Economic Realities and Energy Efficient Polyphase Integral Horsepower Electric Motors
Whittington, B. W.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Energy efficient polyphase integral horsepower electric motors are currently being vigorously promoted as a profitable method of conserving energy in many industrial and commercial applications. While the goal to be attained is indeed laudable...
Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation
Fipps, Guy
1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. This publication explains how to lower pumping costs by calculating horsepower requirements and sizing supply pipelines correctly. Examples take the reader through...
Changes in misonidazole binding with hypoxic fraction in mouse tumors
Hirst, D.G.; Hazlehurst, J.L.; Brown, J.M.
1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Binding of misonidazole (MISO) or a derivative to hypoxic cells in tumors has been proposed as a method for identifying tumors, and measuring their level of hypoxia. The author has recently shown that the hypoxic fraction of tumor cells can be altered over a wide range in vivo by acutely changing the hematocrit of the host animal by transfusion. The present study is aimed to investigate the changes in binding by /sup 14/C MISO that accompanied this procedure. Tumor bearing mice were injected with /sup 14/C MISO, irradiated with a single dose of X rays (20 Gy) and their tumor excised and bisected. One half of each tumor was used to determine cell survival in vitro, the other was used for /sup 14/C scintillation counting. As previously described, tumor cell survival was dramatically increased in acutely anemic mice and this was accompanied by an increase in /sup 14/C MISO binding to the tumors. The relationship between clonogenic cell survival and binding was found to be linear on a log-log plot for each of the tumor lines studied, but the slopes of the lines were different in different tumor lines and generally steeper than the value of 1.0 expected for a 1:1 correspondence between cells binding radioactivity and radiobiological resistance.
Filippov, D. V., E-mail: filippov-atom@ya.ru; Urutskoev, L. I., E-mail: urleon@ya.r [Moscow State University of Printing Arts (Russian Federation); Rachkov, V. I. [State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' (Russian Federation); Gadzaova, O. E. [Moscow State University of Printing Arts (Russian Federation); Lebedev, L. A. [State Research and Development Center for Expertise of Project and Technologies (Russian Federation)
2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
A lot of theoretical and experimental studies devoted to the effect of external electromagnetic fields and ionization on the beta-decay probability have been published in the past years. The possibility of using this physical effect as the main reactor-regulation mechanism is investigated in this study. A set of equations allowing the operation of a nuclear reactor to be described when the probability for the beta decay of precursors of delayed neutrons and, hence, the fraction of delayed neutrons are functions of time is written and investigated. It is shown that, if the fraction of the delayed neutrons does not change, the proposed set of equations coincides with the generally known one. As follows from the analysis of the solutions to the new set of equations, the proposed reactor-regulation method does not allow reactor runaway driven by prompt neutrons even theoretically. The application of the proposed control method to a circulating-fuel liquid-type reactor is briefly considered.
Not Available,
1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.
Not Available,
1980-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
This project is Phase I of a multi-phased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprises the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The main effort in Phase I is the generation of state-of-the-art conceptual designs having greatest potential for prototype testing in 1985. The conceptual designs include a heat transport system for integrating the engine heater head with such energy sources as conventional oil/gas combustors, fluidized bed and other coal combustors, and combustors using coal-derived liquid fuels, and low/medium BTU gases. The heat transport systems being investigated include forced convection with gases or liquids, heat pipes, and direct firing. Currently, the leading choice for the solid fuel combustion system is the atmospheric fluidized bed, with low BTU gasification still a viable alternative. Both systems will continue to be evaluated further, but with greater emphasis on FBC. To date, there appears no clear choice among the heat pipe, forced convection gas loop, or direct firing as the prime candidate for the heat transport sub-system. Conceptual design and analysis will continue on all three sub-systems. Scale-up of United Stirling's P-75 engine to serve as the conceptual design of the 500 HP engine module is continuing. (LCL)
Fractional channel multichannel analyzer
Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.
1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.
Fractional topological insulators in three dimensions
Joseph Maciejko; Xiao-Liang Qi; Andreas Karch; Shou-Cheng Zhang
2010-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
Topological insulators can be generally defined by a topological field theory with an axion angle theta of 0 or pi. In this work, we introduce the concept of fractional topological insulator defined by a fractional axion angle and show that it can be consistent with time reversal (T) invariance if ground state degeneracies are present. The fractional axion angle can be measured experimentally by the quantized fractional bulk magnetoelectric polarization P_3, and a `halved' fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance of the form (p/q)(e^2/2h) with p,q odd. In the simplest of these states the electron behaves as a bound state of three fractionally charged `quarks' coupled to a deconfined non-Abelian SU(3) `color' gauge field, where the fractional charge of the quarks changes the quantization condition of P_3 and allows fractional values consistent with T-invariance.
Fractional Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions
Maciejko, Joseph; Zhang Shoucheng [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Qi Xiaoliang [Microsoft Research, Station Q, Elings Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)
2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
Topological insulators can be generally defined by a topological field theory with an axion angle {theta} of 0 or {pi}. In this work, we introduce the concept of fractional topological insulator defined by a fractional axion angle and show that it can be consistent with time reversal T invariance if ground state degeneracies are present. The fractional axion angle can be measured experimentally by the quantized fractional bulk magnetoelectric polarization P{sub 3}, and a 'halved' fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance of the form {sigma}{sub H}=(p/q)(e{sup 2}/2h) with p, q odd. In the simplest of these states the electron behaves as a bound state of three fractionally charged 'quarks' coupled to a deconfined non-Abelian SU(3) 'color' gauge field, where the fractional charge of the quarks changes the quantization condition of P{sub 3} and allows fractional values consistent with T invariance.
Fraction Collector User Manual
Pawlowski, Wojtek
Fraction Collector Frac-950 18-1139-56 User Manual #12;#12;Important user information All users Territories Hong Kong © Copyright Amersham Biosciences AB 2002 - All rights reserved Fraction Collector Frac Fraction Collector Frac-950 User Manual 18-1139-56 Edition AE v Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 General
Conclusions Fractionated Space Systems
de Weck, Olivier L.
Conclusions Fractionated Space Systems There is a growing interest in fractionated space system design. Fractionated space systems are inherently flexible and modular. There are many key technologies of flexibility serves as a source of motivation for system designers to embed flexibility into a system design (i
Holographic fractional topological insulators
Hoyos, Carlos; Jensen, Kristan; Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)
2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low-energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.
(Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)
O'Leary, M.H.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.
A discrete fractional random transform
Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu
2006-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.
Fractional Variational Iteration Method for Fractional Nonlinear Differential Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, fractional differential equations have been investigated via the famous variational iteration method. However, all the previous works avoid the term of fractional derivative and handle them as a restricted variation. In order to overcome such shortcomings, a fractional variational iteration method is proposed. The Lagrange multipliers can be identified explicitly based on fractional variational theory.
Fractionation, rearrangement, consolidation, reconstruction
El-Mabrouk, Nadia
is an innovation. WGD and fractionation are particularly prevalent in flowering plants [6], where the slow (tens itself does not add any new adjacencies or remove any; the pre-existing adjacencies simply continue or by pseudogenization. Even if xy and yz still exist in the homeologous region of the genome, the adjacency xz
The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions
H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai
2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.
Solvent Fractionation of Lignin
Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.
Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation
Fipps, Guy
1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
with internal diameters shown). 4-inch 6-inch 8-inch 10-inch 12-inch Pipe size Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Steel Alum. PVC Flow rate (gpm) 100 1.2 0.9 0.6 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 150 2.5 1.8 1.2 0.3 0.2 0...
Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean CitiesStationTrucks
Recent Developments in Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, H Q; Phoa, Frederick; Wong, W K
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fractional factorial designs and their applications. Ann.nonregular fractional factorial designs. Metrika, 62, 73-83.The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics, 3,
Recent Developments in Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs
Hongquan Xu; Frederick K. H. Phoa; Weng Kee Wong
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fractional factorial designs and their applications. Ann.nonregular fractional factorial designs. Metrika, 62, 73-83.The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics, 3,
Incompressible Stars and Fractional Derivatives
S. S. Bayin; J. P. Krisch
2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional calculus is an effective tool in incorporating the effects of non-locality and memory into physical models. In this regard, successful applications exist rang- ing from signal processing to anomalous diffusion and quantum mechanics. In this paper we investigate the fractional versions of the stellar structure equations for non radiating spherical objects. Using incompressible fluids as a comparison, we develop models for constant density Newtonian objects with fractional mass distributions or stress conditions. To better understand the fractional effects, we discuss effective values for the density, gravitational field and equation of state. The fractional ob- jects are smaller and less massive than integer models. The fractional parameters are related to a polytropic index for the models considered.
