Discontinuity, Elasto-plastic cellular automaton, Level set, Partition of unity, Rock discontinuous cellular automaton

Peng-Zhi Pan; Fei Yan; Xia-Ting Feng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Permeability enhancement using high energy gas fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reports the results of a preliminary study of using High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) techniques for geothermal well stimulation. Experiments conducted in the G-tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) showed that multiple fractures could be created in water-filled boreholes using HEGF. Therefore, the method is potentially useful for geothermal well stimulation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

Chu, T.Y.; Cuderman, J.F.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

low-permeability fractures and LAF's (Large Aperature Fractures). USG will develop and test the combination of three-component,long-offset seismic surveying, permanent scatter...

272

Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water through existing fractures into hot wet and hot dry rocks by thermo-elastic cooling shrinkage. The stimulated, existing fractures thus enhance the permeability of the...

273

Modeling Of Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation In Shale Gas Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The most effective method for stimulating shale gas reservoirs is massive hydraulic fracture treatments. Recent fracture diagnostic technologies such as microseismic technology have shown that… (more)

Ahn, Chong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Microearthquakes in the geothermal field are proposed as indicators of shear fracturing associated with fluid injection and circulation along major pre-existing fractures....

275

A physical model for fracture surface features in metallic glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 30, 2010 ... at a rate of 1000 mm/ min, fracturing the grease in the sample. Photographs were then taken of the fracture surfaces. The photographs were ...

276

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

277

An Alternate Approach for Characterizing the Fracture Resistance of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the elastic properties and strength of fish scales have received considerable attention, the resistance to fracture has not. Here the fracture resistance of ...

278

Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASHRAE Climate Zones ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Climate Zones defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standards. Pages in category "ASHRAE Climate Zones" The following 30 pages are in this category, out of 30 total. C Climate Zone 1A Climate Zone 1B Climate Zone 2A Climate Zone 2B Climate Zone 3A Climate Zone 3B Climate Zone 3C Climate Zone 4A Climate Zone 4B Climate Zone 4C C cont. Climate Zone 5A Climate Zone 5B Climate Zone 5C Climate Zone 6A Climate Zone 6B Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Climate Zone Number 1 C cont. Climate Zone Number 2 Climate Zone Number 3 Climate Zone Number 4 Climate Zone Number 5 Climate Zone Number 6 Climate Zone Number 7 Climate Zone Number 8 Climate Zone Subtype A Climate Zone Subtype B Climate Zone Subtype C Retrieved from

279

Coupled thermohydromechanical analysis of a heater test in unsaturated clay and fractured rock at Kamaishi Mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements inlevel measured with hydraulic fracturing (reproduced from

Rutqvist, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Optimization of Construction Discharge Rate and Proppant Slugs for Preventing Complex Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For volcanic rock and fracture type reservoir, etc, steering fractures, branching fractures and their combined herringbone fractures are usually caused by hydraulic fracturing. The generation of these complex fractures is one of the crucial factors that ... Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, construction discharge rate, complex fractures, proppant slug, optimization

Dali Guo; Yang Lin; Yong Ji; Jiangwen Xu; Guobin Wang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydraulic Fracturing Technology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Hydraulic Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Image taken from "Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America's Energy Challenges," NETL, 2011. Image taken from "Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America's Energy Challenges," NETL, 2011. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique in which large volumes of water and sand, and small volumes of chemical additives are injected into low-permeability subsurface formations to increase oil or natural gas flow. The injection pressure of the pumped fluid creates fractures that enhance gas and fluid flow, and the sand or other coarse material holds the fractures open. Most of the injected fluid flows back to the wellbore and is pumped to the surface.

282

Occult fractures of the knee: tomographic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Seven adults with painful effusions of the knee were examined for occult fractures using pluridirectional tomograph in the coronal and lateral planes. Six patients (ages 50 to 82 years) were osteopenic and gave histories ranging from none to mild trauma; one 26-year-old man was not osteopenic and had severe trauma. In all cases, routine radiographs were interpreted as negative, but tomography demonstrated a fracture. Five fractures were subchondral. Bone scans in 2 patients were positive. The authors conclude that osteopenic patients with a painful effusion of the knee should be considered to have an occult fracture. While bone scans may be helpful, tomography is recommended as the procedure of choice to define the location and extent of the fracture.

Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Allen, N.B.; Caldwell, D.S.; Rice, J.R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect

In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Ohno continuous casting  

SciTech Connect

Production of net-shape products directly from the liquid is an attractive manufacturing route for alloys that are difficult to process or that cannot be rolled, drawn, or extruded. Developed at the Chiba Institute of Technology in Japan, the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) approach not only provides significant cost savings, but also has the potential to create new products. OCC process equipment includes a melting furnace, crucible, mold level-control block, cooling device, and pinch rolls. OCC is currently used to produce copper rods and wires for audio and video cables, and aluminum alloy welding rods for hard-surfacing applications. For example, Mitsui Engineering and Ship Building Co. has used OCC to produce copper tubing products with internal fins and partitions for applications such as heat exchanger tubes and induction coils.

Soda, H.; McLean, A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Motoyasu, G.; Ohno, A. [Chiba Institute of Technology (Japan)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Nonlinear continuous feedback controllers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packet-switched communication networks such as today's Internet are built with several interconnected core and distribution packet forwarding routers and several sender and sink transport agents. In order to maintain stability and avoid congestion collapse in the network, the sources control their rate behavior and voluntarily adjust their sending rates to accommodate other sources in the network. In this thesis, we study one class of sender rate control that is modeled using continuous first-order differential equation of the sending rates. In order to adjust the rates appropriately, the network sends continuous packet-loss feedback to the sources. We study a form of closed-loop feedback congestion controllers whose rate adjustments exhibit a nonlinear form. There are three dimensions to our work in this thesis. First, we study the network optimization problem in which sources choose utilities to maximize their underlying throughput. Each sender maximizes its utility proportional to the throughput achieved. In our model, sources choose a utility function to define their level of satisfaction of the underlying resource usages. The objective of this direction is to establish the properties of source utility functions using inequality constrained bounded sets and study the functional forms of utilities against a chosen rate differential equation. Second, stability of the network and tolerance to perturbation are two essential factors that keep communication networks operational around the equilibrium point. Our objective in this part of the thesis is to analytically understand the existence of local asymptotic stability of delayed-feedback systems under homogeneous network delays. Third, we propose a novel tangential controller for a generic maximization function and study its properties using nonlinear optimization techniques. We develop the necessary theoretical background and the properties of our controller to prove that it is a better rate adaptation algorithm for logarithmic utilities compared to the well-studied proportional controllers. We establish the asymptotic local stability of our controller with upper bounds on the increase / decrease gain parameters.

Sitharaman, Sai Ganesh

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Fracture Modeling and Flow Behavior in Shale Gas Reservoirs Using Discrete Fracture Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluid flow process in fractured reservoirs is controlled primarily by the connectivity of fractures. The presence of fractures in these reservoirs significantly affects the mechanism of fluid flow. They have led to problems in the reservoir which results in early water breakthroughs, reduced tertiary recovery efficiency due to channeling of injected gas or fluids, dynamic calculations of recoverable hydrocarbons that are much less than static mass balance ones due to reservoir compartmentalization, and dramatic production changes due to changes in reservoir pressure as fractures close down as conduits. These often lead to reduced ultimate recoveries or higher production costs. Generally, modeling flow behavior and mass transport in fractured porous media is done using the dual-continuum concept in which fracture and matrix are modeled as two separate kinds of continua occupying the same control volume (element) in space. This type of numerical model cannot reproduce many commonly observed types of fractured reservoir behavior since they do not explicitly model the geometry of discrete fractures, solution features, and bedding that control flow pathway geometry. This inaccurate model of discrete feature connectivity results in inaccurate flow predictions in areas of the reservoir where there is not good well control. Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) model has been developed to aid is solving some of these problems experienced by using the dual continuum models. The Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) approach involves analysis and modeling which explicitly incorporates the geometry and properties of discrete features as a central component controlling flow and transport. DFN are stochastic models of fracture architecture that incorporate statistical scaling rules derived from analysis of fracture length, height, spacing, orientation, and aperture. This study is focused on developing a methodology for application of DFN to a shale gas reservoir and the practical application of DFN simulator (FracGen and NFflow) for fracture modeling of a shale gas reservoir and also studies the interaction of the different fracture properties on reservoir response. The most important results of the study are that a uniform fracture network distribution and fracture aperture produces the highest cumulative gas production for the different fracture networks and fracture/well properties considered.

Ogbechie, Joachim Nwabunwanne

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Comprehensive Study of Fracture Patterns and Densities in The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this project we developed a method for using seismic S-wave data to map the patterns and densities of sub-surface fractures in the NW Geysers Geothermal Field/ (1) This project adds to both the general methods needed to characterize the geothermal production fractures that supply steam for power generation and to the specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the targeting of high production geothermal wells. (3) The results of the project having been transferred to both US based and international geothermal research and exploration agencies and concerns by several published papers and meeting presentations, and through the distribution of the data handling and other software codes we developed.

Peter E. Malin; Eylon Shalev; Min Lou; Silas M. Simiyu; Anastasia Stroujkova; Windy McCausland

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.fluid flow, multicomponent transport, and heat transfer in porous and fractured media,fluid flow, solute transport, and heat transfer occur in porous and fractured media.

