Economic Realities and Energy Efficient Polyphase Integral Horsepower Electric Motors
Whittington, B. W.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy efficient polyphase integral horsepower electric motors are currently being vigorously promoted as a profitable method of conserving energy in many industrial and commercial applications. While the goal to be attained is indeed laudable...
Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation
Fipps, Guy
1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. This publication explains how to lower pumping costs by calculating horsepower requirements and sizing supply pipelines correctly. Examples take the reader through...
Economic Realities and Energy Efficient Polyphase Integral Horsepower Electric Motors
Whittington, B. W.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy efficient polyphase integral horsepower electric motors are currently being vigorously promoted as a profitable method of conserving energy in many industrial and commercial applications. While the goal to be attained is indeed laudable...
Dramatic changes in electronic structure revealed by fractionally charged nuclei
Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Rd., University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mori-Sánchez, Paula, E-mail: paula.mori@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
Discontinuous changes in the electronic structure upon infinitesimal changes to the Hamiltonian are demonstrated. These are revealed in one and two electron molecular systems by full configuration interaction (FCI) calculations when the realm of the nuclear charge is extended to be fractional. FCI electron densities in these systems show dramatic changes in real space and illustrate the transfer, hopping, and removal of electrons. This is due to the particle nature of electrons seen in stretched systems and is a manifestation of an energy derivative discontinuity at constant number of electrons. Dramatic errors of density functional theory densities are seen in real space as this physics is missing from currently used approximations. The movements of electrons in these simple systems encapsulate those in real physical processes, from chemical reactions to electron transport and pose a great challenge for the development of new electronic structure methods.
Changes in misonidazole binding with hypoxic fraction in mouse tumors
Hirst, D.G.; Hazlehurst, J.L.; Brown, J.M.
1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Binding of misonidazole (MISO) or a derivative to hypoxic cells in tumors has been proposed as a method for identifying tumors, and measuring their level of hypoxia. The author has recently shown that the hypoxic fraction of tumor cells can be altered over a wide range in vivo by acutely changing the hematocrit of the host animal by transfusion. The present study is aimed to investigate the changes in binding by /sup 14/C MISO that accompanied this procedure. Tumor bearing mice were injected with /sup 14/C MISO, irradiated with a single dose of X rays (20 Gy) and their tumor excised and bisected. One half of each tumor was used to determine cell survival in vitro, the other was used for /sup 14/C scintillation counting. As previously described, tumor cell survival was dramatically increased in acutely anemic mice and this was accompanied by an increase in /sup 14/C MISO binding to the tumors. The relationship between clonogenic cell survival and binding was found to be linear on a log-log plot for each of the tumor lines studied, but the slopes of the lines were different in different tumor lines and generally steeper than the value of 1.0 expected for a 1:1 correspondence between cells binding radioactivity and radiobiological resistance.
Not Available,
1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.
Fractional channel multichannel analyzer
Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.
1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.
Fractional Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions
Maciejko, Joseph; Zhang Shoucheng [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Qi Xiaoliang [Microsoft Research, Station Q, Elings Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)
2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
Topological insulators can be generally defined by a topological field theory with an axion angle {theta} of 0 or {pi}. In this work, we introduce the concept of fractional topological insulator defined by a fractional axion angle and show that it can be consistent with time reversal T invariance if ground state degeneracies are present. The fractional axion angle can be measured experimentally by the quantized fractional bulk magnetoelectric polarization P{sub 3}, and a 'halved' fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance of the form {sigma}{sub H}=(p/q)(e{sup 2}/2h) with p, q odd. In the simplest of these states the electron behaves as a bound state of three fractionally charged 'quarks' coupled to a deconfined non-Abelian SU(3) 'color' gauge field, where the fractional charge of the quarks changes the quantization condition of P{sub 3} and allows fractional values consistent with T invariance.
3000 Horsepower super conductive field acyclic motor
Marshall, R.
1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A 3000 hp acyclic motor was assembled and tested utilizing superconducting field coils. The magnet assembly is designed as a quadrupole magnet, utilizing a multifilamentary niobium titanium superconductor. Each magnet coil is 18 inches in diameter and 10 inches long, and operates at rated current of 200 amperes, providing 5.8 tesla in the bore of the coils in the motor configuration. The average winding current density is 10,600 A/cm/sup 2/. The acyclic motor is of a drum-type design with liquid metal current collectors, and is designed to model full-scale machinery for ship propulsion applications. Laboratory test data verified the electrical and electromagnetic design to be within three percent of the calculated values.
Fractional Classical Mechanics
Nick Laskin
2013-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional classical mechanics has been introduced and developed as a classical counterpart of the fractional quantum mechanics. Lagrange, Hamilton and Hamilton-Jacobi frameworks have been implemented for the fractional classical mechanics. The Lagrangian of fractional classical mechanics has been introduced, and equation of motion has been obtained. Fractional oscillator model has been launched and solved in 1D case. A new equation for the period of oscillations of fractional classical oscillator has been found. The interplay between the energy dependency of the period of classical oscillations and the non-equidistant distribution of the energy levels for fractional quantum oscillator has been discussed. We discuss as well, the relationships between new equations of fractional classical mechanics and the well-known fundamental equations of classical mechanics.
Symmetry fractionalization and twist defects
Nicolas Tarantino; Netanel Lindner; Lukasz Fidkowski
2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
Topological order in two dimensions can be described in terms of deconfined quasiparticle excitations - anyons - and their braiding statistics. However, it has recently been realized that this data does not completely describe the situation in the presence of an unbroken global symmetry. In this case, there can be multiple distinct quantum phases with the same anyons and statistics, but with different patterns of symmetry fractionalization - termed symmetry enriched topological (SET) order. When the global symmetry group $G$, which we take to be discrete, does not change topological superselection sectors - i.e. does not change one type of anyon into a different type of anyon - one can imagine a local version of the action of $G$ around each anyon. This leads to projective representations and a group cohomology description of symmetry fractionalization, with $H^2(G,{\\cal A})$ being the relevant group. In this paper, we treat the general case of a symmetry group $G$ possibly permuting anyon types. We show that despite the lack of a local action of $G$, one can still make sense of a so-called twisted group cohomology description of symmetry fractionalization, and show how this data is encoded in the associativity of fusion rules of the extrinsic `twist' defects of the symmetry. Furthermore, building on work of Hermele, we construct a wide class of exactly solved models which exhibit this twisted symmetry fractionalization, and connect them to our formal framework.
Fractional Electromagnetic Waves
J. F. Gómez; J. J. Rosales; J. J. Bernal; V. I. Tkach; M. Guía
2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases.
(Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)
O'Leary, M.H.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.
A discrete fractional random transform
Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu
2006-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.
Fractional Variational Iteration Method for Fractional Nonlinear Differential Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, fractional differential equations have been investigated via the famous variational iteration method. However, all the previous works avoid the term of fractional derivative and handle them as a restricted variation. In order to overcome such shortcomings, a fractional variational iteration method is proposed. The Lagrange multipliers can be identified explicitly based on fractional variational theory.
Measurement of the D -> pipi branching fractions
Ammar, Raymond G.; Ball, S.; Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, Nowhan; Lam, H.
1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using data from CLEO II at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring we provide a new measurement of the branching fraction for D0 --> pi+pi-, and we present the first measurements of D0 --> pi0pi0 and of D+ --> pi+pi0, which is due to an isospin changing...
The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions
H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai
2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.
Listing Unique Fractional Factorial Designs
Shrivastava, Abhishek Kumar
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional factorial designs are a popular choice in designing experiments for studying the effects of multiple factors simultaneously. The first step in planning an experiment is the selection of an appropriate fractional factorial design. An appro...
Recent Developments in Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, H Q; Phoa, Frederick; Wong, W K
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fractional factorial designs and their applications. Ann.nonregular fractional factorial designs. Metrika, 62, 73-83.The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics, 3,
Recent Developments in Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs
Hongquan Xu; Frederick K. H. Phoa; Weng Kee Wong
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fractional factorial designs and their applications. Ann.nonregular fractional factorial designs. Metrika, 62, 73-83.The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics, 3,
Minimization of Fractional Power Densities
Minimization of Fractional Power Densities. Robert Hardt, Rice University. Abstract: A k dimensional rectifiable current is given by an oriented k dimensional
Fractional Method of Characteristics for Fractional Partial Differential Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
The method of characteristics has played a very important role in mathematical physics. Preciously, it was used to solve the initial value problem for partial differential equations of first order. In this paper, we propose a fractional method of characteristics and use it to solve some fractional partial differential equations.
Variational Approach for Fractional Partial Differential Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional variational approach has gained much attention in recent years. There are famous fractional derivatives such as Caputo derivative, Riesz derivative and Riemann-Liouville derivative. Several versions of fractional variational principles are proposed. However, it becomes difficult to apply the existing fractional variational theories to fractional differential models, due to the definitions of fractional variational derivatives which not only contain the left fractional derivatives but also appear right ones. In this paper, a new definition of fractional variational derivative is introduced by using a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and the fractional Euler-Lagrange principle is established for fractional partial differential equations.
Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation DataDepartment of EnergyOn-Farm Biofuel ProductionEthanol FlexibleEntire Fleet
Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation
Hou, Han Wei
Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate ...
Listing Unique Fractional Factorial Designs
Shrivastava, Abhishek Kumar
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
LISTING UNIQUE FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGNS A Dissertation by ABHISHEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December... 2009 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering LISTING UNIQUE FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGNS A Dissertation by ABHISHEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...
Robust and Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs
Huang, fu ze
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
4 Robustness of Factorial Designs Summary . . . . . .10 Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs for m = 4 10.0Comparison of fractional factorial designs D 2.1 and D
Robust and Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs
Huang, fu ze
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
1961a), The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs, Part I,1961b), The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs, Part II,
Gauge Invariance and Fractional Statistics
A. R. P. Lima; R. R. Landim
2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new $(2+1)$-dimensional field theory showing exotic statistics and fractional spin. This theory is achieved through a redefinition of the gauge field $A_{\\mu}$. New properties are found. Another way to implement the field redefinition is used with the same results obtained.
Fractional conservation laws in optimal control theory
Gastao S. F. Frederico; Delfim F. M. Torres
2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
Using the recent formulation of Noether's theorem for the problems of the calculus of variations with fractional derivatives, the Lagrange multiplier technique, and the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations, we prove a Noether-like theorem to the more general context of the fractional optimal control. As a corollary, it follows that in the fractional case the autonomous Hamiltonian does not define anymore a conservation law. Instead, it is proved that the fractional conservation law adds to the Hamiltonian a new term which depends on the fractional-order of differentiation, the generalized momentum, and the fractional derivative of the state variable.
Branch length distribution in TREF fractionated polyethylene Ramnath Ramachandran a
Beaucage, Gregory
Branch length distribution in TREF fractionated polyethylene Ramnath Ramachandran a , Gregory Keywords: Polyethylene Branching Neutron scattering a b s t r a c t Commercial polyethylene is typically and catalyst activity. Further, processing of polyethylene after polymerization may also result in changes
Fractional Authorship in Nuclear Physics
Pritychenko, B
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Large, multi-institutional groups or collaborations of scientists are engaged in nuclear physics research projects, and the number of research facilities is dwindling. These collaborations have their own authorship rules, and they produce a large number of highly-cited papers. Multiple authorship of nuclear physics publications creates a problem with the assessment of an individual author's productivity relative to his/her colleagues and renders ineffective a performance metrics solely based on annual publication and citation counts. Many institutions are increasingly relying on the total number of first-author papers; however, this approach becomes counterproductive for large research collaborations with an alphabetical order of authors. A concept of fractional authorship (the claiming of credit for authorship by more than one individual) helps to clarify this issue by providing a more complete picture of research activities. In the present work, nuclear physics fractional and total authorships have been inv...
Continuous time random walk models for fractional space-time diffusion equations
Sabir Umarov
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper continuous time random walk models approximating fractional space-time diffusion processes are studied. Stochastic processes associated with the considered equations represent time-changed processes, where the time-change process is a L\\'evy's stable subordinator with the stability index $\\beta \\in (0,1).$ In the parer the convergence of constructed CTRWs to time-changed processes associated with the corresponding fractional diffusion equations are proved using a new analytic method.
Fractional Inversion in Krylov Space
B. Bunk
1998-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The fractional inverse $M^{-\\gamma}$ (real $\\gamma >0$) of a matrix $M$ is expanded in a series of Gegenbauer polynomials. If the spectrum of $M$ is confined to an ellipse not including the origin, convergence is exponential, with the same rate as for Chebyshev inversion. The approximants can be improved recursively and lead to an iterative solver for $M^\\gamma x = b$ in Krylov space. In case of $\\gamma = 1/2$, the expansion is in terms of Legendre polynomials, and rigorous bounds for the truncation error are derived.
Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of the colon
Claridge, Ela
Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of the colon Ela Claridge changes associated with cancer is the formation of a dense, irregular and leaky network of new blood vessels, which result in the increase of the blood volume fraction (BVF) at the site of a tumour
Time Fractional Formalism: Classical and Quantum Phenomena
Hosein Nasrolahpour
2012-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
In this review, we present some fundamental classical and quantum phenomena in view of time fractional formalism. Time fractional formalism is a very useful tool in describing systems with memory and delay. We hope that this study can provide a deeper understanding of the physical interpretations of fractional derivative.
Fractional quantum Hall effect and nonabelian statistics
N. Read; G. Moore
1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
It is argued that fractional quantum Hall effect wavefunctions can be interpreted as conformal blocks of two-dimensional conformal field theory. Fractional statistics can be extended to nonabelian statistics and examples can be constructed from conformal field theory. The Pfaffian state is related to the 2D Ising model and possesses fractionally charged excitations which are predicted to obey nonabelian statistics.
Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants
Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.
1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Phoa, Frederick; Xu, H Q
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Theory QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS and Applications.for fractional factorial designs and pro- jection justi?regular fractional factorial designs. Ann. Statist. 27 1914–
A Catalogue of Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, Hongquan
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumLevel Fractional Factorial Designs Hongquan Xu Department ofchoice of fractional factorial designs. Minimum aberration
A Catalogue of Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumLevel Fractional Factorial Designs Hongquan Xu Department ofchoice of fractional factorial designs. Minimum aberration
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Frederick Phoa; Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Theory QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS and Applications.for fractional factorial designs and pro- jection justi?regular fractional factorial designs. Ann. Statist. 27 1914–
Moment Aberration Projection for Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, Hongquan; Deng, Lih-Yuan
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The 2 k?p Fractional Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, Box,Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs With Small Runs,”of Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of Complexity, 17,
Projection, Search, and Optimality in Fractional Factorial Experiments
Zheng, Zongpeng
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
regular fractional factorial designs and their applications.variance fractional factorial designs and their optimalityoptimal 2 m fractional factorial designs of Resolution V, m
Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models
Vasily E. Tarasov
2015-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law non-locality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods of the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of non-integer order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.
WEIGHTED NORM INEQUALITIES FOR FRACTIONAL MAXIMAL ...
2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
Lp ? Lq-norm inequalities for fractional maximal operators on Rd, with the constants of optimal order. To introduce the necessary background and notation, let 0 ...
Stable Isotope Fractionations in Biogeochemical Reactive Transport
Druhan, Jennifer Lea
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
34 S fractionation . Summary A mesoscale study of isotopicion exchange and ! 44 Ca . A mesoscale study of isotopicmodeling and ! 34 S . A mesoscale study of isotopic
[Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report
O`Leary, M.H.
1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.
Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks
Jindal, Nihar
1 Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks Nihar Jindal, Steven Weber, Jeffrey G. Andrews Abstract We propose and analyze a new paradigm for power control in decentralized wireless networks, termed fractional power control. Transmission power is chosen as the current channel
Combinatorial Dimension in Fractional Cartesian Products
Gao, Frank
Combinatorial Dimension in Fractional Cartesian Products Ron Blei,1 Fuchang Gao2 1 Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268; e-mail: blei@math.uconn.edu 2 Department? Correspondence to: R. Blei © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 146 #12;COMBINATORIAL DIMENSION IN FRACTIONAL CARTESIAN
Algebra of Fractions of Algebra with Conjugation
Aleks Kleyn
2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
In the paper, I considered construction of algebra of fractions of algebra with conjugation. I also considered algebra of polynomials and algebra of rational mappings over algebra with conjugation.
Selecting Fractionators for Product Composition Control
Griffin, D. E.; Anderson, J. E.
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The benefits resulting from computer control of fractionators have been proven in many installations. These benefits include energy savings, increased throughput, higher recovery product upgrade and smoother operation. As a basis for understanding...
Bio-oil fractionation and condensation
Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony
2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.
Integral equations, fractional calculus and shift operator
D. Babusci; G. Dattoli; D. Sacchetti
2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of a previously developed method employing the formalism of the fractional derivatives to solve new classes of integral equations. This method uses different forms of integral operators that generalizes the exponential shift operator.
Selecting Fractionators for Product Composition Control
Griffin, D. E.; Anderson, J. E.
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The benefits resulting from computer control of fractionators have been proven in many installations. These benefits include energy savings, increased throughput, higher recovery product upgrade and smoother operation. As a basis for understanding...
Carbon isotope fractionation in autotrophic Chromatium
Wong, William Wai-Lun
1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CARSON ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN AUTOTPOPHIC CHROYATIUN A Thesis 'JILLIAJJ J JAI LJJN BONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&H University in partial fulfillment of the requirenent for the degree of PLASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974...) August 1974 ABSTRACT Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Autotrophic Chromatium (August 1974) blilliam Wai-Lun Wang, B. S. , Texas Lutheran College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Isilliam N. Sackett Dr. Chauncey P. . Benedict Bacterial cells...
Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system
Mekala, Malla R.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...
Exact Methods In Fractional Combinatorial Optimization
Ursulenko, Oleksii
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
-to-time ratio cycle problem, also known as the tramp steamer problem [2]. A short survey on fractional combinatorial optimization problems and related solution approaches can be found in [35]. Recently, Skiscim and Palocsay [39, 40] have introduced a..., approximability and local search, are addressed in [32, 33]. Generally speaking, multiple-ratio problems arise in case of multiple fractional performance metrics that need to be optimized, e.g., a eet of cargo ships in the tramp steamer problem. Related...
Baryonic fraction in the cold plus hot dark matter universe
Eunwoo Choi; Dongsu Ryu
1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
We report a study to constrain the fraction of baryonic matter in the cold plus hot dark matter (CHDM) universe by numerical simulations which include the hydrodynamics of baryonic matter as well as the particle dynamics of dark matter. Spatially flat, COBE-normalized CHDM models with the fraction of hot component $\\Omega_h\\leq0.2$ are considered. We show that the models with $h/n/\\Omega_h=0.5/0.9/0.1$ and $0.5/0.9/0.2$ give a linear power spectrum which agrees well with observations. Here, $h$ is the Hubble constant in unit of $100~km/s/Mpc$ and $n$ is the spectral index of the initial power spectrum. Then, for the models with $h/n/\\Omega_h=0.5/0.9/0.2$ and baryonic fraction $\\Omega_b=0.05$ and 0.1 we calculate the properties of X-ray clusters, such as luminosity function, temperature distribution function, luminosity-temperature relation, histogram of gas to total mass ratio, and change of average temperature with redshift $z$. Comparison with the observed data of X-ray clusters indicates that the model with $\\Omega_b=0.05$ is preferred. The COBE-normalized CHDM model with $\\Omega_b>0.1$ may be ruled out by the present work, since it produces too many X-ray bright clusters.
On sampling fractions and electron shower shapes
Peryshkin, Alexander; Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab
2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the usage of various definitions of sampling fractions in understanding electron shower shapes in a sampling multilayer electromagnetic calorimeter. We show that the sampling fractions obtained by the conventional definition (I) of (average observed energy in layer)/(average deposited energy in layer) will not give the best energy resolution for the calorimeter. The reason for this is shown to be the presence of layer by layer correlations in an electromagnetic shower. The best resolution is obtained by minimizing the deviation from the total input energy using a least squares algorithm. The 'sampling fractions' obtained by this method (II) are shown to give the best resolution for overall energy. We further show that the method (II) sampling fractions are obtained by summing the columns of a non-local {lambda} tensor that incorporates the correlations. We establish that the sampling fractions (II) cannot be used to predict the layer by layer energies and that one needs to employ the full {lambda} tensor for this purpose. This effect is again a result of the correlations.
Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry in Strained Graphene Prev Next Title: Fractional Topological Phases and Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry in...
Intake fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions in US urban areas
Marshall, J D; Teoh, S K; Nazaroff, William W
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions JD Marshall et al.and trends in motor vehicle emissions to monthly urbanExposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction
Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of...
Quantum probes for fractional Gaussian processes
Matteo G. A. Paris
2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
We address the characterization of classical fractional random noise via quantum probes. In particular, we focus on estimation and discrimination problems involving the fractal dimension of the trajectories of a system subject to fractional Brownian noise. We assume that the classical degree of freedom exposed to the environmental noise is coupled to a quantum degree of freedom of the same system, e.g. its spin, and exploit quantum limited measurements on the spin part to characterize the classical fractional noise. More generally, our approach may be applied to any two-level system subject to dephasing perturbations described by fractional Brownian noise, in order to assess the precision of quantum limited measurements in the characterization of the external noise. In order to assess the performances of quantum probes we evaluate the Bures metric, as well as the Helstrom and the Chernoff bound, and optimize their values over the interaction time. We find that quantum probes may be successfully employed to obtain a reliable characterization of fractional Gaussian process when the coupling with the environment is weak or strong. In the first case decoherence is not much detrimental and for long interaction times the probe acquires information about the environmental parameters without being too much mixed. Conversely, for strong coupling, information is quickly impinged on the quantum probe and can effectively retrieved by measurements performed in the early stage of the evolution. In the intermediate situation, none of the two above effects take place: information is flowing from the environment to the probe too slowly compared to decoherence, and no measurements can be effectively employed to extract it from the quantum probe. The two regimes of weak- and strong-coupling are defined in terms of a threshold value of the coupling, which itself increases with the fractional dimension.
Carbon isotope fractionation in autotrophic Chromatium
Wong, William Wai-Lun
1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. 8 and -27. 8 o/oo respect- 13 PDB ively. Fructose and glucose separated from the sugar fraction have an identical 6 C value of -21. 8 o/oo; 13 whereas aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine separated from the amino acid fraction have 6PDBC... ACETYL- Ca A F UKIARATE CITRATE ATP CO ATP DPNH 2 1 I TPNH CO GLYOX SUCCINATE ISOCITRATE YLATE + GLUTAMATE 16 led POLLER et al. (1961) and LOSADA et al. (1960) to believe that PEP carboxvlase is also active in the bacterium during...
Hamilton-Jacobi Fractional Sequential Mechanics
Eqab M. Rabei; Bashar S. Ababneh
2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z
As a continuation of Rabei et al. work [11], the Hamilton- Jacobi partial differential equation is generalized to be applicable for systems containing fractional derivatives. The Hamilton- Jacobi function in configuration space is obtained in a similar manner to the usual mechanics. Two problems are considered to demonstrate the application of the formalism. The result found to be in exact agreement with Agrawal's formalism.
Inverse Problems for Fractional Diffusion Equations
Zuo, Lihua
2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
and preliminaries in Section 1 and 2, in the third section we consider our first inverse boundary problem. This is where an unknown boundary condition is to be determined from overposed data in a time- fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the fundamental...
Introduction Spectrum Phases Fractionization Kitaev Honeycomb Model
Fractionization Spin ! Majorana Transformation Key Idea - Factorize the Pauli matrices by moving to a higher by Majorana fermions 2 Gapped and gapless phases 3 Relation to the Toric Code 4 Eect of a magnetic field dimensional subspace Can replace each complex fermionic degree a of freedom with two Majoranas 1 and 2 1 1 = a
A Fractional Lie Group Method For Anomalous Diffusion Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
Lie group method provides an efficient tool to solve a differential equation. This paper suggests a fractional partner for fractional partial differential equations using a fractional characteristic method. A space-time fractional diffusion equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the Lie group method.
Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation
Brodeur, Pierre (Smyrna, GA)
1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.
Excursions of diffusion processes and continued fractions
Alain Comtet; Yves Tourigny
2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
It is well-known that the excursions of a one-dimensional diffusion process can be studied by considering a certain Riccati equation associated with the process. We show that, in many cases of interest, the Riccati equation can be solved in terms of an infinite continued fraction. We examine the probabilistic significance of the expansion. To illustrate our results, we discuss some examples of diffusions in deterministic and in random environments.
Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer
Malyutin, A A [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)
Fractional Quantum Hall States in Graphene
Ahmed Jellal; Bellati Malika
2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
We quantum mechanically analyze the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. This will be done by building the corresponding states in terms of a potential governing the interactions and discussing other issues. More precisely, we consider a system of particles in the presence of an external magnetic field and take into account of a specific interaction that captures the basic features of the Laughlin series \
Fractionated Branes and Black Hole Interiors
Martinec, Emil J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Combining a variety of results in string theory and general relativity, a picture of the black hole interior is developed wherein spacetime caps off at an inner horizon, and the inter-horizon region is occupied by a Hagedorn gas of a very low tension state of fractionated branes. This picture leads to natural resolutions of a variety of puzzles concerning quantum black holes. Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Fourth Prize Award for Essays on Gravitation.
Fractionated Branes and Black Hole Interiors
Emil J. Martinec
2015-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
Combining a variety of results in string theory and general relativity, a picture of the black hole interior is developed wherein spacetime caps off at an inner horizon, and the inter-horizon region is occupied by a Hagedorn gas of a very low tension state of fractionated branes. This picture leads to natural resolutions of a variety of puzzles concerning quantum black holes. Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Fourth Prize Award for Essays on Gravitation.
Perturbations of ionization fractions at the cosmological recombination epoch
B. Novosyadlyj
2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
A development of perturbations of number densities of ions and electrons during recombination epoch is analysed. The equations for relative perturbations of ionization fractions were derived from the system of equations for accurate computation of the ionization history of the early Universe given by Seager et al. (1999,2000). It is shown that strong dependence of ionization and recombination rates on the density and temperature of plasma provides the significant deviations of amplitudes of ionization fractions relative perturbations from ones of baryon matter density adiabatic perturbations. Such deviations are most prominent for cosmological adiabatic perturbations of scales larger than sound horizon at recombination epoch. The amplitudes of relative perturbations of number densities of electrons and protons at last scattering surface exceed by factor of $\\simeq$5 the amplitude of relative perturbation of baryons total number density, for helium ions this ratio reaches the value of $\\simeq$18. For subhorizon cosmological perturbations these ratios appear to be essentially lesser and depend on oscillation phase at the moment of decoupling. These perturbations of number densities of ions and electrons at recombination epoch do not contribute to the intrinsic plasma temperature fluctuations but cause the ''corrugation'' of last scattering surface in optical depth, $\\delta z_{dec}/(z_{dec}+1)\\approx -\\delta_b/3$, at scales larger than sound horizon. It may result into noticeable changes of precalculated values of CMB polarization pattern at several degrees angular scales.
The Fractional London Equation and The Fractional Pippard Model For Superconductors
José Weberszpil
2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
With the discovery of new superconductors there was a running to find the justifications for the new properties found in these materials. In order to describe these new effects some theories were adapted and some others have been tried. In this work we present an application of the fractional calculus to study the superconductor in the context of London theory. Here we investigated the linear London equation modified by fractional derivatives for non-differentiable functions, instead of integer ones, in a coarse grained scenario. We apply the fractional approach based in the modified Riemann-Liouville sense to improve the model in order to include possible non-local interactions and the media. It is argued that the e ects of non-locality and long memory, intrinsic to the formalism of the fractional calculus, are relevant to achieving a satisfactory phenomenological description. In order to compare the present results with the usual London theory, we calculated the magnetic field distribution for a mesoscopic superconductor system. Also, a fractional Pippard-like model is proposed to take into account the non-locality beside effects of interactions and the media. We propose that parameter alfa of fractionality can be used to create an alternative way to characterize superconductors.
The First Calculation of Fractional Jets
Daniele Bertolini; Jesse Thaler; Jonathan R. Walsh
2015-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
In collider physics, jet algorithms are a ubiquitous tool for clustering particles into discrete jet objects. Event shapes offer an alternative way to characterize jets, and one can define a jet multiplicity event shape, which can take on fractional values, using the framework of "jets without jets". In this paper, we perform the first analytic studies of fractional jet multiplicity $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ in the context of $e^+e^-$ collisions. We use fixed-order QCD to understand the $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ cross section at order $\\alpha_s^2$, and we introduce a candidate factorization theorem to capture certain higher-order effects. The resulting distributions have a hybrid jet algorithm/event shape behavior which agrees with parton shower Monte Carlo generators. The $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ observable does not satisfy ordinary soft-collinear factorization, and the $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ cross section exhibits a number of unique features, including the absence of collinear logarithms and the presence of soft logarithms that are purely non-global. Additionally, we find novel divergences connected to the energy sharing between emissions, which are reminiscent of rapidity divergences encountered in other applications. Given these interesting properties of fractional jet multiplicity, we advocate for future measurements and calculations of $\\tilde{N}_{\\rm jet}$ at hadron colliders like the LHC.
GEORGE,DARIN L.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.
2000-01-18T23:59:59.000Z
Gamma-densitometry tomography is applied to study the effect of sparger hole geometry, gas flow rate, column pressure, and phase properties on gas volume fraction profiles in bubble columns. Tests are conducted in a column 0.48 m in diameter, using air and mineral oil, superficial gas velocities ranging from 5 to 30 cm s{sup -1}, and absolute column pressures from 103 to 517 kPa. Reconstructed gas volume fraction profiles from two sparger geometries are presented. The development length of the gas volume fraction profile is found to increase with gas flow rate and column pressure. Increases in gas flow rate increase the local gas volume fraction preferentially on the column axis, whereas increases in column pressure produce a uniform rise in gas volume fraction across the column. A comparison of results from the two spargers indicates a significant change in development length with the number and size of sparger holes.
Ray, S Saha; Das, Shantanu
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The article presents the formulation and a new approach to find analytic solutions for fractional continuously variable order dynamic models viz. Fractional continuously variable order mass-spring damper systems. Here, we use the viscoelastic and viscous-viscoelastic dampers for describing the damping nature of the oscillating systems, where the order of fractional derivative varies continuously. Here, we handle the continuous changing nature of fractional order derivative for dynamic systems, which has not been studied yet. By successive iteration method, here we find the solution of fractional continuously variable order mass-spring damper systems, and then give a close form solution. We then present and discuss the solutions obtained in the cases with continuously variable order of damping for this oscillator with graphical plots.
Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs
Moon, Gary Michael
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, . . . 22 4. 2 Water-Oil and Water-Solvent Fractional Flow Curves . . 4. 3 Mobility of Water-Oil-Solvent Mixtures. . . . . . . . 25 5. 1 Injected Solvent Displacing Formation Oil at 0. 5 PVI . . . . 31 5. 2 Comparison of Simulator Results and Buckley...-Levcrctt Analytic Solution at 0. 3 PVI . 5. 3 Comparison of Simulator Results and Walsh-Lake Analytic Solution for Secondary Flood (S, =- S;?= 0. 2) at "Equal Velocity" f?& (f, & ? 0. 35) and 0. 3 PVI?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 4 Saturation Plot...
Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions
G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.
Motility fractionation of bacteria by centrifugation
Claudio Maggi; Alessia Lepore; Jacopo Solari; Alessandro Rizzo; Roberto Di Leonardo
2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
Centrifugation is a widespread laboratory technique used to separate mixtures into fractions characterized by a specific size, weight or density. We demonstrate that centrifugation can be also used to separate swimming cells having different motility. To do this we study self-propelled bacteria under the influence of an external centrifugal field. Using dynamic image correlation spectroscopy we measure the spatially resolved motility of bacteria after centrifugation. A significant gradient in swimming-speeds is observed for increasing centrifugal speeds. Our results can be reproduced by a model that treats bacteria as "hot" colloidal particles having a diffusion coefficient that depends on the swimming speed.
E-model for Transportation Problem of Linear Stochastic Fractional ...
Dr.V.Charles
2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
Abstract: This paper deals with the so-called transportation problem of linear stochastic fractional programming, and ... sophisticated analysis. Stochastic ... circuit board of multi-objective LSFP, algorithm to identify redundant fractional objective ...
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Phoa, Frederick; Xu, Hongquan
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
J. S. (1961). The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Tech-2, k 2 = 4k and R(D) = 4k while the second choice leads to QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Frederick Phoa; Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
J. S. (1961). The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Tech-2, k 2 = 4k and R(D) = 4k while the second choice leads to QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui Sitindra S studied the controls on the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui, a halophilic archaea, in pure culture experiments by varying organic substrate, the hydrogen
Wavelet Packets of fractional Brownian motion: Asymptotic Analysis and Spectrum
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Wavelet Packets of fractional Brownian motion: Asymptotic Analysis and Spectrum Estimation properties of the autocorrelation functions of the wavelet packet coefficients of a fractional Brownian process. The analysis concerns some families of wavelet paraunitary filters that converge almost
An Epiperimetric Inequality Approach to the Thin and Fractional ...
Arshak Petrosyan(joint with Nicola Garofalo, Camelia Pop, and Mariana Smit Vega Garcia)
2015-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 15, 2015 ... An Epiperimetric Inequality. Approach to the Thin and. Fractional Obstacle Problems. Geometric Analysis. Free Boundary Problems. & Measure ...
Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions
Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.
Neutron Stars Opacity and Proton Fraction
P. N. Alcain; C. O. Dorso
2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Background: In neutron stars the nucleons are submitted to extreme conditions. The study of this natural occurring objects can lead to further understanding of the behaviour of nuclear matter in highly asymmetric nuclei. Among the characteristics of neutron stars, its neutrino absorption - associated to structural inhomoegeneities - stands out as one of the possible magnitudes linked to an observable. Purpose: We have carried out a systematic study of this neutrino absorption for different thermodynamic conditions in order to assess the impact that the structure has on it. Method: We study the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, for different densities, proton fractions and temperature, we calculate the long range opacity and the cluster distribution. Results: The neutrino absorption, the main mechanism for neutron stars cooldown, takes its highest value for temperatures and densities low compared with the inner crust, and a proton fraction is close to the symmetric case $x=0.5$. Conclusions: Within the used model the neutrinos are absorbed mostly close to the surface of the neutron star. Also, for high temperatures, a large cluster still exists, but the appearance of several small-sized clusters smears out the very long range order needed for neutrino absorption.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated
Stewart, Frank
and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used.6 lm) and small (0.21.6 lm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community
Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of systems within Caputo's fractional derivative
Eqab M. Rabei; Ibtesam Almayteh; Sami I. Muslih; Dumitru Baleanu
2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we develop a fractional Hamilton-Jacobi formulation for discrete systems in terms of fractional Caputo derivatives. The fractional action function is obtained and the solutions of the equations of motion are recovered. An example is studied in details.
Deviation probability bounds for fractional martingales and related remarks
Saussereau, Bruno
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we prove exponential inequalities (also called Bernstein's inequality) for fractional martingales. As an immediate corollary, we will discuss weak law of large numbers for fractional martingales under divergence assumption on the $\\beta-$variation of the fractional martingale. A non trivial example of application of this convergence result is proposed.
Electron Spin Precession for the Time Fractional Pauli Equation
Hosein Nasrolahpour
2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we aim to extend the application of the fractional calculus in the realm of quantum mechanics. We present a time fractional Pauli equation containing Caputo fractional derivative. By use of the new equation we study the electron spin precession problem in a homogeneous constant magnetic field.
An Algorithm for Fractional Assignment Problems Maiko Shigeno
Yamamoto, Hirosuke
Optimization, Mathematical Programming, Fractional Programming, Assignment Problems, Approximation Optimality fractional assignment problems which are special cases of 0-1 fractional programming problems. Let G = (I; J assignment problem. In this case, the algorithm proposed in this paper solves the linear assignment problem
Some Applications of the Fractional Poisson Probability Distribution
Nick Laskin
2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
Physical and mathematical applications of fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have discovered and developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers. Appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been applied to evaluate skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A new representation of Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been obtained. A representation of Schlafli polynomials in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. A new representations of Mittag-Leffler function involving fractional Bell polynomials and fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been discovered. Fractional Stirling numbers of the first kind have been introduced and studied. Two new polynomial sequences associated with fractional Poisson probability distribution have been launched and explored. The relationship between new polynomials and the orthogonal Charlier polynomials has also been investigated. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of quantum optics, the theory of combinatorial numbers and the theory of orthogonal polynomials of discrete variable.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Change Log Change Log NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability...
Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Final technical report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1986
O'Leary, M.H.
1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Plants fractionate carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in ways which reflect photosynthetic pathway and environment. The object of our work is to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation to give information about how the components of the carbon fixation process (diffusion, carboxylation, etc.) vary with species, environment, and other variables. These studies provide important information regarding environmental control of the efficiency of photosynthesis as well as information regarding changes in photosynthesis which can be expected in coming years as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase. To this end, we have developed quantitative models for carbon isotope fractionation which describe this process in terms of rates of diffusion, carboxylation, and other steps. We have developed experimental approaches which focus on the initial events in carbon dioxide fixation and enable us to determine the relative rates of the various individual processes involved. Our approaches are unique in that they provide a view of the carbon isotope fractionation process over a period of a few hours, whereas combustion methods used by previous investigators provide only a long-term view of the carbon isotope fractionation process. We have also developed other methods using stable isotopes which rely on NMR and mass spectral measurements to study plant metabolism. 61 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Adjustable-Speed Drives for 500 to 4000 Horsepower Industrial Applications
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfService on the TargetFY12 DOE -NAT IONA L S47.1 (June 2004)Adjudicative Guidelinespumps|
Figure ES3. Sales-Weighted Horsepower and On-Road Fuel Mileage for New
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318Cubic Feet) YearSalesNew2003 Detailed TablesProved56 125 1022001 ES1Light-Duty
Topological Current in Fractional Chern Insulators
Tohru Koma
2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
We consider interacting fermions in a magnetic field on a two-dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In order to measure the Hall current, we apply an electric potential with a compact support. Then, due to the Lorentz force, the Hall current appears along the equipotential line. Introducing a local current operator at the edge of the potential, we derive the Hall conductance as a linear response coefficient. For a wide class of the models, we prove that if there exists a spectral gap above the degenerate ground state, then the Hall conductance of the ground state is fractionally quantized without averaging over the fluxes. This is an extension of the topological argument for the integrally quantized Hall conductance in noninteracting fermion systems on lattices.
Topological Current in Fractional Chern Insulators
Koma, Tohru
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider interacting fermions in a magnetic field on a two-dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In order to measure the Hall current, we apply an electric potential with a compact support. Then, due to the Lorentz force, the Hall current appears along the equipotential line. Introducing a local current operator at the edge of the potential, we derive the Hall conductance as a linear response coefficient. For a wide class of the models, we prove that if there exists a spectral gap above the degenerate ground state, then the Hall conductance of the ground state is fractionally quantized without averaging over the fluxes. This is an extension of the topological argument for the integrally quantized Hall conductance in noninteracting fermion systems on lattices.
Anomalous Topological Pumps and Fractional Josephson Effects
Fan Zhang; C. L. Kane
2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
We discover novel topological pumps in the Josephson effects for superconductors. The phase difference, which is odd under the chiral symmetry defined by the product of time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, acts as an anomalous adiabatic parameter. These pumping cycles are different from those in the "periodic table", and are characterized by $Z\\times Z$ or $Z_2\\times Z_2$ strong invariants. We determine the general classifications in class AIII, and those in class DIII with a single anomalous parameter. For the $Z_2\\times Z_2$ topological pump in class DIII, one $Z_2$ invariant describes the coincidence of fermion parity and spin pumps whereas the other one reflects the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers pairs, leading to three distinct fractional Josephson effects.
Heat Equations with Fractional White Noise Potentials
Hu, Y. [Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, 405 Snow Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045-2142 (United States)], E-mail: hu@math.ukans.edu
2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is concerned with the following stochastic heat equations: ({partial_derivative}u{sub t}(x))/({partial_derivative}t=1/2 u{sub t}(x)+{omega}{sup H}.u{sub t}(x)), x element of {sup d}, t>0, where w{sup H} is a time independent fractional white noise with Hurst parameter H=(h{sub 1}, h{sub 2},..., h{sub d}) , or a time dependent fractional white noise with Hurst parameter H=(h{sub 0}, h{sub 1},..., h{sub d}) . Denote | H | =h{sub 1}+h{sub 2}+...+h{sub d} . When the noise is time independent, it is shown that if 1/2
Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective
David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.
Algorithmic Construction of Efficient Fractional Factorial Designs With Large Run Sizes
Xu, H Q
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The 2 k?p Fractional Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, Box,Aberration Fractional Factorial Designs,” Biometrika, 90,Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs With Small Runs,”
The Use of Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs in Combination Toxicity Studies
Phoa, F. K. H.; Xu, H.; Wong, W. K.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
nonregular fractional factorial designs and show their bene?comparisons of full factorial designs and regular fractionalKey words: Fractional Factorial Design; Orthogonal Array;
The Use of Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs in Combination Toxicity Studies
Phoa, Frederick; Xu, H Q; Wong, W K
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
nonregular fractional factorial designs and show their bene?comparisons of full factorial designs and regular fractionalKey words: Fractional Factorial Design; Orthogonal Array;
Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm{sup 3}) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment.
Fractionalization of Interstitials in Curved Colloidal Crystals
William T. M. Irvine; Mark J. Bowick; Paul M. Chaikin
2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
Understanding the out-of equilibrium behaviour of point defects in crystals, yields insights into the nature and fragility of the ordered state, as well as being of great practical importance. In some rare cases defects are spontaneously healed - a one-dimensional crystal formed by a line of identical charged particles, for example, can accommodate an interstitial (extra particle) by a re-adjusting all particle positions to even out the spacing. In sharp contrast, particles organized into a perfect hexagonal crystal in the plane cannot accommodate an interstitial by a simple re-adjustment of the particle spacing - the interstitial remains instead trapped between lattice sites and diffuses by hopping, leaving the crystal permanently defected. Here we report on the behavior of interstitials in colloidal crystals on curved surfaces. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three dimensional imaging, we insert a colloidal interstitial in a lattice of similar particles on flat and curved (positively and negatively) oil-glycerol interfaces and image the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective rearrangement that re-distributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. The self-healing process can be interpreted in terms of an out of equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of "particle fractionalization" on curved surface crystals.
Projective synchronization in fractional order chaotic systems and its control
Chunguang Li
2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
The chaotic dynamics of fractional (non-integer) order systems have begun to attract much attention in recent years. In this paper, we study the projective synchronization in two coupled fractional order chaotic oscillators. It is shown that projective synchronization can also exist in coupled fractional order chaotic systems. A simple feedback control method for controlling the scaling factor onto a desired value is also presented.
Power-law spatial dispersion from fractional Liouville equation
Tarasov, Vasily E. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.
Fluorescent spectra of chromatographic fractions of crude oils
Dixon, William Samuel
1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Results, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 XI. Bibliography. ~ . "" o" . . ". .. . . . ~ 26 XII. Appendix PURPOSE This invest1gation ?as undertaken in an effort to develop a means of the chromatographic separation of a crude oil~ and to examine... these fractions by spectro;ra hic means to determines (l) v'hether there are differences in the fluorescent spectra of the various chromatographic fractions oi a given crude oil, and (2) whether there are differ- ences between similar chromatographic fractions...
Fluorescent spectra of chromatographic fractions of crude oils
Dixon, William Samuel
1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Results, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 XI. Bibliography. ~ . "" o" . . ". .. . . . ~ 26 XII. Appendix PURPOSE This invest1gation ?as undertaken in an effort to develop a means of the chromatographic separation of a crude oil~ and to examine... these fractions by spectro;ra hic means to determines (l) v'hether there are differences in the fluorescent spectra of the various chromatographic fractions oi a given crude oil, and (2) whether there are differ- ences between similar chromatographic fractions...
Head-to-Head Comparison of Serum Fractionation Techniques. |...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
comparison of several serum fractionation schemes, including N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, magnetic bead separation (C3, C8, and WCX), size...
Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum Aberration
Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumaberration frac- tional factorial designs. Biometrika 90aberration in blocked factorial designs. Technometrics 39
Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum Aberration
Xu, Hongquan
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumaberration frac- tional factorial designs. Biometrika 90aberration in blocked factorial designs. Technometrics 39
Singular perturbation problem in boundary/fractional combustion
2015-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
reaction-diffusion equation, where the reaction term is of combustion type. ... Free boundary problem, combustion theory, boundary reaction- diffusion, fractional ...
Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement
Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
, enrichment in 13 C of untransformed CH3Cl was also observed, and similar isotope enrichment factors (e) of ÀORIGINAL RESEARCH Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during degradation of chloromethane-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany Keywords Carbon isotope fractionation, chloromethane biodegradation
Fractional embedding of differential operators and Lagrangian systems
Fractional embedding of differential operators and Lagrangian systems Jacky CRESSON Institut des/30 #12;FRACTIONAL EMBEDDING OF DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS AND LAGRANGIAN SYSTEMS by Jacky CRESSON Abstract. -- This paper is a contribution to the general program of embedding theories of dynamical systems. Following our
DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT
DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT Vincent E. Larson1 1 that accounts for how liquid water varies with both total water content and temperature. The variable s has- ter content, ql , and cloud fraction, C. This provides in- formation about partial cloudiness. Tiedtke
Impact of dose size in single fraction spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for melanoma
Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu, E-mail: hualinzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Zhong, Hualiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Barth, Rolf F. [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Cao, Minsong; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose size in single fraction, spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for selectively killing infiltrated melanoma cancer cells of different tumor sizes, using different radiobiological models. Methods: A Monte Carlo technique was employed to calculate the 3D dose distribution of a commercially available megavoltage grid collimator in a 6 MV beam. The linear-quadratic (LQ) and modified linear quadratic (MLQ) models were used separately to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of a series of single fraction regimens that employed grid therapy to treat both acute and late responding melanomas of varying sizes. The dose prescription point was at the center of the tumor volume. Dose sizes ranging from 1 to 30 Gy at 100% dose line were modeled. Tumors were either touching the skin surface or having their centers at a depth of 3 cm. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the melanoma cells and the therapeutic ratio (TR) were defined by comparing grid therapy with the traditional open debulking field. The clinical outcomes from recent reports were used to verify the authors’ model. Results: Dose profiles at different depths and 3D dose distributions in a series of 3D melanomas treated with grid therapy were obtained. The EUDs and TRs for all sizes of 3D tumors involved at different doses were derived through the LQ and MLQ models, and a practical equation was derived. The EUD was only one fifth of the prescribed dose. The TR was dependent on the prescribed dose and on the LQ parameters of both the interspersed cancer and normal tissue cells. The results from the LQ model were consistent with those of the MLQ model. At 20 Gy, the EUD and TR by the LQ model were 2.8% higher and 1% lower than by the MLQ, while at 10 Gy, the EUD and TR as defined by the LQ model were only 1.4% higher and 0.8% lower, respectively. The dose volume histograms of grid therapy for a 10 cm tumor showed different dosimetric characteristics from those of conventional radiotherapy. A significant portion of the tumor volume received a very large dose in grid therapy, which ensures significant tumor cell killing in these regions. Conversely, some areas received a relatively small dose, thereby sparing interspersed normal cells and increasing radiation tolerance. The radiobiology modeling results indicated that grid therapy could be useful for treating acutely responding melanomas infiltrating radiosensitive normal tissues. The theoretical model predictions were supported by the clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Grid therapy functions by selectively killing infiltrating tumor cells and concomitantly sparing interspersed normal cells. The TR depends on the radiosensitivity of the cell population, dose, tumor size, and location. Because the volumes of very high dose regions are small, the LQ model can be used safely to predict the clinical outcomes of grid therapy. When treating melanomas with a dose of 15 Gy or higher, single fraction grid therapy is clearly advantageous for sparing interspersed normal cells. The existence of a threshold fraction dose, which was found in the authors’ theoretical simulations, was confirmed by clinical observations.
Jones, Tucker A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
The fraction of ionizing photons that escape from young star-forming galaxies is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the role of galaxies in cosmic reionization. Yet traditional techniques for measuring this fraction are inapplicable at the redshifts of interest due to foreground screening by the Ly? forest. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a reduction in the equivalent width of low-ionization absorption lines in composite spectra of Lyman break galaxies at z ? 4 compared to similar measures at z ? 3. This might imply a lower covering fraction of neutral gas and hence an increase with redshift in the escape fraction of ionizing photons. However, our spectral resolution was inadequate to differentiate between several alternative explanations, including changes with redshift in the outflow kinematics. Here we present higher quality spectra of three gravitationally lensed Lyman break galaxies at z ? 4 with a spectral resolution sufficient to break this degeneracy of interpretation. We present a method for deriving the covering fraction of low-ionization gas as a function of outflow velocity and compare the results with similar quality data taken for galaxies at lower redshift. We find an interesting but tentative trend of lower covering fractions of low-ionization gas for galaxies with strong Ly? emission. In combination with the demographic trends of Ly? emission with redshift from our earlier work, our results provide new evidence for a reduction in the average H I covering fraction, and hence an increase in the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from Lyman break galaxies, with redshift.
Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation
Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)
2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.
Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.
1993-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
A process is described for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm[sup 3
Uncertainties analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments
X. B. Ma; F. Lu; L. Z. Wang; Y. X. Chen; W. L. Zhong; F. P. An
2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
Reactor antineutrino experiment are used to study neutrino oscillation, search for signatures of nonstandard neutrino interaction, and monitor reactor operation for safeguard application. Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Commercial code is used for reactor simulation to evaluate fission fraction in Daya Bay neutrino experiment, but the source code doesn't open to our researcher results from commercial secret. In this study, The open source code DRAGON was improved to calculate the fission rates of the four most important isotopes in fissions, $^{235}$U,$^{238}$U,$^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu, and then was validated for PWRs using the Takahama-3 benchmark. The fission fraction results are consistent with those of MIT's results. Then, fission fraction of Daya Bay reactor core was calculated by using improved DRAGON code, and the fission fraction calculated by DRAGON agreed well with these calculated by SCIENCE. The average deviation less than 5\\% for all the four isotopes. The correlation coefficient matrix between $^{235}$U,$^{238}$U,$^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu were also studied using DRAGON, and then the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction was calculated by using the correlation coefficient matrix. The uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction simulation is 0.6\\% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment. The uncertainties source of fission fraction calculation need further to be studied in the future.
Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution
Laskin, Nick [TopQuark Inc., Toronto, Ontario M6P 2P2 (Canada)
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been introduced and applied to evaluate the skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A representation of the Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of the quantum optics and the theory of combinatorial numbers.
Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
ecause it takes time to establish institutional change, federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals.
Quantum mechanical perspectives and generalization of the fractional Fourier Transformation
Jun-Hua Chen; Hong-Yi Fan
2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
Fourier and fractional-Fourier transformations are widely used in theoretical physics. In this paper we make quantum perspectives and generalization for the fractional Fourier transformation (FrFT). By virtue of quantum mechanical representation transformation and the method of integration within normal ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we find the key point for composing FrFT, and reveal the structure of FrFT. Following this procedure, a full family of generalized fractional transformations are discovered with the usual FrFT as one special case. The eigen-functions of arbitrary GFrT are derived explicitly.
Fractional Calculus for Continuum Mechanics - anisotropic non-locality
Wojciech Sumelka
2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the generalisation of previous author's formulation of fractional continuum mechanics to the case of anisotropic non-locality is presented. The considerations include the review of competitive formulations available in literature. The overall concept bases on the fractional deformation gradient which is non-local, as a consequence of fractional derivative definition. The main advantage of the proposed formulation is its analogical structure to the general framework of classical continuum mechanics. In this sense, it allows, to give similar physical and geometrical meaning of introduced objects.
ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO NNSA SD G-1027, "GUIDANCE ON USING RELEASE FRACTION AND MODERN
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23Tribal EnergyCatalytic Co - PA 40Administration NNSA ProductionAdministrationSSAAG 1027 Admin
Wythe, Kathy
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and a wide range of academic areas are investigating the different compo- nents. More recently, they are taking information gleaned from the global climate models and applying them to research questions pertaining to Texas. Dr. Bruce Mc...Carl, Regents Professor of agricultural economics at Texas A&M University, has researched the economics of climate change for the last 20 years. McCarl, as a lead CHANGING CLIMATES tx H2O | pg. McCarl ] tx H2O | pg. 4 Changing Climates author...
Fractional Mellin Transform -- A possible application in CFT
Treumann, R A
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a fractional variant of Mellin's transform which may find an application in the Conformal Field Theory. Its advantage is the presence of an arbitrary parameter which may substantially simplify calculations and help adjusting convergence.
Analysis of the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction
Gentine, Pierre
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction (EF) was examined. EF was shown to exhibit a typical concave-up shape, with a minimum usually reached in the middle of the day. The influence of the vegetation ...
Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of ion species fraction
Ross, J. S.; Park, H.-S.; Amendt, P.; Divol, L.; Kugland, N. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)
2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of collective electron-plasma and ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion species fraction from laser produced CH plasmas. The CH{sub 2} foil is heated with 10 laser beams, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Thomson scattering measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 30 J 2{omega} probe laser with a 1 ns pulse length. Using a series of target shots the plasma evolution is measured from 2.5 ns to 9 ns after the rise of the heater beams. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the two-ion species theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and ion species fraction are determined. The ion species fraction is determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.06 in species fraction.
Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction
Sim, Min Sub
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...
Deriving emissions time series from sparse atmospheric mole fractions
Rigby, Matthew
A growth-based Bayesian inverse method is presented for deriving emissions of atmospheric trace species from temporally sparse measurements of their mole fractions. This work is motivated by many recent studies that have ...
THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT
Martini, Paul
The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and ...
RESEARCH Open Access Gene expression and fractionation resistance
Sankoff, David
in Paramecium, Gout et al. [10] identify a clear relationship between high WGD duplicate gene retention rates for explaining variable resistance to fractionation. The Gout et al. paper [10] is the primary inspiration
Notes on the two-dimensional fractional Brownian motion
Baudoin, Fabrice; Nualart, David
2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
We study the two-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H>½. In particular, we show, using stochastic calculus, that this process admits a skew-product decomposition and deduce from this representation some asymptotic properties...
ON WEIGHTED INEQUALITIES FOR FRACTIONAL INTEGRALS OF RADIAL FUNCTIONS
De NÃ¡poli, Pablo Luis
for this operator (also called weighted Hardy-Little- wood-Sobolev inequalities) go back to G. H. Hardy and J. E for the fractional integral with general weights were later stud- ied by several people, see for example [8
Topological order in the fractional quantum Hall states
Barkeshli, Maissam
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis is focused on the theoretical characterization of topological order in non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. The first part of the thesis is concerned with the ideal wave function approach to FQH ...
Ethnic fractionalization and Sub-Saharan violence, 1970-1996.
Seale, Josiah (Josiah Q.)
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study examines the statistical correlations between metrics of ethnic fractionalization and categories of violence in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1970 to 1995. By examining these correlations both prior to and after ...
Fractionation of suspended aqueous materials using centrifugal elutriation
Ginn, Jon Stephen
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FRACTIONATION OF SUSPENDED AQUEOUS MATERIALS USING CENTRIFUGAL ELUTRIATION by ION STEPHEN GINN Submitted to the OIEce of Graduate Studies of Texas Adt M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FRACTIONATION OF SUSPENDED AQUEOUS MATERIALS USING CENTRIFUGAL ELUTRIATION by JON STEPHEN GINN Approved as to style and content by: Robin L. Autenrieth (Chair of Committee) James S. Bonner (Member) A...
Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity
Avirett, Donald Baker
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR NUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR MUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...
The fractionation and characterization of two North American lignites
Garcia Juan Manuel
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
THE FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN LIGNITES A Thesis by 3UAN MANUEL GARCIA, III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Chemistry THE FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN LIGNITES A Thesis by 3UAN MANUEL GARCIA, III Approved as to style and content by: alph A. Zin ro (Chair of Committee) ~o/A Daniel H. O...
Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus
Steimke, J.L.
1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirt DocumentationSitesWeather6 Shares of U.S.CareerPAST EVENTS NanoscaleCertificateChange Log Change Log
EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE the evolution of change management
Emmerich, Michael
page 1 EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE the evolution of change management by Jeroen van der Zon University, evolutionary change is studied by describing the evolution of Change Manage- ment (CM). CM is one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Modelling Change Management
Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for Two-Level and Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, Hongquan; Lau, Sovia
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics 3, 311–three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs.of three-level fractional factorial designs. UCLA Statistics
Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for Two-Level and Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Hongquan Xu; Sovia Lau
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics 3, 311–three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs.of three-level fractional factorial designs. UCLA Statistics
Johnson, W.C. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography); Martin, C.W. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to perceived uncertainties associated with humate-derived C-14 ages from buried soils, samples were collected and dated from buried A horizons developed in alluvium and loess within the Kansas River basin of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Soils range in age from c. 30ka to latest Holocene. Samples were split, sent to two laboratories (SMU and Pittsburgh), and fractionated. Ages were determined from three fractions: total bulk, base-soluble (humic acid), and residue (humins). For individual samples, a significant age difference exists among the three fractions, with very little interlaboratory variation. No apparent relationship exists among the three fractions dated; the residual fraction is not consistently the oldest as anticipated, and the total humate fraction is not the youngest. Percent variation among fractions may be a depth/age function for soils within a given profile of sequence. Delta C-13 values derived from the different fractions indicate more negative values for the total humate fraction. Percent variation in delta C-13 values among the three fractions seems unrelated to age or depth. A strong paleoclimatic signal is contained within the temporal record of delta C-13 values derived from soils dating c. 36-1ka. Warm-season (C4-type) grasses were apparently more important in the middle Holocene period of aridity (Altithermal). Change from a cooler environment of the latest Pleistocene to the relatively warmer conditions of the earliest Holocene is recorded in the humates distributed within the A horizon of the Brady geosol. Humates from the Gilman Canyon Formation geosol dating c. 36-20ka exhibit delta C-13 values indicating an initial warm-season grass environment which subsequently evolved into a cool-season grass environment.
DeWolf, M; Bassok, M; Holyoak, KJ
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
disseminated broadly. OTO fraction PWR NOTO fraction Decimala part- to-whole ratio (PWR) is the relation between theof relationships. The PWR is a conventional relationship for
Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation
Kataoka, I; Ishii, M
1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs.
Implementation of Quantum and Classical Discrete Fractional Fourier Transforms
Steffen Weimann; Armando Perez-Leija; Maxime Lebugle; Robert Keil; Malte Tichy; Markus Gräfe; Rene Heilmann; Stefan Nolte; Hector Moya-Cessa; Gregor Weihs; Demetrios N. Christodoulides; Alexander Szameit
2015-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
Fourier transforms are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied sciences. We here report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform, a generalization of the Fourier transform. In the integrated configuration used in our experiments, the order of the transform is mapped onto the longitudinal coordinate, thus opening up the prospect of simultaneously observing all Transformation orders. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms, both integer and fractional, of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to transform separable and highly entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools, such as quantum chemistry and biology, physics and mathematics.
Comparison of a radial fractional transport model with tokamak experiments
Kullberg, A., E-mail: kulladam@ucla.edu; Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
A radial fractional transport model [Kullberg et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 052115 (2013)], that correctly incorporates the geometric effects of the domain near the origin and removes the singular behavior at the outer boundary, is compared to results of off-axis heating experiments performed in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP), ASDEX Upgrade, JET, and DIII-D tokamak devices. This comparative study provides an initial assessment of the presence of fractional transport phenomena in magnetic confinement experiments. It is found that the nonlocal radial model is robust in describing the steady-state temperature profiles from RTP, but for the propagation of heat waves in ASDEX Upgrade, JET, and DIII-D the model is not clearly superior to predictions based on Fick's law. However, this comparative study does indicate that the order of the fractional derivative, ?, is likely a function of radial position in the devices surveyed.
Measurement of Prominent {eta}-Decay Branching Fractions
Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] (and others)
2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
The decay {psi}(2S){yields}{eta}J/{psi} is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent {eta}-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for {eta} decays to {gamma}{gamma}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, 3{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma}, accounting for 99.9% of all {eta} decays. The precision of several of the branching fractions and their ratios is improved. Two channels, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma}, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.
Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm.sup.3 ].sup.1/2 with polar components in the 1.8-3.0 range and hydrogen bonding components in the 2-4.8 range and the recovery of the product extract from the solvent with no further purification being needed for use in adhesives and molding compounds. The product extract is characterized as being a mixture of very different compounds having a wide variety of chemical functionalities, including phenolic, carbonyl, aldehyde, methoxyl, vinyl and hydroxyl. The use of the product extract on phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins is shown to have advantages over the conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins.
Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant
Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
1998-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.
The quantum chaos conjecture and generalized continued fractions
Pustyl'nikov, L D [M.V. Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
The proof of the quantum chaos conjecture is given for a class of systems including as a special case the model of a rotating particle under the action of periodic impulse perturbations. (The distribution of the distances between adjacent energy levels is close to the Poisson distribution and differs from it by terms of the third order of smallness.) The proof reduces to a result in number theory on the distribution of the distances between adjacent fractional parts of values of a polynomial, while the estimate of the remainder term is based on the new theory of generalized continued fractions for vectors.
Critical dynamics in systems controlled by fractional kinetic equations
L. A. Batalov; A. A. Batalova
2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
The article is devoted to the dynamics of systems with an anomalous scaling near a critical point. The fractional stochastic equation of a Lanvevin type with the $\\varphi^3$ nonlinearity is considered. By analogy with the model A the field theoretic model is built, and its propagators are calculated. The nonlocality of the new action functional in the coordinate representation is caused by the involving of the fractional spatial derivative. It is proved that the new model is multiplicatively renormalizable, the Gell-Man-Low function in the one-loop approximation is evaluted. The existence of the scaling behavior in the framework of the $\\varepsilon$-expansion for a superdiffusion is established.
Chaotic vibrations of the duffing system with fractional damping
Syta, Arkadiusz; Litak, Grzegorz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin (Poland)] [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin (Poland); Lenci, Stefano [Department of Civil and Building Engineering, and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)] [Department of Civil and Building Engineering, and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Scheffler, Michael [Institut für Festkörpermechanik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut für Festkörpermechanik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We examined the Duffing system with a fractional damping term. Calculating the basins of attraction, we demonstrate a broad spectrum of non-linear behaviour connected with sensitivity to the initial conditions and chaos. To quantify dynamical response of the system, we propose the statistical 0-1 test as well as the maximal Lyapunov exponent; the application of the latter encounter a few difficulties because of the memory effect due to the fractional derivative. The results are confirmed by bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits, and Poincaré sections.
Fractional Power-Law Spatial Dispersion in Electrodynamics
Tarasov, Vasily E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb's law and Debye's screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type.
Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change.
Schiavon, Stefano; Zecchin, Roberto
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Full report. WorkingIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change www.webcda.it LaIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”. Il Rapporto
Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and
1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to Climate Change Land Cover / Land Use Change Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution Space Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data
Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel
Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu
2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.
Palindromic continued fractions Boris ADAMCZEWSKI (Lyon) & Yann BUGEAUD * (Strasbourg)
Bugeaud, Yann
fraction expansion of an irrational real number do imply that the latter is either quadratic' to the quadratic irrational real number having the eventually periodic * Supported by the Austrian Science of one of our transcendence criteria to the explicit construction of transcendental numbers with sharp
Continued fractions with low complexity: Transcendence measures and quadratic approximation
Bugeaud, Yann
expansion of an irrational algebraic number either is ultimately periodic (this is the case if, and only if. Theorems 3.2 and 3.3 give transcendence mea- sures for a class of transcendental numbers defined by theiContinued fractions with low complexity: Transcendence measures and quadratic approximation Yann
Measurement of the branching fraction for D+ -> kappa(-) pi(+) pi(+)
Ammar, Raymond G.; Ball, S.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, Nowhan; Lam, H.
1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring we have measured the ratio of branching fractions, B(D+ --> K-pi+pi+)/B(D0 --> K-pi+ = 2.35 +/- 0.16 +/- 0.16. Our recent measurement of B(D0 --> K-pi+) then gives B(D+ --> K-pi+pi...
A CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROUGH PATH ABOVE FRACTIONAL ...
2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
fractional Brownian motion B with any Hurst parameter H ? (0,1), by means ... Rough paths analysis is a theory introduced by Terry Lyons in the pioneering ... functions with finite p-variation with p > 1, or by Hölder continuous functions of order ...
(Carbon isotope fractionation in plants): Annual technical progress report
O'Leary, M.H.
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Plants fractionate carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in ways which reflect photosynthetic pathway and environment. The fractionation is product of contributions from diffusion, carboxylation and other factors which can be understood using models which have been developed in our work. The object of our work is to use this fractionation to learn about the factors which control the efficiency of photosynthesis. Unlike previous studies, we do not rely principally on combustion methods, but instead develop more specific methods with substantially higher resolving power. We have recently developed a new short-term method for studying carbon isotope fractionation which promises to provide a level of detail about temperature, species, and light intensity effects on photosynthesis which has not been available until now. We are studying the isotopic compositions of metabolites (particularly aspartic acid) in C/sub 3/ plants in order to determine the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C/sub 3/ photosynthesis. We are studying the relative roles of diffusion and carboxylation in nocturnal CO/sub 2/ fixation in CAM plants. We are studying the use of isotopic content as an index of water-use efficiency in C/sub 3/ plants. We are developing new methods for studying carbon metabolism in plants. 3 refs
Chaos expansion of local time of fractional Brownian motions
Hu, Yaozhong; Oksendal, B.
2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We find the chaos expansion of local time l(T)((H))(x, (.)) of fractional Brownian motion with Hurst coefficient H is an element of (0, 1) at a point x is an element of R-d. As an application we show that when H(0)d < 1 then l...
Stochastic calculus for fractional Brownian motion - I. Theory
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Hu, Yaozhong; Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper a stochastic calculus is given for the fractional Brownian motions that have the Hurst parameter in (1/2, 1). A stochastic integral of Ito type is defined for a family of integrands so that the integral has zero mean and an explicit...
Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction
Kowalczyk, Dennis C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bricklemyer, Bruce A. (Avonmore, PA); Svoboda, Joseph J. (Pittsburgh, PA)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone (24) and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment.
Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction
Kowalczyk, D.C.; Bricklemyer, B.A.; Svoboda, J.J.
1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment. 2 figs.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS AND RSA WITH SMALL SECRET EXPONENT
Dujella, Andrej
CONTINUED FRACTIONS AND RSA WITH SMALL SECRET EXPONENT ANDREJ DUJELLA Abstract. Extending of Verheul and van Tilborg variant of Wiener's attack on RSA cryptosystem with small secret exponent. 1 of two large primes p and q. The public exponent e and the secret exponent d are related by ed 1 (mod (n
Fractional Cooperation using Coded Demodulate-and-Forward
Adve, Raviraj
and Andrew W. Eckford Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada E-mail: {chuj uses only a fraction of its codeword to assist the source, while using the rest of the codeword
ORIGINAL PAPER Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in fresh
Hu, Qinhong "Max"
ORIGINAL PAPER Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in fresh and combusted coal wastes from in the condensates indicates that combustion or spontaneous combustion is one of the major ways for arsenic release Coal waste Á Arsenic Á Species Á HPLC-ICP-MS Á Environmental pollution Introduction Arsenic (As
The Lamb-Bateman integral equation and the fractional derivatives
D. Babusci; G. Dattoli; D. Sacchetti
2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
The Lamb-Bateman integral equation was introduced to study the solitary wave diffraction and its solution was written in terms of an integral transform. We prove that it is essentially the Abel integral equation and its solution can be obtained using the formalism of fractional calculus.
Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance
Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.
Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila Sitindra S Accepted 7 September 2013 Available online 16 September 2013 a b s t r a c t Hydrogen isotope ratio values from recording the hydrogen isotope composition of ambient water, dD values of lipids also depend
Microgravity flow pattern identification using void fraction signals
Valota, Luca
2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
, there is need for a better, objective flow regime identification. The void fraction is a key parameter in monitoring the operating state of a two-phase system and several tools have been developed in order to measure it. The purpose of this study is to use...
The Topsy-Turvy World of Continued Fractions
Silverman, Joseph H.
.996594406685719888923060 . . . . Now we substitute this into the earlier formula, which gives a double-decker frac- tion, = 3 + 1 7.0034172310133726034641468 . . . #12;[Chap. 47] The Topsy-Turvy World of Continued Fractions [online] 412 to get the triple-decker
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation DataDepartment of EnergyOn-Farm1 ofCategoricalDynamicTheoryMessagefor6-02-01 FederalChange Number
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation DataDepartment of EnergyOn-Farm1 ofCategoricalDynamicTheoryMessagefor6-02-01 FederalChange NumberE
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation DataDepartment of EnergyOn-Farm1 ofCategoricalDynamicTheoryMessagefor6-02-01 FederalChange
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41cloth Documentation DataDepartment of EnergyOn-Farm1 ofCategoricalDynamicTheoryMessagefor6-02-01 FederalChange20-02-01
Measurement of the Fractional Thermonuclear Neutron Yield during Deuterium Neutral-Beam Injection into Deuterium Plasmas
EFFECTIVE WAVELET-BASED REGULARIZATION OF DIVERGENCE-FREE FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
EFFECTIVE WAVELET-BASED REGULARIZATION OF DIVERGENCE-FREE FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION P. H´EAS, S-free fractional Brownian Motion (fBm). The method is based on fractional Laplacian and divergence-free waveletBm priors, by simply sampling wavelet coefficients according to Gaussian white noise. Fractional Laplacians
FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION
F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson
2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.
? b ? ? ? + ? ? form factors and differential branching fraction from lattice QCD
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Detmold, William; Lin, C.-J. David; Meinel, Stefan; Wingate, Matthew
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first lattice QCD determination of the ?b?? transition form factors that govern the rare baryonic decays ?b??l?l? at leading order in heavy-quark effective theory. Our calculations are performed with 2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermions, at two lattice spacings and with pion masses down to 227 MeV. Three-point functions with a wide range of source-sink separations are used to extract the ground-state contributions. The form factors are extrapolated to the physical values of the light-quark masses and to the continuum limit. We use our results to calculate the differential branching fractions for ?b??l?l? with l=e, ?, ? within the standard model. We find agreement with a recent CDF measurement of the ?b?????? differential branching fraction.
Branching Fraction Measurement of B to omega l nu decays
Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..
2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
We present a measurement of the B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu} branching fraction based on a sample of 467 million B{bar B} pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe 1041 {+-} 133 signal decays, corresponding to a branching fraction of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.15 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The dependence of the decay rate on q{sup 2}, the momentum transfer squared to the lepton system, is compared to QCD predictions of the form factors based on a quark model and light-cone sum rules.
Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions
Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.
1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction. 9 figs.
Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions
Jandrasits, Walter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kikta, Thomas J. (Upper St. Clair, PA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.
Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC)
Hokanson, D.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Outline • Baytown Chemical Complex • Xylene Fractionation Overview • Dynamic Matrix Control • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology... Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 3Baytown Chemical / Refining Complex ExxonMobil Baytown Refining & Chemical Complex • One of world’s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes, in operation since 1919...
Renormalized self-intersection local time for fractional Brownian motion
Hu, Yaozhong; Nualart, David
2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
University of Kansas and Universitat de Barcelona Let BHt be a d-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H ? (0,1). Assume d ? 2. We prove that the renormalized self- intersection local time #1; = ? T 0 ? t 0 ?(BHt ? B H s )ds dt ? E... ( ? T 0 ? t 0 ?(BHt ? B H s )ds dt ) exists in L2 if and only if H H ? 32d , r(?)#1...
Sorting by Periodic Potential Energy Landscapes: Optical Fractionation
Kosta Ladavac; Karen Kasza; David G. Grier
2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z
Viscously damped objects driven through a periodically modulated potential energy landscape can become kinetically locked in to commensurate directions through the landscape, and thus can be deflected away from the driving direction. We demonstrate that the threshold for an object to become kinetically locked in to an array can depend exponentially on its size. When implemented with an array of holographic optical tweezers, this provides the basis for a continuous and continuously optimized sorting technique for mesoscopic objects called ``optical fractionation''.
Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane
Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.
Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over fractional cloud cover
Neu, Jessica L; Prather, Michael J; Penner, Joyce E
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
trace gases and atmospheric chemistry, in Climate Change2007 Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over2007), Global atmospheric chemistry: Integrating over
ADAPTATION OF FORESTS AND PEOPLETO CLIMATE CHANGE 3 Future Environmental Impacts
Plattner, Gian-Kasper
,stable,growth,and fast growth) of climate change scenarios commonly used to quantitatively assess climate change impacts of these benefits are easily offset as climate warms and the adaptive capacity of currently water limited ecosystems,forests currently house the largest fraction of biodiversity; unmitigated climate change threatens
Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials
John P. Selegue
2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.