Minimization of Fractional Power Densities
Minimization of Fractional Power Densities. Robert Hardt, Rice University. Abstract: A k dimensional rectifiable current is given by an oriented k dimensional
Fractional Method of Characteristics for Fractional Partial Differential Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
The method of characteristics has played a very important role in mathematical physics. Preciously, it was used to solve the initial value problem for partial differential equations of first order. In this paper, we propose a fractional method of characteristics and use it to solve some fractional partial differential equations.
COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS
S.O. Bader
1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be conservatively applied to confined CSNF assemblies.
A Holographic Fractional Topological Insulator
Carlos Hoyos-Badajoz; Kristan Jensen; Andreas Karch
2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.
Variational Approach for Fractional Partial Differential Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional variational approach has gained much attention in recent years. There are famous fractional derivatives such as Caputo derivative, Riesz derivative and Riemann-Liouville derivative. Several versions of fractional variational principles are proposed. However, it becomes difficult to apply the existing fractional variational theories to fractional differential models, due to the definitions of fractional variational derivatives which not only contain the left fractional derivatives but also appear right ones. In this paper, a new definition of fractional variational derivative is introduced by using a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and the fractional Euler-Lagrange principle is established for fractional partial differential equations.
Fractions: conceptual and didactic aspects
Spagnolo, Filippo
Fractions: conceptual and didactic aspects Martha Isabel FandiÃ±o Pinilla NRD Department of transforming "Knowledge" into "knowledge to teach" is called didactic transposition and constitutes a moment
Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation
Hou, Han Wei
Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate ...
Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions
J. Schulz
2004-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.
Listing Unique Fractional Factorial Designs
Shrivastava, Abhishek Kumar
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
LISTING UNIQUE FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGNS A Dissertation by ABHISHEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December... 2009 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering LISTING UNIQUE FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGNS A Dissertation by ABHISHEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...
Robust and Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs
Huang, fu ze
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
4 Robustness of Factorial Designs Summary . . . . . .10 Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs for m = 4 10.0Comparison of fractional factorial designs D 2.1 and D
Robust and Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs
Huang, fu ze
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
1961a), The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs, Part I,1961b), The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs, Part II,
Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of the colon
Claridge, Ela
Quantifying mucosal blood volume fraction from multispectral images of the colon Ela Claridge changes associated with cancer is the formation of a dense, irregular and leaky network of new blood vessels, which result in the increase of the blood volume fraction (BVF) at the site of a tumour
Fractional Inversion in Krylov Space
B. Bunk
1998-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The fractional inverse $M^{-\\gamma}$ (real $\\gamma >0$) of a matrix $M$ is expanded in a series of Gegenbauer polynomials. If the spectrum of $M$ is confined to an ellipse not including the origin, convergence is exponential, with the same rate as for Chebyshev inversion. The approximants can be improved recursively and lead to an iterative solver for $M^\\gamma x = b$ in Krylov space. In case of $\\gamma = 1/2$, the expansion is in terms of Legendre polynomials, and rigorous bounds for the truncation error are derived.
Running Footline: INSULIN RELEASE AND PLATEAU FRACTIONS CORRELATIONS OF RATES OF INSULIN
Pernarowski, Mark
by rapid membrane voltage oscillations and the silent phase by slow voltage changes. The plateau fraction) in excitable cells is associated with rapid action potentiallike oscillations of the membrane potential
Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants
Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.
1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.
Original article Micronutrients in biomass fractions
Boyer, Edmond
Original article Micronutrients in biomass fractions of holm oak, beech and fir forests biomass fractions in individual monospecific stands of holm oak (Quercus ilex L), beech (Fagus sylvatica L in different biomass fractions of the holm oak forest studied. This can be related to the low soil pH values
What is a Weber fraction? Justin Halberda
Halberda, Justin
What is a Weber fraction? Justin Halberda Johns Hopkins University Corresponding Author: Justin System (ANS), discrimination within the ANS, and how to think about Weber fractions (w). What the ANS representations for numerosities 4-10 for an individual with Weber fraction = .125. You can think
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Phoa, Frederick; Xu, H Q
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Theory QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS and Applications.for fractional factorial designs and pro- jection justi?regular fractional factorial designs. Ann. Statist. 27 1914–
A Catalogue of Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, Hongquan
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumLevel Fractional Factorial Designs Hongquan Xu Department ofchoice of fractional factorial designs. Minimum aberration
A Catalogue of Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumLevel Fractional Factorial Designs Hongquan Xu Department ofchoice of fractional factorial designs. Minimum aberration
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Frederick Phoa; Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Theory QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS and Applications.for fractional factorial designs and pro- jection justi?regular fractional factorial designs. Ann. Statist. 27 1914–
Moment Aberration Projection for Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, Hongquan; Deng, Lih-Yuan
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The 2 k?p Fractional Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, Box,Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs With Small Runs,”of Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of Complexity, 17,
Projection, Search, and Optimality in Fractional Factorial Experiments
Zheng, Zongpeng
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
regular fractional factorial designs and their applications.variance fractional factorial designs and their optimalityoptimal 2 m fractional factorial designs of Resolution V, m
Catalytic cracking of residual petroleum fractions
Moore, H.F.; Mayo, S.L.; Goolsby, T.L. (Research and Development Dept., Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US))
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reports on Arabian Light crude oil vacuum bottoms fractionated into five high-boiling fractions by wiped film evaporation, and the fractions subjected to catalytic cracking in a fixed-fluidized bed using a commercial equilibrium cracking catalyst. Density, aromaticity, and heteroatom content generally increased with boiling point, as did metals content except for vanadium and iron which demonstrated possible bimodal distributions. The cracking response of these fractions showed increasing yields of dry gas and coke, with decreasing gasoline yields, as a function of increasing apparent boiling point as would normally be expected. Surprisingly, however, local maxima were observed for wet gas yield and total conversion, with local minima for cycle oil and slurry yields, in the region of the 1200-1263{degrees}F (650-680{degrees}C) middle fraction. All fractions showed significant response to cracking, with coke yields generally being the only negative factor observed.
Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models
Vasily E. Tarasov
2015-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law non-locality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods of the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of non-integer order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.
Stable Isotope Fractionations in Biogeochemical Reactive Transport
Druhan, Jennifer Lea
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
34 S fractionation . Summary A mesoscale study of isotopicion exchange and ! 44 Ca . A mesoscale study of isotopicmodeling and ! 34 S . A mesoscale study of isotopic
Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks
Jindal, Nihar
1 Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks Nihar Jindal, Steven Weber, Jeffrey G. Andrews Abstract We propose and analyze a new paradigm for power control in decentralized wireless networks, termed fractional power control. Transmission power is chosen as the current channel
Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual
Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.
1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.
Combinatorial Dimension in Fractional Cartesian Products
Gao, Frank
Combinatorial Dimension in Fractional Cartesian Products Ron Blei,1 Fuchang Gao2 1 Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268; e-mail: blei@math.uconn.edu 2 Department? Correspondence to: R. Blei © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 146 #12;COMBINATORIAL DIMENSION IN FRACTIONAL CARTESIAN
[Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report
O`Leary, M.H.
1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.
Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals
S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry
2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.
Selecting Fractionators for Product Composition Control
Griffin, D. E.; Anderson, J. E.
1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The benefits resulting from computer control of fractionators have been proven in many installations. These benefits include energy savings, increased throughput, higher recovery product upgrade and smoother operation. As a basis for understanding...
Bio-oil fractionation and condensation
Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony
2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.
Algebra of Fractions of Algebra with Conjugation
Aleks Kleyn
2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
In the paper, I considered construction of algebra of fractions of algebra with conjugation. I also considered algebra of polynomials and algebra of rational mappings over algebra with conjugation.