Karasaki, Kenzi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Method for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in "hot cells" designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel material, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

Turner, Lloyd J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Willey, Melvin G. (Knoxville, TN); Tiegs, Sue M. (Lenoir City, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Continuous Box game  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The classical positional game Box was introduced by Chvátal and Erd?s in 1978 in their study of the biased connectivity game on the complete graph. Their analysis was subsequently extended by Hamidoune and Las Vergnas. The board of the Box game consists of elements of n disjoint sets (boxes), which might vary in size. The game is played by two players, Maker and Breaker. Maker claims m board elements per move whereas Breaker claims just one. Maker wins this game if and only if he claims all elements of some box by the end of the game. In this paper we introduce the game CBox, a continuous version of the Box game, where the sizes of the boxes need not be integral and in every move Maker puts a nonnegative real weight into each box, such that the weights sum up to the real number m. This new game, while closely related to the original Box game, turns out to be more amenable to analysis – we derive explicit and easy to use criteria for determining the winner in every instance of the game. Consequently, establishing a connection between CBox and Box, we also obtain applicable criteria for the Box game. 1

Dan Hefetz; Michael Krivelevich; Tibor Szabó

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Continuous production of conducting polymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Advanced Conceptual Models for Unsaturated and Two-Phase Flow in Fractured Rock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in FY03. As of December 2003, we have accomplished the following: (1) We conducted a more detailed evaluation of the preliminary experiments used to develop our investigative approach. In those experiments, water was invaded at a variety of flow rates into an air-filled, two dimensional analog fracture network. Results demonstrated the critical control that fracture intersections place on two-phase flow in fracture networks. At low flows, capillary and gravitational forces combined to create a narrow pulsing flow structure that spanned the system vertically. At higher flows, viscous forces acted to remove the pulsation; however, the flow structure remained narrow. The intersections acted to impose a narrow ''slender ladder'' structure on the flowing phase that did not expand with depth, but instead remained focused. A manuscript documenting this effort has been published in Water Resources Research [Glass et al., 2003a]. (2) We initiated a collaborative relationship with a research group at Seoul National University. This group, which is led by Dr. Kang-Kun Lee is also using a combined experimental numerical approach to consider DNAPL migration in fracture networks. They are particularly interested in the influence of ambient groundwater flows, making their work complementary to ours. The first fruit of that collaboration is an article demonstrating that modification of an Invasion Percolation algorithm to include gravity and the first-order effects of viscous forces shows good agreement with physical experiments in a simplistic fracture network. Results were published in Geophysical Research Letters [Ji et al., 2003a]. (3) We carried out an extensive review of models for fracture networks. These include models developed from observations of networks on outcrops at several scales and stochastic models that are prevalent in the literature from the 1980s to very recent developments. The results of this review were included as par t of a review paper co-authored by Rajaram, which was submitted to Reviews in Geophysics [Molz et al., in press]. (4) We prepared a manuscript based on previous work that will be used to support the development of our new conceptual model(s) for transport in fractured rock. Eight experiments were conducted to evaluate the repeatability of flow under nearly identical conditions and to characterize general patterns in flow behavior. Collected data revealed that flow generally converged to a single fracture in the bottom row of blocks. Periods of pathway switching were observed to be more common than periods with steady, constant flow pathways. We noted the importance of fracture intersections for integrating uniform flow and discharging a ''fluid cascade'', where water advances rapidly to the next capillary barrier creating a stop and start advance of water through the network. The results of this simple experiment suggest that the interaction of multiple fracture intersections in a network creates flow behavior not generally recognized in popular conceptual and numerical models. A manuscript documenting this effort has been accepted for publication in Vadose Zone Journal [Wood et al., 2003]. (5) Slender transport pathways have been found in laboratory and field experiments within unsaturated fractured rock. We considered the simulation of such structures with a Modified form of Invasion Percolation (MIP). Results show that slender pathways form in fracture networks for a wide range of expected conditions, can be maintained when subsequent matrix imbibition is imposed, and may arise even in the context of primarily matrix flow due to the action of fractures as barriers to inter-matrix block transport. A manuscript documenting this effort has been submitted to Geophysical Research Letters [Glass et al., 2003b].

Rajaram, Harihar

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

Caffey, T.W.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geophysical Technology Dept.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

296

Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and radiation in a multiphase, multicomponent, porous mediumin modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,phase and multiphase non-Darcy flow in porous and fractured

Karasaki, Kenzi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers by Tom Myers Abstract Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential and preferential flow through fractures--could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale

298

An Integrated Modeling Analysis of Unsaturated Flow Patterns inFractured Rock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterizing percolation patterns in unsaturated zones hasposed a greater challenge to numerical modeling investigations thancomparable saturated zone studies, because of the heterogeneous nature ofunsaturated media as well as the great number of variables impactingunsaturated zone flow. This paper presents an integrated modelingmethodology for quantitatively characterizing percolation patterns in theunsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a proposed undergroundrepository site for storing high-level radioactive waste. It takes intoaccount the multiple coupled processes of air, water, heat flow andchemical isotopic transport in Yucca Mountain s highly heterogeneous,unsaturated fractured tuffs. The modeling approach integrates a widevariety of moisture, pneumatic, thermal, and isotopic geochemical fielddata into a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model for modelinganalyses. Modeling results are examined against different types offield-measured data and then used to evaluate different hydrogeologicalconceptual models and their results of flow patterns in the unsaturatedzone. In particular, this integration model provides a much clearerunderstanding of percolation patterns and flow behavior through theunsaturated zone, both crucial issues in assessing repositoryperformance. The integrated approach for quantifying Yucca Mountain sflow system is also demonstrated to provide a comprehensive modeling toolfor characterizing flow and transport processes in complex subsurfacesystems.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Pan, Lehua; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Tectonic controls on fracture permeability in a geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To help determine the nature and origins of permeability variations within a fault-hosted geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada, the authors conducted borehole televiewer logging and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in six wells drilled into the Stillwater fault zone at depths of 2--3 km. Televiewer logs from wells penetrating the highly permeable portion of the fault zone revealed extensive drilling-induced tensile fractures. As the Stillwater fault at this location dips S45{degree}E at {approximately} 53{degree} it is nearly at the optimal orientation for normal faulting in the current stress field. Hydraulic fracturing tests from these permeable wells show that the magnitude of S{sub hmin} is very low relative to the vertical stress S{sub v}. Similar measurements conducted in two wells penetrating a relatively impermeable segment of the Stillwater fault zone 8 and 20 km southwest of the producing geothermal reservoir indicate that the orientation of S{sub hmin} is S20{degree}E and S41{degree}E, respectively, with S{sub hmin}/S{sub v} ranging from 0.55--0.64 at depths of 1.9--2.2 km. This stress orientation is near optimal for normal faulting on the Stillwater fault in the northernmost non-producing well, but {approximately} 40{degree} rotated from the optimal orientation for normal faulting in the southernmost well. The observation that borehole breakouts were present in these nonproducing wells, but absent in wells drilled into the permeable main reservoir, indicates a significant increase in the magnitude of maximum horizontal principal stress, S{sub Hmax}, in going from the producing to non-producing segments of the fault. The increase in S{sub Hmaz}, coupled with elevated S{sub hmin}/S{sub v} values and a misorientation of the Stillwater fault zone with respect to the principal stress directions, leads to a decrease in the proximity of the fault zone to Coulomb failure. This suggests that a necessary condition for high reservoir permeability is that the Stillwater fault zone be critically stressed for frictional failure in the current stress field.

Hickman, S. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zoback, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Does hydraulic-fracturing theory work in jointed rock masses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hypocenter locations of micro-earthquakes (acoustic emissions) generated during fracturing typically are distributed three-dimensionally suggesting that fracturing stimulates a volumetric region, rather than the planar fracture theoretically expected. The hypocenter maps generated at six operating, or potential, HDR reservoirs in the US, Europe and Japan are examined in detail and the fracture dimensions are correlated with fracture injection volumes and formation permeability. Depsite the volumetric appearance of the maps we infer that the induced fractures are mainly planar and may propagate aseismically. The induced seismicity stems from nearby joints, which are not opened significantly by fracturing, but are caused to shear-slip because of local pore pressure.

Murphy, H.D.; Keppler, H.; Dash, Z.V.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Nonprofit Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive Enterprise Zone Provider Louisiana Economic Development The Enterprise Zone Program is a jobs incentive program providing Louisiana income and franchise tax credits to businesses hiring at least 35% of net, new jobs from targeted groups. Enterprise Zones (EZs) are areas with high unemployment, low income, or a high percentage of residents receiving some

302

Enterprise Zone Program (Alabama) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama) Alabama) Enterprise Zone Program (Alabama) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Alabama Program Type Enterprise Zone Provider Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs The Enterprise Zone Program provides certain tax incentives to corporations, partnerships and proprietorships that locate or expand within designated Enterprise Zones. In addition to state-level tax incentives, businesses may also receive local tax and non-tax incentives for locating or expanding within a designated Enterprise Zone. Section 5 of the Alabama Enterprise Zone Program offers the following tax incentives: Credit based

303

Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Heating & Cooling Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Wind Maximum Rebate None Program Info Start Date 07/12/2006 State Michigan Program Type Industry Recruitment/Support Rebate Amount 100% abatement of Michigan Business Tax, state education tax, personal and real property taxes, and local income taxes Provider Michigan Economic Development Corporation In 2006, Michigan enacted legislation allowing for the creation of Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones (RERZ). Renaissance zones -- renewable energy renaissance zones are just one type -- offer significant tax

304

Well fracturing method using liquefied gas as fracturing fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for fracturing an oil well or gas well with a mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid petroleum gas. The objective is to be able to inject the liquid into the well bore at a relatively high pumping rate without causing the liquid to boil. Prior to injection, both the liquid CO/sub 2/ and the LPG are held in separate supply tanks at a temperature and pressure at which the liquid phase will not boil. The temperature of the LPG is substantially higher than the liquid CO/sub 2/. During the pumping operation, part of the liquid CO/sub 2/ and all of the LPG are fed through a heat exchanger. In the exchanger, the amount of heat transferred from the LPG to the liquid CO/sub 2/ is enough to vaporize the liquid. The CO/sub 2/ vapor is then circulated back into the CO/sub 2/ tank. The recycled vapor thus maintains the liquid-vapor phase in the tank at equilibrium, so that the liquid will not boil at the desired pumping rate. (4 claims)

Zingg, W.M.; Grassman, D.D.