Apportioning Climate Change Costs
Farber, Daniel A.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Apportioning Climate Change Costs Daniel A. Farber* I. II.ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOUR QUESTIONS ABOUTof how to respond to climate change. Most public attention
Smith, Jennifer
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
introduction to global climate change, the greenhouseReview: Global Climate Change: A Primer By Orrin H PilkeyPilkey, Keith C. Global Climate Change: a primer. Durham,
Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC)
Hokanson, D.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana David Hokanson ExxonMobil Research and Engineering May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA.... May 20-23, 2014 2Outline • Baytown Chemical Complex • Xylene Fractionation Overview • Dynamic Matrix Control • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...
Isoscaling and Isospin Fractionation in the Lattice Gas Model
Ma, Y G; Wei, Y B; Ma, G L; Cai, X Z; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Guo, W; Shen, W Q; Tian, W D; Zhong, C
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The isoscaling behavior is investigated using the isotopic/isobaric yields from the equilibrated thermal source which is prepared by the lattice gas model for lighter systems with A = 36. The isoscaling parameters $\\alpha$ and -$\\beta$ are observed to drop with temperature. The difference of neutron and proton chemical potential shows a turning point around 5 MeV where the liquid gas phase transition occurs in the model. The relative free neutron or proton density shows a nearly linear relation with the N/Z (neutron to proton ratio) of system and the isospin fractionation is observed.
Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity
Avirett, Donald Baker
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
microorganism, Il. The system measures the inhibitory effects of test substances upon the normal light producing ability of the bacteria. The purpose of this investigation was to assess several fractions of guayule resin for mutagenicity using the Ames ~a... Salm~ test is a short ? term microbial test using a mutant form of ~(IB~ EEI1~~g bacteria for assaying mutagenic activity of chemicals. It is termed an in-vitro test versus an in-vivo test (using laboratory animals), which is more expensive and time...
Vibration of the Duffing Oscillator: Effect of Fractional Damping
Marek Borowiec; Grzegorz Litak; Arkadiusz Syta
2006-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
We have applied the Melnikov criterion to examine a global homoclinic bifurcation and transition to chaos in a case of the Duffing system with nonlinear fractional damping and external excitation. Using perturbation methods we have found a critical forcing amplitude above which the system may behave chaotically. The results have been verified by numerical simulations using standard nonlinear tools as Poincare maps and a Lyapunov exponent. Above the critical Melnikov amplitude $\\mu_c$, which is the sufficient condition of a global homoclinic bifurcation, we have observed the region with a transient chaotic motion.
Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants
Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars
Cowan, John
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars Ian U. Roederer*, James E isotopic fractions of europium (Eu), samarium (Sm), and neodymium (Nd) in two metal-poor giants
EUROPIUM, SAMARIUM, AND NEODYMIUM ISOTOPIC FRACTIONS IN METAL-POOR STARS Ian U. Roederer,1
Cowan, John
EUROPIUM, SAMARIUM, AND NEODYMIUM ISOTOPIC FRACTIONS IN METAL-POOR STARS Ian U. Roederer,1 James E Received 2007 August 15; accepted 2007 November 12 ABSTRACT We have derived isotopic fractions of europium
Isotopic Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with Carbonate Minerals. Isotopic Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with Carbonate Minerals. Abstract: Density...
Onufrock, Amy Mildred
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, coal, and oil shale vary widely in the amount and nature of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, potential carcinogenicity varies widely between representative PAH fractions derived from complex mixtures. PAH fractions...
Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: COMBINED OBSERVATIONAL of Energy Office of Science ABSTRACT Cloud fraction and cloud albedo have long occupied the central stage as key cloud quantities in studying cloud-climate interaction; however their quantitative relationship
O of cellulose organic fraction combined with 18 O of calcite and 18
Edwards, Thomas W.D.
1 18 O of cellulose organic fraction combined with 18 O of calcite and 18 O of diatoms in lake in the past, while 18 O of cellulose organic fraction served as a proxy of 18 O of lake water. 18 O of diatoms sample: 13 C and 15 N of bulk organic fraction, 18 O of cellulose organic fraction, 18 O and 13 C
Changes in Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Palmitic Acid
Zasadzinski, Joseph A.
Changes in Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Palmitic Acid Frank Bringezu, Junqi Ding of model lung surfactant lipid monolayers. Adding increasing fractions of palmitic acid (PA) to a 77/23 (wt to the rational design of replacement lung surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome
A physically based connection between fractional calculus and fractal geometry
Butera, Salvatore
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We show a relation between fractional calculus and fractals, based only on physical and geometrical considerations. The link has been found in the physical origins of the power-laws, ruling the evolution of many natural phenomena, whose long memory and hereditary properties are mathematically modelled by differential operators of non integer order. Dealing with the relevant example of a viscous fluid seeping through a fractal shaped porous medium, we show that, once a physical phenomenon or process takes place on an underlying fractal geometry, then a power-law naturally comes up in ruling its evolution, whose order is related to the anomalous dimension of such geometry, as well as to the model used to describe the physics involved. By linearizing the non linear dependence of the response of the system at hand to a proper forcing action then, exploiting the Boltzmann superposition principle, a fractional differential equation is found, describing the dynamics of the system itself. The order of such equation i...
Aqueous fractionation of biomass based on novel carbohydrate hydrolysis kinetics
Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising: a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about 185.degree. C.-205.degree. C. b) allowing the reaction to proceed to a point where about 60% of the hemicellulose has been hydrolyzed in the case of water or complete dissolution in case of acid; c) adding a dilute acid liquid at a pH below about 5 at a temperature of up to about 205.degree. C. for a period ranging from about 5 to about 10 minutes; to hydrolyze the remaining 40% of hemicellulose if water is used. d) quenching the reaction at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to quench all degradation and hydrolysis reactions; and e) introducing into said reaction chamber and simultaneously removing from said reaction chamber, a volumetric flow rate of dilute acid at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to wash out the majority of the solubilized biomass components, to obtain improved hemicellosic sugar yields.
Mechanism governing separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation devices
Risbud, Sumedh R
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a computational investigation of the mechanism governing size-based particle separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation. We study the behavior of particles moving through a pinching gap (i.e., a constriction in the aperture of a channel) in the Stokes regime as a function of particle size. The constriction aperture is created by a plane wall and spherical obstacle, and emulates the pinching segment in pinched flow fractionation devices. The simulation results show that the distance of closest approach between the particle and obstacle surfaces (along a trajectory) decreases with increasing particle size. We then use the distance of closest approach to investigate the effect of short-range repulsive non-hydrodynamic interactions (e.g., solid-solid contact). We define a critical trajectory as the one in which the minimum particle-obstacle separation is equal to the range of the non-hydrodynamic interactions. The results further show that the initial offset of the critical trajectory (defin...
THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS
Clark, Benjamin M. [Penn Manor High School, 100 East Cottage Avenue, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States); Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.
Transformation Property of the Caputo Fractional Differential Operator in Two Dimensional Space
Ehab Malkawi
2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
The transformation property of the Caputo fractional derivative operator of a scalar function under rotation in two dimensional space is derived. The study of the transformation property is essential for the formulation of fractional calculus in multi-dimensional space. The inclusion of fractional calculus in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics relies on such transformation. An illustrative example is given.
Lie group classifications and exact solutions for time-fractional Burgers equation
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z
Lie group method provides an efficient tool to solve nonlinear partial differential equations. This paper suggests a fractional Lie group method for fractional partial differential equations. A time-fractional Burgers equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the Lie group method and some classes of exact solutions are obtained.
Statistical comparison of two-phase flow, void fraction fluctuations in a microgravity environment
Chang, Jae Ho
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A two-phase flow experiment was flown aboard the NASA KC-135 zero gravity aircraft to test void fraction sensors and collect void fraction data under the unique conditions of microgravity. Void fraction measurements were made by two capacitance void...
. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its, HEAVY PETROLEUM FRACTIONS, AND ASPHALTENES Franco Cataldo1,2 , D. A. GarcíaHernández3,4 , Arturo of heavy petroleum fractions namely "Distillate Aromatic Extract" (DAE), "Residual Aromatic Extract" (RAE
Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua
Kilpatrick, Peter K.
Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua Joseph D. Mc group types and content) and aromaticity of the polar fractions of these particular crude oils a significant effect on the emulsifying potential of the crude oil. In the comparison of the two fractionation
Statistical comparison of two-phase flow, void fraction fluctuations in a microgravity environment
Chang, Jae Ho
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A two-phase flow experiment was flown aboard the NASA KC-135 zero gravity aircraft to test void fraction sensors and collect void fraction data under the unique conditions of microgravity. Void fraction measurements were made by two capacitance void...
Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges Roger Raman meet., 8-10/10/03 CT Injection has the potential to meet future high bootstrap current fraction, steady-state discharge fueling needs · Future high bootstrap fraction plasmas require optimized profiles · During high
HERTING DL
2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z
The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.
Climate Change and Extinctions
Sinervo, Barry
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lectures presents: Climate Change and Extinctions Happening2013. He will present a climate change extinction model that
Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California
Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California
Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.
Heald, C. L.; Henze, D. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Guenther, A.; Hess, P. G.; Vitt, F.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Fung, I.
2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
aromatic emissions. The projected decrease in global sulfur emissions implies that SOA will contribute a progressively larger fraction of the global aerosol burden. Citation: Heald, C. L., et al. (2008), Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol... (precursor emissions, oxidation, condensation on preexisting aerosol mass, temperature sensitive gas-aerosol partitioning and removal via precipi- tation). We employ a global climate model here to capture the effect of climate change on SOA, but we do...
Karger, Christian P., E-mail: c.karger@dkfz.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Peschke, Peter [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)] [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)] [Department of Biophysics, Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany) [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and the effective ?/? ratio for local tumor control of a radioresistant rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1) after 6 fractions of carbon ions and photons. Methods and Materials: A total of 82 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with 6 fractions of either photons or carbon ions, by use of increasing dose levels and a 2-cm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were used to determine RBE values. Including data for 1 and 2 fractions from a previous study, we estimated ?/? ratios. Results: For 6 fractions, the values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were 116.6 ± 3.0 Gy for photons and 43.7 ± 2.3 Gy for carbon ions and the resulting RBE was 2.67 ± 0.15. The ?/? ratio was 84.7 ± 13.8 Gy for photons and 66.0 ± 21.0 Gy for carbon ions. Using these data together with the linear-quadratic model, we estimated the maximum RBE to be 2.88 ± 0.27. Conclusions: The study confirmed the increased effectiveness of carbon ions relative to photons over the whole dose range for a highly radioresistant tumor. The maximum RBE below 3 is in line with other published in vivo data. The RBE values may be used to benchmark RBE models. Hypoxia seems to have a major impact on the radiation response, although this still has to be confirmed by dedicated experiments.
General Fractional Calculus, Evolution Equations, and Renewal Processes
Anatoly N. Kochubei
2011-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a kind of fractional calculus and theory of relaxation and diffusion equations associated with operators in the time variable, of the form $(Du)(t)=\\frac{d}{dt}\\int\\limits_0^tk(t-\\tau)u(\\tau)\\,d\\tau -k(t)u(0)$ where $k$ is a nonnegative locally integrable function. Our results are based on the theory of complete Bernstein functions. The solution of the Cauchy problem for the relaxation equation $Du=-\\lambda u$, $\\lambda >0$, proved to be (under some conditions upon $k$) continuous on $[(0,\\infty)$ and completely monotone, appears in the description by Meerschaert, Nane, and Vellaisamy of the process $N(E(t))$ as a renewal process. Here $N(t)$ is the Poisson process of intensity $\\lambda$, $E(t)$ is an inverse subordinator.
Scattering and Thermodynamics of Fractionally-Charged Supersymmetric Solitons
P. Fendley; K. Intriligator
1991-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
We show that there are solitons with fractional fermion number in integrable $N$=2 supersymmetric models. We obtain the soliton S-matrix for the minimal, $N$=2 supersymmetric theory perturbed in the least relevant chiral primary field, the $\\Phi _{(1,3)}$ superfield. The perturbed theory has a nice Landau-Ginzburg description with a Chebyshev polynomial superpotential. We show that the S-matrix is a tensor product of an associated ordinary $ADE$ minimal model S-matrix with a supersymmetric part. We calculate the ground-state energy in these theories and in the analogous $N$=1 case and $SU(2)$ coset models. In all cases, the ultraviolet limit is in agreement with the conformal field theory.
Measurement of the branching fractions of ?(+)(c)?pKn(?)
Baringer, Philip S.
1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
PHYSICAL REVIEW D 1 APRIL 1998VOLUME 57, NUMBER 7Measurement of the branching fractions of Lc1?pK¯ n?p? M. S. Alam,1 S. B. Athar,1 Z. Ling,1 A. H. Mahmood,1 H. Severini,1 S. Timm,1 F. Wappler,1 A. Anastassov,2 J. E. Duboscq,2 D. Fujino,2,* K. K. Gan...6 le Physics, Canada , Que´bec, Canada H3A 2T8 le Physics, Canada a, New York 14850 wrence, Kansas 66045 neapolis, Minnesota 55455 ublished 18 February 1998! SR, we report new measurements of the branching into pK2p1p0, pK¯ 0, pK¯ 0p1p2, and pK¯ 0p0...
Environmental Change Institute Environmental Change Institute
Oxford, University of
Environmental Change Institute 2012/13 eci Environmental Change Institute #12;ii Environmental 06 Educating environmental leaders 08 Centre for interdisciplinary doctoral training 10 A thriving, Dumfriesshire (ECI) #12;1 The Environmental Change Institute has 21 years' experience in helping governments
Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing
Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...
Climate change cripples forests
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...
Climate change cripples forests
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...
What Fraction of Sun-like Stars have Planets?
Charles H. Lineweaver; Daniel Grether
2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
The radial velocities of ~1800 nearby Sun-like stars are currently being monitored by eight high-sensitivity Doppler exoplanet surveys. Approximately 90 of these stars have been found to host exoplanets massive enough to be detectable. Thus at least ~5% of target stars possess planets. If we limit our analysis to target stars that have been monitored the longest (~15 years), ~11% possess planets. If we limit our analysis to stars monitored the longest and whose low surface activity allow the most precise velocity measurements, ~25% possess planets. By identifying trends of the exoplanet mass and period distributions in a sub-sample of exoplanets less-biased by selection effects, and linearly extrapolating these trends into regions of parameter space that have not yet been completely sampled, we find at least ~9% of Sun-like stars have planets in the mass and orbital period ranges Msin(i) > 0.3 M_Jupiter and P 0.1 M_Jupiter and P < 60 years. Even this larger area of the mass-period plane is less than 20% of the area occupied by our planetary system, suggesting that this estimate is still a lower limit to the true fraction of Sun-like stars with planets, which may be as large as ~100%.
Delayed feedback control of fractional-order chaotic systems
Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Trifce Sandev; Viktor Urumov
2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states and unstable periodic orbits in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method. By performing a linear stability analysis, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parametrizad by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. We demonstrate that the method can also stabilize unstable periodic orbits for a suitable choice of the feedback gain, providing that the time delay is chosen to coincide with the period of the target orbit. In addition, it is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a sinusoidally modulated time delay significantly enlarges the stability region of the steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.
Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification
Dawless, R.K.; Bowman, K.A.; Mazgaj, R.M.; Cochran, C.N.
1983-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
A method is described for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm. 2 figs.
Fraction of clogging configurations sampled by granular hopper flow
C. C. Thomas; D. J. Durian
2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
We measure the fraction $F$ of flowing grain configurations that precede a clog, based on the average mass discharged between clogging events for various aperture geometries. By tilting the hopper, we demonstrate that $F$ is a function of the hole area projected in the direction of the exiting grain velocity. By varying the length of slits, we demonstrate that grains clog in the same manner as if they were flowing out of a set of smaller independent circular openings. The collapsed data for $F$ can be fit to a decay that is exponential in hole width raised to the power of the system dimensionality. This is consistent with a simple model in which individual grains near the hole have a large but constant probability to precede a clog. Such a picture implies that there is no sharp clogging transition, and that all hoppers have a nonzero probability to clog. See Supplemental Material for models of clogging as a discrete Poisson process, and for resulting alternative measures of l based on the standard deviation of the discharge mass distribution.
Assessing EC-4 preservice teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching fractions concepts
Wright, Kimberly Boddie
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
of literature documenting elementary students’ difficulties with fraction concepts, mathematics education research in the last 15 years has begun to focus on the role teacher knowledge might play in contributing to students’ limited understanding of fractions...’ MATHEMATICS KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHING FRACTIONS CONCEPTS A Thesis by KIMBERLY BODDIE WRIGHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...
Exploring Fractional Order Calculus as an Artificial Neural Network Augmentation Samuel Alan Gardner
Dyer, Bill
Exploring Fractional Order Calculus as an Artificial Neural Network Augmentation by Samuel Alan....................................................................................... 4 Artificial Neural Networks DESCRIPTION......................................................................... 22 Neural Network
Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system
Muthukumar, P., E-mail: muthukumardgl@gmail.com; Balasubramaniam, P., E-mail: balugru@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Gandhigram Rural Institute?Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Ratnavelu, K., E-mail: kuru052001@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.
Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles
Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radiocarbon evidence of fossil-carbon cycling in sediments1968), Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marineof particulate organic carbon using bomb 14 C, Nature,
Intake fraction of primary pollutants: motor vehicle emissions in the South Coast Air Basin
Marshall, J D; Riley, W J; McKone, T E; Nazaroff, William W
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
gasoline on motor vehicle emissions: 2. volatile organicgasoline on motor vehicle emissions: 1. mass emission rates.Exposure to Motor Vehicle Emissions: An Intake Fraction
Lyapunov exponents of a class of piecewise continuous systems of fractional order
Marius-F. Danca
2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we prove that a class of autonomous piecewise continuous systems of fractional order has well-defined Lyapunov exponents. For this purpose, based on some known results from differential inclusions of integer and fractional order and differential equations with discontinuous right-hand side, the associated discontinuous initial value problem is approximated with a continuous one of fractional order. Then, the Lyapunov exponents are numerically determined using, for example, the known Wolf's algorithm. Three examples of piecewise continuous chaotic systems of fractional order are simulated and analyzed: Sprott's system, Chen's system and Shimizu-Morioka's system.
Development of Approach to Estimate Volume Fraction of Multiphase Material Using Dielectrics
Lee, Sang Ick
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
cement concrete, it was found that the approach has produced a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimated volume fraction....
Climate Change and Transportation
Minnesota, University of
1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team
Amundson, Ronald
in density fractions from soils collected before and after atmospheric thermonuclear weapons testing
Characterization and fractionation by ultrafiltration of guayule resin
Daly, Monica Ann
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rubber Production. 2. Solute Flow Through GPC Column. 3. Comparison of UF, MF, and RO Processes. 4. Pressure Gradient in Tubular Membrane. 5. Flow Pattern for Hollow Tube Asymmetric UF Membranes. 6. Structure of an Asymmetric Tubular Membrane. 7... and the solution flowing across the membrane is referred to as the permeate (see Figure 5). Advantages of UF compared to other traditional separation processes are: 1) no phase change 2) fairly low pressure required for operation 3) operation at ambient...
Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development
Cole, Daniel H.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.
Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction
Hogan, Robin
555 Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction between the ICESat lidar in extinction-to-backscatter ratio and effective radius affect the forward modeled mean cloud fraction by no more than 10%. 1. Introduction Clouds play a major role in the Earth's radiation budget and predictions
Fractional-Order Signal Processing using a Polymer-Electrolyte Transistor Robert L. Ewing1
Stevens, Ken
in silicon processing. This paper focuses on examining the fractional dynamic response of the LSL polymer-electrolyteFractional-Order Signal Processing using a Polymer-Electrolyte Transistor Robert L. Ewing1 , Hoda S-order functions. This paper addresses the use of a polymer-electrolyte transistor (PET) for use in implementating
Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide
Zeebe, Richard E.
Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide Richard E the inorganic hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solution cause reduced stable carbon and oxygen of the carbon and oxygen kinetic isotope fractionation (KIF) during hydration of CO2. Here I use transition
How to Set the Fractional Power Control Compensation Factor in LTE ?
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
How to Set the Fractional Power Control Compensation Factor in LTE ? Marceau Coupechoux1, Jean-Les-Moulineaux, France jeanmarc.kelif@orange-ftgroup.com Abstract--The uplink power control procedure in Long Term focus on the former and study the compensation factor of the related Fractional Power Control (FPC
Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating
Skogestad, Sigurd
Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar Trondheim, Norway Keywords: Distillation, Petlyuk, Divided-wall, Minimum energy Abstract This paper shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may
A mechanical picture of fractional-order Darcy equation Luca Deseri a,b,c,d
Deseri, Luca
A mechanical picture of fractional-order Darcy equation Luca Deseri a,b,c,d , Massimiliano Zingales: Anomalous diffusion Porous media Darcy equation Fractional derivatives Anomalous scaling a b s t r a c of the particle flow. The transport equation, formally analogous to the Fick relation is the so-called Darcy
Contributed article Fractional Fourier transform pre-processing for neural networks
Barshan, Billur
Contributed article Fractional Fourier transform pre-processing for neural networks and its This study investigates fractional Fourier transform pre-processing of input signals to neural networks. Judicious choice of this parameter can lead to overall improvement of the neural network performance
Oxide Electronic Conductivity and Hydrogen Pickup Fraction in Zr alloys Adrien Coueta
Motta, Arthur T.
and instantaneous hydrogen pickup fractions was measured using in-situ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS it with the observed hydrogen pickup fraction variations. In-Situ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Impedance-up and oxide growth were precisely measured as a function of exposure time in an autoclave for a set
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Monthly variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of paragrass variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of forages collected in the pastures. The samples were dried, ground and analysed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid
Sachs, Julian P.
Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and spe- cies. Organic Geochemistry. Two species of freshwater green algae, Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were grown in batch
Methanol Fractionation of Softwood Kraft Lignin: Impact on the Lignin Properties
Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Vautard, Frederic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tolnai, Balazs [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 C and a char yield of 47%, much higher than those of asreceived lignin (Tg 153 C, char yield 41%). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins.
Yong Xu; Hua Wang
2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is devoted to the problem of synchronization between fractional-order chaotic systems with Gaussian fluctuation by the method of fractional-order sliding mode control. A fractional integral (FI) sliding surface is proposed for synchronizing the uncertain fractional-order system, and then the sliding mode control technique is carried out to realize the synchronization of the given systems. One theorem about sliding mode controller is presented to prove the proposed controller can make the system synchronize. As a case study, the presented method is applied to the fractional-order Chen-L\\"u system as the drive-response dynamical system. Simulation results show a good performance of the proposed control approach in synchronizing the chaotic systems in presence of Gaussian noise.
R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold
2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
The object of this paper is to present a computable solution of a fractional partial differential equation associated with a Riemann-Liouville derivative of fractional order as the time-derivative and Riesz-Feller fractional derivative as the space derivative. The method followed in deriving the solution is that of joint Laplace and Fourier transforms. The solution is derived in a closed and computable form in terms of the H-function. It provides an elegant extension of the results given earlier by Debnath, Chen et al., Haubold et al., Mainardi et al., Saxena et al., and Pagnini et al. The results obtained are presented in the form of four theorems. Some results associated with fractional Schroeodinger equation and fractional diffusion-wave equation are also derived as special cases of the findings.
Evaluation of the evaporative fraction for parameterization of the surface energy balance
Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))
1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The evaporative fraction is a ratio of latent heat flux to the sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes. It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on midday remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. Data from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed to study the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the midday evaporative fraction and the daylight evaporative fraction. Statistical tests, however, rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. Relations between the evaporative fraction and surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture over the complete root zone were explored, but no correlation was identified. 33 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.
Co-coupled synchronization of fractional-order unified chaotic systems
Kehui Sun; Jian Ren; Shuisheng Qiu
2009-09-13T23:59:59.000Z
Synchronization of fractional-order chaotic systems is a hot topic in the field of nonlinear study. The co-coupled synchronization between two fractional-order chaotic systems with different initial conditions is investigated in this paper. Based on Lyapunov stability principle and Gerschgorin theorem, the co-coupled synchronization theorem of fractional-order chaotic systems is deduced, and the range of coupling coefficients is confirmed for synchronization of fractional-order unified chaotic systems. By building up the synchronization simulation model on Simulink, the co-coupled synchronization between two fractional-order unified chaotic systems with different initial value is carried out, and the synchronization performances are analyzed, and the simulation results show that this synchronization method is effective.
Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Supercritical Fluid Fractionation – 2014 Final Report
Foster Agblevor; Lucia Petkovic; Edward Bennion; Jason Quinn; John Moses; Deborah Newby; Daniel Ginosar
2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this project is to use supercritical fluids to separate and fractionate algal-based bio-oils into stable products that can be subsequently upgraded to produce drop-in renewable fuels. To accomplish this objective, algae was grown and thermochemically converted to bio-oils using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), pyrolysis, and catalytic pyrolysis. The bio-oils were separated into an extract and a raffinate using near-critical propane or carbon dioxide. The fractions were then subjected to thermal aging studies to determine if the extraction process had stabilized the products. It was found that the propane extract fraction was twice as stable as the parent catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils as measured by the change in viscosity after two weeks of accelerated aging at 80°C. Further, in-situ NMR aging studies found that the propane extract was chemically more stable than the parent bio-oil. Thus the milestone of stabilizing the product was met. A preliminary design of the extraction plant was prepared. The design was based on a depot scale plant processing 20,000,000 gallons per year of bio-oil. It was estimated that the capital costs for such a plant would be $8,700,000 with an operating cost of $3,500,000 per year. On a per gallon of product cost and a 10% annual rate of return, capital costs would represent $0.06 per gallon and operating costs would amount to $0.20 per gallon. Further, it was found that the energy required to run the process represented 6.2% of the energy available in the bio-oil, meeting the milestone of less than 20%. Life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission analysis found that the energy for running the critical fluid separation process and the GHG emissions were minor compared to all the inputs to the overall well to pump system. For the well to pump system boundary, energetics in biofuel conversion are typically dominated by energy demands in the growth, dewater, and thermochemical process. Bio-oil stabilization by near critical propane extraction had minimal impact in the overall energetics of the process with NER contributions of 0.03. Based on the LCA, the overall conversion pathways were found to be energy intensive with a NER of about 2.3 and 1.2 for catalytic pyrolysis and HTL, respectively. GHG emissions for the catalytic pyrolysis process were greater than that of petroleum diesel at 210 g CO2 eq compared to 18.9 g CO2 eq. Microalgae bio-oil based diesel with thermochemical conversion through HTL meets renewable fuel standards with favorable emission reductions of -10.8 g CO2 eq. The importance of the outcomes is that the critical fluid extraction and stabilization process improved product stability and did so with minimal energy inputs and processing costs. The LCA and GHG emission calculations point toward the HTL pathway as the more favorable thermochemical route towards upgrading algae to bio-fuels. Since the quality of the HTL oil was significantly lower than that of the catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, the next steps point toward improving the quality of the HTL oils from algae biomass and focusing the critical fluid stabilization on that bio-oil product.
Albert, J B; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Jiang, X S; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Nelson, R; O'Sullivan, K; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Robinson, A; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wright, J D; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be propor...
J. B. Albert; D. J. Auty; P. S. Barbeau; D. Beck; V. Belov; M. Breidenbach; T. Brunner; A. Burenkov; G. F. Cao; C. Chambers; B. Cleveland; M. Coon; A. Craycraft; T. Daniels; M. Danilov; S. J. Daugherty; C. G. Davis; J. Davis; S. Delaquis; A. Der Mesrobian-Kabakian; R. DeVoe; T. Didberidze; A. Dolgolenko; M. J. Dolinski; M. Dunford; W. Fairbank Jr.; J. Farine; W. Feldmeier; P. Fierlinger; D. Fudenberg; R. Gornea; K. Graham; G. Gratta; C. Hall; M. Hughes; M. J. Jewell; X. S. Jiang; A. Johnson; T. N. Johnson; S. Johnston; A. Karelin; L. J. Kaufman; R. Killick; T. Koffas; S. Kravitz; A. Kuchenkov; K. S. Kumar; D. S. Leonard; C. Licciardi; Y. H. Lin; J. Ling; R. MacLellan; M. G. Marino; B. Mong; D. Moore; R. Nelson; K. O'Sullivan; A. Odian; I. Ostrovskiy; A. Piepke; A. Pocar; C. Y. Prescott; A. Robinson; P. C. Rowson; J. J. Russell; A. Schubert; D. Sinclair; E. Smith; V. Stekhanov; M. Tarka; T. Tolba; R. Tsang; K. Twelker; J. -L. Vuilleumier; A. Waite; J. Walton; T. Walton; M. Weber; L. J. Wen; U. Wichoski; J. D. Wright; J. Wood; L. Yang; Y. -R. Yen; O. Ya. Zeldovich
2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be proportional to the electron lifetime in the LXe.
"Managing Department Climate Change"
Sheridan, Jennifer
"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate Ronda
Environment and Climate Change
Galles, David
Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents
existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change
Nebraska-Lincoln, University of
1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet
Forest Research: Climate Change
Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes
CLIMATE CHANGE & THE GREENHOUSE
Tobar, Michael
CLIMATE CHANGE & THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;This development of these materials was supported under.nasa.gov/Features/BlueMarble/BlueMarble_history.php © 2014 University of Western Australia ISBN 978-0-646-93241-5 Title: Climate change and the greenhouse OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to climate change resources 5 Alternative conceptions 6 References
Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Research shows that changes in infrastructure prompt changes in behavior (for better or worse). Federal agencies can modify their infrastructure to promote sustainability-oriented behavior change, ideally in ways that make new behaviors easier and more desirable to follow than existing patterns of behavior.
Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.
Hill, R.P.
1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ability of five nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (MET), misonidazole (MISO), desmethymisonidazole (DMM), SR 2508 and SR 2555, to sensitize the KHT sarcoma to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-1.5 g/Kg. Single radiation doses or two different daily fractionation schedules (4 fractions of 5 Gy each or 7 fraction of 3 Gy each) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using either an in vivo or in vitro colony assay. Each radiation (100 kVp X rays at 11 Gy/min) treatment was given locally, 60-70 min (MET) or 30-40 min (other drugs) after either intraperitoneal (MET, MISO, DMM) or intraveous (SR 2508, SR 2555) injection of the drugs; these times have been shown to be optimum for this tumor. For the single doses and both fractionation schedules the tumor cell survival, following the irradiation treatment, declined as the drug dose increased in the range 0 to 0.75 g/Kg for all the drugs, but above this dose level a plateau was reached and the amount of sensitization remained essentially constant. In this plateau region the reduction in survival achieved was similar for single doses and 5 Gy fraction but was less for 3 Gy fractions, indicating that sensitization was smaller for the smaller dose fractions. For the 4 x 5 Gy fractionation schedule the plateau level of survival was lowest for MISO, DMM and SR 2508, slightly higher for SR 2555 and much higher for MET. For the 3 Gy fractions SR 2508 appeared slightly less effective than MISO and DMM.
Fractional Euler-Bernoulli beams: theory, numerical study and experimental validation
Wojciech Sumelka; Tomasz Blaszczyk; Christian Liebold
2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam (CEBB) theory is reformulated utilising fractional calculus. Such generalisation is called fractional Euler-Bernoulli beams (FEBB) and results in non-local spatial description. The parameters of the model are identified based on AFM experiments concerning bending rigidities of micro-beams made of the polymer SU-8. In experiments both force as well as deflection data were recorded revealing significant size effect with respect to outer dimensions of the specimens. Special attention is also focused on the proper numerical solution of obtained fractional differential equation.
Schreiber, Michael
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional scoring has been proposed to avoid inconsistencies in the attribution of publications to percentile rank classes. Uncertainties and ambiguities in the evaluation of percentile ranks can be demonstrated most easily with small datasets. But for larger datasets an often large number of papers with the same citation count leads to the same uncertainties and ambiguities which can be avoided by fractional scoring. This is demonstrated for four different empirical datasets with several thousand publications each which are assigned to 6 percentile rank classes. Only by utilizing fractional scoring the total score of all papers exactly reproduces the theoretical value in each case.
SECPOP90: Sector population, land fraction, and economic estimation program
Humphreys, S.L.; Rollstin, J.A.; Ridgely, J.N.
1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In 1973 Mr. W. Athey of the Environmental Protection Agency wrote a computer program called SECPOP which calculated population estimates. Since that time, two things have changed which suggested the need for updating the original program - more recent population censuses and the widespread use of personal computers (PCs). The revised computer program uses the 1990 and 1992 Population Census information and runs on current PCs as {open_quotes}SECPOP90.{close_quotes} SECPOP90 consists of two parts: site and regional. The site provides population and economic data estimates for any location within the continental United States. Siting analysis is relatively fast running. The regional portion assesses site availability for different siting policy decisions; i.e., the impact of available sites given specific population density criteria within the continental United States. Regional analysis is slow. This report compares the SECPOP90 population estimates and the nuclear power reactor licensee-provided information. Although the source, and therefore the accuracy, of the licensee information is unknown, this comparison suggests SECPOP90 makes reasonable estimates. Given the total uncertainty in any current calculation of severe accidents, including the potential offsite consequences, the uncertainty within SECPOP90 population estimates is expected to be insignificant. 12 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.
Measurement of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction B(B?s?X-l+?l) at Belle
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Oswald, C.; Urquijo, P.; Dingfelder, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Belous, K.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Esen, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Korpar, S.; Kouzes, R. T.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Louvot, R.; Lutz, O.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nedelkovska, E.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Prim, M.; Prothmann, K.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rozanska, M.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stari?, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report a measurement of the inclusive semileptonic B0s branching fraction in a 121 fb?¹ data sample collected near the ?(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e?e? collider. Events containing B?(*)sB¯¯¯?(*)s pairs are selected by reconstructing a tag side D?s and identifying a signal side lepton l? (l=e, ?) that is required to have the same-sign charge to ensure that both originate from different B?s mesons. The B?s?X?l??l branching fraction is extracted from the ratio of the measured yields of D?s mesons and D?sl? pairs and the known production and branching fractions. The inclusive semileptonic branching fraction is measured to be [10.6±0.5(stat)±0.7(syst)]%.
Wen, Xiao-Gang
The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the ...
Search for the decay Bs0 ? ?? and a measurement of the branching fraction for Bs0 ? ??
Dutta, Deepanwita; Bhuyan, Bipul; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, David M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Aziz, T.; Bahinipati, S.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, Vikas; Bhardwaj, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Bracko, Marko; Browder, Thomas E.; Cervenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, David A.; Dalseno, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Drasal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, K.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, James E.; Frost, O.; Gaur, Vipin; Ganguly, Sudeshna; Garmash, Alexey; Getzkow, D.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W. S.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, Igal; Joffe, D.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, Kay; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kodys, P.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Krokovny, Pavel; Kuhr, Thomas; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, I. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, Dmitri; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nayak, Minakshi; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, Galina; Pedlar, Todd K.; Pestotnik, Rok; Petric, Marko; Piilonen, Leo E.; Ribezl, Eva; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, Saurabh; Santelj, Luka; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, Vladimir; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Semmler, D.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T. A.; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Staric, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Unno, Yuji; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vossen, Anslem G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Wehle, S.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We search for the decay B0s??? and measure the branching fraction for B0s??? using 121.4~fb-1 of data collected at the ?(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The B0s??? branching fraction is measured to be (3.6±0.5(stat.)±0.3(syst.)±0.6(fs))×10-5, where fs is the fraction of Bs(*)B¯s(*) in bb¯ events. Our result is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions as well as with a recent measurement from LHCb. We observe no statistically significant signal for the decay B0s??? and set a 90% confidence-level upper limit on its branching fraction at 3.1×10-6. This constitutes a significant improvement over the previous result.
USING ARM OBSERVATIONS TO EVALUATE NWP RESULTS OF RADIATION AND CLOUD FRACTION
USING ARM OBSERVATIONS TO EVALUATE NWP RESULTS OF RADIATION AND CLOUD FRACTION Wu, W., O'Connor, E datasets (ERA- Interim, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and NCEP/DOE Reanalysis) against decade-long ARM observations
Fractional factorial study of HCN removal over a 0.5% Pt/AlO...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
PtAlO catalyst: effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and reactant Abstract: Fractional factorial design was used to determine which factors have significant effects on the HCN...
Self-repelling fractional Brownian motion - a generalized Edwards model for chain polymers
Jinky Bornales; Maria João Oliveira; Ludwig Streit
2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of the Edwards model for conformations of individual chain molecules in solvents in terms of fractional Brownian motion, and discuss the excluded volume effect on the end-to-end length of such trajectories or molecules.
Smith, Stephanie 1990-
2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
(TN), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), fluorescence and absorption (optics), water isotopes (?18O and ?D), and lignin phenols. Results showed a clear fractionation effect for all parameters, where the ice samples contained much less of the dissolved...
Measurement of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction B(B?s?X-l+?l) at Belle
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Oswald, C.; Urquijo, P.; Dingfelder, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Belous, K.; et al
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report a measurement of the inclusive semileptonic B0s branching fraction in a 121 fb?¹ data sample collected near the ?(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e?e? collider. Events containing B?(*)sB¯¯¯?(*)s pairs are selected by reconstructing a tag side D?s and identifying a signal side lepton l? (l=e, ?) that is required to have the same-sign charge to ensure that both originate from different B?s mesons. The B?s?X?l??l branching fraction is extracted from the ratio of the measured yields of D?s mesons and D?sl? pairs and the known production and branching fractions. The inclusive semileptonicmore »branching fraction is measured to be [10.6±0.5(stat)±0.7(syst)]%.« less
A construction of the rough path above fractional Brownian motion using Volterra’s representation
Nualart, David; Tindel, Samy
2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This note is devoted to construct a rough path above a multidimensional fractional Brownian motion B with any Hurst parameter H?(0,?1), by means of its representation as a Volterra Gaussian process. This approach yields ...
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 NOVEMBER 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1462 Confinement of fractional quantum number
Loss, Daniel
, at the smallest distances this interaction obeys the Coulomb law, but at larger distances instead of decreasingARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 NOVEMBER 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1462 Confinement of fractional
Meerschaert, Mark M.
, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA Eric M. LaBolle Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources and Lévy walks, and their fractional-order governing equations, have been used to de- scribe superdiffusive
Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species
Sachs, Julian P.
Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species Zhaohui Abstract Five species of freshwater green algae, including three strains of Botryococcus braunii (two in the algae, including alkadienes, botryococcenes, heptadecenes, fatty acids, and phytadiene, were measured
Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time A technique for simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time Laboratory's Multicharged Ion Research Facility. Energy distributions of the scattered projectiles
Climate Change, Drought & Environment
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Climate Change, Drought, and Environment—Michael Champ, Executive Director, The Sustainable Water Challenge
Change Control Management Guide
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for managing project and contract changes through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. No cancellation.
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars
Ian U. Roederer; James E. Lawler; Christopher Sneden; John J. Cowan; Jennifer S. Sobeck; Catherine A. Pilachowski
2007-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
We have derived isotopic fractions of europium, samarium, and neodymium in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new high resolution (R ~ 120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoude spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which reproduces s-process nucleosynthesis from the physical conditions expected in low-mass, thermally-pulsing stars on the AGB, and the classical method, which approximates s-process nucleosynthesis by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the classical method and is consistent with either an r- or an s-process origin by the stellar model. Our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 175305 suggests a predominantly r-process origin, and our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 196944 is consistent with an s-process origin. The Nd isotopic fractions, while consistent with either r-process or s-process origins, have very little ability to distinguish between any physical values for the isotopic fraction in either star. This study for the first time extends the n-capture origin of multiple rare earths in metal-poor stars from elemental abundances to the isotopic level, strengthening the r-process interpretation for HD 175305 and the s-process interpretation for HD196944.
Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes by phosphoenopyruvate carboxylase from C4 plants
Reibach, Paul Howard
1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FRACTIONATION OP STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES BY PHOSPHOENOLPYRUYATE CARBOXYLASE FROM C& PLANTS A Thesis by PAUL HOWARD REIBACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Sub)cot: Piant Physiology FRACTIONATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES BY PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE FROM CA PLANTS A Thesis by PAUL HOHARD REIBACH Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee) ead...
Control and Synchronization of Chaotic Fractional-Order Coullet System via Active Controller
M. Shahiri T.; A. Ranjbar N.; R. Ghaderi; S. H. Hosseinnia; S. Momani
2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, fractional order Coullet system is studied. An active control technique is applied to control this chaotic system. This type of controller is also applied to synchronize chaotic fractional-order systems in master-slave structure. The synchronization procedure is shown via simulation. The boundary of stability is obtained by both of theoretical analysis and simulation result. The numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Measurement of the B¯?Xs? branching fraction with a sum of exclusive decays
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Saito, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D.?M.; Aushev, T.; et al
2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z
We use 772 × 106 BB meson pairs collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector to measure the branching fraction for B¯ ? Xs?. Our measurement uses a sum-of-exclusives approach in which 38 of the hadronic final states with strangeness equal to +1, denoted by Xs, are reconstructed. The inclusive branching fraction for MXs s?)=(3.51±0.17±0.33) × 10–4, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.
Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream
Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.
2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.
Thomas Garrity
2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
A new classification scheme for pairs of real numbers is given, generalizing earlier work of the author that used continued fraction, which in turn was motivated by ideas from statistical mechanics in general and work of Knauf and Fiala and Kleban in particular. Critical for this classification are the number theoretic and geometric properties of the triangle map, a type of multi-dimensional continued fraction.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Krista Gaustad; Laura Riihimaki
Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.
Controlling the Internal-Transport-Barrier Oscillations in High-Performance Tokamak Plasmas with a Dominant Fraction of Bootstrap Current
Non-Standard Extensions of Gradient Elasticity: Fractional Non-Locality, Memory and Fractality
Vasily E. Tarasov; Elias C. Aifantis
2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
Derivatives and integrals of non-integer order may have a wide application in describing complex properties of materials including long-term memory, non-locality of power-law type and fractality. In this paper we consider extensions of elasticity theory that allow us to describe elasticity of materials with fractional non-locality, memory and fractality. The basis of our consideration is an extension of the usual variational principle for fractional non-locality and fractality. For materials with power-law non-locality described by Riesz derivatives of non-integer order, we suggest a fractional variational equation. Equations for fractal materials are derived by a generalization of the variational principle for fractal media. We demonstrate the suggested approaches to derive corresponding generalizations of the Euler-Bernoulli beam and the Timoshenko beam equations for the considered fractional non-local and fractal models. Various equations for materials with fractional non-locality, fractality and fractional acceleration are considered.
An Alternative Method for Solving a Certain Class of Fractional Kinetic Equations
R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold
2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative method for solving the fractional kinetic equations solved earlier by Haubold and Mathai (2000) and Saxena et al. (2002, 2004a, 2004b) is recently given by Saxena and Kalla (2007). This method can also be applied in solving more general fractional kinetic equations than the ones solved by the aforesaid authors. In view of the usefulness and importance of the kinetic equation in certain physical problems governing reaction-diffusion in complex systems and anomalous diffusion, the authors present an alternative simple method for deriving the solution of the generalized forms of the fractional kinetic equations solved by the aforesaid authors and Nonnenmacher and Metzler (1995). The method depends on the use of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus operators. It has been shown by the application of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator and its interesting properties, that the solution of the given fractional kinetic equation can be obtained in a straight-forward manner. This method does not make use of the Laplace transform.
Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.
1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.
Review: Preparing for Climate Change
Kunnas, Jan
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Review: Preparing for Climate Change By Michael D.Stephen, Preparing for Climate Change. A Boston Review Book.alkaline paper. “Climate change is inevitable, but disaster
Climate Change and National Security
Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CLIMATE CHANGE Multiplying Threats to National Securityfor the impacts of climate change on national security. Pagea warming world. Page 11 “Climate change acts as a threat
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.Sea Level. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.
Urban Growth and Climate Change
Kahn, Matthew E.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2007a The Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Evidence fromGreenstone. 2007b. Climate Change, Mortality and Adaptation:and Ariel Dinar, 1999, Climate Change, Agriculture, and
Commitment Institutional Change Principle
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Commitment can be a crucial element that helps federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors.
Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE
Attari, Shahzeen Z.
booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warming into the foundation of the world economy and into the everyday things we do (driving) and use (electricity). Thus
Configuration Change Management
Yoder, Nathaniel
2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
significant benefit to a company. Changes come at various stages in the lifecycle of a product. Understanding the impact at the specific stage in a product lifecycle will minimize the impact to the business. Change should be approached as a planned...
Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management
Sheridan, Jennifer
Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy out Absorbed
Levy, Mel, E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Anderson, James S. M.; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Ayers, Paul W., E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
Properties of exact density functionals provide useful constraints for the development of new approximate functionals. This paper focuses on convex sums of ground-level densities. It is observed that the electronic kinetic energy of a convex sum of degenerate ground-level densities is equal to the convex sum of the kinetic energies of the individual degenerate densities. (The same type of relationship holds also for the electron-electron repulsion energy.) This extends a known property of the Levy-Valone Ensemble Constrained-Search and the Lieb Legendre-Transform refomulations of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional to the individual components of the functional. Moreover, we observe that the kinetic and electron-repulsion results also apply to densities with fractional electron number (even if there are no degeneracies), and we close with an analogous point-wise property involving the external potential. Examples where different degenerate states have different kinetic energy and electron-nuclear attraction energy are given; consequently, individual components of the ground state electronic energy can change abruptly when the molecular geometry changes. These discontinuities are predicted to be ubiquitous at conical intersections, complicating the development of universally applicable density-functional approximations.
zone and are responsible for a significant fraction of the biosphere's solar energy conversion.2 of Physics, Boston UniVersity, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, Department of Chemistry, Boston Uni. The protein changes we observe on a subpicosecond time scale may be involved in storage of the absorbed photon
Chen, Fang-Hsin; Fu, Sheng-Yung [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ying-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chi-Shiun, E-mail: cschiang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)
2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT. Methods and Materials: Murine prostate TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in control mice or mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM), and irradiated with 60 Gy in 15 fractions. Mice were also treated with gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist) to examine the effects of combination treatment. The responses of tumor vasculatures to these treatments and changes of tumor microenvironment were assessed. Results: After F-RT, the tumor microvascular density (MVD) was reduced; however, the surviving vessels were dilated, incorporated with GFP-positive cells, tightly adhered to pericytes, and well perfused with Hoechst 33342, suggesting a more mature structure formed primarily via vasculogenesis. Although the gefitinib+F-RT combination affected the vascular structure by dissociating pericytes from the vascular wall, it did not further delay tumor growth. These tumors had higher MVD and better vascular perfusion function, leading to less hypoxia and tumor necrosis. By contrast, the AMD3100+F-RT combination significantly enhanced tumor growth delay more than F-RT alone, and these tumors had lower MVD and poorer vascular perfusion function, resulting in increased hypoxia. These tumor vessels were rarely covered by pericytes and free of GFP-positive cells. Conclusions: Vasculogenesis is a major mechanism for tumor vessel survival during F-RT. Complex interactions occur between vessel-targeting agents and F-RT, and a synergistic effect may not always exist. To enhance F-RT, using CXCR4 inhibitor to block BM cell influx and the vasculogenesis process is a better strategy than targeting pericytes by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor.
North, G.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Facts about Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...
Macfarlane, Alan
2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
stream_source_info The changing same.doc.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30558 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name The changing same.doc.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Changing Same One... whose recommendation, perhaps with two in favour and one against, can be passed by a much larger body without much discussion. In such a world, a powerful personality with plenty of energy, skilled in local politics, with good connections and a...
North, G.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Facts about Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California
Powell, Ceri [Neuro-oncology Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Micallef, Caroline [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom); Gonsalves, Adam; Wharram, Bev; Ashley, Sue [Neuro-oncology Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Brada, Michael, E-mail: michael.brada@icr.ac.uk [Neuro-oncology Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Academic Unit of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)
2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To determine the incidence and predictive factors for the development of hydrocephalus in patients with acoustic neuromas (AN) treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Seventy-two patients with AN were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007 (45-50 Gy in 25-30 fractions over 5 to 6 weeks). The pretreatment MRI scan was assessed for tumor characteristics and anatomic distortion independently of subsequent outcome and correlated with the risk of hydrocephalus. Results: At a median follow-up of 49 months (range, 1-120 months), 5-year event-free survival was 95%. Eight patients (11%) developed hydrocephalus within 19 months of radiotherapy, which was successfully treated. On univariate analysis, pretreatment factors predictive of hydrocephalus were maximum diameter (p = 0.005), proximity to midline (p = 0.009), displacement of the fourth ventricle (p = 0.02), partial effacement of the fourth ventricle (p < 0.001), contact with the medulla (p = 0.005), and more brainstem structures (p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for fourth ventricular effacement, no other variables remained independently associated with hydrocephalus formation. Conclusions: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy results in excellent tumor control of AN, albeit with a risk of developing hydrocephalus. Patients at high risk, identified as those with larger tumors with partial effacement of the fourth ventricle before treatment, should be monitored more closely during follow-up. It would also be preferable to offer treatment to patients with progressive AN while the risk of hydrocephalus is low, before the development of marked distortion of fourth ventricle before tumor diameter significantly exceeds 2 cm.
Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions
Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.
2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
EIA-914 Survey and HPDI. Figure 2 shows how this could change apparent production. The blue line shows the reported sample production as it would normally be reported under the...
Climate Change Adaptation Planning
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...
Managing Internal Administrative Change
Custer, Joseph A.
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Mr. Custer considers the impact of already instituted internal administrative change on library staff and how best to deal with it. He approaches the topic by describing what his own library did when faced with significant internal administrative...
Lights, Conformational Change... Action!
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
the flashes, they collected the x-ray scattering data. Analysis of the data revealed the build-up of large conformational changes between the two structures at the nanometer...
Pressure drop and void fraction in intermittent inclined gas-liquid pipe flow
Aboba, B.D.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The mechanistic approach to gas-liquid flow has been gaining in popularity over the last decade. However currently no models exist to predict pressure drop and void fraction in steeply inclined intermittent Flow. In this work, a model has been developed for prediction of pressure drop and void fraction in intermittent flow at all inclination angles, and verified for angles between {minus}9{degree} and +90{degree}. This model is also suitable for predicting pressure drop and void fraction within the bubble and churn flow regimes. Pressure drop and void fraction predictions are compared with published experimental data on inclined intermittent gas-liquid flow, and agreement is found to be very good. While accurate estimeates of pressure drop and void fraction require accurate flow regime predictions, no comprehensive evaluation of inclined flow pattern prediction methods is currently available. This work compares the theories advanced by workers at the University of Houston and Tel-Aviv University, the University of Cincinnati and Drexel University, and the University of Tulsa against a wide range of experimental data. Alternative schemes are proposed for the dispersed bubble. distorted bubble, elongated bubble-slug, churn, and annular transitions.
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation
Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.)
2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.
Chromium Isotope Fractionation During Reduction of Cr(VI) Under Saturated Flow Conditions
Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Gibson, Blair D.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W. (Waterloo); (Kyungpook National University)
2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
Chromium isotopes are potentially useful indicators of Cr(VI) reduction reactions in groundwater flow systems; however, the influence of transport on Cr isotope fractionation has not been fully examined. Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate isotopic fractionation of Cr during Cr(VI) reduction under both static and controlled flow conditions. Organic carbon was used to reduce Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater containing 20 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI) in both batch and column experiments. Isotope measurements were performed on dissolved Cr on samples from the batch experiments, and on effluent and profile samples from the column experiment. Analysis of the residual solid-phase materials by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed association of Cr(III) with organic carbon in the column solids. Decreases in dissolved Cr(VI) concentrations were coupled with increases in {delta}{sup 53}Cr, indicating that Cr isotope enrichment occurred during reduction of Cr(VI). The {delta}{sup 53}Cr data from the column experiment was fit by linear regression yielding a fractionation factor ({alpha}) of 0.9979, whereas the batch experiments exhibited Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation ({alpha} = 0.9965). The linear characteristic of the column {delta}{sup 53}Cr data may reflect the contribution of transport on Cr isotope fractionation.
Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca
Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik
2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.
Identification of interactions in fractional-order systems with high dimensions
Ji, Xiaoxi; Wu, Yu; Sheng, Wenbo [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, Wei, E-mail: wlin@fudan.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Data Science, LMNS, and Shanghai Center for Mathematical Sciences, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
This article proposes an approach to identify fractional-order systems with sparse interaction structures and high dimensions when observation data are supposed to be experimentally available. This approach includes two steps: first, it is to estimate the value of the fractional order by taking into account the solution properties of fractional-order systems; second, it is to identify the interaction coefficients among the system variables by employing the compressed sensing technique. An error analysis is provided analytically for this approach and a further improved approach is also proposed. Moreover, the applicability of the proposed approach is fully illustrated by two examples: one is to estimate the mutual interactions in a complex dynamical network described by fractional-order systems, and the other is to identify a high fractional-order and homogeneous sequential differential equation, which is frequently used to describe viscoelastic phenomena. All the results demonstrate the feasibility of figuring out the system mechanisms behind the data experimentally observed in physical or biological systems with viscoelastic evolution characters.
Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Proto-galaxies forming in low-mass dark matter haloes are thought to provide the majority of ionising photons needed to reionise the Universe, due to their high escape fractions of ionising photons. We study how the escape fraction in high-redshift galaxies relates to the physical properties of the halo in which the galaxies form by computing escape fractions for 75801 haloes between redshifts 27 and 6 that were extracted from the FiBY project, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy formation. We find that the main constraint on the escape fraction is the presence of dense gas within 10 pc of the young sources that emit the majority of the ionising photons produced over the lifetime of the stellar population. This results in a strong mass dependence of the escape fraction. The lower potential well in haloes with virial mass below 10^8 solar mass results in lower column densities close to the sources that can be penetrated by the radiation from young, massive stars. In general only a ...
Bender, Edward T. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)
2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.
Identification of two-phase flow patterns by a single void fraction sensor
Wang, Y.W.; King, C.H.; Pei, B.S.
1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
A wide range of combinations of gas and liquid flow rates that form various flow patterns are investigated. By analyzing the signal spectra detected by a single sensor using light techniques, the criteria for identifying two-phase flow patterns are proposed. By applying these criteria with only one parameter, the high-frequency contribution fraction (HFCF), the reasonable identifying performance is 76% when churn flow is counted and 88% when churn flow is not counted. When ..cap alpha..-bar is added as an auxiliary to HFCF, the identifying performance can be increased to 83 and 96%, depending on whether churn flow is counted. Both parameters can be acquired by signals from a single void fraction sensor. The criteria are expected to apply to other void fraction measurable systems for identifying two-phase flow patterns.
A New Blackbody Radiation Law Based on Fractional Calculus and its Application to NASA COBE Data
Minoru Biyajima; Takuya Mizoguchi; Naomichi Suzuki
2015-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
By applying fractional calculus to the equation proposed by M. Planck in 1900, we obtain a new blackbody radiation law described by a Mittag-Leffler (ML) function. We have analyzed NASA COBE data by means of a non-extensive formula with a parameter $(q-1)$, a formula proposed by Ertik et al. with a fractional parameter $(\\alpha-1)$, and our new formula including a parameter $(p-1)$, as well as the Bose-Einstein distribution with a dimensionless chemical potential $\\mu$. It can be said that one role of the fractional parameter $(p-1)$ is almost the same as that of chemical potential $(\\mu)$ as well as that of the parameter $(q-1)$ in the non-extensive approach.
Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment
Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.
2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.
I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin
2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.
Institutional Change for Sustainability Contacts | Department...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Institutional Change Institutional Change for Sustainability Contacts Institutional Change for Sustainability Contacts For more information about institutional change for...
Determine Institutional Change Sustainability Goals | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Institutional Change Determine Institutional Change Sustainability Goals Determine Institutional Change Sustainability Goals Institutional Change Continuous Improvement Cycle...
Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change
Hulme, Mike
Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change
Climate Change Review of Muller's chapter on Climate Change from
Browder, Tom
Climate Change · Review of Muller's chapter on Climate Change from Physics for Future Society) controversy on climate change (e.g. resignation of Hal Lewis, Ivar Giaever and other notable. #12;Some climate changes basics · IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change · The IPCC
Effects of bounded space in the solutions of time-space fractional diffusion equation
Allami, M. H. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
By using a recently proposed numerical method, the fractional diffusion equation with memory in a finite domain is solved for different asymmetry parameters and fractional orders. Some scaling laws are revisited in this condition, such as growth rate in a distance from pulse perturbation, the time when the perturbative peak reaches the other points, and advectionlike behavior as a result of asymmetry and memory. Conditions for negativity and instability of solutions are shown. Also up-hill transport and its time-space region are studied.
Analytic calculations of trial wave functions of the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere
Carmem Lucia de Souza Batista; Dingping Li
1996-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
We present a framework for the analytic calculations of the hierarchical wave functions and the composite fermion wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere by using projective coordinates. Then we calculate the overlaps between these two wave functions at various fillings and small numbers of electrons. We find that the overlaps are all most equal to one. This gives a further evidence that two theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect, the hierarchical theory and the composite fermion theory, are physically equivalent.
Comment on: "On the consistency of solutions of the space fractional Schrödinger equation"
E. Hawkins; J. M. Schwarz
2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
In [J. Math. Phys. 53, 042105 (2012)], Bay{\\i}n claims to prove the consistency of the purported piece-wise solutions to the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation for an infinite square well. However, his calculation uses standard contour integral techniques despite the absence of an analytic integrand. The correct calculation is presented and supports our earlier work proving that the purported piece-wise solutions do not solve the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation for an infinite square well [M. Jeng, S.-L.-Y. Xu, E. Hawkins, and J. M. Schwarz, J. Math. Phys. 51, 062102 (2010)].
A Continued Fraction Resummation Form of Bath Relaxation Effect in the Spin-Boson Model
Zhihao Gong; Zhoufei Tang; Shaul Mukamel; Jianshu Cao; Jianlan Wu
2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
In the spin-boson model, a continued fraction form is proposed to systematically resum high-order quantum kinetic expansion (QKE) rate kernels, accounting for the bath relaxation effect beyond the second-order perturbation. In particular, the analytical expression of the sixth-order QKE rate kernel is derived for resummation. With higher-order correction terms systematically extracted from higher-order rate kernels, the resummed quantum kinetic expansion (RQKE) approach in the continued fraction form extends the Pade approximation and can fully recover the exact quantum dynamics as the expansion order increases.
Mai, Junyu; Sommer, Gregory Jon; Hatch, Anson V.
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on advancements of our microscale isoelectric fractionation ({mu}IEFr) methodology for fast on-chip separation and concentration of proteins based on their isoelectric points (pI). We establish that proteins can be fractionated depending on posttranslational modifications into different pH specific bins, from where they can be efficiently transferred to downstream membranes for additional processing and analysis. This technology can enable on-chip multidimensional glycoproteomics analysis, as a new approach to expedite biomarker identification and verification.
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Maslowski, Bozenna J.; Pasik-Duncan, B.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. The statement (iii) is obvious and the statement (iv) follows from [5] (in fact, Z has an H -continuous version; cf. Remark 2.1). By the analyticity of the semigroup (S(t), t #2; 0), (A1), and (A2), the inequalities |Lu(t)| H #3; ? t 0 |S(t? r)Bu(r)| H dr #3... parabolic equation with a fractional Gaussian noise where the stochastic term is a nonlinear function of the solution. Strong solutions of bilinear evolution equations with a fractional Brownian motion are obtained in [5, 9], and the same type of equation...
A 113 L/min ambient aerosol sampler for collection of thoracic and respirable fractions
Rue, Clayton Matthew
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of monodisperse aerosols through the RSP fractionator. Flow rate = 56. 6 L/m1n. 20 10 Comparison of sampling penetrat1on of RSP fract1onator with ISO curve. Error bars are + I standard deviat1on. Cutpo1nt variat1on as a funct1on of flow 23 rate... of airborne particles, guidelines have been established for size-specific part1culate sampling. The 2, 5 um cutooint recom- mended by ISO to reoresent the respirable fraction also corresoonds to the typ1cal minimum particle s1ze associated with a bi...
Apparatus for measuring the local void fraction in a flowing liquid containing a gas
Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL)
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The local void fraction in liquid containing a gas is measured by placing an impedance-variation probe in the liquid, applying a controlled voltage or current to the probe, and measuring the probe current or voltage. A circuit for applying the one electrical parameter and measuring the other includes a feedback amplifier that minimizes the effect of probe capacitance and a digitizer to provide a clean signal. Time integration of the signal provides a measure of the void fraction, and an oscilloscope display also shows bubble size and distribution.
Measurement of branching fractions and rate asymmetries in the rare decays B?K(*)l?l?
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va’vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.
2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a sample of 471×10? BB¯¯¯ events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e?e? collider we study the rare decays B?K(*)l?l?, where l?l? is either e?e? or ????. We report results on partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries in seven bins of dilepton mass-squared. We further present CP and lepton-flavor asymmetries for dilepton masses below and above the J/? resonance. We find no evidence for CP or lepton-flavor violation. The partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries are consistent with the Standard Model predictions and with results from other experiments.
A study of fractionating inlet systems for the dichotomous air sampler
Ripps, Gerald Joseph
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
um particles at 2 km/hr. At a wind speed of 8 km/hr. the cutpoint was 15. 1 um and at a wind speed of 24 km/hr. it was 13. 8 um. This fractionating inlet system has a narrow slit inlet to efficiently sample particles at wind speeds less than 24 km.../hr. An impaction fractionator effectively prevents passage of all particles larger than 25 um. The inlet cutpoint variation and wind effects are reduced in comparison with the bell-shaped inlet originally used with the dichotomous sampler. Several variations...
A Continued Fraction Resummation Form of Bath Relaxation Effect in the Spin-Boson Model
Gong, Zhihao; Mukamel, Shaul; Cao, Jianshu; Wu, Jianlan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the spin-boson model, a continued fraction form is proposed to systematically resum high-order quantum kinetic expansion (QKE) rate kernels, accounting for the bath relaxation effect beyond the second-order perturbation. In particular, the analytical expression of the sixth-order QKE rate kernel is derived for resummation. With higher-order correction terms systematically extracted from higher-order rate kernels, the resummed quantum kinetic expansion (RQKE) approach in the continued fraction form extends the Pade approximation and can fully recover the exact quantum dynamics as the expansion order increases.
Control of a Novel Chaotic Fractional Order System Using a State Feedback Technique
Abolhassan Razminia; Delfim F. M. Torres
2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a new fractional order chaotic system displaying an interesting behavior. A necessary condition for the system to remain chaotic is derived. It is found that chaos exists in the system with order less than three. Using the Routh-Hurwitz and the Matignon stability criteria, we analyze the novel chaotic fractional order system and propose a control methodology that is better than the nonlinear counterparts available in the literature, in the sense of simplicity of implementation and analysis. A scalar control input that excites only one of the states is proposed, and sufficient conditions for the controller gain to stabilize the unstable equilibrium points derived. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical analysis.
Systematics associated with positronium fractions as measured with variable-energy positron beams
Schultz, P.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Jorch, H.H.
1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Positronium fraction measurements using positron beams have been utilized to extract information about the diffusion properties of positrons as well as defect concentrations in the near surface region of materials under a variety of experimental conditions. Owing to this recent interest we have undertaken to study some of the systematics and uncertainties associated with measurements of the positronium fraction, f. We restrict our discussion to determinations of f based on the peak:total ratio of counting rates for a single detector, only briefly considering alternate ways of obtaining f. We conclude with several recommendations that should be of particular interest to practitioners in the field.
Simulated seismic event release fraction data: Progress report, April 1986-April 1987
Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.)
1987-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The object of this project is to obtain experimental data on the release of airborne particles during seismic events involving plutonium handling facilities. In particular, cans containing plutonium oxide powder may be involved and some of the powder may become airborne. No release fraction data for such scenarios are available and risk assessment calculations for such events lacked specificity describing the physical processes involved. This study has provided initial data based on wind tunnel tests simulating the impact of the debris on simulated cans of plutonium oxide powder. The release fractions are orders of magnitude smaller than previously available estimates. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Malone, Elizabeth L.
2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.
Meier, M.F. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.
Multilayer network modeling of change propagation for engineering change management
Pasqual, Michael C
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Engineering change management is a critical and challenging process within product development. One pervasive source of difficulty for this process is the phenomenon of change propagation, by which a change to one part or ...
Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.
1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars
Roederer, Ian U; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Pilachowski, Catherine A
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have derived isotopic fractions of europium, samarium, and neodymium in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new high resolution (R ~ 120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoude spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which reproduces s-process nucleosynthesis from the physical conditions expected in low-mass, thermally-pulsing stars on the AGB, and the classical method, which approximates s-process nucleosynthesis by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the ...
CLOUD FRACTION: CAN IT BE DEFINED, CAN IT BE MEASURED, AND IF WE KNEW IT
Schwartz, Stephen E.
droplets and/or ice particles in the atmosphere above the earth's surface. Total cloud cover: Fraction, JGR (ERBE, 1988) Cloud cover is a loosely defined term. Potter Stewart (U.S. Supreme Court, 1964) I feedbacks. Accurate representation of cloud radiative effects is essential in climate models. Getting cloud
INTERANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD FRACTION AND LOWER
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
: ___________________________________________________________ #12;i Abstract Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a large effect on the global radiation budget cooling effect in the MBL. Thus, simulating MBL clouds in General Circulation Models (GCM) is crucialINTERANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD FRACTION AND LOWER TROPOSPHERIC
that have been used to quantify the effect of clouds on radiation budget in both modeling and observationalSURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-radiation
Physical interpretation of fractional diffusion-wave equation via lossy media obeying frequency not been clearly explained in this regard. Here the attempt is made to interpret the FDWE via a new time, for example, in medical ultrasonic and seismic wave propagations ( )z eEE - = 0 7-9 . Here E represents
Etude du marquage isotopique des fractions azotes du lait chez la chvre soumise une infusion
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Etude du marquage isotopique des fractions azotées du lait chez la chèvre soumise à une infusion afin de permettre d'une part l'infusion de L-(U-14C)-leucine (AMERSHAM) diluée dans 50 ml de soluté, puis à 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 et 96 heures après l'infusion). Lors d'une première expérience, une chèvre (2
2006-01-3276 Residual Gas Fraction Measurement and Estimation on a
Cambridge, University of
and in combination with CO2 concentration measurements in the exhaust stroke, cyclic Residual Gas Fraction was employed to obtain cyclic dynamic measurements of CO2 concentration in the compression stroke measurement involves comparing the content in HC or CO2 between the exhaust gas and the fresh charge
Carbon isotope fractionation between diet, breath CO2, and bioapatite in different mammals
Ehleringer, Jim
, and cattle on controlled diets. The measured fractionation (expressed as isotope enrichment 3*) between of the isotopic enrichment between diet and bioapatite. To this end, we present the results of controlled feeding experiments where the isotopic enrichment between diet, breath CO2, and bioapatite was measured for several
Bindeman, Ilya N.
isotope redistribution by thermal diffusion leading to enrichment of light isotopes at the hot endStable isotope fractionation by thermal diffusion through partially molten wet and dry silicate 2012 Editor: T.M. Harrison Keywords: thermal diffusion hydrogen isotope separation oxygen isotopes
ON THE MAILLET--BAKER CONTINUED FRACTIONS BORIS ADAMCZEWSKI, YANN BUGEAUD
Bugeaud, Yann
irrational algebraic number # either is eventually periodic (and we know that this is the case if, and only by quadratic irrationals. InÂ deed, under the previous assumption, the quadratic irrational real numbers # n the Schmidt Subspace Theorem to establish the transcendence of a class of quasiÂperiodic continued fractions
Continued fractions and transcendental numbers Boris ADAMCZEWSKI, Yann BUGEAUD, and Les DAVISON
Bugeaud, Yann
. Introduction It is widely believed that the continued fraction expansion of every irrational algebraic numberÂcalled `Liouville inequality' implies the transcendence of real numbers with very large partial quotients. Replacing of the Liouville inequality which limits the approximation of algebraic numbers by quadratic irrationals. They were
A Novel Scheme to Search for Fractional Charge Particles in Low Energy Accelerator Experiments
Jianguo Bian; Jiahui Wang
2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the quarks and anti-quarks have fractional charge equal to $\\pm1/3$ or $\\pm2/3$ of the electron's charge. There has been a large number of experiments searching for fractional charge, isolatable, elementary particles using a variety of methods, including $e^+e^-$ collisions using dE/dx ionization energy loss measurements, but no evidence has been found to confirm existence of free fractional charge particles, which leads to the quark confinement theory. In this paper, a proposal to search for this kind particles is presented, which is based on the conservation law of four-momentum. Thanks to the CLEOc and BESIII detectors' large coverage, good particle identification, precision measurements of tracks' momenta and their large recorded data samples, these features make the scheme feasible in practice. The advantage of the scheme is independent of any theoretical models and sensitive for a small fraction of the quarks transitioning to the unconfinement phase from the confinement phase.
Title: Electron-Hole Asymmetric Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Bilayer Graphene
Yacoby, Amir
Title: Electron-Hole Asymmetric Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Bilayer Graphene graphene is predicted to pro- duce novel and tunable FQH ground states. Here we present local electronic compressibility measurements of the FQH effect in the lowest Landau level of bilayer graphene. We observe
Measurement of the absolute branching fraction for D(0) -> K- pi+
Ammar, Raymond G.; Ball, S.; Baringer, Philip S.; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, Nowhan; Lam, H.
1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using 1.79 fb-1 of data recorded by the CLEO II detector we have measured the absolute branching fraction for D0 --> K-pi+. The angular correlation between the pi+ emitted in the decay D*+ --> D0pi+, and the jet direction in e+e- --> ccBAR events...
W. Chen; S. Holm
2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
The fractional diffusion-wave equation (FDWE) is a recent generalization of diffusion and wave equations via time and space fractional derivatives. The equation underlies Levy random walk and fractional Brownian motion and is foremost important in mathematical physics for such multidisciplinary applications as in finance, computational biology, acoustics, just to mention a few. Although the FDWE has been found to reflect anomalous energy dissipations, the physical significance of the equation has not been clearly explained in this regard. Here the attempt is made to interpret the FDWE via a new time-space fractional derivative wave equation which models forequency-dependent dissipations observed in such complex phenomena as acoustic wave propagating through human tissues, sediments, and rock layers. Meanwhile, we find a new bound (inequality (6) further below) on the orders of time and space derivatives of the FDWE, which indicates the so-called sub-diffusion process contradicts the real world frequency power law dissipation. This study also shows that the standard approach, albeit mathematically plausible, is phyiscally inappropriate to derive the normal diffusion equation from the damped wave equation, also known as the Telegrapher's equation.
Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two
Ghajar, Afshin J.
and simultaneous transportation of oil and natural gas from remote extraction locations to the processing units#12;Chapter 4 Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in gas-liquid two phase flow. The flow structure of different flow patterns observed in gas-liquid two
Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines
. INTRODUCTION AND COMPARISON WITH DIESEL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION To prevent the malicious knock phenomenon downsides. During tip-outs (defined as a transient mode during which the torque demand is suddenly decreased. Scheme of the intake burned gas fraction dynamics. In the seemingly similar context of automotive Diesel
Modelling of stable isotope fractionation by methane oxidation and diffusion in landfill cover soils
Mahieu, Koenraad [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.mahieu@lid.kviv.be; De Visscher, Alex [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Vanrolleghem, Peter A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Civil Engineering (modelEAU), Universite Laval, Pavillon Pouliot, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Van Cleemput, Oswald [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A technique to measure biological methane oxidation in landfill cover soils that is gaining increased interest is the measurement of stable isotope fractionation in the methane. Usually to quantify methane oxidation, only fractionation by oxidation is taken into account. Recently it was shown that neglecting the isotope fractionation by diffusion results in underestimation of the methane oxidation. In this study a simulation model was developed that describes gas transport and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. The model distinguishes between {sup 12}CH{sub 4}, {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, and {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D explicitly, and includes isotope fractionation by diffusion and oxidation. To evaluate the model, the simulations were compared with column experiments from previous studies. The predicted concentration profiles and isotopic profiles match the measured ones very well, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 vol% in the concentration and a RMSD of 0.8 per mille in the {delta}{sup 13}C value, with {delta}{sup 13}C the relative {sup 13}C abundance as compared to an international standard. Overall, the comparison shows that a model-based isotope approach for the determination of methane oxidation efficiencies is feasible and superior to existing isotope methods.