Carbon isotope fractionation in autotrophic Chromatium
Wong, William Wai-Lun
1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CARSON ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN AUTOTPOPHIC CHROYATIUN A Thesis 'JILLIAJJ J JAI LJJN BONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&H University in partial fulfillment of the requirenent for the degree of PLASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974...) August 1974 ABSTRACT Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Autotrophic Chromatium (August 1974) blilliam Wai-Lun Wang, B. S. , Texas Lutheran College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Isilliam N. Sackett Dr. Chauncey P. . Benedict Bacterial cells...
Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system
Mekala, Malla R.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...
Exact Methods In Fractional Combinatorial Optimization
Ursulenko, Oleksii
2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
-to-time ratio cycle problem, also known as the tramp steamer problem [2]. A short survey on fractional combinatorial optimization problems and related solution approaches can be found in [35]. Recently, Skiscim and Palocsay [39, 40] have introduced a..., approximability and local search, are addressed in [32, 33]. Generally speaking, multiple-ratio problems arise in case of multiple fractional performance metrics that need to be optimized, e.g., a eet of cargo ships in the tramp steamer problem. Related...
Baryonic fraction in the cold plus hot dark matter universe
Eunwoo Choi; Dongsu Ryu
1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
We report a study to constrain the fraction of baryonic matter in the cold plus hot dark matter (CHDM) universe by numerical simulations which include the hydrodynamics of baryonic matter as well as the particle dynamics of dark matter. Spatially flat, COBE-normalized CHDM models with the fraction of hot component $\\Omega_h\\leq0.2$ are considered. We show that the models with $h/n/\\Omega_h=0.5/0.9/0.1$ and $0.5/0.9/0.2$ give a linear power spectrum which agrees well with observations. Here, $h$ is the Hubble constant in unit of $100~km/s/Mpc$ and $n$ is the spectral index of the initial power spectrum. Then, for the models with $h/n/\\Omega_h=0.5/0.9/0.2$ and baryonic fraction $\\Omega_b=0.05$ and 0.1 we calculate the properties of X-ray clusters, such as luminosity function, temperature distribution function, luminosity-temperature relation, histogram of gas to total mass ratio, and change of average temperature with redshift $z$. Comparison with the observed data of X-ray clusters indicates that the model with $\\Omega_b=0.05$ is preferred. The COBE-normalized CHDM model with $\\Omega_b>0.1$ may be ruled out by the present work, since it produces too many X-ray bright clusters.
average void fraction: Topics by E-print Network
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void fraction correlations and experimental Ghajar, Afshin J. 4 Measurement of the fractal order of wall void fraction during nucleate boiling Engineering Websites Summary:...
Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of...
Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides....
Quantum probes for fractional Gaussian processes
Matteo G. A. Paris
2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
We address the characterization of classical fractional random noise via quantum probes. In particular, we focus on estimation and discrimination problems involving the fractal dimension of the trajectories of a system subject to fractional Brownian noise. We assume that the classical degree of freedom exposed to the environmental noise is coupled to a quantum degree of freedom of the same system, e.g. its spin, and exploit quantum limited measurements on the spin part to characterize the classical fractional noise. More generally, our approach may be applied to any two-level system subject to dephasing perturbations described by fractional Brownian noise, in order to assess the precision of quantum limited measurements in the characterization of the external noise. In order to assess the performances of quantum probes we evaluate the Bures metric, as well as the Helstrom and the Chernoff bound, and optimize their values over the interaction time. We find that quantum probes may be successfully employed to obtain a reliable characterization of fractional Gaussian process when the coupling with the environment is weak or strong. In the first case decoherence is not much detrimental and for long interaction times the probe acquires information about the environmental parameters without being too much mixed. Conversely, for strong coupling, information is quickly impinged on the quantum probe and can effectively retrieved by measurements performed in the early stage of the evolution. In the intermediate situation, none of the two above effects take place: information is flowing from the environment to the probe too slowly compared to decoherence, and no measurements can be effectively employed to extract it from the quantum probe. The two regimes of weak- and strong-coupling are defined in terms of a threshold value of the coupling, which itself increases with the fractional dimension.
Inverse Problems for Fractional Diffusion Equations
Zuo, Lihua
2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
and preliminaries in Section 1 and 2, in the third section we consider our first inverse boundary problem. This is where an unknown boundary condition is to be determined from overposed data in a time- fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the fundamental...
Introduction Spectrum Phases Fractionization Kitaev Honeycomb Model
Fractionization Spin ! Majorana Transformation Key Idea - Factorize the Pauli matrices by moving to a higher by Majorana fermions 2 Gapped and gapless phases 3 Relation to the Toric Code 4 Eect of a magnetic field dimensional subspace Can replace each complex fermionic degree a of freedom with two Majoranas 1 and 2 1 1 = a
1Fractions and Chemistry Because molecules and
1Fractions and Chemistry Because molecules and atoms come in 'integer' packages, the ratios of gasoline (ethane) are combined with 7 molecules of oxygen you get 4 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6;1 Answer Key Problem 1 - What makes your car go: When 2 molecules of gasoline (ethane) are combined with 7
World Volume Action for Fractional Branes
Merlatti, P
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the world volume action of fractional Dp-branes of type IIA string theory compactified on the orbifold T^4/Z_2. The geometric relation between these branes and wrapped branes is investigated using conformal techniques. In particular we examine in detail various scattering amplitudes and find that the leading low-energy interactions are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically.
World Volume Action for Fractional Branes
P. Merlatti; G. Sabella
2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z
We study the world volume action of fractional Dp-branes of type IIA string theory compactified on the orbifold T^4/Z_2. The geometric relation between these branes and wrapped branes is investigated using conformal techniques. In particular we examine in detail various scattering amplitudes and find that the leading low-energy interactions are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically.
Mcdonough, William F.
Diffusion-driven extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in country rocks of the Tin Mountain rocks (amphibolites and schists) of the Tin Mountain pegmatite show systematic changes with distance; fluid infiltration; Tin Mountain pegmatite 1. Introduction Lithium is a fluid-mobile, moderately
Infrared spectroscopy of diatomic molecules - a fractional calculus approach
Richard Herrmann
2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
The eigenvalue spectrum of the fractional quantum harmonic oscillator is calculated numerically solving the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation based on the Riemann and Caputo definition of a fractional derivative. The fractional approach allows a smooth transition between vibrational and rotational type spectra, which is shown to be an appropriate tool to analyze IR spectra of diatomic molecules.
A Fractional Lie Group Method For Anomalous Diffusion Equations
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
Lie group method provides an efficient tool to solve a differential equation. This paper suggests a fractional partner for fractional partial differential equations using a fractional characteristic method. A space-time fractional diffusion equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the Lie group method.
Perturbations of ionization fractions at the cosmological recombination epoch
B. Novosyadlyj
2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
A development of perturbations of number densities of ions and electrons during recombination epoch is analysed. The equations for relative perturbations of ionization fractions were derived from the system of equations for accurate computation of the ionization history of the early Universe given by Seager et al. (1999,2000). It is shown that strong dependence of ionization and recombination rates on the density and temperature of plasma provides the significant deviations of amplitudes of ionization fractions relative perturbations from ones of baryon matter density adiabatic perturbations. Such deviations are most prominent for cosmological adiabatic perturbations of scales larger than sound horizon at recombination epoch. The amplitudes of relative perturbations of number densities of electrons and protons at last scattering surface exceed by factor of $\\simeq$5 the amplitude of relative perturbation of baryons total number density, for helium ions this ratio reaches the value of $\\simeq$18. For subhorizon cosmological perturbations these ratios appear to be essentially lesser and depend on oscillation phase at the moment of decoupling. These perturbations of number densities of ions and electrons at recombination epoch do not contribute to the intrinsic plasma temperature fluctuations but cause the ''corrugation'' of last scattering surface in optical depth, $\\delta z_{dec}/(z_{dec}+1)\\approx -\\delta_b/3$, at scales larger than sound horizon. It may result into noticeable changes of precalculated values of CMB polarization pattern at several degrees angular scales.