1974-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Multichannel seismic reflection, sonobuoy, gravity and magnetics data collected over the submarine length of the 75 km long Puna Ridge, Hawaii, resolve the internal structure of the active rift zone. Laterally continuous reflections are imaged deep beneath the axis of the East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea Volcano. We interpret these reflections as a layer of abyssal sediments lying beneath the volcanic edifice of Kilauea. Early

306

Physical model of a fractured reservoir | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

model of a fractured reservoir model of a fractured reservoir Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Physical model of a fractured reservoir Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The objectives of the physical modeling effort are to: (1) evaluate injection-backflow testing for fractured reservoirs under conditions of known reservoir parameters (porosity, fracture width, etc.); (2) study the mechanisms controlling solute transport in fracture systems; and (3) provide data for validation of numerical models that explicitly simulate solute migration in fracture systems. The fracture network is 0.57-m wide, 1.7-m long, and consists of two sets of fractures at right angles to one another with a fracture spacing of 10.2 cm. A series of

307

Method of optimizing the conductivity of a propped fractured formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of reducing viscosity of a fracturing fluid containing proppant, a polymer, a delayed breaker and a nondelayed breaker, it comprises: introducing the fracturing fluid into a subterranean formation to form at least one fracture; depositing the proppant and the polymer in the fracture; determining an after closure polymer viscosity of the deposited polymer in the fracture; selecting a proppant pack permeability in the fracture; calculating an amount of breaker necessary to reduce the after closure viscosity of the deposited polymer to attain the selected permeability of; determining a minimum viscosity of the fracturing fluid which maintains the proppant in suspension in the fluid during pumping in the fracture; and introducing an effective amount of delayed breaker and nondelayed breaker into the fracturing fluid to attain the selected proppant pack permeability while maintaining the minimum viscosity to maintain the proppant in suspension in the fluid during pumping in the fracture.

Brannon, H.D.; Gulbis, J.; King, M.T.; Hawkins, G.W.

1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

308

Domain Decomposition for Flow in Porous Media with Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this article. The fractures that we are concerned with are filled with debris so we consider them as porous media. The permeability in the fracture is large in comparison with that in the surrounding rock, so the fluid circulates faster in the fracture. Thus we have a highly heterogeneous porous medium. One idea that has been used to take this into account is to treat the fracture as an interface and to assume that the fluid that flows into the fracture stays in the fracture. In fact, in many models the contrast in permeabilities is of such an order that the flow outside of the fracture is neglected. However, here we are concerned with the situation in which the exchange between the fracture and the rest of the domain is significant. To deal with this case we need to model both what happens in the fracture and what happens outside the fracture. One

Clarisse Alboin; Jerome Jaffre; Jean Roberts; Christophe Serres

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Study of Latrogenic Fracture Risk in Reduction of Pipkin Fracture ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the risk of such fractures during closed reduction of Pipkin ... of Ti-6Al-4V for Medical Applications after Surface Modification by Anodization.

310

Geomechanical review of hydraulic fracturing technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing as a method for recovering unconventional shale gas has been around for several decades. Significant research and improvement in field methods have been documented in literature on the subject. The ...

Arop, Julius Bankong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Studies of injection into naturally fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A semi-analytical model for studies of cold water injection into naturally fractured reservoirs has been developed. The model can be used to design the flow rates and location of injection wells in such systems. The results obtained using the model show that initially the cold water will move very rapidly through the fracture system away from the well. Later on, conductive heat transfer from the rock matrix blocks will retard the advancement of the cold water front, and eventually uniform energy sweep conditions will prevail. Where uniform energy sweep conditions are reached the cold waer movement away from the injection well will be identical to that in a porous medium; consequently maximum energy recovery from the rock matrix will be attained. The time of uniform energy sweep and the radial distance from the injection well where it occurs are greatly dependent upon the fracture spacing, but independent of the fracture aperture.

Boedvarsson, G.S.; Lai, C.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Definition: Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Hydraulic Fracturing The process used in the Oil and Gas industry of drilling deep into the ground and injecting water, sand, and other...

313

Multiphase flow in fractured porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.

Firoozabadi, A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous andmultiphase heat and mass flow in unsaturated fractured porous

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Hydraulic fracturing and propping tests at Yakedake field in Japan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing experiments have been conducted at Yakedake field in Gifu prefecture, Japan. From the data obtained during the fracturing operation, the open-hole section permeability was estimated of the wellbore, the minimum pressure required to propagate the fracture, the impedances before and after the propping, and the earth stress normal to the fracture plane. The final fracture plane was also mapped with the microseismic events.

Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Seo, Kunio; Suga, Shoto; Itoh, Toshinobu; Kuriyagawa, Michio

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

NFFLOW: A reservoir simulator incorporating explicit fractures (SPE 153890)  

SciTech Connect

NFFLOW is a research code that quickly and inexpensively simulates flow in moderately fractured reservoirs. It explicitly recognizes fractures separately from rock matrix. In NFFLOW fracture flow is proportional to the pressure gradient along the fracture, and flow in the rock matrix is determined by Darcy’s Law. The two flow mechanisms are coupled through the pressure gradient between a fracture and its adjacent rock matrix. Presented is a promising change to NFFLOW that allows for flow across a rock matrix block.

Boyle, E.J.; Sams, W.N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Poroelastic response of orthotropic fractured porous media  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm is presented for inverting either laboratory or field poroelastic data for all the drained constants of an anisotropic (specifically orthotropic) fractured poroelastic system. While fractures normally weaken the system by increasing the mechanical compliance, any liquids present in these fractures are expected to increase the stiffness somewhat, thus negating to some extent the mechanical weakening influence of the fractures themselves. The analysis presented quantifies these effects and shows that the key physical variable needed to account for the pore-fluid effects is a factor of (1 - B), where B is Skempton's second coe#14;fficient and satisfies 0 {<=} #20; B < 1. This scalar factor uniformly reduces the increase in compliance due to the presence of communicating fractures, thereby stiffening the fractured composite medium by a predictable amount. One further goal of the discussion is to determine how many of the poroelastic constants need to be known by other means in order to determine the rest from remote measurements, such as seismic wave propagation data in the field. Quantitative examples arising in the analysis show that, if the fracture aspect ratio a{sub f} ~ 0.1 and the pore fluid is liquid water, then for several cases considered Skempton's B ~ 0:9, so the stiffening effect of the pore-liquid reduces the change in compliance due to the fractures by a factor 1-B ~ 0.1, in these examples. The results do however depend on the actual moduli of the unfractured elastic material, as well as on the pore-liquid bulk modulus, so these quantitative predictions are just examples, and should not be treated as universal results. Attention is also given to two previously unremarked poroelastic identities, both being useful variants of Gassmann's equations for homogeneous -- but anisotropic -- poroelasticity. Relationships to Skempton's analysis of saturated soils are also noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of analyzing and quantifying fluid-substitution behavior in poroelastic systems, especially for those systems having heterogeneous constitution.

Berryman, J.G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Increasing Production from Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs by Optimizing Zone Isolation for Successful Stimulation Treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximizing production from wells drilled in low-permeability reservoirs, such as the Barnett Shale, is determined by cementing, stimulation, and production techniques employed. Studies show that cementing can be effective in terms of improving fracture effectiveness by 'focusing' the frac in the desired zone and improving penetration. Additionally, a method is presented for determining the required properties of the set cement at various places in the well, with the surprising result that uphole cement properties in wells destined for multiple-zone fracturing is more critical than those applied to downhole zones. Stimulation studies show that measuring pressure profiles and response during Pre-Frac Injection Test procedures prior to the frac job are critical in determining if a frac is indicated at all, as well as the type and size of the frac job. This result is contrary to current industry practice, in which frac jobs are designed well before the execution, and carried out as designed on location. Finally, studies show that most wells in the Barnett Shale are production limited by liquid invasion into the wellbore, and determinants are presented for when rod or downhole pumps are indicated.

Fred Sabins

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Border Cities Enterprise Zone Program (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Border Cities Enterprise Zone Program provides business tax credits to businesses that invest, develop, expand, and create jobs in identified Border-Cities Enterprise Zones. Companies may be...

320

Enterprise Zone Real Property Investment Grant (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone Real Property Investment Grant provides qualified zone investors with cash grants for industrial, commercial or mixed use property. The grant is equal to 20% of the excess...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption offers businesses located in such economic development zones a 100 percent sales tax exemption on the purchase of labor and materials to construct or remodel...

322

Advancing New 3D Seismic Interpretation Methods for Exploration and Development of Fractured Tight Gas Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and GeoSpectrum, Inc., new P-wave 3D seismic interpretation methods to characterize fractured gas reservoirs are developed. A data driven exploratory approach is used to determine empirical relationships for reservoir properties. Fractures are predicted using seismic lineament mapping through a series of horizon and time slices in the reservoir zone. A seismic lineament is a linear feature seen in a slice through the seismic volume that has negligible vertical offset. We interpret that in regions of high seismic lineament density there is a greater likelihood of fractured reservoir. Seismic AVO attributes are developed to map brittle reservoir rock (low clay) and gas content. Brittle rocks are interpreted to be more fractured when seismic lineaments are present. The most important attribute developed in this study is the gas sensitive phase gradient (a new AVO attribute), as reservoir fractures may provide a plumbing system for both water and gas. Success is obtained when economic gas and oil discoveries are found. In a gas field previously plagued with poor drilling results, four new wells were spotted using the new methodology and recently drilled. The wells have estimated best of 12-months production indicators of 2106, 1652, 941, and 227 MCFGPD. The latter well was drilled in a region of swarming seismic lineaments but has poor gas sensitive phase gradient (AVO) and clay volume attributes. GeoSpectrum advised the unit operators that this location did not appear to have significant Lower Dakota gas before the well was drilled. The other three wells are considered good wells in this part of the basin and among the best wells in the area. These new drilling results have nearly doubled the gas production and the value of the field. The interpretation method is ready for commercialization and gas exploration and development. The new technology is adaptable to conventional lower cost 3D seismic surveys.