A New Method to Find the Fractional Slot Windings Structures from a Distributed Slot Windings
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
windings stator and a surface mounted PM rotor. First, a basic PMSM called "classical" has been studied on stator but with different rotor pole number so that we have obtained PMSMs with fractional slot windings structures from a basic PMSM characterized by a distributed windings stator and a surface mounted PM rotor
Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons in graphene
Andrei, Eva Y.
semiconductor analogue3 . As a third distinguishing feature of graphene, it has been conjectured of graphene in terms of a two-dimensional (2D) zero-bandgap semiconductor with low energy excitations repreLETTERS Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons in graphene Xu Du1
CLNS 05/1914 Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of D
a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D 0 and six D + modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D 0 ! K \\Gamma Ã? + ) = (3:91 \\Sigma 0:08 \\Sigma 0:09)% and B(D + ! K \\Gamma Ã? + Ã? + ) = (9:5 \\Sigma 0:2 \\Sigma 0:3)%, where the uncertainties are stati
Potential DOC production from size-fractionated Arctic tundra soils Chunhao Xu a,b
Guo, Laodong
Potential DOC production from size-fractionated Arctic tundra soils Chunhao Xu a,b , Laodong Guo b 2007 Accepted 7 August 2008 Keywords: Dissolved organic carbon Soil organic carbon Arctic tundra Permafrost Alaska Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulated inthe Arctic regions has beensubject to impacts
aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate hydrocarbons may label individuals in colonies according to the tasks they under- take and that the compounds
Fractional advection-dispersion equations for1 modeling transport at the Earth surface2
Bäumer, Boris
Fractional advection-dispersion equations for1 modeling transport at the Earth surface2 Rina partial differential equations such as the advection-dispersion equation12 (ADE) begin with assumptions biomechanical transport and mixing29 by bioturbation, and the transport of sediment particles and sediment
Hausdorff dimension, fractional spin particles and Chern-Simons effective potential
Wellington da Cruz
1998-02-19T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain for any spin, $s$, the Hausdorff dimension, $h_{i}$, for fractional spin particles and we discuss the connection between this number, $h_{i}$, and the Chern-Simons potential. We also define the topological invariants, $W_s$, in terms of the statistics of these particles.
THE GENESIS SOLAR WIND CONCENTRATOR TARGET: MASS FRACTIONATION CHARACTERISED BY NE ISOTOPES
WIENS, ROGER C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; OLINGER, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HEBER, V.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; REISENFELD, D.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURNETT, D.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; ALLTON, J.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BAUR, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; WIECHERT, U. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; WIELER, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z
The concentrator on Genesis provides samples of increased fluences of solar wind ions for precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind. The concentration process caused mass fractionation as function of the radial target position. They measured the fractionation using Ne released by UV laser ablation along two arms of the gold cross from the concentrator target to compare measured Ne with modeled Ne. The latter is based on simulations using actual conditions of the solar wind during Genesis operation. Measured Ne abundances and isotopic composition of both arms agree within uncertainties indicating a radial symmetric concentration process. Ne data reveal a maximum concentration factor of {approx} 30% at the target center and a target-wide fractionation of Ne isotopes of 3.8%/amu with monotonously decreasing {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios towards the center. The experimentally determined data, in particular the isotopic fractionation, differ from the modeled data. They discuss potential reasons and propose future attempts to overcome these disagreements.
Goldfeder, A.; Brown, D.M.
1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
X/Gf mice bearing the MT2 mammary adenocarcinoma were subjected to 4000 rad of x rays given either as a single dose, or five daily fractions of 800 rad. Additional experimental groups were treated with either short term localized microwave hyperthermia (LMH), or the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO), or both hyperthermia plus MISO with x rays. The combined use of MISO plus 42.5/sup 0/C with x rays was superior to the other treatment regimens as assessed by tumor regrowth delay and mean survival time. However, for the five fraction schedule, the addition of MISO plus hyperthermia was not as effective as observed for the single dose treatment. This may be attributed to reoxygenation of the hypoxic tumor cells between treatment fractions. MISO retention in tumor tissue under ambient and hyperthermic conditions was studied. The application of heat locally to the tumors caused a significant increase in MISO tumor concentration. However, after four x ray fractions the influence on MISO concentration by hyperthermia in the tumors could not be demonstrated.
Optimization for Fractional Cooperation in Multiple-Source Multiple-Relay Systems
Adve, Raviraj
. Chu Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Email Toronto, Ontario, Canada Email: aeckford@yorku.ca Raviraj S. Adve Dept. of Electrical and ComputerOptimization for Fractional Cooperation in Multiple-Source Multiple-Relay Systems Josephine P. K
Nuclear Assembly with k DNA in Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts: An Unexpected Role for Glycogen in
Forbes, Douglass
Nuclear Assembly with k DNA in Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts: An Unexpected Role for Glycogen. Crude extracts of Xenopus eggs are capable of nuclear assembly around chromatin templates or even around protein-free, naked DNA templates. Here the requirements for nuclear assembly around a naked DNA template
Dugan, J.P. Jr.; Borthwick, J.
1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new value for the CO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O oxygen isotope fractionation factor of 1.04145 +/- 0.000 15 (2sigma) has been determined. The data have been normalized to the V-SMOW/V-SLAP scale and were obtained by measuring isotopic compositions with the guanidine hydrochloride and chlorine trifluoride techniques.
Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at ?s=7??TeV
Apyan, Aram
A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at ?s=7??TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity ...
Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation for Trend Contaminated Fractionally Differenced Processes
Washington at Seattle, University of
Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation for Trend Contaminated Fractionally Differenced Processes Peter to scientific problems in the environmental and ecological sciences. #12;#12;Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation of polynomial trend plus FD noise and apply the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to separate a time series
Central and non-central limit theorems for weighted power variations of fractional Brownian motion
Nourdin, Ivan; Nualart, David; Tudor, Ciprian A.
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
n this paper, we prove some central and non-central limit theorems for renormalized weighted power variations of order q?2 of the fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H?(0, 1), where q is an integer. The central limit holds for 1/2q
Fractional Factorial Experiments Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments p.1/14
Conati, Cristina
Fractional Factorial Experiments Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments p.1/14 #12. Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments p.2/14 #12;Confounding Statistical Design and Analysis) -(y211 +s2)-(y212 +s2)] = ¯y·2· - ¯y·1· is unconfounded. Statistical Design and Analysis
Dobreva, Iliyana D.
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
to underestimate snow fraction in high FSC and overestimate it in low FSC. The developed ANN compared favorably to the standard MODIS FSC product with the two methods estimating the same amount of total snow-covered area in the test scenes....
General Solution of a Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport
M. C. Rocca; A. R. Plastino; A. Plastino; A. L. De Paoli
2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this effort we exactly solve the fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport proposed in \\cite{LE2014} and give its {\\it general solution} in terms of hypergeometric distributions. Also, we regain all the results and approximations given in \\cite{LE2014} as {\\it particular cases} of our general solution.
Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity
Demouchy, Sylvie
Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity Philip A and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. Although volatile depletion was the most fundamental chemical process affecting the inner solar nebula
Separation, fractionation, concentration, and drying of food products: A technical case study
Not Available
1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Researchers have investigated a new approach that separates juice into pulp and serum (liquid) fractions. The fractions are then processed individually and more efficiently to reduce the water content. Finally, the fractions are recombined at the site of use to obtain conventional or new products. Efforts to date have included laboratory and on-site studies of several fractionation schemes using energy-efficient membrane-based microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and hyperfiltration processes. These processes are used in combination with more conventional separation, concentration, and recombination methods such as centrifugation, vacuum evaporation, and homogenization. This technical case study provides an overview of the entire DOE/NFPA R D project and highlights the on-site testing of an advanced processing scheme for tomato juice. This scheme involves separation (centrifugation), concentration (hyperfiltration and evaporation), and recombination (homogenization) processes. The document is aimed at making field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and to private industry in a timely manner. The case study discusses project status; summarizes field testing efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of applications, energy savings, and preliminary economics.
Goddard III, William A.
Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights 27 May 2009; available online 23 June 2009 Abstract Phosphoric acid digestion has been used with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonates at 25 °C are 10.72&, 0.220&, 0.137&, 0.593& for, respectively, 18 O
Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes
Edwards, Erika J.
Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes Li Gao1 States of America Abstract Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (dD) have been widely in leaf wax dD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering
Leadership Institutional Change Principle
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
For changing behavior among employees, leaders in Federal agencies should visibly communicate their own commitments to sustainability in the workplace. Such visible leadership will help achieve sustainability goals in the short term and continue to provide motivation for long-term benefits.
Chandy, John A.
Transportation Institute University of Connecticut 270 Middle Turnpike, Unit 5202 Storrs, CT 06269 860-486-8426 eThe New Connecticut PR-1 Why Change? Why Now? Connecticut's PR-1 was last updated in 1995. Over.D. Associate Research Professor Director, Connecticut Transportation Safety Research Center Connecticut
Tipple, Brett
Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL
Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.
Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.
Schwartz, Stephen E.
ENERGY FLOWS FORCINGS CLIMATE CHANGE A REALLY TOUGH PROBLEM Stephen E. Schwartz, BNL, 7-20-11 www average temperature 15Â°C or 59Â°F #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Power per area Energy per time per area Unit" temperature to radiative flux. #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per
book review: Climate change mapped
Shanahan, Mike
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of millions 2 . Climate change is a moving target and introductions to climate change’, the Atlas stands out media reporting on climate change. Cambridge University
Climate Change at Annual Timescales
Stine, Alexander Robin
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
carbon cycling to global climate change, Nature, 393 (6682),2005. Meehl, G. , et al. , Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, chap. 10. Global
MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,
MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation
International Finance and Climate Change
Zhang, Junshan
International Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast 8:30 a Principal Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Group at International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group Vladimir Stenek Senior Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Department of the International
Farming: A Climate Change Culprit
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Simulations run at NERSC show impact of land-use change on African monsoon precipitation June 7, 2014 | Tags:...
Saleem, Muhammad; /SUNY, Albany
2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation reports on a study of the relative branching fraction measurement of the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c} decaying to the Cabibbo-suppressed modes.
Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2014-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
The fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons escaping from galaxies into the intergalactic medium is a critical ingredient in the theory of reionization. We use two zoomed-in, high-resolution (4 pc), cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulations with adaptive mesh refinement to investigate the impact of two physical mechanisms (supernova, SN, feedback, and runaway OB stars) on the escape fraction (f {sub esc}) at the epoch of reionization (z ? 7). We implement a new, physically motivated SN feedback model that can approximate the Sedov solutions at all (from the free expansion to snowplow) stages. We find that there is a significant time delay of about ten million years between the peak of star formation and that of escape fraction, due to the time required for the build-up and subsequent destruction of the star-forming cloud by SN feedback. Consequently, the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction for dwarf galaxies in halos of mass 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10.5} M {sub ?} is found to be ?f{sub esc}??11%, although instantaneous values of f {sub esc} > 20% are common when star formation is strongly modulated by the SN explosions. We find that the inclusion of runaway OB stars increases the mean escape fraction by 22% to ?f{sub esc}??14%. As SNe resulting from runaway OB stars tend to occur in less dense environments, the feedback effect is enhanced and star formation is further suppressed in halos with M{sub vir}?10{sup 9} M{sub ?} in the simulation with runaway OB stars compared with the model without them. While both our models produce enough ionizing photons to maintain a fully ionized universe at z ? 7 as observed, a still higher amount of ionizing photons at z ? 9 appears necessary to accommodate the high observed electron optical depth inferred from cosmic microwave background observations.
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Changeand Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.
Institutional Change Process for Sustainability
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
For establishing institutional change in a federal agency to achieve sustainability or other energy efficiency goals, follow the five-step institutional change process.
Strategies for Achieving Institutional Change
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Many strategies—including those derived from Institutional Change Principles–may be used to effect institutional change in support of energy and sustainability objectives.
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab
2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The {Lambda}{sub b}(udb) baryon is observed in the decay {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda} using 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected with the D0 detector at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The production fraction multiplied by the branching fraction for this decay relative to that for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} is measured to be 0.345 {+-} 0.034 (stat.) {+-} 0.033 (syst.) {+-} 0.003 (PDG). Using the world average value of f(b {yields} B{sup 0}) {center_dot} {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}) = (1.74 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -5}, they obtain f(b {yields} {Lambda}{sub b}) {center_dot} {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}) = (6.01 {+-} 0.60 (stat.) {+-} 0.58 (syst.) {+-} 0.28 (PDG)) x 10{sup -5}. This measurement represents an improvement in precision by about a factor of three with respect to the current world average.
CHANGE PROCESS MODELLING USING THE EKD-CHANGE MANAGEMENT METHOD
Boyer, Edmond
CHANGE PROCESS MODELLING USING THE EKD-CHANGE MANAGEMENT METHOD S. Nurcan* , J. Barrios*1 , G The Enterprise Knowledge Development - Change Management Method (EKD-CMM) provides a systematic way to organise and to guide the organisational change management. The EKD-CMM road map, implemented in the electronic guide
Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates
G. S. Chang
2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2–s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEU’s ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved. During the power operation, the total fission energy (200 MeV per fission) deposition fraction of LEU and HEU are 90.9% and 89.1%, respectively.
Conservation and Global Climate Change
Landweber, Laura
V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly
Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE
Sheridan, Jennifer
Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD SPECIAL REPORT 290 #12;#12;Committee on Climate Change and U Washington, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation TRANSPORTATION
Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises
Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Climate Change Economics and Policy
Romano, Daniela
AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society? ·Howdoweusewhatweknowabout climate change to better prepare for extreme weather conditions and protect those who
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change
Shawabkeh, Reyad A.
by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale
Beck, William Cory
2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components of the carbonic acid system...
Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) co-metabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε ~2? aerobically and ~0.4? under denitrifying conditions).
Beck, William Cory
2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components of the carbonic acid system...
Yao, Jianping
Microwave Fractional Hilbert Transformer Based on a Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filter Using--A continuously tunable microwave fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) implemented based on a photonic microwave the pass- band is achieved. Index Terms--Hilbert transform, microwave photonics, optical signal processing
Position-Momentum Duality and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Chern Insulators
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Claassen, Martin; Lee, Ching-Hua; Thomale, Ronny; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Devereaux, Thomas P
2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a first quantization description of fractional Chern insulators that is the dual of the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) problem, with the roles of position and momentum interchanged. In this picture, FQH states are described by anisotropic FQH liquids forming in momentum-space Landau levels in a fluctuating magnetic field. The fundamental quantum geometry of the problem emerges from the interplay of single-body and interaction metrics, both of which act as momentum-space duals of the geometrical picture of the anisotropic FQH effect. We then present a novel broad class of ideal Chern insulator lattice models that act as dualsmore »of the isotropic FQH effect. The interacting problem is well-captured by Haldane pseudopotentials and affords a detailed microscopic understanding of the interplay of interactions and non-trivial quantum geometry.« less
The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.
Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard
2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).
Branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries of charmless decay modes at the Tevatron
Morello, Michael; /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa
2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors present new CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pion or kaon). The data set for this update amounts to 1 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. They report the first observation of the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} mode and a measurement of its branching fraction and direct CP asymmetry. They also observe for the first time two charmless decays of b-baryon: {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}.
Fixed Points Structure & Effective Fractional Dimension for O(N) Models with Long-Range Interactions
Nicolo Defenu; Andrea Trombettoni; Alessandro Codello
2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
We study O(N) models with power-law interactions by using functional renormalization group methods: we show that both in Local Potential Approximation (LPA) and in LPA' their critical exponents can be computed from the ones of the corresponding short-range O(N) models at an effective fractional dimension. In LPA such effective dimension is given by $D_{eff}=2d/\\sigma$, where d is the spatial dimension and $d+\\sigma$ is the exponent of the power-law decay of the interactions. In LPA' the prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 1 (1973)] for the critical exponent $\\eta$ is retrieved and an effective fractional dimension $D_{eff}'$ is obtained. Using these results we determine the existence of multicritical universality classes of long-range O(N) models and we present analytical predictions for the critical exponent $\
Position-Momentum Duality and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Chern Insulators
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Claassen, Martin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lee, Ching-Hua [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Thomale, Ronny [Univ. of Wurzburg (Germany); Qi, Xiao-Liang [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Devereaux, Thomas P [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a first quantization description of fractional Chern insulators that is the dual of the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) problem, with the roles of position and momentum interchanged. In this picture, FQH states are described by anisotropic FQH liquids forming in momentum-space Landau levels in a fluctuating magnetic field. The fundamental quantum geometry of the problem emerges from the interplay of single-body and interaction metrics, both of which act as momentum-space duals of the geometrical picture of the anisotropic FQH effect. We then present a novel broad class of ideal Chern insulator lattice models that act as duals of the isotropic FQH effect. The interacting problem is well-captured by Haldane pseudopotentials and affords a detailed microscopic understanding of the interplay of interactions and non-trivial quantum geometry.
Method of increasing anhydrosugars, pyroligneous fractions and esterified bio-oil
Steele, Philip H; Yu, Fei; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian
2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.
McKenty, P. W.; Wittman, M. D.; Harding, D. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)
2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The need of cryogenic hydrogenic fuels in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition targets has been long been established. Efficient implosion of such targets has mandated keeping the adiabat of the main fuel layer at low levels to ensure drive energies are kept at reasonable minima. The use of cryogenic fuels helps meet this requirement and has therefore become the standard in most ICF ignition designs. To date most theoretical ICF ignition target designs have assumed a homogeneous layer of deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel kept slightly below the triple point. However, recent work has indicated that, as cryogenic fuel layers are formed inside an ICF capsule, isotopic dissociation of the tritium (T), deuterium (D), and DT takes place leading to a 'fractionation' of the final ice layer. This paper will numerically investigate the effects that various scenarios of fractionation have on hot-spot formation, ignition, and burn in ICF ignition target designs.
Branching fractions for transitions of {psi}(2S) to J/{psi}
Mendez, H. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Artuso, M.; Blusk, S. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)] (and others)
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report determination of branching fractions for the decays {psi}(2S){yields}h+J/{psi}, where h=any, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, {pi}{sup 0}, and {gamma}{gamma} through {chi}{sub c0,1,2}. These measurements use 27M {psi}(2S) decays produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected with the CLEO detector. The resulting branching fractions and ratios thereof improve upon previously achieved precision in all cases, and in combination with other measurements permit determination of B({chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}J/{psi}) and B({psi}(2S){yields}light hadrons)
First Measurement of the Fraction of Top Quark Pair Production Through Gluon-Gluon Fusion
CDF Collaboration; T. Aaltonen
2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use 0.96/fb of s**(1/2)=1.96 TeV p-pbar collision data recorded with the CDF II detector at Fermilab. We identify the candidate t-tbar events with a high-energy charged lepton, a neutrino candidate, and four or more jets. Using charged particles with low transverse momentum in t-tbar events, we find the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion to be 0.07+/-0.14(stat)+/-0.07(syst), corresponding to a 95% confidence level upper limit of 0.33, in agreement with the standard model NLO prediction of 0.15+/-0.05.
Measurement of the Branching Fraction of B0 Meson Decay to a_1^+(1260) pi-
Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San
2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
We present a preliminary measurement of the branching fraction of the B meson decay B{sup 0} {yields} a{sub 1}{sup +}(1260){pi}{sup -}with a{sub 1}{sup +}(1260) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The data sample corresponds to 218 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. We find the branching fraction (40.2 {+-} 3.9 {+-} 3.9) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. The fitted values of the a{sub 1}(1260) parameters are m{sub a{sub 1}} = 1.22 {+-} 0.02 GeV/c{sup 2} and {Lambda}{sub a{sub 1}} = 0.423 {+-} 0.050 GeV/c{sup 2}.
Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction
Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)
1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.
Muzheve, Michael Tapfuma
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
, Robert M. Capraro Committee Members, Mary M. Capraro Gerald Kulm J. Maurice Rojas Radhika Viruru Head of Department, Dennie Smith August 2008 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction iii ABSTRACT Converting among Fractions... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee chair, Dr. R. M. Capraro, and my committee members, Dr. M. M. Capraro, Prof. Kulm, Dr. Rojas, and Dr. Viruru, for their guidance and support throughout the course of this research. This research would never...
A study of fractionating inlet systems for the dichotomous air sampler
Ripps, Gerald Joseph
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of this thesis. I appreciate the assistance provided by those working in the Air Quality Lab. I want to thank C. Ortiz for sharing his invaluable laboratory experience; R. Bertch for building the first fractionator; D. Russell for machining many... speed to effect impaction of particles was there a trend towards higher sample concen- tration with higher wind speeds. Ortiz (20) investigated various samplers and found that for an Environmental Research Corporation (ERC) dichoto- mous inlet...
Lyalpha RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH DUST: ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM SIMULATED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES
Laursen, Peter; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Anja C., E-mail: pela@dark-cosmology.d, E-mail: jslarsen@astro.ku.d [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)
2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Lyalpha emission line is an essential diagnostic tool for probing galaxy formation and evolution. Not only is it commonly the strongest observable line from high-redshift galaxies, but from its shape detailed information about its host galaxy can be revealed. However, due to the scattering nature of Lyalpha photons increasing their path length in a nontrivial way, if dust is present in the galaxy, the line may be severely suppressed and its shape altered. In order to interpret observations correctly, it is thus of crucial significance to know how much of the emitted light actually escapes the galaxy. In the present work, using a combination of high-resolution cosmological hydrosimulations and an adaptively refinable Monte Carlo Lyalpha radiative transfer code including an environment dependent model of dust, the escape fractions f {sub esc} of Lyalpha radiation from high-redshift (z = 3.6) galaxies are calculated. In addition to the average escape fraction, the variation of f {sub esc} in different directions and from different parts of the galaxies is investigated, as well as the effect on the emergent spectrum. Escape fractions from a sample of simulated galaxies of representative physical properties are found to decrease for increasing galaxy virial mass M {sub vir}, from f {sub esc} approaching unity for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} to f {sub esc} less than 10% for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 12} M {sub sun}. In spite of dust being almost gray, it is found that the emergent spectrum is affected nonuniformly, with the escape fraction of photons close to the line center being much higher than of those in the wings, thus effectively narrowing the Lyalpha line.
CLNS 07/2005 Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of D
. Among measurements for three D 0 and six D + modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D 0 ! K \\Gamma Ã? + ) = (3:891 \\Sigma 0:035 \\Sigma 0:059 \\Sigma 0:035)% and B(D + ! K \\Gamma Ã? + Ã? + ) = (9:14 \\Sigma 0:10 \\Sigma 0:16 \\Sigma 0:07)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is all
Fractional statistics and finite bosonic system: A one-dimensional case
Andrij Rovenchak
2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
The equivalence is established between the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-system with a finite number of particles and the system obeying the fractional (intermediate) Gentile statistics, in which the maximum occupation of single-particle energy levels is limited. The system of 1D harmonic oscillators is considered providing the model of harmonically trapped Bose-gas. The results are generalized for the system with power energy spectrum.
Upper limit on the primary photon fraction from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Risse, Markus; /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum
2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Auger Observatory, an upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction of 26% (at 95% confidence level) is derived for primary energies above 10{sup 19} eV. Additional observables recorded with the surface detector array, available for a sub-set of the data sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favoured.
Confidence intervals for the encircled energy fraction and the half energy width
Vacanti, Giuseppe
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Encircled Energy Fraction and its quantiles, notably the Half Energy Width, are routinely used to characterize the quality of X-ray optical systems. They are however always quoted without a statistical error. We show how non-parametric statistical methods can be used to redress this situation, and we discuss how the knowledge of the statistical error can be used to speed up the characterization efforts for future X-ray observatories.
Gas distribution, metal enrichment, and baryon fraction in Gaussian and non-Gaussian universes
Umberto Maio
2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
We study the cosmological evolution of baryons in universes with and without primordial non-Gaussianities via (large scale) N-body/hydrodynamical simulations, including gas cooling, star formation, stellar evolution, chemical enrichment from both population III and population II regimes, and feedback effects. We find that large fnl values for non-Gaussianities can alter the gas probability distribution functions, the metal pollution history, the halo baryon, gas and stellar fractions, mostly at early times. More precisely: (i) non-Gaussianities lead to an earlier evolution of primordial gas, structures, and star formation; (ii) metal enrichment starts earlier (with respect to the Gaussian scenario) in non-Gaussian models with larger fnl; (iii) gas fractions within the haloes are not significantly affected by the different values of fnl, with deviations of ~1-10%; (iv) the stellar fraction is quite sensitive to non-Gaussianities at early times, with discrepancies reaching up to a factor of ~10 at very high z, and rapidly converging at low z; (v) the trends at low redshift are independent from fnl: they are mostly led by the ongoing baryonic evolution and by the feedback mechanisms, which determine a ~25%-30% discrepancy in the baryon fraction of galaxy groups/clusters with respect to the cosmic values; (vi) non-Gaussianity impacts on the cluster X-ray emission or on the SZ effect(s) are expected to be not very large and dominated by feedback mechanisms, whereas some effects on the 21-cm emission can be expected at early times; (vii) in order to address non-Gaussianities in the cosmological structure contest, high-redshift (z~10) investigations are required: first stars, galaxies, quasars, and GRBs may be potential cosmological probes of non-Gaussianities.