Figure ES3. Sales-Weighted Horsepower and On-Road Fuel Mileage for New
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.Gas Proved Reserves,
Adjustable-Speed Drives for 500 to 4000 Horsepower Industrial Applications
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated aging of1.1Energy DPFFOAAdequatepumps operating|
The Fractional London Equation and The Fractional Pippard Model For Superconductors
José Weberszpil
2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
With the discovery of new superconductors there was a running to find the justifications for the new properties found in these materials. In order to describe these new effects some theories were adapted and some others have been tried. In this work we present an application of the fractional calculus to study the superconductor in the context of London theory. Here we investigated the linear London equation modified by fractional derivatives for non-differentiable functions, instead of integer ones, in a coarse grained scenario. We apply the fractional approach based in the modified Riemann-Liouville sense to improve the model in order to include possible non-local interactions and the media. It is argued that the e ects of non-locality and long memory, intrinsic to the formalism of the fractional calculus, are relevant to achieving a satisfactory phenomenological description. In order to compare the present results with the usual London theory, we calculated the magnetic field distribution for a mesoscopic superconductor system. Also, a fractional Pippard-like model is proposed to take into account the non-locality beside effects of interactions and the media. We propose that parameter alfa of fractionality can be used to create an alternative way to characterize superconductors.
Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer
Malyutin, A A [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)
Fractionated Branes and Black Hole Interiors
Martinec, Emil J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Combining a variety of results in string theory and general relativity, a picture of the black hole interior is developed wherein spacetime caps off at an inner horizon, and the inter-horizon region is occupied by a Hagedorn gas of a very low tension state of fractionated branes. This picture leads to natural resolutions of a variety of puzzles concerning quantum black holes. Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Fourth Prize Award for Essays on Gravitation.
Fractionated Branes and Black Hole Interiors
Emil J. Martinec
2015-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
Combining a variety of results in string theory and general relativity, a picture of the black hole interior is developed wherein spacetime caps off at an inner horizon, and the inter-horizon region is occupied by a Hagedorn gas of a very low tension state of fractionated branes. This picture leads to natural resolutions of a variety of puzzles concerning quantum black holes. Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Fourth Prize Award for Essays on Gravitation.
Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge
Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.
1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in Graphene
Ahmed Jellal; Bellati Malika
2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
We quantum mechanically analyze the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. This will be done by building the corresponding states in terms of a potential governing the interactions and discussing other issues. More precisely, we consider a system of particles in the presence of an external magnetic field and take into account of a specific interaction that captures the basic features of the Laughlin series \
Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system
Mekala, Malla R.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
microns), inhalation accidents occurring during maintenance operations can be expected to result in long term retention of 20% to 30% of the inhaled aerosol. Thind"' performed experiments over a span of one year to observe the consistency...DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August...
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui Sitindra S studied the controls on the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui, a halophilic archaea, in pure culture experiments by varying organic substrate, the hydrogen
Wavelet Packets of fractional Brownian motion: Asymptotic Analysis and Spectrum
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Wavelet Packets of fractional Brownian motion: Asymptotic Analysis and Spectrum Estimation properties of the autocorrelation functions of the wavelet packet coefficients of a fractional Brownian process. The analysis concerns some families of wavelet paraunitary filters that converge almost
E-model for Transportation Problem of Linear Stochastic Fractional ...
Dr.V.Charles
2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
Abstract: This paper deals with the so-called transportation problem of linear stochastic fractional programming, and ... sophisticated analysis. Stochastic ... circuit board of multi-objective LSFP, algorithm to identify redundant fractional objective ...
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Phoa, Frederick; Xu, Hongquan
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
J. S. (1961). The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Tech-2, k 2 = 4k and R(D) = 4k while the second choice leads to QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS
Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes
Frederick Phoa; Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
J. S. (1961). The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Tech-2, k 2 = 4k and R(D) = 4k while the second choice leads to QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS
Fractional revivals through Rényi uncertainty relations
Elvira Romera; Francisco de los Santos
2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the R\\'enyi uncertainty relations give a good description of the dynamical behavior of wave packets and constitute a sound approach to revival phenomena by analyzing three model systems: the simple harmonic oscillator, the infinite square well, and the quantum bouncer. We prove the usefulness of entropic uncertainty relations as a tool for identifying fractional revivals by providing a comparison in different contexts with the usual Heisenberg uncertainty relation and with the common approach in terms of the autocorrelation function.
Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass
Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.
Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions
G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.
Motility fractionation of bacteria by centrifugation
Claudio Maggi; Alessia Lepore; Jacopo Solari; Alessandro Rizzo; Roberto Di Leonardo
2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
Centrifugation is a widespread laboratory technique used to separate mixtures into fractions characterized by a specific size, weight or density. We demonstrate that centrifugation can be also used to separate swimming cells having different motility. To do this we study self-propelled bacteria under the influence of an external centrifugal field. Using dynamic image correlation spectroscopy we measure the spatially resolved motility of bacteria after centrifugation. A significant gradient in swimming-speeds is observed for increasing centrifugal speeds. Our results can be reproduced by a model that treats bacteria as "hot" colloidal particles having a diffusion coefficient that depends on the swimming speed.
Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs
Moon, Gary Michael
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, . . . 22 4. 2 Water-Oil and Water-Solvent Fractional Flow Curves . . 4. 3 Mobility of Water-Oil-Solvent Mixtures. . . . . . . . 25 5. 1 Injected Solvent Displacing Formation Oil at 0. 5 PVI . . . . 31 5. 2 Comparison of Simulator Results and Buckley...-Levcrctt Analytic Solution at 0. 3 PVI . 5. 3 Comparison of Simulator Results and Walsh-Lake Analytic Solution for Secondary Flood (S, =- S;?= 0. 2) at "Equal Velocity" f?& (f, & ? 0. 35) and 0. 3 PVI?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 4 Saturation Plot...
Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Final technical report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1986
O'Leary, M.H.
1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Plants fractionate carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in ways which reflect photosynthetic pathway and environment. The object of our work is to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation to give information about how the components of the carbon fixation process (diffusion, carboxylation, etc.) vary with species, environment, and other variables. These studies provide important information regarding environmental control of the efficiency of photosynthesis as well as information regarding changes in photosynthesis which can be expected in coming years as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase. To this end, we have developed quantitative models for carbon isotope fractionation which describe this process in terms of rates of diffusion, carboxylation, and other steps. We have developed experimental approaches which focus on the initial events in carbon dioxide fixation and enable us to determine the relative rates of the various individual processes involved. Our approaches are unique in that they provide a view of the carbon isotope fractionation process over a period of a few hours, whereas combustion methods used by previous investigators provide only a long-term view of the carbon isotope fractionation process. We have also developed other methods using stable isotopes which rely on NMR and mass spectral measurements to study plant metabolism. 61 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.
Some Applications of the Fractional Poisson Probability Distribution
Nick Laskin
2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
Physical and mathematical applications of fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have discovered and developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers. Appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been applied to evaluate skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A new representation of Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been obtained. A representation of Schlafli polynomials in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. A new representations of Mittag-Leffler function involving fractional Bell polynomials and fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been discovered. Fractional Stirling numbers of the first kind have been introduced and studied. Two new polynomial sequences associated with fractional Poisson probability distribution have been launched and explored. The relationship between new polynomials and the orthogonal Charlier polynomials has also been investigated. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of quantum optics, the theory of combinatorial numbers and the theory of orthogonal polynomials of discrete variable.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated
Stewart, Frank
and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used.6 lm) and small (0.21.6 lm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community
Deviation probability bounds for fractional martingales and related remarks
Saussereau, Bruno
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we prove exponential inequalities (also called Bernstein's inequality) for fractional martingales. As an immediate corollary, we will discuss weak law of large numbers for fractional martingales under divergence assumption on the $\\beta-$variation of the fractional martingale. A non trivial example of application of this convergence result is proposed.
An Algorithm for Fractional Assignment Problems Maiko Shigeno
Yamamoto, Hirosuke
Optimization, Mathematical Programming, Fractional Programming, Assignment Problems, Approximation Optimality fractional assignment problems which are special cases of 0-1 fractional programming problems. Let G = (I; J assignment problem. In this case, the algorithm proposed in this paper solves the linear assignment problem
Electron Spin Precession for the Time Fractional Pauli Equation
Hosein Nasrolahpour
2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we aim to extend the application of the fractional calculus in the realm of quantum mechanics. We present a time fractional Pauli equation containing Caputo fractional derivative. By use of the new equation we study the electron spin precession problem in a homogeneous constant magnetic field.