James Reeves

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

323

Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Continual Learning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Continual Learning Continual Learning Continual Learning Continual Learning Workshops Continual Learning is a change initiative which is used to help develop and grow a learning culture within DOE. The purpose of Continual Learning is to improve the professional development of our federal workforce. In an effort to support this initiative, HC-20 offers 3 instructional workshops, located under additional information, to assist employees and supervisors with employee development. These workshops are full of helpful tips and tricks for identifying low cost/no cost training, creating a high-quality IDP and assist supervisors with their responsibilities with employee development. Employees and supervisor are encouraged to attend these workshops and let us (HC-20) help you as we promote a learning

325

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, we divided the report into two chapters. The first chapter was to image and perform experimental investigation of transfer mechanisms during CO{sub 2} flooding in NFR and HFR using X-ray CT scanner. In this chapter, we emphasized our work on understanding the connection between fracture properties and fundamentals of transfer mechanism from matrix to fractures and fluid flow through fracture systems. We started our work by investigating the effect of different overburden pressures and stress-state conditions on rock properties and fluid flow. Since the fracture aperture is one of important parameter that governs the fluid flow through the fracture systems, the average fracture aperture from the fluid flow experiments and fracture aperture distribution derived from X-ray CT scan were estimated for our modeling purposes. The fracture properties and fluid flow have significant changes in response to different overburden pressures and stress-state conditions. The fracture aperture distribution follows lognormal distribution even at elevated stress conditions. Later, we also investigated the fluid transfers between matrix and fracture that control imbibition process. We evaluated dimensionless time for validating the scheme of upscaling laboratory experiments to field dimensions. In CO{sub 2} injection experiments, the use of X-ray CT has allowed us to understand the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} flooding process in fractured system and to take important steps in reducing oil bypassed. When CO{sub 2} flooding experiments were performed on a short core with a fracture at the center of the core, the gravity plays an important role in the recovery of oil even in a short matrix block. This results are contrary with the previous believes that gravity drainage has always been associated with tall matrix blocks. In order to reduce oil bypassed, we injected water that has been viscosified with a polymer into the fracture to divert CO{sub 2} flow into matrix and delay CO{sub 2} breakthrough. Although the breakthrough time reduced considerably, water ''leak off'' into the matrix was very high. A cross-linked gel was used in the fracture to avoid this problem. The gel was found to overcome ''leak off'' problems and effectively divert CO{sub 2} flow into the matrix. As part of our technology transfer activity, we investigated the natural fracture aperture distribution of Tensleep formation cores. We found that the measured apertures distributions follow log normal distribution as expected. The second chapter deals with analysis and modeling the laboratory experiments and fluid flow through fractured networks. We derived a new equation to determine the average fracture aperture and the amount of each flow through fracture and matrix system. The results of this study were used as the observed data and for validating the simulation model. The idea behind this study is to validate the use of a set of smooth parallel plates that is common in modeling fracture system. The results suggest that fracture apertures need to be distributed to accurately model the experimental results. In order to study the imbibition process in details, we developed imbibition simulator. We validated our model with X-ray CT experimental data from different imbibition experiments. We found that the proper simulation model requires matching both weight gain and CT water saturation simultaneously as oppose to common practices in matching imbibition process with weight gain only because of lack information from CT scan. The work was continued by developing dual porosity simulation using empirical transfer function (ETF) derived from imbibition experiments. This allows reduction of uncertainty parameter in modeling transfer of fluids from matrix to the fra

David S. Schechter

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

(Continued on page 2) (Continued on page 2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAY 2009 (Continued on page 2) (Continued on page 2) WWW.RSMAS.MIAMI.EDU DEAN OTIS BROWN: A LEGACY of his decades of service and dedication to the University of Miami, Brown was awarded the UM Presidents in 2003, the University of Miami Presidents Medal honors individuals for their outstanding leadership

Miami, University of

327

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESS MEASUREMENTS IN A DEEP BOREHOLE AT THE STRIPA TEST MINE, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u l y 2 , 1 9 8 1 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESSI nun LBL-12478 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESSthe calculated stress. n HYDRAULIC FRACTURING EQUIPMENT AND

Doe, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Pressure analysis of the hydromechanical fracture behaviour in stimulated tight sedimentary geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zimmermann, G. , 2005. Hydraulic fracturing in a sedimentaryare described in the hydraulic fracturing context, in whichoverview. However, hydraulic fracturing theories and related

Wessling, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A STATISTICAL FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO THE STRENGTH OF BRITTLE ROCK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlsson, H. , "Hydraulic fracturing and overcoring stress1949). Haimson, B.C. , "Hydraulic fracturing in porous andc.B. , "Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments in

Ratigan, J.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A triple-continuum approach for modeling flow and transport processes in fractured rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiphase Tracer Transport in Heterogeneous Fractured Porousmultiphase, nonisothermal flow and solute transport in fractured porousmultiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and chemical migration in a fractured porous

Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S; Zellmer, K .E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Introducing a Clinical Practice Guideline Using Early CT in the Diagnosis of Scaphoid and Other Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

61-6. 30. Kusano N. Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fracture: AMJ, Schaefer-Prokop C, et al. Occult scaphoid fractures:revealing radiographically occult scaphoid fractures. [see

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Why continue the GEBA project?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and subfamilies that could be useful to the DOE missions. Principal Investigators: Jonathan Eisen, DOE JGI Program: CSP 2011 Home > Sequencing > Why continue the GEBA project...

333

Microscale controlled continuous cell culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of metabolic and cellular activity through substrate and product interactions are highly dependent on environmental conditions and cellular metabolic state. For such experiments to be feasible, continuous ...

Lee, Kevin Shao-Kwan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Development of experimental verification techniques for non-linear deformation and fracture on the nanometer scale.  

SciTech Connect

This work covers three distinct aspects of deformation and fracture during indentations. In particular, we develop an approach to verification of nanoindentation induced film fracture in hard film/soft substrate systems; we examine the ability to perform these experiments in harsh environments; we investigate the methods by which the resulting deformation from indentation can be quantified and correlated to computational simulations, and we examine the onset of plasticity during indentation testing. First, nanoindentation was utilized to induce fracture of brittle thin oxide films on compliant substrates. During the indentation, a load is applied and the penetration depth is continuously measured. A sudden discontinuity, indicative of film fracture, was observed upon the loading portion of the load-depth curve. The mechanical properties of thermally grown oxide films on various substrates were calculated using two different numerical methods. The first method utilized a plate bending approach by modeling the thin film as an axisymmetric circular plate on a compliant foundation. The second method measured the applied energy for fracture. The crack extension force and applied stress intensity at fracture was then determined from the energy measurements. Secondly, slip steps form on the free surface around indentations in most crystalline materials when dislocations reach the free surface. Analysis of these slip steps provides information about the deformation taking place in the material. Techniques have now been developed to allow for accurate and consistent measurement of slip steps and the effects of crystal orientation and tip geometry are characterized. These techniques will be described and compared to results from dislocation dynamics simulations.

Moody, Neville Reid; Bahr, David F.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

A PKN Hydraulic Fracture Model Study and Formation Permeability Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is an important method used to enhance the recovery of oil and gas from reservoirs, especially for low permeability formations. The distribution of pressure in fractures and fracture geometry are needed to design conventional and unconventional hydraulic fracturing operations, fracturing during water-flooding of petroleum reservoirs, shale gas, and injection/extraction operation in a geothermal reservoir. Designing a hydraulic fracturing job requires an understanding of fracture growth as a function of treatment parameters. There are various models used to approximately define the development of fracture geometry, which can be broadly classified into 2D and 3D categories. 2D models include, the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture model, and the Khristianovic-Geertsma-de. Klerk (KGD) fracture model, and the radial model. 3D models include fully 3D models and pseudo-three-dimensional (P-3D) models. The P-3D model is used in the oil industry due to its simplification of height growth at the wellbore and along the fracture length in multi-layered formations. In this research, the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture model is adopted to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation and recession, and the pressure changing history. Two different approaches to fluid leak-off are considered, which are the classical Carter's leak-off theory with a constant leak-off coefficient, and Pressure-dependent leak-off theory. Existence of poroelastic effect in the reservoir is also considered. By examining the impact of leak-off models and poroelastic effects on fracture geometry, the influence of fracturing fluid and rock properties, and the leak-off rate on the fracture geometry and fracturing pressure are described. A short and wide fracture will be created when we use the high viscosity fracturing fluid or the formation has low shear modulus. While, the fracture length, width, fracturing pressure, and the fracture closure time increase as the fluid leak-off coefficient is decreased. In addition, an algorithm is developed for the post-fracture pressure-transient analysis to calculate formation permeability. The impulse fracture pressure transient model is applied to calculate the formation permeability both for the radial flow and linear fracture flow assumption. Results show a good agreement between this study and published work.

Xiang, Jing

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Gulf of California Rift Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Gulf of California Rift Zone...

337

Allegan County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Allegan County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Allegan County, Michigan ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

338

Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

339

Anchorage Borough, Alaska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anchorage Borough, Alaska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anchorage Borough, Alaska ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

340

Benton County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Benton County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Arapahoe County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arapahoe County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Arapahoe County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

342

Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

343

Augusta County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Augusta County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Augusta County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

344

Benton County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Benton County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

345

Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

346

Bedford County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bedford County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bedford County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

347

Audrain County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Audrain County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Audrain County, Missouri ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

348

Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

349

Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

350

Ballard County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ballard County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ballard County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

351

Ashland County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ashland County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashland County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

352

Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

353

Benton County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Benton County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

354

Asotin County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Asotin County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Asotin County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

355

Method for effecting directional nuclear fracturing  

SciTech Connect

A method for localizing and directing energy from an underground nuclear explosion includes the steps of providing an acoustical blocking zone on at least one side of the contemplated explosion situs to limit transmission of elastic waves to the earth on the opposite sides of the acoustical blocking zone, then detonating the nuclear explosive at the situs. The acoustical blocking zone is a zone of material which is at variance in its acoustical characteristics with respect to the adjacent earth in which it is located. (5 claims)

Knutson, C.F.; Boardman, C.R.