Right ventricular ejection fraction from equilibrium and first pass scintigraphic cardiac images
Nakamura, Eiji
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radioactive 2 x 10 years Fig. 6. Generation and transition of Tc 11 2. Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals or radioactive tracers generally consist of a radionuclide emit- ting 7-rays. They need to allow maximum information extraction... the contraction phase, is an important indicator of ventricular func- tion. Equilibrium images, in which the radiopharmaceutical is uniformly distributed throughout the blood pool, are routinely used to compute the left ventricular ejec- tion fraction...
Strain differences in the response of mouse testicular stem cells to fractionated radiation
Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Finch, M.; Lu, C.C.; de Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; de Rooij, D.G.; Davids, J.A.G.
1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The survival of spermatogonial stem cells in CBA and C3H mice after single and split-dose (24-hr interval) irradiation with fission neutrons and gamma rays was compared. The first doses of the fractionated regimes were either 150 rad (neutrons) or 600 rad (gamma). For both strains the neutron survival curves were exponential. The D/sub 0/ value of stem cells in CBA decreased from 83 to 25 rad upon fractionation; that of C3H stem cells decreased only from 54 to 36 rad. The survival curves for gamma irradiation, which all showed shoulders, indicated that C3H stem cells had larger repair capacities than CBA stem cells. However, the most striking difference between the two strains in response to gamma radiation was in the slopes of the second-dose curves. Whereas C3H stem cells showed a small increase of the D/sub 0/ upon fractionation (from 196 to 218 rad), CBA stem cells showed a marked decrease (from 243 to 148 rad). The decreases in D/sub 0/ upon fractionation, observed in both strains with neutron irradiation and also with gamma irradiation in CBA, are most likely the result of recruitment or progression of radioresistant survivors to a more sensitive state of proliferation or cell cycle phase. It may be that the survivng stem cells in C3H mice are recruited less rapidly and synchronously into active cycle than in CBA mice. Thus, it appears that the strain differences may be quantitative, rather than qualitative.
Measurement of the Branching Fraction for J/?-> p \\bar{p}?and p \\bar{p} ?^{'}
BES collaboration
2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
Using 58$\\times 10^{6}$ $\\jpsi$ events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer (BESII) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the branching fractions of $\\jpsi$ to $p\\bar{p}\\eta$ and $p\\bar{p}\\etap$ are determined. The ratio $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb\\eta)}{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb)}$ obtained by this analysis agrees with expectations based on soft-pion theorem calculations.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Hooper, Dan; Kelso, Chris
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, the CDF Collaboration reported the first nonzero measurement of the Bs????? branching fraction. The LHCb, CMS and ATLAS, collaborations have reported upper limits that are in tension with the CDF result. We consider the implications of these measurements for the specific case of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We also discuss the implications of these measurements for neutralino dark matter and the supersymmetric contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.
Sorption of organic carbon compounds to the fine fraction of surface and Subsurface Soils
Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Zinn, Yuri [Federal University of Lavras, Brazil; Gisladottir, Gudrun [University of Iceland; Ann, Russell [Iowa State University
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transported from the soil surface is stabilized in deeper soil profiles by physicochemical sorption processes. However, it is unclear how different forms of organic carbon (OC) compounds common in soil organic matter interact with soil minerals in the surface (A) and subsurface (B) horizons. We added four compounds (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) to the silt- and clay-sized fraction (fine fraction) of A and B horizons of eight soils from varying climates (3 temperate, 3 tropical, 1 arctic and 1 sub-arctic). Equilibriumbatch experiments were conducted using 0 to 100 mg C L 1 of 14C-labeled compounds for 8 h. Sorption parameters (maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k) calculated by fitting sorption data to the Langmuir equation showed that Qmax of A and B horizons was very similar for all compounds. Both Qmax and k values were related to sorbate properties, with Qmax being lowest for glucose (20 500 mg kg 1), highest for stearic acid (20,000 200,000 mg kg 1), and intermediate for both cinnamic acid (200 4000 mg kg 1) and starch (400 6000 mg kg 1). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that physicochemical properties of the sorbents influenced the Qmax of cinnamic acid and stearic acid, but not glucose and starch. The sorbent properties did not show predictive ability for binding coefficient k. By using the fine fraction as sorbent, we found that the mineral fractions of A horizons are equally reactive as the B horizons irrespective of soil organic carbon content.
CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL (CCP)
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfService on the TargetFY12Environmentto WholeII -LangstonExponent,2Did y ou know Change
Climate change cripples forests
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirt DocumentationSitesWeather6 Shares of U.S.CareerPASTChemistry andPhysicsClean the PastClimate change
Measurement of branching fraction and first evidence of CP violation in B??a?±(1260)?? decays
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Dalseno, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bhuyan, B.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Brovchenko, O.; Browder, T. E.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Eidelman, S.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Goh, Y. M.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Julius, T.; Kang, J. H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Koblitz, S.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z. Q.; Louvot, R.; MacNaughton, J.; Matvienko, D.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohapatra, D.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Prim, M.; Prothmann, K.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Solovieva, E.; Stari?, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a measurement of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters in B??a±?(1260)?? decays. The results are obtained from the final data sample containing 772×10? BB¯¯¯ pairs collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e?e? collider. We obtain the product branching fraction B(B??a±?(1260)??)×B(a±?(1260)??±???±)=(11.1±1.0(stat)±1.4(syst))×10?? and an upper limit on the product branching fraction for a possible decay with the same final state B(B??a±?(1320)??)×B(a±?(1320)??±???±)±? does not contain the spectator quark and those where it does. We find first evidence of mixing-induced CP violation in B??a±?(1260)?? decays with 3.1? significance. The rate where the a±? does not contain the spectator quark from the B meson is found to dominate the rate where it does at the 4.1? level. However, there is no evidence for either time- and flavor-integrated direct CP violation or flavor-dependent direct CP violation.
Determining the Lensing Fraction of SDSS Quasars Methods and Results from the EDR
Pindor, B; Lupton, R H; Brinkmann, J; Pindor, Bart; Turner, Edwin L.; Lupton, Robert H.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present an algorithm for selecting gravitational lens candidates from amongst Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars. In median Early Data Release (EDR) conditions, the algorithm allows for the recovery of pairs of equal flux point sources down to separations of $\\sim 0{\\farcs}7$ or with flux ratios up to $\\sim$ 10:1 at a separation of $1\\farcs5$. The algorithm also recovers a wide variety of plausible quad geometries. We also present a method for determining the selection function of this algorithm through the use of simulated SDSS images and introduce a method for calibrating our simulated images through truth-testing with real SDSS data. Finally, we apply our algorithm and selection function to SDSS quasars from the EDR to get an upper bound on the lensing fraction. We find 13 candidates among 5120 z $>$ 0.6 SDSS quasars, implying an observed lensing fraction of not more than 4 $\\times 10^{-3}$. There is one likely lens system in our final sample, implying an observed lensing fraction of not less than ...
Determining the Lensing Fraction of SDSS Quasars: Methods and Results from the EDR
Bart Pindor; Edwin L. Turner; Robert H. Lupton; J. Brinkmann
2003-01-23T23:59:59.000Z
We present an algorithm for selecting gravitational lens candidates from amongst Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars. In median Early Data Release (EDR) conditions, the algorithm allows for the recovery of pairs of equal flux point sources down to separations of $\\sim 0{\\farcs}7$ or with flux ratios up to $\\sim$ 10:1 at a separation of $1\\farcs5$. The algorithm also recovers a wide variety of plausible quad geometries. We also present a method for determining the selection function of this algorithm through the use of simulated SDSS images and introduce a method for calibrating our simulated images through truth-testing with real SDSS data. Finally, we apply our algorithm and selection function to SDSS quasars from the EDR to get an upper bound on the lensing fraction. We find 13 candidates among 5120 z $>$ 0.6 SDSS quasars, implying an observed lensing fraction of not more than 4 $\\times 10^{-3}$. There is one likely lens system in our final sample, implying an observed lensing fraction of not less than $3 \\times 10^{-5}$ (95% confidence levels).
Simulation and measurement of the fractional particle number in one-dimensional optical lattices
Dan-Wei Zhang; Feng Mei; Zheng-Yuan Xue; Shi-Liang Zhu; Z. D. Wang
2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a scheme to mimic and directly measure the fractional particle number in a generalized Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with ultracold fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices. We show that the fractional particle number in this model can be simulated in the momentum-time parameter space in terms of Berry curvature without a spatial domain wall. In this simulation, a hopping modulation is adiabatically tuned to form a kink-type configuration and the induced current plays the role of an analogous soliton distributing in the time domain, such that the mimicked fractional particle number is expressed by the particle transport. Two feasible experimental setups of optical lattices for realizing the required Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and time-varying hopping modulation are presented. We also show practical methods for measuring the particle transport in the proposed cold atom systems by numerically calculating the shift of the Wannier center and the center of mass of an atomic cloud.
In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction: Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-103
Shepard, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Terrones, G.; Chen, G. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wilkins, N.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)
1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-103. The two instruments were deployed through risers 17C and 22A in July and August 1995 to gather data on the gas content and rheology of the waste. The results indicate that the nonconvective sludge layer contains up to 12% void and an apparent viscosity of 104 to 105 cP with a yield strength less than 210 Pa. The convective layer measured zero void and had no measurable yield strength. Its average viscosity was about 45 cP, and the density was less than 1.5 g/cc. The average void fraction was 0.047 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 17C and 0.091 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 22A. The stored gas volume based on these void fraction measurements is 213 {plus_minus} 42 M{sup 3} at 1 atmosphere.
Bound on Bell Inequalities by Fraction of Determinism and Reverse Triangle Inequality
P. Joshi; K. Horodecki; M. Horodecki; P. Horodecki; R. Horodecki; Ben Li; S. J. Szarek; T. Szarek
2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
It is an established fact that entanglement is a resource. Sharing an entangled state leads to non-local correlations and to violations of Bell inequalities. Such non-local correlations illustrate the advantage of quantum resources over classical resources. Here, we study quantitatively Bell inequalities with $2\\times n$ inputs. As found in [N. Gisin et al., Int. J. Q. Inf. 5, 525 (2007)] quantum mechanical correlations cannot reach the algebraic bound for such inequalities. In this paper, we uncover the heart of this effect which we call the {\\it fraction of determinism}. We show that any quantum statistics with two parties and $2 \\times n$ inputs exhibits nonzero fraction of determinism, and we supply a quantitative bound for it. We then apply it to provide an explicit {\\it universal upper bound} for Bell inequalities with $2\\times n$ inputs. As our main mathematical tool we introduce and prove a {\\it reverse triangle inequality}, stating in a quantitative way that if some states are far away from a given state, then their mixture is also. The inequality is crucial in deriving the lower bound for the fraction of determinism, but is also of interest on its own.
Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction
MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.
1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.
Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction
MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); McLean, Joseph B. (Somerville, NJ)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600.degree.-750.degree. F. to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650.degree. F. and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft.sup.3 catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760.degree.-860.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600.degree.-750.degree. F..sup.+ fraction containing 0-20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials.
Measurement of branching fraction and first evidence of CP violation in B??a?±(1260)?? decays
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Dalseno, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bhuyan, B.; et al
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a measurement of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters in B??a±?(1260)?? decays. The results are obtained from the final data sample containing 772×10? BB¯¯¯ pairs collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e?e? collider. We obtain the product branching fraction B(B??a±?(1260)??)×B(a±?(1260)??±???±)=(11.1±1.0(stat)±1.4(syst))×10?? and an upper limit on the product branching fraction for a possible decay with the same final state B(B??a±?(1320)??)×B(a±?(1320)??±???±)more »respectively. Simultaneously, we also extract the CP-conserving parameters ?C=+0.54±0.11(stat)±0.07(syst), ?S=–0.09±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst), which, respectively, describe a rate difference and strong phase difference between the decay channels where the a±? does not contain the spectator quark and those where it does. We find first evidence of mixing-induced CP violation in B??a±?(1260)?? decays with 3.1? significance. The rate where the a±? does not contain the spectator quark from the B meson is found to dominate the rate where it does at the 4.1? level. However, there is no evidence for either time- and flavor-integrated direct CP violation or flavor-dependent direct CP violation.« less
Measurement of the D+ -> pi+pi0 and D+ -> K+pi0Branching Fractions
Aubert, B.
2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
We present measurements of the branching fractions for the Cabbibo suppressed decays D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 124.3 fb{sup -1}. The data were taken with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory operating on and near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. We find {Beta}(D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.25 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04) x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(D{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) = (2.52 {+-} 0.47 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -4}, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the last error is due to the uncertainties in the absolute branching fraction scale for D{sup +} mesons. This represents the first observation of the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed D{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay mode and a new measurement of the D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} branching fraction.
Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability | Department of...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability Institutional change integrates technology, policy, and behavior to make new...
Resources on Institutional Change for Sustainability | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Institutional Change Resources on Institutional Change for Sustainability Resources on Institutional Change for Sustainability The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)...
Cool with Change: Young People and Family Change
Highet, Gill; Jamieson, Lynn
Cool with Change breaks new grounds by combining in-depth research of young people’s experience of family change in Scotland, reflection by service providers on the implications for their services and consultation with ...
Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?
Pan, Feifei
Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate
Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Colucci, W.S.
1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The predictive value of radionuclide ventriculography was studied in 34 patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and clinically evident congestive heart failure secondary to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In addition to left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular ejection fraction and extent of left ventricular paradox were obtained in an attempt to identify a subgroup at increased risk of mortality during the ensuing months. The 16 patients who were alive after a 2 year follow-up period had a higher right ventricular ejection fraction and less extensive left ventricular dyskinesia. When a right ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35% was used as a discriminant, mortality was significantly greater among the 21 patients with a depressed right ventricular ejection fraction (71 versus 23%), a finding confirmed by a life table analysis. It appears that the multiple factors contributing to the reduction in right ventricular ejection fraction make it a useful index not only for assessing biventricular function, but also for predicting patient outcome.
Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change
Knutson, Thomas R.
Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...
Climate Change and National Security
Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of climate change, energy security and economic stability.DoD is improving U.S. energy security and national security.www.greenpacks.org • Energy Security & Climate Change:
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy show how these climate changes increase risks to society and natural ecosystems in a number of ways
4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
HESSD 4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction
Understanding and Attributing Climate Change
Box, Jason E.
9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M
Biological Impacts of Climate Change
McCarty, John P.
Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may
Climate Change Action Plan Report
Hansen, Andrew J.
Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS
Climate change & street trees project
Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values Group as part of the Climate change and street trees project, funded by the Forestry Commission with changing socio-economics and/or demographics, but little evidence exists relating
Climate Change and Runoff Management
Sheridan, Jennifer
Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;What is climate? "Climate is properly the long average of weather in a single place
H. Ono; A. Miyamoto
2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
Precise measurement of Higgs boson couplings is an important task for International Linear Collider (ILC) experiments and will facilitate the understanding of the particle mass generation mechanism. In this study, the measurement accuracies of the Higgs boson branching fractions to the $b$ and $c$ quarks and gluons, $\\Delta Br(H\\to b\\bar{b},\\sim c\\bar{c},\\sim gg)/Br$, were evaluated with the full International Large Detector model (\\texttt{ILD\\_00}) for the Higgs mass of 120 GeV at the center-of-mass (CM) energies of 250 and 350 GeV using neutrino, hadronic and leptonic channels and assuming an integrated luminosity of $250 {\\rm fb^{-1}}$, and an electron (positron) beam polarization of -80% (+30%). We obtained the following measurement accuracies of the Higgs cross section times branching fraction ($\\Delta (\\sigma \\cdot Br)/\\sigma \\cdot Br$) for decay of the Higgs into $b\\bar{b}$, $c\\bar{c}$, and $gg$; as 1.0%, 6.9%, and 8.5% at a CM energy of 250 GeV and 1.0%, 6.2%, and 7.3% at 350 GeV, respectively. After the measurement accuracy of the cross section ($\\Delta\\sigma/\\sigma$) was corrected using the results of studies at 250 GeV and their extrapolation to 350 GeV, the derived measurement accuracies of the branching fractions ($\\Delta Br/Br$) to $b\\bar{b}$, $c\\bar{c}$, and gg were 2.7%, 7.3%, and 8.9% at a CM energy of 250 GeV and 3.6%, 7.2%, and 8.1% at 350 GeV, respectively.
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation from fractional wobbling in a cone
A. E. Sitnitsky
2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
We consider nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate resulted from a fractional diffusion equation for anomalous rotational wobbling in a cone. The mechanism of relaxation is assumed to be due to dipole-dipole interaction of nuclear spins and is treated within the framework of the standard Bloemberger, Purcell, Pound - Solomon scheme. We consider the general case of arbitrary orientation of the cone axis relative the magnetic field. The BPP-Solomon scheme is shown to remain valid for systems with the distribution of the cone axes depending only on the tilt relative the magnetic field but otherwise being isotropic. We consider the case of random isotropic orientation of cone axes relative the magnetic field taking place in powders. Also we consider the case of their predominant orientation along or opposite the magnetic field and that of their predominant orientation transverse to the magnetic field which may be relevant for, e.g., liquid crystals. Besides we treat in details the model case of the cone axis directed along the magnetic field. The latter provides direct comparison of the limiting case of our formulas with the textbook formulas for ordinary isotropic rotational diffusion. We show that the present model enables one to obtain naturally the well known power law for Larmor frequency dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate. The latter is observed in some complex systems. From this law the dependence of the fractional diffusion coefficient on the fractional index is obtained to have a rather simple functional form. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the cone half-width for the case of ordinary rotational diffusion yields results similar to those predicted by the model-free approach.
Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions
Fricke, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.fricke@tu-bs.de [Technical University of Braunschweig, Leichtweiss-Institute, Department of Waste and Resource Management, Beethovenstrasse 51a, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bahr, Tobias, E-mail: t.bahr@tu-bs.de [Technical University of Braunschweig, Leichtweiss-Institute, Department of Waste and Resource Management, Beethovenstrasse 51a, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Bidlingmaier, Werner, E-mail: werner.bidlingmaier@uni-weimar.de [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Waste Management, Coudraystrasse 7, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Springer, Christian, E-mail: christian.springer@uni-weimar.de [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Waste Management, Coudraystrasse 7, 99423 Weimar (Germany)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.
Leavitt, Jacqueline A., E-mail: leavitt.jacqueline@mayo.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stafford, Scott L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Pollock, Bruce E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)
2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To determine the long-term risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) in patients having single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for benign skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 222 patients having Gamma Knife radiosurgery for benign tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway (AVP) between 1991 and 1999. Excluded were patients with prior or concurrent external beam radiation therapy or SRS. One hundred twenty-nine patients (58%) had undergone previous surgery. Tumor types included confirmed World Health Organization grade 1 or presumed cavernous sinus meningioma (n=143), pituitary adenoma (n=72), and craniopharyngioma (n=7). The maximum dose to the AVP was ?8.0 Gy (n=126), 8.1-10.0 Gy (n=39), 10.1-12.0 Gy (n=47), and >12 Gy (n=10). Results: The mean clinical and imaging follow-up periods were 83 and 123 months, respectively. One patient (0.5%) who received a maximum radiation dose of 12.8 Gy to the AVP developed unilateral blindness 18 months after SRS. The chance of RION according to the maximum radiation dose received by the AVP was 0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-3.6%), 0 (95% CI 0-10.7%), 0 (95% CI 0-9.0%), and 10% (95% CI 0-43.0%) for patients receiving ?8 Gy, 8.1-10.0 Gy, 10.1-12.0 Gy, and >12 Gy, respectively. The overall risk of RION in patients receiving >8 Gy to the AVP was 1.0% (95% CI 0-6.2%). Conclusions: The risk of RION after single-fraction SRS in patients with benign skull base tumors who have no prior radiation exposure is very low if the maximum dose to the AVP is ?12 Gy. Physicians performing single-fraction SRS should remain cautious when treating lesions adjacent to the AVP, especially when the maximum dose exceeds 10 Gy.
Postoperative Single-Fraction Radiation for Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification of the Elbow
Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Polster, Joshua M. [Department of Radiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lyons, Janice A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UH Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Evans, Peter J.; Lawton, Jeffrey N. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Graham, Thomas J. [Curtis National Hand Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Suh, John H., E-mail: suhj@ccf.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow has been described after surgery, trauma, and burns. Even limited deposits can lead to significant functional deficits. Little data exist regarding outcomes of patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) after elbow surgery. We report here the Cleveland Clinic experience with single-fraction radiation following surgery to the elbow. The primary endpoint was the rate of new HO after RT. Secondary endpoints were range of motion, functional compromise, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: From May 1993 to July 2006, 36 patients underwent elbow surgery followed by single-fraction RT. Range of motion data were collected before and during surgery and at last follow-up. Radiographs were reviewed for persistent or new HO. Patient and treatment factors were analyzed for correlation with development of HO or functional compromise. Results: Median follow-up was 8.7 months, median age was 42 years, and 75% of patients were male. Twenty-six (72%) patients had HO prior to surgery. All patients had significant limitations in flexion/extension or pronation/supination at baseline. Thirty-one (86%) patients had prior elbow trauma, and 26 (72%) patients had prior surgery. RT was administered a median of 1 day postoperatively (range, 1-4 days). Thirty-four patients received 700 cGy, and 2 patients received 600 cGy. Three (8%) patients developed new HO after RT. All patients had improvement in range of motion from baseline. No patient or treatment factors were significantly associated with the development of HO or functional compromise. Conclusions: Single-fraction RT after surgery to the elbow is associated with favorable functional and radiographic outcomes.
Excluded volume causes integer and fractional plateaus in colloidal ratchet currents
Pietro Tierno; Thomas M. Fischer
2015-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
We study the collective transport of paramagnetic colloids driven above a magnetic bubble lattice by an external rotating magnetic ?eld. We measure a direct ratchet current which rises in integer and fractional steps with the ?eld amplitude. The stepwise increase is caused by excluded volume interactions between the particles, which form composite clusters above the bubbles with mobile and immobile occupation sites. Transient energy minima located at the interstitials between the bubbles cause the colloids to hop from one composite cluster to the next with synchronous and period doubled modes of transport. The colloidal current may be polarized to make selective use of type up or type down interstitials.
Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and products derived therefrom
Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.
The Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets and fractional quantum Hall effect
Wellington da Cruz
2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z
We consider Farey series of rational numbers in terms of {\\it fractal sets} labeled by the Hausdorff dimension with values defined in the interval 1$ $$ < $$ $$h$$ $$ <$$ $$ 2$ and associated with fractal curves. Our results come from the observation that the fractional quantum Hall effect-FQHE occurs in pairs of {\\it dual topological quantum numbers}, the filling factors. These quantum numbers obey some properties of the Farey series and so we obtain that {\\it the universality classes of the quantum Hall transitions are classified in terms of $h$}. The connection between Number Theory and Physics appears naturally in this context.
A 113 L/min ambient aerosol sampler for collection of thoracic and respirable fractions
Rue, Clayton Matthew
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
terms of the particulate matter which passes through separators with aerodynamic cutpoint sizes of 10 and 2. 5 um, respect- ively. The system is des1gned to operate at a flowrate of 113 L/min (4, 0 . cfm) with the flow split into two equal parts. A... for stripp1ng the non-RSP aerosol from the distribut1on. The cyclone separator has a cutpo1nt of 2. 5 + 0. 3 um with the penetra- t1on curve hav1ng a slope of 1. 26. The latter fraction conta1ning the RSP particles is then drawn through a second collect1on...
Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane
2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.
Development of magnetic separation methods of analysis: magnetic field flow fractionation
Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles. Effects on the separation of the n1ckel-bovine serum albumin complex from the non-complexed albumin by the following were cons1dered: time needed to magnetically saturate the steel wool, flow rate, and magnet strength... on the UV Peak Height of the Cobalt- Bovine Serum Albumin Complex . Pacae 27 29 31 LIST OF FIGURES ~Fi ure Types of column used for magnet 1c field flow fractionation ~Pa e 18 Flow prof1le in magnetic f1eld flow fract1onation 21 Plot of peak...
Revised estimates of electron absorbed fractions and radionuclide S-values in trabecular bone
Parry, Robert Alan
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of trabecular bone in the skeleton. (Adapted from ICRP 1975). 45 Table 5. 3. Relative weights of dry bones as percentages of total skeleton. (Adapted from ICRP 1975), 45 Table 5. 4. Fractional distribution of red marrow in the skeleton. (Adapted from ICRP... Table 6. 3. Average and maximum beta-particle energy for selected radionuclides. 69 Table 6. 4. S-values for sources in the marrow (in mGy'A4Bq 's '). Target: Marrow 7l Table 6. 5. S-values for sources in the marrow (in mGyMBq 's ') Target...