Neutron Stars Opacity and Proton Fraction
P. N. Alcain; C. O. Dorso
2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Background: In neutron stars the nucleons are submitted to extreme conditions. The study of this natural occurring objects can lead to further understanding of the behaviour of nuclear matter in highly asymmetric nuclei. Among the characteristics of neutron stars, its neutrino absorption - associated to structural inhomoegeneities - stands out as one of the possible magnitudes linked to an observable. Purpose: We have carried out a systematic study of this neutrino absorption for different thermodynamic conditions in order to assess the impact that the structure has on it. Method: We study the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, for different densities, proton fractions and temperature, we calculate the long range opacity and the cluster distribution. Results: The neutrino absorption, the main mechanism for neutron stars cooldown, takes its highest value for temperatures and densities low compared with the inner crust, and a proton fraction is close to the symmetric case $x=0.5$. Conclusions: Within the used model the neutrinos are absorbed mostly close to the surface of the neutron star. Also, for high temperatures, a large cluster still exists, but the appearance of several small-sized clusters smears out the very long range order needed for neutrino absorption.
Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions
Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.
Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective
David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.
The effective delayed neutron fraction for bare-metal criticals
Pearlstein, S.
1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Given sufficient material, a large number of actinides could be used to form bare-metal criticals. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical comprised of a fissile material is comparable with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical composed of a fissionable material is reduced by factors of 2 to 10 when compared with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. When the effective delayed neutron fraction is small, the difference between delayed and prompt criticality is small, and extreme caution must be used in critical assemblies of these materials. This study uses an approximate but realistic model to survey the actinide region to compare effective delayed neutron fractions with absolute delayed neutron fractions.
Anomalous Topological Pumps and Fractional Josephson Effects
Fan Zhang; C. L. Kane
2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
We discover novel topological pumps in the Josephson effects for superconductors. The phase difference, which is odd under the chiral symmetry defined by the product of time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries, acts as an anomalous adiabatic parameter. These pumping cycles are different from those in the "periodic table", and are characterized by $Z\\times Z$ or $Z_2\\times Z_2$ strong invariants. We determine the general classifications in class AIII, and those in class DIII with a single anomalous parameter. For the $Z_2\\times Z_2$ topological pump in class DIII, one $Z_2$ invariant describes the coincidence of fermion parity and spin pumps whereas the other one reflects the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers pairs, leading to three distinct fractional Josephson effects.
Topological Current in Fractional Chern Insulators
Koma, Tohru
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider interacting fermions in a magnetic field on a two-dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In order to measure the Hall current, we apply an electric potential with a compact support. Then, due to the Lorentz force, the Hall current appears along the equipotential line. Introducing a local current operator at the edge of the potential, we derive the Hall conductance as a linear response coefficient. For a wide class of the models, we prove that if there exists a spectral gap above the degenerate ground state, then the Hall conductance of the ground state is fractionally quantized without averaging over the fluxes. This is an extension of the topological argument for the integrally quantized Hall conductance in noninteracting fermion systems on lattices.
Topological Current in Fractional Chern Insulators
Tohru Koma
2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
We consider interacting fermions in a magnetic field on a two-dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In order to measure the Hall current, we apply an electric potential with a compact support. Then, due to the Lorentz force, the Hall current appears along the equipotential line. Introducing a local current operator at the edge of the potential, we derive the Hall conductance as a linear response coefficient. For a wide class of the models, we prove that if there exists a spectral gap above the degenerate ground state, then the Hall conductance of the ground state is fractionally quantized without averaging over the fluxes. This is an extension of the topological argument for the integrally quantized Hall conductance in noninteracting fermion systems on lattices.
Heat Equations with Fractional White Noise Potentials
Hu, Y. [Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, 405 Snow Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045-2142 (United States)], E-mail: hu@math.ukans.edu
2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is concerned with the following stochastic heat equations: ({partial_derivative}u{sub t}(x))/({partial_derivative}t=1/2 u{sub t}(x)+{omega}{sup H}.u{sub t}(x)), x element of {sup d}, t>0, where w{sup H} is a time independent fractional white noise with Hurst parameter H=(h{sub 1}, h{sub 2},..., h{sub d}) , or a time dependent fractional white noise with Hurst parameter H=(h{sub 0}, h{sub 1},..., h{sub d}) . Denote | H | =h{sub 1}+h{sub 2}+...+h{sub d} . When the noise is time independent, it is shown that if 1/2
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Log NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement measurements...
Algorithmic Construction of Efficient Fractional Factorial Designs With Large Run Sizes
Xu, H Q
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The 2 k?p Fractional Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, Box,Aberration Fractional Factorial Designs,” Biometrika, 90,Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs With Small Runs,”
The Use of Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs in Combination Toxicity Studies
Phoa, F. K. H.; Xu, H.; Wong, W. K.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
nonregular fractional factorial designs and show their bene?comparisons of full factorial designs and regular fractionalKey words: Fractional Factorial Design; Orthogonal Array;
The Use of Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs in Combination Toxicity Studies
Phoa, Frederick; Xu, H Q; Wong, W K
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
nonregular fractional factorial designs and show their bene?comparisons of full factorial designs and regular fractionalKey words: Fractional Factorial Design; Orthogonal Array;
Soot volume fraction and temperature measurements in laminar nonpremixed flames using thermocouples
Mcenally, C.S.; Koeylue, U.O.; Pfefferle, L.D.; Rosner, D.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)] [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermocouple particle densitometry (TPD), a new method for measuring absolute soot volume fraction in flames which was suggested by Eisner and Rosner, has been successfully implemented in several laminar nonpremixed flames. This diagnostic relies on measuring the junction temperature history of a thermocouple rapidly inserted into a soot-containing flame region, then optimizing the fit between this history and one calculated from the principles of thermophoretic mass transfer. The TPD method is very simple to implement experimentally, yields spatially resolved volume fractions directly, can easily measure small volume fractions, and does not depend on the prevailing soot particle size, morphology, or optical characteristics. In a series of methane and ethylene counterflow flames whose soot volume fractions varied by more than an order of magnitude, the TPD results agreed to within experimental error with the authors own laser extinction measurements. In axisymmetric methane and ethylene co-flowing flames, the shape of TPD profiles agreed well with published laser extinction measurements, but the TPD concentrations were significantly larger in the early regions of the ethylene flame and throughout the methane flame; these discrepancies are probably attributable to visible light-transparent particles that are detectable with TPD but not with laser extinction. The TPD method is not applicable to the upper regions of these co-flowing flames since OH concentrations there suffice to rapidly oxidize any soot particles that deposit. Gas temperatures were obtained simultaneously with volume fraction by averaging the junction temperature history shortly after insertion. The error in these temperatures due to soot deposition-imposed changes in the junction diameter and emissivity were assessed and found to be moderate, e.g., less than 60 K near the centerline of the ethylene coflowing flame where the volume fraction was 6 ppm and the gas temperature was 1,550 K.
Synchronization of piece-wise continuous systems of fractional order
Marius-F. Danca
2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this study is to prove analytically that synchronization of a piece-wise continuous class of systems of fractional order can be achieved. Based on our knowledge, there are no numerical methods to integrate differential equations with discontinuous right hand side of fractional order which model these systems. Therefore, via Filippov's regularization [1] and Cellina's Theorem [2,3], we prove that the initial value problem can be converted into a continuous problem of fractional-order, to which numerical methods for fractional orders apply. In this way, the synchronization problem transforms into a standard problem for continuous systems of fractional order. Three examples of fractional-order piece-wise systems are considered: Sprott system, Chen and Shimizu-Morioka system.
Wythe, Kathy
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and a wide range of academic areas are investigating the different compo- nents. More recently, they are taking information gleaned from the global climate models and applying them to research questions pertaining to Texas. Dr. Bruce Mc...Carl, Regents Professor of agricultural economics at Texas A&M University, has researched the economics of climate change for the last 20 years. McCarl, as a lead CHANGING CLIMATES tx H2O | pg. McCarl ] tx H2O | pg. 4 Changing Climates author...
On treating single-objective fuzzy integer linear fractional programs
User
2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
On Solving Single-objective Fuzzy Integer Linear Fractional Programs. Omar M. Saad*; Azza H. Amer and Eman F. Abdellah. Department of Mathematics ...
Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum Aberration
Hongquan Xu
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumaberration frac- tional factorial designs. Biometrika 90aberration in blocked factorial designs. Technometrics 39
Blocked Regular Fractional Factorial Designs With Minimum Aberration
Xu, Hongquan
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumaberration frac- tional factorial designs. Biometrika 90aberration in blocked factorial designs. Technometrics 39
amorphous volume fractions: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically. P. Merlatti; G. Sabella 2001-01-11 5 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Particle Coarsening in High Volume Fraction...
Head-to-Head Comparison of Serum Fractionation Techniques. |...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
comparison of several serum fractionation schemes, including N-linked glycopeptide enrichment, cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, magnetic bead separation (C3, C8, and WCX), size...
Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement
Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.
A Note Basis Properties for Fractional Hydrogen Atom Equation
E. Bas; F. Metin
2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, spectral analysis of fractional Sturm Liouville problem defined on (0,1], having the singularity of type at zero and research the fundamental properties of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the operator. We show that the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the problem are real and orthogonal, respectively. Furthermore,we give some important theorems and lemmas for fractional hydrogen atom equation.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
, enrichment in 13 C of untransformed CH3Cl was also observed, and similar isotope enrichment factors (e) of ÀORIGINAL RESEARCH Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during degradation of chloromethane-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany Keywords Carbon isotope fractionation, chloromethane biodegradation
Hexabenzocoronene Model Compounds for Asphaltene Fractions: Synthesis & Characterization
Kilpatrick, Peter K.
Hexabenzocoronene Model Compounds for Asphaltene Fractions: Synthesis & Characterization FelaniainaVised Manuscript ReceiVed July 30, 2006 Asphaltenes are the fraction of bitumen with the highest molecular weight to this association behavior. Experimental and computational results are compared to asphaltene properties under
Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents
Loh, Watson
Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents Rahoma S. Mohamed* and Anto. The results indicated possible asphaltene aggregation as well as the probable existence of critical micelle fraction. Average molecular areas for asphaltenes adsorbed at different interfaces estimated from surface
Correlated topological insulators and the fractional magnetoelectric effect
Swingle, B.; Barkeshli, M.; McGreevy, J.; Senthil, T. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Topological insulators are characterized by the presence of gapless surface modes protected by time-reversal symmetry. In three space dimensions the magnetoelectric response is described in terms of a bulk {theta} term for the electromagnetic field. Here we construct theoretical examples of such phases that cannot be smoothly connected to any band insulator. Such correlated topological insulators admit the possibility of fractional magnetoelectric response described by fractional {theta}/{pi}. We show that fractional {theta}/{pi} is only possible in a gapped time-reversal-invariant system of bosons or fermions if the system also has deconfined fractional excitations and associated degenerate ground states on topologically nontrivial spaces. We illustrate this result with a concrete example of a time-reversal-symmetric topological insulator of correlated bosons with {theta}=({pi}/4). Extensions to electronic fractional topological insulators are briefly described.
Correlated Topological Insulators and the Fractional Magnetoelectric Effect
Brian Swingle; Maissam Barkeshli; John McGreevy; T. Senthil
2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
Topological insulators are characterized by the presence of gapless surface modes protected by time-reversal symmetry. In three space dimensions the magnetoelectric response is described in terms of a bulk theta term for the electromagnetic field. Here we construct theoretical examples of such phases that cannot be smoothly connected to any band insulator. Such correlated topological insulators admit the possibility of fractional magnetoelectric response described by fractional theta/pi. We show that fractional theta/pi is only possible in a gapped time reversal invariant system of bosons or fermions if the system also has deconfined fractional excitations and associated degenerate ground states on topologically non-trivial spaces. We illustrate this result with a concrete example of a time reversal symmetric topological insulator of correlated bosons with theta = pi/4. Extensions to electronic fractional topological insulators are briefly described.
Impact of dose size in single fraction spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for melanoma
Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu, E-mail: hualinzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Zhong, Hualiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Barth, Rolf F. [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Cao, Minsong; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose size in single fraction, spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for selectively killing infiltrated melanoma cancer cells of different tumor sizes, using different radiobiological models. Methods: A Monte Carlo technique was employed to calculate the 3D dose distribution of a commercially available megavoltage grid collimator in a 6 MV beam. The linear-quadratic (LQ) and modified linear quadratic (MLQ) models were used separately to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of a series of single fraction regimens that employed grid therapy to treat both acute and late responding melanomas of varying sizes. The dose prescription point was at the center of the tumor volume. Dose sizes ranging from 1 to 30 Gy at 100% dose line were modeled. Tumors were either touching the skin surface or having their centers at a depth of 3 cm. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the melanoma cells and the therapeutic ratio (TR) were defined by comparing grid therapy with the traditional open debulking field. The clinical outcomes from recent reports were used to verify the authors’ model. Results: Dose profiles at different depths and 3D dose distributions in a series of 3D melanomas treated with grid therapy were obtained. The EUDs and TRs for all sizes of 3D tumors involved at different doses were derived through the LQ and MLQ models, and a practical equation was derived. The EUD was only one fifth of the prescribed dose. The TR was dependent on the prescribed dose and on the LQ parameters of both the interspersed cancer and normal tissue cells. The results from the LQ model were consistent with those of the MLQ model. At 20 Gy, the EUD and TR by the LQ model were 2.8% higher and 1% lower than by the MLQ, while at 10 Gy, the EUD and TR as defined by the LQ model were only 1.4% higher and 0.8% lower, respectively. The dose volume histograms of grid therapy for a 10 cm tumor showed different dosimetric characteristics from those of conventional radiotherapy. A significant portion of the tumor volume received a very large dose in grid therapy, which ensures significant tumor cell killing in these regions. Conversely, some areas received a relatively small dose, thereby sparing interspersed normal cells and increasing radiation tolerance. The radiobiology modeling results indicated that grid therapy could be useful for treating acutely responding melanomas infiltrating radiosensitive normal tissues. The theoretical model predictions were supported by the clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Grid therapy functions by selectively killing infiltrating tumor cells and concomitantly sparing interspersed normal cells. The TR depends on the radiosensitivity of the cell population, dose, tumor size, and location. Because the volumes of very high dose regions are small, the LQ model can be used safely to predict the clinical outcomes of grid therapy. When treating melanomas with a dose of 15 Gy or higher, single fraction grid therapy is clearly advantageous for sparing interspersed normal cells. The existence of a threshold fraction dose, which was found in the authors’ theoretical simulations, was confirmed by clinical observations.
Chen, Xi
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
as deficient compared with academic mathematics department because prospective teachers? mathematics knowledge is limited. On the other hand, since the late of 1980s, researchers (e.g., Ball, 1990a, 1990b; Borko et al., 1992; Graeber, Tirosh, & Glover, 1989...
ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO NNSA SD G-1027, "GUIDANCE ON USING RELEASE FRACTION AND MODERN
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City,EnrichedSupplemental DirectivesWorkNNSANAP-25 Admin Chg 1 1G 1027
Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.
1993-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
A process is described for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm[sup 3
Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation
Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)
2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.
Quasiparticle excitations of fractionalizing media with non-Abelian symmetries
Emilio Cobanera
2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
I investigate the ansatz $(C_\\alpha=\\sqrt[m]{f_\\alpha},\\ C_\\alpha^\\dagger = \\sqrt[m]{f_\\alpha^\\dagger})$ for the second quantization operators of quasiparticles of charge (e^*=e/m) that can emerge in systems of fermions $(f_\\alpha,f_\\alpha^\\dagger)$ of charge (e). After introducing a lattice regularization, I solve the ansatz in order to obtain a set of concrete quasiparticle operators. In less than three space dimensions, they display the precise anyonic features of the low-lying excitations of the fractional quantum Hall fluids at general filling fractions with odd denominator. If the single-particle labels (\\alpha) include non-Abelian quantum numbers, then the ansatz fractionalizes the electric charge of the fermions, but not their non-Abelian charges. Charge breakup processes at the interface between a normal and a fractionalizing medium must be conserving processes for all the symmetries of the system. The lattice-regularized ansatz can be modified in a natural way to enforce this requirement. There always exists a local transformation that maps the (C) quasiparticles into a new set of quasiparticles carrying definite values of both fractionalized electric and non-fractionalized non-Abelian charges. To provide an application I study numerically the zero-energy modes that emerge at the interface between a one-dimensional electronic and a fractional topological superconductor.