1972-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

Enterprise Zones (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Zones (Iowa) Zones (Iowa) Enterprise Zones (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Enterprise Zone Industry Recruitment/Support Training/Technical Assistance Provider Iowa Economic Development Authority The Enterprise Zones Program is an incentive for business expansion designed to stimulate development by targeting economically distressed areas in Iowa. Through state and local tax incentives, businesses and developers are encouraged to make new investments, and create or retain

357

Enterprise Zone Program (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Georgia) Georgia) Enterprise Zone Program (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Enterprise Zone Personal Tax Incentives Property Tax Incentive Provider Georgia Department of Community Affairs The Enterprise Zone Program provides various tax incentives to businesses within designated underdeveloped zones in rural or urban areas. The State Enterprise Zone program intends to improve geographic areas within cities

358

Geothermal Lost Circulation Zone Mapping Tool  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lost circulation is an expensive and often encountered problem when drilling into geothermal formations. A method is needed to more accurately describe loss zones encountered during geothermal drilling to allow for more realistic testing since present testing techniques are inadequate. A Lost Circulation Zone Mapping Tool (LCZMT) is being developed that will quickly locate a loss zone and then provide a visual image of this zone as it intersects the wellbore. A modified Sandia high temperature Acoustic Borehole Televiewer should allow modeling of geothermal loss zones, which would in turn lead to testing that can be performed to evaluate lost circulation materials under simulated downhole conditions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Bauman, T.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number Number Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 + Acadia Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 2 + Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 4 + Ada County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adair County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adair County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 4 + Adair County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 +

360

Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Acadia Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Ada County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype B + Adair County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adair County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adair County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not traditional hydraulic fracturing or fracture stimulationfar below the hydraulic fracturing pressure. The injectionpressure to avoid hydraulic fracturing, but aims at dilating

Rutqvist, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Zoned heating and air conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

Beachboard, S.A.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

363

Overview: Zoning for Small Wind Turbines  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Overview: Overview: Zoning for Small Wind Turbines Jim Green NREL ASES Small Wind Division Webinar January 17, 2008 2 Zoning Basics * Zoning is one form of land use law * Based on legal principle of "police power:" the power to regulate in order to promote the health, morals, safety, and general welfare of the community * Zoning authority originates from state laws called "zoning enabling legislation" - Standard Zoning Enabling Act, Dept. of Commerce, 1920s * Enabling legislation delegates land use authority to local jurisdictions, "Home Rule" - counties, parishes, boroughs, townships, municipalities, cities, villages, etc. 3 Zoning is Daunting * 3,034 counties (National Association of Counties) * 16,504 townships * 19,429 municipalities (National League of Cities)

364

Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Enterprise Zone Corporate Tax Incentive Provider Missouri Department of Economic Development Enhanced Enterprise Zones aim at attracting new businesses or promoting an expansion of existing business in Missouri Enhanced Enterprise Zone. Tax credits will be an amount authorized by DED, based on the state economic benefit, supported by the number of new jobs, wages and new capital investment that the project will create. To qualify, individual business eligibility will be determined by the zone, based on creation of

365

Anomalous zones in Gulf Coast Salt domes with special reference to Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anomalous features in Gulf Coast Salt domes exhibit deviations from normally pure salt and vary widely in form from one dome to the next, ranging considerably in length and width. They have affected both conventional and solution mining in several ways. Gas outbursts, insolubles, and potash (especially carnallite) have led to the breakage of tubing in a number of caverns, and caused irregular shapes of many caverns through preferential leaching. Such anomalous features essentially have limited the lateral extent of conventional mining at several salt mines, and led to accidents and even the closing of several other mines. Such anomalous features, are often aligned in anomalous zones, and appear to be related to diapiric processes of salt dome development. Evidence indicates that anomalous zones are found between salt spines, where the differential salt intrusion accumulates other materials: Anhydrite bands which are relatively strong, and other, weaker impurities. Shear zones and fault displacement detected at Big Hill and Weeks Island domes have not yet had any known adverse impacts on SPR oil storage, but new caverns at these sites conceivably may encounter some potentially adverse conditions. Seismic reflection profiles at Big Hill dome have shown numerous fractures and faults in the caprock, and verified the earlier recognition of a major shear zone transecting the entire salt stock and forming a graben in the overlying caprock. Casing that is placed in such zones can be at risk. Knowledge of these zones should create awareness of possible effects rather than preclude the future emplacement of caverns. To the extent possible, major anomalous zones and salt stock boundaries should be avoided. Shear zones along overhangs may be particularly hazardous, and otherwise unknown valleys in the top of salt may occur along shear zones. These zones often can be mapped geophysically, especially with high-resolution seismic techniques.

Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Thoms, R.L. [AGM, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Autin, W.J.; McCulloh, R.P. [Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Denzler, S.; Byrne, K.O. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND INDUCED SEISMICITY IN KANSAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For some time the public has asked questions about seismic activity related to hydraulic fracturing and other oil-field related activities. In particular, there is concern that the energy that goes into the subsurface during hydraulic fracturing is sufficient to cause felt earthquakes. The following is a response to those questions. 1) Seismic activity that is related to human activities is generally referred to as “induced seismicity ” or “triggered seismicity. ” Induced seismicity is defined as “seismic events attributable to human activities ” (National Research Council, 2012). The term “triggered seismicity ” is also used to describe situations in which human activities “could potentially ‘trigger ’ large and potentially damaging earthquakes ” (Shemeta et al., 2012). The following discussion uses only the term “induced seismicity ” to refer to seismic activity in which human activity plays a role. 2) Because it uses energy to fracture rocks to release oil or natural gas, hydraulic fracturing does create microseismic events (of a magnitude less than 2.0). Felt earthquake activity (generally greater than a magnitude 3.0) resulting from hydraulic fracturing has been confirmed from only one location in the world (National Research Council, 2012). In the

unknown authors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A Reaction-Transport Model for Calcite Precipitation andEvaluation of Infiltration Fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The percolation flux in the unsaturated zone (UZ) is an important parameter addressed in site characterization and flow and transport modeling of the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has documented hydrogenic calcite abundances in fractures and lithophysal cavities at Yucca Mountain to provide constraints on percolation fluxes in the UZ. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between percolation flux and measured calcite abundances using reactive transport modeling. Our model considers the following essential factors affecting calcite precipitation: (1) infiltration, (2) the ambient geothermal gradient, (3) gaseous CO2 diffusive transport and partitioning in liquid and gas phases, (4) fracture matrix interaction for water flow and chemical constituents, and (5) water rock interaction. Over a bounding range of 2 20 mm/year infiltration rate, the simulated calcite distributions capture the trend in calcite abundances measured in a deep borehole (WT-24) by the USGS. The calcite is found predominantly in fractures in the welded tuffs, which is also captured by the model simulations. Simulations showed that from about 2 to 6 mm/year, the amount of calcite precipitated in the welded Topopah Spring tuff is sensitive to the infiltration rate. This dependence decreases at higher infiltration rates owing to a modification of the geothermal gradient from the increased percolation flux. The model also confirms the conceptual model for higher percolation fluxes in the fractures compared to the matrix in the welded units, and the significant contribution of Ca from water rock interaction. This study indicates that reactive transport modeling of calcite deposition can yield important constraints on the unsaturated zone infiltration-percolation flux and provide useful insight into processes such as fracture matrix interaction as well as conditions and parameters controlling calcite deposition.

Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume III. Geothermal fracture fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed study of all available and experimental frac fluid systems is presented. They have been examined and tested for physical properties that are important in the stimulation of hot water geothermal wells. These fluids consist of water-based systems containing high molecular weight polymers in the uncrosslinked and crosslinked state. The results of fluid testing for many systems are summarized specifically at geothermal conditions or until breakdown occurs. Some of the standard tests are ambient viscosity, static aging, high temperature viscosity, fluid-loss testing, and falling ball viscosity at elevated temperatures and pressures. Results of these tests show that unalterable breakdown of the polymer solutions begins above 300/sup 0/F. This continues at higher temperatures with time even if stabilizers or other high temperature additives are included.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Anomalous fracture-extension pressure in granitic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture-extension pressures appreciably higher than the least principal earth-stress were observed in hydraulic fractures formed in a pair of 3 km (9600 ft) deep boreholes drilled near the Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Pressurization of open wellbores in rock containing preexisting fractures may open these fractures, instead of creating new fractures at right angles to the least principal stress. The pressure necessary to flow into these fractures may be appreciably higher than the least principal stress. Upon sand-propping one such pre-existing fracture, a lower fracture extension pressure was observed. A second fracture in a parallel well-bore 92 m (300 ft) away, at the same depth of 2 km (6500 ft) exhibited the lower fracture extension pressure without propping, but with about 90/sup 0/ difference in fracture direction. Fractures created through perforations at a depth of 3 km (9600 ft) not only exhibited breakdown pressures upon initial pressurization, but sometimes even higher ''breakdown'' pressures upon repressurization. These phenomena may be of interest in the interpretation of earth stress measurements made by hydraulic fracturing.

Aamodt, R.L.; Potter, R.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Past Climate Zones U. S. Climate Zones for 1979-1999 CBECS: climate zone map Return to Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS Return to CBECS Home Page Note:Map updated with corrections,...

371

U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Climate Zone U. S. Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS: climate zones map Note:Map updated with corrections, February 2012 Further Explanation on How Climate Zones are Defined...