Uncertainties analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments
X. B. Ma; F. Lu; L. Z. Wang; Y. X. Chen; W. L. Zhong; F. P. An
2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
Reactor antineutrino experiment are used to study neutrino oscillation, search for signatures of nonstandard neutrino interaction, and monitor reactor operation for safeguard application. Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Commercial code is used for reactor simulation to evaluate fission fraction in Daya Bay neutrino experiment, but the source code doesn't open to our researcher results from commercial secret. In this study, The open source code DRAGON was improved to calculate the fission rates of the four most important isotopes in fissions, $^{235}$U,$^{238}$U,$^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu, and then was validated for PWRs using the Takahama-3 benchmark. The fission fraction results are consistent with those of MIT's results. Then, fission fraction of Daya Bay reactor core was calculated by using improved DRAGON code, and the fission fraction calculated by DRAGON agreed well with these calculated by SCIENCE. The average deviation less than 5\\% for all the four isotopes. The correlation coefficient matrix between $^{235}$U,$^{238}$U,$^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu were also studied using DRAGON, and then the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction was calculated by using the correlation coefficient matrix. The uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction simulation is 0.6\\% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment. The uncertainties source of fission fraction calculation need further to be studied in the future.
Some applications of the fractional Poisson probability distribution
Laskin, Nick [TopQuark Inc., Toronto, Ontario M6P 2P2 (Canada)
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Physical and mathematical applications of the recently invented fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers of the second kind. The appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been introduced and applied to evaluate the skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A representation of the Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of the quantum optics and the theory of combinatorial numbers.
Quantum mechanical perspectives and generalization of the fractional Fourier Transformation
Jun-Hua Chen; Hong-Yi Fan
2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
Fourier and fractional-Fourier transformations are widely used in theoretical physics. In this paper we make quantum perspectives and generalization for the fractional Fourier transformation (FrFT). By virtue of quantum mechanical representation transformation and the method of integration within normal ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we find the key point for composing FrFT, and reveal the structure of FrFT. Following this procedure, a full family of generalized fractional transformations are discovered with the usual FrFT as one special case. The eigen-functions of arbitrary GFrT are derived explicitly.
Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and
1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to Climate Change Land Cover / Land Use Change Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution Space Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data
Electron absorption spectra of coal pitch and its fractions
Popov, V.K.; Rus'yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An investigation into the electron absorption spectra of coal pitch and its fractions was presented. The pitch tested had a softening point of 67 degrees C, volatile matter of 61.1 %, density of 1.308 g/cm/sup 3/, and an ash content of 0.17 %. The fractions tested were the ..gamma.., ..beta.., ..cap alpha../sub 2/, and ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fractions, and the fractional yield was 31.4, 43.6, 19.3, and 5.7%, respecively. The minimum absorption level in the electron spectrum of the pitch was found to be in the ultraviolet region indicating aromatic compounds. The aromatics of interest were anthracene, anthraquinone, and pyrene. (JMT)
RESEARCH Open Access Gene expression and fractionation resistance
Sankoff, David
in Paramecium, Gout et al. [10] identify a clear relationship between high WGD duplicate gene retention rates for explaining variable resistance to fractionation. The Gout et al. paper [10] is the primary inspiration
Analysis of the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction
Gentine, Pierre
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction (EF) was examined. EF was shown to exhibit a typical concave-up shape, with a minimum usually reached in the middle of the day. The influence of the vegetation ...
Topological order in the fractional quantum Hall states
Barkeshli, Maissam
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis is focused on the theoretical characterization of topological order in non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. The first part of the thesis is concerned with the ideal wave function approach to FQH ...
Dirac Quantization and Fractional Magnetoelectric Effect on Interacting Topological Insulators
K. -S. Park; H. Han
2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
We use Dirac quantization of flux to study fractional charges and axion angles \\theta in interacting topological insulators with gapless surface modes protected by time-reversal symmetry. In interacting topological insulators, there are two types of fractional axion angle due to conventional odd and nontrivial even flux quantization at the boundary. On even flux quantization in a gapped time reversal invariant system, we show that there is a halved quarter fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance of p/4q e2/2h with p and q odd integers. The gapless surface modes can be characterized by a nontrivial Z2 anomaly emerged from the even flux quantization. It is suggested that the electron can be regarded as a bound state of fractionally charged quarks confined by a nonabelian color gauge field on the Dirac quantization of complex spinor fields.
acidic antigenic fractions: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
3 (> 170 o C). Each fraction was analyzed composition of fatty acid ethyl esters using gas chromatography (GC). The result showed that the yield medium chain fatty acid ethyl...
Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction
Sim, Min Sub
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...
Deriving emissions time series from sparse atmospheric mole fractions
Rigby, Matthew
A growth-based Bayesian inverse method is presented for deriving emissions of atmospheric trace species from temporally sparse measurements of their mole fractions. This work is motivated by many recent studies that have ...
THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT
Martini, Paul
The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and ...
Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation
Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.
-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered...
aln mole fraction: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically. P. Merlatti; G. Sabella 2001-01-11 431 The Geometry of Fractional D1-branes HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We...
acid oxidase fraction: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically. P. Merlatti; G. Sabella 2001-01-11 436 The Geometry of Fractional D1-branes HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We...
aragonitic fraction essais: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically. P. Merlatti; G. Sabella 2001-01-11 397 The Geometry of Fractional D1-branes HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We...
The fractionation and characterization of two North American lignites
Garcia Juan Manuel
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
THE FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN LIGNITES A Thesis by 3UAN MANUEL GARCIA, III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Chemistry THE FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN LIGNITES A Thesis by 3UAN MANUEL GARCIA, III Approved as to style and content by: alph A. Zin ro (Chair of Committee) ~o/A Daniel H. O...
Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity
Avirett, Donald Baker
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR NUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EVALUATING GUAYULE RESIN FRACTIONS FOR MUTAGENICITY AND TOXICITY A Thesis by DONALD BAKER AVIRETT Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...
Wythe, Kathy
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
these data with predictions from the IPCC. Professor of geography at Texas State University, Dr. David Butler, does climate change research mainly in the Rocky Moun- tains with U.S. Geological Survey funding. He has also done research on how climate...://wiid.twdb.state.tx.us Detailed information about individual water wells. This system uses a geographic information system-based tool to show locations of water wells and download data on water levels and water quality. Reports that were developed about on-site conditions...
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference MaterialsChange Log
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference MaterialsChange
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference6-02-01Change Number
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference6-02-01Change
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference6-02-01Change20-02-01
Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus
Steimke, J.L.
1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test.
Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe
Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.
2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.
Models of three-dimensional fractional topological insulators
Joseph Maciejko; Xiao-Liang Qi; Andreas Karch; Shou-Cheng Zhang
2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
Time-reversal invariant three-dimensional topological insulators can be defined fundamentally by a topological field theory with a quantized axion angle theta of zero or pi. It was recently shown that fractional quantized values of theta are consistent with time-reversal invariance if deconfined, gapped, fractionally charged bulk excitations appear in the low-energy spectrum due to strong correlation effects, leading to the concept of a fractional topological insulator. These fractionally charged excitations are coupled to emergent gauge fields which ensure that the microscopic degrees of freedom, the original electrons, are gauge-invariant objects. A first step towards the construction of microscopic models of fractional topological insulators is to understand the nature of these emergent gauge theories and their corresponding phases. In this work, we show that low-energy effective gauge theories of both Abelian or non-Abelian type are consistent with a fractional quantized axion angle if they admit a Coulomb phase or a Higgs phase with gauge group broken down to a discrete subgroup. The Coulomb phases support gapless but electrically neutral bulk excitations while the Higgs phases are fully gapped. The Higgs and non-Abelian Coulomb phases exhibit multiple ground states on boundaryless spatial 3-manifolds with nontrivial first homology, while the Abelian Coulomb phase has a unique ground state. The ground state degeneracy receives an additional contribution on manifolds with boundary due to the induced boundary Chern-Simons term.