372

Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ModelClimateZone ModelClimateZone Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. It links to pages that use the form Buildings Model. The allowed values for this property are: Climate Zone 1A Climate Zone 1B Climate Zone 2A Climate Zone 2B Climate Zone 3A Climate Zone 3B Climate Zone 3C Climate Zone 4A Climate Zone 4B Climate Zone 4C Climate Zone 5A Climate Zone 5B Climate Zone 5C Climate Zone 6A Climate Zone 6B Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Pages using the property "Buildings/ModelClimateZone" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load 50% Energy Savings + Climate Zone 5A + General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load Baseline + Climate Zone 5A + General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load 50% Energy Savings + Climate Zone 5A +

373

Fracture Characterization Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fracture Characterization Technologies Fracture Characterization Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Fracture Characterization Technologies Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

374

Pressure transient analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New ideas are presented for the interpretation of pressure transient tests for wells in naturally fractured reservoirs. This work is based on the transient matrix flow model formulated by de Swaan. The differences between this model and the Warren and Root model occur during the transition flow period. It is demonstrated that the behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir can be correlated by using three dimensionless parameters. It is established that regardless of matrix geometry the transition period might exhibit a straight line whose slope is equal to half the slope of the classical parallel semilog straight lines, provided the transient matrix linear flow is present. In addition, information is provided on the estimation of fracture area per unit matrix volume or matrix parameters from the transition period semilog straight line. It is shown that matrix geometry might be identified when pressure data are smooth. Field examples are included to illustrate the application and the validity of the theoretical results of this study.

Cinco-ley, H.; Samaniego, F.V.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

On the fracture toughness of advanced materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the fracture toughness K{sub Ic}.

Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

376

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing from a gas condensate reservoir. Questions were raised about whether flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. In the most recent work done by Adedeji Ayoola Adeyeye, this subject was studied when the effects of reservoir depletion were minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. He also used an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture along with a linear model as an adequate analogy. He concluded that the skin due to liquid build-up is not enough to prevent lower flowing bottomhole pressures from producing more gas. This current study investigated the condensate damage at the face of the hydraulic fracture in transient and boundary dominated periods when the effects of reservoir depletion are taken into account. As a first step, simulation of liquid flow into the fracture was performed using a 2D 1-phase simulator in order to help us to better understand the results of gas condensate simulation. Then during the research, gas condensate models with various gas compositions were simulated using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Topical report on subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Phase I. Pulsed radar techniques. Phase II. Conventional logging methods. Phase III. Magnetic borehole ranging  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, an evaluation is made of (i) the use of radar to map far-field fractures, (ii) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, and (iii) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. Improvements in both data interpretation techniques and high temperature operation are required. The surveying of one borehole from another appears feasible at ranges of up to 200 to 500 meters by using a low frequency magnetic field generated by a moderately strong dipole source (a solenoid) located in one borehole, a sensitive B field detector that traverses part of the second borehole, narrow band filtering, and special data inversion techniques.

Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands  

SciTech Connect

Advanced core analysis includes measurements on the matrix properties of the rock. Matrix properties are important even in fractured wells since it is these properties which determine the rate of gas flow into the fractures. Cores are being tested from the fluvial, coastal, and paludal zones of the Mesaverde. At least two cores from each of these zones from all three wells will be analyzed. Properties measured include permeability as a function of confining pressure over the range of 500 to 5000 psi. A minimum of two Klinkenberg permeabilities are being determined from at least five data points. Interpretation includes estimates of pore size from gas slippage. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms will be determined for selected samples with data points being obtained at the following relative humidities: 0, 20, 40, 60, 75, 90, 92, 95 and 98. Porosity measurements from both thin section examination and volumetric measurements are being made. These results will be compared with the porosities of the cored internals determined from logs.

Morrow, N.R.; Brower, K.R.; Ward, J.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Analytical Approach to Continuous and Intermittent Bottleneck Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a many-particle-inspired theory for granular outflows from a hopper and for the escape dynamics through a bottleneck based on a continuity equation in polar coordinates. If the inflow is below the maximum outflow, we find an asymptotic stationary solution. If the inflow is above this value, we observe queue formation, which can be described by a shock wave equation. We also address the experimental observation of intermittent outflows, taking into account the lack of space in the merging zone by a minimum function and coordination problems by a stochastic variable. This results in avalanches of different sizes even if friction, force networks, inelastic collapse, or delay-induced stop-and-go waves are not assumed. Our intermittent flows result from a random alternation between particle propagation and gap propagation. Erratic flows in congested merging zones of vehicle traffic may be explained in a similar way.

Helbing, D; Jensen, M H; Johansson, A; Mathiesen, J; Hansen, Alex; Helbing, Dirk; Jensen, Mogens H.; Johansson, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator for design of acid-fracturing treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field experience during 1989--90 shows that application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator increases success of acid-fracturing well treatments. Fracture extension can be limited to the oil-bearing pay, maximum lateral extension can be realized within the height constraint, and acid/rock contact time can be increased by a factor of between 3 and 30. Oil-production response can be improved over other stimulation designs while water-production response can be limited. These methods have been applied in mature waterfloods of the Permian Basin and Cedar Creek anticline.

Morgenthaler, L.N. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

Linkov, Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

How can we use one fracture to locate another?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is an important tool that helps extract fluids from the subsurface. It is critical in applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to geothermal energy pro-duction. As the goal of fracturing is to ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research April 26, 2013 - 11:05am Addthis Statement of Guido DeHoratiis Acting Deputy...

384

Permeability Estimation From Velocity Anisotropy In Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cracks in a rock mass subjected to a uniaxial stress will be preferentially closed depending on the angle between the fracture normal vectors and the direction of the applied stress. If the prestress fracture orientation ...

Gibson, Richard L., Jr.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Rigid-body fracture sound with precomputed soundbanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a physically based algorithm for synthesizing sounds synchronized with brittle fracture animations. Motivated by laboratory experiments, we approximate brittle fracture sounds using time-varying rigid-body sound models. We extend methods for ...

Changxi Zheng; Doug L. James

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Atom-to-continuum methods for gaining a fundamental understanding of fracture.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. Under this aegis we developed new theory and a number of novel techniques to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. These developments ranged from a material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics to an atomic level J integral. Each of the developments build upon each other and culminated in a cohesive zone model derived from atomic information and verified at the continuum scale. This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. The effort is predicated on the idea that processes and information at the atomic level are missing in engineering scale simulations of fracture, and, moreover, are necessary for these simulations to be predictive. In this project we developed considerable new theory and a number of novel techniques in order to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. Chapter 2 gives a detailed account of the material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics we constructed in order to best use atomic information from solid systems. With this framework, in Chapter 3, we were able to make a direct and elegant extension of the classical J down to simulations on the scale of nanometers with a discrete atomic lattice. The technique was applied to cracks and dislocations with equal success and displayed high fidelity with expectations from continuum theory. Then, as a prelude to extension of the atomic J to finite temperatures, we explored the quasi-harmonic models as efficient and accurate surrogates of atomic lattices undergoing thermo-elastic processes (Chapter 4). With this in hand, in Chapter 5 we provide evidence that, by using the appropriate energy potential, the atomic J integral we developed is calculable and accurate at finite/room temperatures. In Chapter 6, we return in part to the fundamental efforts to connect material behavior at the atomic scale to that of the continuum. In this chapter, we devise theory that predicts the onset of instability characteristic of fracture/failure via atomic simulation. In Chapters 7 and 8, we describe the culmination of the project in connecting atomic information to continuum modeling. In these chapters we show that cohesive zone models are: (a) derivable from molecular dynamics in a robust and systematic way, and (b) when used in the more efficient continuum-level finite element technique provide results that are comparable and well-correlated with the behavior at the atomic-scale. Moreover, we show that use of these same cohesive zone elements is feasible at scales very much larger than that of the lattice. Finally, in Chapter 9 we describe our work in developing the efficient non-reflecting boundary conditions necessary to perform transient fracture and shock simulation with molecular dynamics.

McDowell, David Lynn (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Jones, Reese E.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Belytschko, Ted. (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Lloyd, Jeffrey T. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Oswald, Jay (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Delph, Terry J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Kimmer, Christopher J. (Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model  

SciTech Connect

Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS), established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly the Nevada Test Site) that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The initial NCNS project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment at the NNSS (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks at the Climax stock in northern Yucca Flat. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The data will be used to improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. The first SPE-N test (SPE-N-1) was a “calibration” shot conducted in May 2011, using 100 kilograms (kg) of explosives at the depth of 54.9 meters (m) (180 feet [ft]) in the U-15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m (150 ft) in the same source hole. Following the SPE-N-2 test, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast side, where the core hole penetrated it. The three-dimensional shape and symmetry of the damage zone are unknown at this time. Rather than spherical in shape, the dimensions of the damage zone could be influenced by the natural fracture sets in the vicinity. Geologic characterization of the borehole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for laboratory tests (to be reported by SNL). A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the U-15n#10 angle core hole between the drilled depths of 149 and 155 ft (straight-line distance or range station [RS] from the shot point of 7.5 to 5.7 m). However, several of the fractures observed in the U-15n#10 hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. These fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets. The most distant fracture from the shot point that could be interpreted as having been caused by the explosion was seen at approximately RS 10.0 m. No other possibly explosion-induced fractures are apparent above the fault, but are common starting at RS 5.4 m, which is below the fault. It is unknown how the fault zone might have affected the propagation of seismic waves or how the materials in the fault zone (altered granite, breccia, gouge) were affected by the explosion. From RS 3.3 m to the end of the recovered core at RS 1.6 m, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

,

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

389

A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are defined from the numerical solution of a complex hypersingular integral equation written for a given fracture configuration and loading. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures with existing discontinuities such as faults and joints. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two- and three-dimensional heat extraction solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate heat extraction and the variations of the reservoir stress with cooling. The numerical models have been developed in a user-friendly environment to create a tool for improving fracture design and investigating single or multiple fracture propagation in rock.

Ahmad Ghassemi

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.3 cents from a week ago, based on the...

391

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.98 a gallon on Labor Day Monday. That's up 6.8 cents from a week ago, based...

392

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.92 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 cents from a week ago based on the...

393

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.6 cents from a week ago, based on the...

394

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5, 2013 Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.94 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 12 cents from a week ago, based...

395

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.98 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the...

396

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.89 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.1 cents from a week ago based on the...

397

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.89 a gallon on Monday. That's down 5 12 cents from a week ago, based on the...

398

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 4.01 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.1 cents from a week ago, based on the...

399

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.87 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

400

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.92 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.89 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2.4 cents from a week ago, based on the...

402

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.82 a gallon on Monday. That's down a penny from a week ago, based on the...

403

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.83 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2 cents from a week ago, based on the...

404

Diesel prices continue to increase  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to increase The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.88 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.9 cents from a week ago, based on the...

405

Diesel prices continue to decrease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4, 2013 Diesel prices continue to decrease The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 3.86 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.3 cents from a week ago, based...

406

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Deep drilling has allowed for the first time an examination of most of the shield stage of a Hawaiian volcano when it is centered over the hotspot and most of its volume is produced. We determined the lithologies, ages, geochemical characteristics and accumulation rates of rocks from the continuously cored, ~1.7 km deep Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) 1, which was drilled into Kilauea's East Rift Zone. The uppermost ~750 m of this hole contain relatively unaltered subaerially quenched lavas; the lower

407

Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Los Alamos National Laboratory Other Principal Investigators Grant Bromhal, National Energy Technology Laboratory Targets Milestones - Improve image resolution for fracture...

408

Fluid Flow in Fractured Rock: Theory and Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous Media, Pullman, WA, July 9-18,1989, and to be published in the Proceedings Fluid Flow in Fractured

Long, J.C.S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Fracture Criterion of Discontinuous Carbon Fiber Dispersed SiC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Ceramic Matrix Composites. Presentation Title, Fracture Criterion of ...

410

Towards Understanding the Deformation and Fracture Behavior of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Towards Understanding the Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Gas Turbine Structural Materials at Elevated Temperatures. Author(s)  ...

411

Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fan Blade Fracture in a Welded Assembly - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Fan Blade Fracture in a ...

413

Fracture and Delamination in Thin Film Si Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Fracture and Delamination in Thin Film Si Electrodes.

414

LANL continuity of operations plan  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may be required to support an allhazards event, including a national security emergency, major fire, catastrophic natural disaster, man-made disaster, terrorism event, or technological disaster by rendering LANL buildings, infrastructure, or Technical Areas unsafe, temporarily unusable, or inaccessible.

Senutovitch, Diane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

415

Climate Zone 3B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 3B Climate Zone 3B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 3 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 3B is defined as Dry with IP Units 4500 < CDD50ºF ≤ 6300 and SI Units 2500 < CDD10ºC < 3500 . The following places are categorized as class 3B climate zones: Andrews County, Texas Baylor County, Texas Borden County, Texas Brewster County, Texas Butte County, California Callahan County, Texas Chaves County, New Mexico Childress County, Texas Clark County, Nevada Cochise County, Arizona Coke County, Texas Coleman County, Texas Collingsworth County, Texas Colusa County, California Concho County, Texas Contra Costa County, California Cottle County, Texas Crane County, Texas Crockett County, Texas

416

Displacement Transfer Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Displacement Transfer Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Displacement Transfer Zone Dictionary.png Displacement Transfer Zone: Displacement transfer zones facilitate the transfer of strain between normal and strike-slip faults. Intersections between strike-slip faults in the Walker Lane and N- to NNE-striking normal faults commonly host geothermal systems, focused along the normal faults proximal to their dilational intersections with nearby strike-slip faults. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault

417

Climate Zone 5A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zone 5A Zone 5A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 5 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 5A is defined as Cool- Humid with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5A climate zones: Adair County, Iowa Adair County, Missouri Adams County, Illinois Adams County, Indiana Adams County, Iowa Adams County, Nebraska Adams County, Pennsylvania Albany County, New York Allegan County, Michigan Alleghany County, North Carolina Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Allen County, Indiana Allen County, Ohio Andrew County, Missouri Antelope County, Nebraska Appanoose County, Iowa Armstrong County, Pennsylvania Arthur County, Nebraska

418

Climate Zone 5B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 5B Climate Zone 5B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 5 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 5B is defined as Dry with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5B climate zones: Ada County, Idaho Adams County, Colorado Adams County, Washington Apache County, Arizona Arapahoe County, Colorado Asotin County, Washington Baker County, Oregon Beaver County, Utah Benewah County, Idaho Bent County, Colorado Benton County, Washington Boulder County, Colorado Broomfield County, Colorado Canyon County, Idaho Carson City County, Nevada Cassia County, Idaho Catron County, New Mexico Chelan County, Washington Cheyenne County, Colorado

419

Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Number 1 Climate Zone Number 1 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 1 is defined as Very Hot - Humid(1A) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50ºF and SI Units 5000 < CDD10ºC Dry(1B) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50ºF and SI Units 5000 < CDD10ºC . The following places are categorized as class 1 climate zones: Broward County, Florida Hawaii County, Hawaii Honolulu County, Hawaii Kalawao County, Hawaii Kauai County, Hawaii Maui County, Hawaii Miami-Dade County, Florida Monroe County, Florida Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_Zone_Number_1&oldid=21604" Category: ASHRAE Climate Zones What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

420

Climate Zone 2A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 2A Climate Zone 2A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 2 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 2A is defined as Hot - Humid with IP Units 6300 < CDD50ºF ≤ 9000 and SI Units 3500 < CDD10ºC ≤ 5000 . The following places are categorized as class 2A climate zones: Acadia Parish, Louisiana Alachua County, Florida Allen Parish, Louisiana Anderson County, Texas Angelina County, Texas Appling County, Georgia Aransas County, Texas Ascension Parish, Louisiana Assumption Parish, Louisiana Atascosa County, Texas Atkinson County, Georgia Austin County, Texas Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana Bacon County, Georgia Baker County, Florida Baker County, Georgia Baldwin County, Alabama Bastrop County, Texas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fractured continuous zones" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Texas Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive Enterprise Zone Provider Texas Wide Open for Business The Enterprise Zone Program eligible projects to apply for state sales and use tax refunds on purchases of all taxable items purchased for use at qualified business sites related to the project or activity. The level and amount of refund is related to the capital investment and jobs created at the qualified business site. In addition, local communities must offer incentives to participants under the enterprise zone program, such as tax

422

Coastal Zone Management Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zone Management Act Zone Management Act Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Coastal Zone Management Act Year 1972 Url [[File:|160px|link=]] Description The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (CZMA; Pub.L. 92-583, 86 Stat. 1280, enacted October 27, 1972, 16 U.S.C. §§ 1451-1464, Chapter 33) is an Act of Congress passed in 1972 to encourage coastal states to develop and implement coastal zone management plans (CZMPs). This act was established as a United States National policy to preserve, protect, develop, and where possible, restore or enhance, the resources of the Nation's coastal zone for this and succeeding generations. References Wikipedia[1] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[2] The U.S. Congress recognized the importance of meeting the challenge of

423

Integrated Strategy to Address Hanford’s Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vast majority of Hanford’s remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a “defense-in-depth” approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.; Lober, Robert W.; Chronister, Glen B.

2010-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

424

Ductile Fracture Handbook, Volume 1: Circumferential Throughwall Cracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past 10 years, the focus of fracture research related to nuclear power plants has shifted from brittle fractures to fractures of steels used for piping and vessels. This handbook developed by EPRI and Novetech Corporation is the first single-source document containing formulas for evaluating throughwall cracks in these tough ductile steels.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable to those in actual acid fracture treatments. After acid etching, fracture conductivity is measured at different closure stresses. This research work presents a systematic study to investigate the effect of temperature, rock-acid contact time and initial condition of the fracture surfaces on acid fracture conductivity in the Austin Chalk formation. While temperature and rock-acid contact are variables normally studied in fracture conductivity tests, the effect of the initial condition of the fracture surface has not been extensively investigated. The experimental results showed that there is no significant difference in acid fracture conductivity at high closure stress using smooth or rough fracture surfaces. In addition, we analyzed the mechanisms of acid etching and resulting conductivity creation in the two types of fracture surfaces studied by using surface profiles. For smooth surfaces, the mechanism of conductivity creation seems connected to uneven etching of the rock and roughness generation. For rough surfaces, acid conductivity is related to smoothing and deepening of the initial features on the sample surface than by creating more roughness. Finally, we compared the experimental results with Nirode-Kruk correlation for acid fracture conductivity.

Nino Penaloza, Andrea

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Efficient fracturing of all angle shaped VLSI mask pattern data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing (i.e., filling area by rectangles) is one of the most important tasks of an artwork system for a pattern generator. Growing chip complexity requires efficient algorithms to perform this non-trivial data transformation. In order to solve this ... Keywords: CAD for VLSI, computational geometry, coverage, dissection, exposure system, fracturing, hierarchical fracturing, pattern generator, plane sweep

Georg Pelz; Volker Meyer zu Bexten

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Particle-based fracture simulation on the GPU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a particle-based framework is presented to simulate the fracture phenomenon in computer graphics field. First, the object is represented as discrete particles, and then we introduce the Extend Discrete Element Method (EDEM) simulation ... Keywords: CUDA, EDEM, anti-fracture mechanism, fracture

Jiangfan Ning; Huaxun Xu; Liang Zeng; Sikun Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

6. Fracture mechanics lead author: J, R. Rice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6. Fracture mechanics lead author: J, R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University. F. Shih, and the ASME/AMD Technical Committee on Fracture Mechanics, pro- vided by A. S. Argon, S. N, W. D. Stuart, and R. Thomson. 6.0 ABSTRACT Fracture mechanics is an active research field

429

Fracture analysis of the upper devonian antrim shale, Michigan basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Antrim Shale is a fractured, unconventional gas reservoir in the northern Michigan basin. Controls on gas production are poorly constrained but must depend on the fracture framework. Analyses of fracture geometry (orientation, spacing, and aperture width) were undertaken to better evaluate reservoir permeability and, hence, pathways for fluid migration. Measurements from nearly 600 fractures were made from outcrop, core, and Formation MicroScanner logs covering three members of the Antrim Shale (Norwood, Paxton, Lachine) and the Ellsworth Shale. Fracture analyses indicate pronounced reservoir anisotropy among the members. Together related with lithologic variations, this leads to unique reservoir characteristics within each member. There are two dominant fracture sets, northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast. Fracture density varies among stratigraphic intervals but always is lowest in the northwest-southeast fracture set and is greatest in the northeast-southwest fracture set. While aperture width decreases markedly with depth, subsurface variation in mean aperture width is significant. Based on fracture density and mean aperture width, the Norwood member has the largest intrinsic permeability and the Ellsworth Shale the lowest intrinsic permeability. The highest intrinsic fracture permeability in all intervals is associated with the northeast-southwest fracture set. The Norwood and Lachine members thus exhibit the best reservoir character. This information is useful in developing exploration strategies and completion practices in the Antrim Shale gas play.

Richards, J.A.; Budai, J.M.; Walter, L.M.; Abriola, L.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Estimating Major and Minor Natural Fracture Patterns in Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating Major and Minor Natural Fracture Patterns in Gas Shales Using Production Data Razi Identification of infill drilling locations has been challenging with mixed results in gas shales. Natural fractures are the main source of permeability in gas shales. Natural fracture patterns in shale has a random

Mohaghegh, Shahab

431

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for both liquid and heat transfer processes. In order to beprocesses in hot fractured rock with ( 1) flow channeling in fractures, (2) interface reduction in F-M heat transfer,

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Streamside Management Zones (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Streamside Management Zones (Montana) Streamside Management Zones (Montana) Streamside Management Zones (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation This chapter sets streamside management zones as encompassing a strip at

433

Enterprise Zone Incentives (Florida) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incentives (Florida) Incentives (Florida) Enterprise Zone Incentives (Florida) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Florida Program Type Enterprise Zone Provider Florida Department of Economic Opportunity Enterprise Zone Incentives encourage business growth within certain geographic areas targeted for economic revitalization. Businesses which create jobs within a designated zone are eligible for several tax incentives, including sales and use tax credit, tax refunds for machinery or equipment, sales tax refund for building materials, and a sales tax exemption for electrical energy

434

Experimental Determination of Tracer Dispersivity in Fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reinjection of waste hot water is commonly practiced in most geothermal fields, primarily as a means of disposal. Surface discharge of these waste waters is usually unacceptable due to the resulting thermal and chemical pollution. Although reinjection can help to main reservoir pressure and fluid volume, in some cases a decrease in reservoir productivity has been observed. This is caused by rapid flow of the reinjected water through fractures connecting the injector and producers. As a result, the water is not sufficiently heated by the reservoir rock, and a reduction in enthalpy of the produced fluids is seen. Tracer tests have proven to be valuable to reservoir engineers for the design of a successful reinjection program. By injecting a slug of tracer and studying the discharge of surrounding producing wells, an understanding of the fracture network within a reservoir can be provided. In order to quantify the results of a tracer test, a model that accurately describes the mechanisms of tracer transport is necessary. One such mechanism, dispersion, is like a smearing out of a tracer concentration due to the velocity gradients over the cross section of flow. If a dispersion coefficient can be determined from tracer test data, the fracture width can be estimated. The purpose of this project was to design and construct an apparatus to study the dispersion of a chemical tracer in flow through a fracture.

Gilardi, J.; Horns, R.N.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Unsteady Flow Model for Fractured Gas Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing low permeability reservoirs is currently a big challenge to the industry. Because low permeability reservoirs are of low quality and are easily damaged, production from a single well is low, and there is unlikely to be any primary recovery. ... Keywords: Low permeability, Fractured well, Orthogonal transformation, Unsteady, Productivity

Li Yongming; Zhao Jinzhou; Gong Yang; Yao Fengsheng; Jiang Youshi

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing (or lack thereof)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: "subsurface emplacement of fluids by well injection." 42 U.S.C. § 300h(d)(1). #12;UIC Program Requirements, EPA has concluded that the injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids into [coalbed methane] wells poses Water Act The federal Safe Drinking Water Act prohibits "underground injection" that is not authorized

Boufadel, Michel

437

GEOLOGY AND FRACTURE SYSTEM AT STRIPA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

g. ~C,K iiE,30~~ nK,~K E E CoK 28S C ;~K, 70K~tC K SO C kite 50,65 C K,t Ii f ~g K CoK (XBL 799-11950 ) U K,e FRACTURE

Olkiewicz, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing  

SciTech Connect

The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation.

Weeren, H.O.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Confined-unconfined changes above longwall coal mining due to increases in fracture porosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsidence and strata movement above longwall (total extraction) coal mines produce complex hydrologic responses that can occur independently of drainage to the mine. One response is dewatering from confined to unconfined conditions in bedrock aquifers as a result of loss of water into new void space created by fracture and bedding separations. This dewatering process has been little studied but accounts for several hydraulic and geochemical effects of longwall mining. This article presents a conceptual model of the process and reviews evidence from case studies. Confined bedrock aquifers in subsiding zones exhibit dramatically steep head drops because of the low value of confined storage coefficients relative to the volume of water drained into the new fracture void space. The aquifer changes rapidly to an unconfined condition. Tight units to which air entry is restricted may even develop negative water pressures. In the unconfined state, sulfide minerals present in the strata readily oxidize to soluble hydrated sulfates. When the aquifer re-saturates, these salts are rapidly mobilized and produce a flush of increased sulfate and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels. Observations made in our previous studies in Illinois are consistent with the confined-unconfined model and include rapid head drops, changes to unconfined conditions, and increases in sulfate and TDS during re-saturation of a sandstone aquifer. Studies reported from the Appalachian coalfield show aspects consistent with the model, but in this high-relief fractured setting it is often difficult to distinguish aquifers from aquitards, confined from unconfined states, and the fracture-porosity cause of head drops from several others that occur during mine subsidence.

Booth, C.J. [North Illinois University, De Kalb, IL (USA). Dept. of Geology & Environmental Geoscience

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Deriving the shape factor of a fractured rock matrix  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow from a fractured rock matrix was investigated for accurately predicting oil recovery from fractured reservoirs. To relate the oil rate with rock geometry and average rock matrix pressure, a shape factor is used in the mathematical model of fractured reservoirs. The shape factor in the transfer function was derived by solving the three-dimensional diffusivity equation of a rock matrix block under unsteady-state production, in contrast to the quasi-steady-state condition assumed by most previous studies denoted in the literature. The diffusivity equation in the x, y, and z coordinate was solved in four cases by assuming different boundary conditions of (1) constant fracture pressure; (2) constant flow rate; (3) constant fracture pressure followed by linearly declining fracture pressure; and (4) linearly declining fracture pressure followed by constant fracture pressure. Shape factor values are high at the initial depletion stage under an unsteady-state condition. When the fracture pressure is constant, the shape factor converges to {pi}{sup 2}/L{sup 2}, 2{pi}{sup 2}/L{sup 2}, and 3{pi}{sup 2}/L{sup 2} for one-, two-, and three-dimensional rock matrix, respectively, at the dimensionless time ({tau}) of about 0.1. When the flow rate between the rock matrix and the fracture is constant, the fracture pressure varies with location on the rock surface. Based on the average fracture pressure, the shape factor decreases with production time until a {tau} value of 0.1 is reached. The boundary conditions of constant fracture pressure followed by a constant decline in fracture pressure are equivalent to the condition of a constant fracture pressure followed by a period of constant flow rate.

Chang, Ming-Ming

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field are investigated using seismicity, focal mechanisms and stress analysis. Comparison of hypocenters of microearthquakes with locations of development wells indicates that microseismic activity has increased since the commencement of fluid injection and circulation. Microearthquakes in the geothermal field are proposed as indicators of shear fracturing associated with fluid injection and circulation along major pre-existing

442

Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Annual report, 1996--1997  

SciTech Connect

The methodology and results of this project are being tested using the Andector-Goldsmith Field in the Permian Basin, West Texas. The study area includes the Central Basin Platform and the Midland Basin. The Andector-Goldsmith Field lies at the juncture of these two zones in the greater West Texas Permian Basin. Although the modeling is being conducted in this area, the results have widespread applicability to other fractured carbonate and other reservoirs throughout the world.

Hoak, T.; Jenkins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Ortoleva, P.; Ozkan, G.; Shebl, M.; Sibo, W.; Tuncay, K. [Laboratory for Computational Geodynamics (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Company (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

High-permeability fracturing: The evolution of a technology  

SciTech Connect

Since its introduction almost 50 years ago, hydraulic fracturing has been the prime engineering tool for improving well productivity either by bypassing near-wellbore damage or by actually stimulating performance. Historically (and in many instances erroneously), the emphasis for propped fracturing was on fracture length, culminating in massive treatments for tight-gas sands with several million pounds of proppant and design lengths in excess of 1,500 ft. More recently, the importance of fracture conductivity has become appreciated. This paper uses field examples to trace the history, development, and application of TSO fracturing to high-permeability formations, including fracturing to increase PI, as well as applications aimed at improving completions in unconsolidated sands. Potential applications of fracturing to bypass the need for sand control are explored. Finally, the use of fracturing as a reservoir-management tool is examined through use of a propped fracture to alter the vertical flow profile of a well to maximize reserves. This particular use of fracturing leads to cases where careful design of both fracture length and conductivity is required; i.e., too much conductivity is as damaging to reservoir management as too little.

Smith, M.B.; Hannah, R.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A Prognostic Relationship for Entrainment Zone Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thickness of the entrainment zone at the top of the atmospheric mixed layer is analyzed using measurements made with a ground-based lidar during the BLX83 and CIRCE field programs. When the entrainment-zone depth normalized by mixed-layer ...

Eric Nelson; Roland Stull; Edwin Eloranta

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

445