Johnson, W.C. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography); Martin, C.W. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to perceived uncertainties associated with humate-derived C-14 ages from buried soils, samples were collected and dated from buried A horizons developed in alluvium and loess within the Kansas River basin of Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Soils range in age from c. 30ka to latest Holocene. Samples were split, sent to two laboratories (SMU and Pittsburgh), and fractionated. Ages were determined from three fractions: total bulk, base-soluble (humic acid), and residue (humins). For individual samples, a significant age difference exists among the three fractions, with very little interlaboratory variation. No apparent relationship exists among the three fractions dated; the residual fraction is not consistently the oldest as anticipated, and the total humate fraction is not the youngest. Percent variation among fractions may be a depth/age function for soils within a given profile of sequence. Delta C-13 values derived from the different fractions indicate more negative values for the total humate fraction. Percent variation in delta C-13 values among the three fractions seems unrelated to age or depth. A strong paleoclimatic signal is contained within the temporal record of delta C-13 values derived from soils dating c. 36-1ka. Warm-season (C4-type) grasses were apparently more important in the middle Holocene period of aridity (Altithermal). Change from a cooler environment of the latest Pleistocene to the relatively warmer conditions of the earliest Holocene is recorded in the humates distributed within the A horizon of the Brady geosol. Humates from the Gilman Canyon Formation geosol dating c. 36-20ka exhibit delta C-13 values indicating an initial warm-season grass environment which subsequently evolved into a cool-season grass environment.
Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for Two-Level and Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Xu, Hongquan; Lau, Sovia
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics 3, 311–three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs.of three-level fractional factorial designs. UCLA Statistics
Minimum Aberration Blocking Schemes for Two-Level and Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs
Hongquan Xu; Sovia Lau
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics 3, 311–three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs.of three-level fractional factorial designs. UCLA Statistics
On the analysis method of effective delayed neutron fraction at thermal neutron systems
Nakajima, K.; Unesaki, H. [Research Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ., Asashiro-Nishi 2, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The effective delayed neutron fraction (beta-effective) was numerically analyzed with different analysis methods, and their effects on the results were investigated. The cores investigated in this study were light-water moderated low enriched UO{sub 2} lattices, of which the beta-effective had been reported. The effects of transport/diffusion calculation, energy group collapsing, and change of nuclear data library were studied. The study showed that the diffusion calculation with coarse group cross section gave smaller beta-effective than the transport one with fine group cross section, although the difference was not so large, about 2%. On the other hand, the change of nuclear data library from JENDL-3.3 to ENDF/B-VI.8 gave a significant difference, over than 4%. In comparisons with the experiments, it was indicated that the delayed neutron data in JENDL-3.3 are more reliable than those in ENDF/B-VI.8. (authors)
Spriggs, G.D.; Campbell, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, R.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
When calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} for a given reactor system, the assumed delayed neutron group spectra and the assumed number of delayed neutrons born per fission {nu}{sub d} can have a major impact on the final value. Over the years, the recommended values for the delayed neutron spectra and for {nu}{sub d} have slowly changed. To ascertain whether or not these changes have increased the accuracy of {beta}{sub eff} calculations in fast {sup 235}U systems, the authors have reevaluated {beta}{sub eff} for the benchmark system Godiva-I using newly calculated delayed neutron spectra and Tuttle`s recommended values of {nu}{sub d} for both {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U.
DeWolf, M; Bassok, M; Holyoak, KJ
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
disseminated broadly. OTO fraction PWR NOTO fraction Decimala part- to-whole ratio (PWR) is the relation between theof relationships. The PWR is a conventional relationship for
Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics
Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad de La Laguna, 38271 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Trujillo, Juan J., E-mail: jtrujill@ullmat.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad de La Laguna, 38271 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media.
Measurement of Prominent {eta}-Decay Branching Fractions
Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] (and others)
2007-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
The decay {psi}(2S){yields}{eta}J/{psi} is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent {eta}-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for {eta} decays to {gamma}{gamma}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, 3{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma}, accounting for 99.9% of all {eta} decays. The precision of several of the branching fractions and their ratios is improved. Two channels, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -}{gamma}, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.
Limits on flavor changing neutral currents in D-0 meson Decays
Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan
1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have searched for flavor changing neutral currents and lepton family number violations in D-0 meson decays. The upper limits on the branching fractions ...
Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm.sup.3 ].sup.1/2 with polar components in the 1.8-3.0 range and hydrogen bonding components in the 2-4.8 range and the recovery of the product extract from the solvent with no further purification being needed for use in adhesives and molding compounds. The product extract is characterized as being a mixture of very different compounds having a wide variety of chemical functionalities, including phenolic, carbonyl, aldehyde, methoxyl, vinyl and hydroxyl. The use of the product extract on phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins is shown to have advantages over the conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins.
Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant
Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
1998-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.
Fractional Power-Law Spatial Dispersion in Electrodynamics
Tarasov, Vasily E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb's law and Debye's screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type.
Fluorescent spectra of chromatographic fractions of crude oils
Dixon, William Samuel
1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. For this investigation, n-heptane, cyclohexane, iso-octane, benzene, chloroform, ether, and methanol were used in that order. The volume of eluent depended upon the size of the charged crude. Splitting sess eluent charges into two or three fractions gave a... better fractionat. '. on. hecovery of the oil raried from BO. Q to 89. 5 per cent on tests on four different crudes. Analysis of the fractions in iso-prapyl ether 'by spectrographic means revealed a distinct di ference between the crude oils...
Chaotic vibrations of the duffing system with fractional damping
Syta, Arkadiusz; Litak, Grzegorz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin (Poland)] [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, PL-20-618 Lublin (Poland); Lenci, Stefano [Department of Civil and Building Engineering, and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)] [Department of Civil and Building Engineering, and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Scheffler, Michael [Institut für Festkörpermechanik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut für Festkörpermechanik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We examined the Duffing system with a fractional damping term. Calculating the basins of attraction, we demonstrate a broad spectrum of non-linear behaviour connected with sensitivity to the initial conditions and chaos. To quantify dynamical response of the system, we propose the statistical 0-1 test as well as the maximal Lyapunov exponent; the application of the latter encounter a few difficulties because of the memory effect due to the fractional derivative. The results are confirmed by bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits, and Poincaré sections.
None
1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Initial work in a project on the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary integrated energy systems is reported. Information is included on a market assessment, design methodology, evaluation of engine thermodynamic performance, and preliminary system design. It is concluded that Stirling engines employing clean fossil fuels cannot compete with diesel engines. However, combustion technology exists for the successful burning of coal-derived fuels in a large stationary stirling engine. High thermal efficiency is predicted for such an engine and further development work is recommended. (LCL)
A CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROUGH PATH ABOVE FRACTIONAL ...
2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
fractional Brownian motion B with any Hurst parameter H ? (0,1), by means ... Rough paths analysis is a theory introduced by Terry Lyons in the pioneering ... functions with finite p-variation with p > 1, or by Hölder continuous functions of order ...
Parameter Estimation Using Dual Fractional Power Filters Jason M. Kinser
Kinser, Jason M.
discriminant functions (SDF) which are reviewed in ref. 9. Unlike the previous methods, the SDF class of the SDF class. These filters are Fractional Power Filters (FPFs) which will be reviewed in Section 2 is a superset of two standard SDF-class filters: the SDF and the MACE filter. This section will review the SDF
Chaos expansion of local time of fractional Brownian motions
Hu, Yaozhong; Oksendal, B.
2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We find the chaos expansion of local time l(T)((H))(x, (.)) of fractional Brownian motion with Hurst coefficient H is an element of (0, 1) at a point x is an element of R-d. As an application we show that when H(0)d < 1 then l...
Stochastic calculus for fractional Brownian motion - I. Theory
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Hu, Yaozhong; Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper a stochastic calculus is given for the fractional Brownian motions that have the Hurst parameter in (1/2, 1). A stochastic integral of Ito type is defined for a family of integrands so that the integral has zero mean and an explicit...
General teleportation channel, singlet fraction and quasi-distillation
Pawel Horodecki; Michal Horodecki; Ryszard Horodecki
1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
We prove a theorem on direct relation between the optimal fidelity $f_{max}$ of teleportation and the maximal singlet fraction $F_{max}$ attainable by means of trace-preserving LQCC action (local quantum and classical communication). For a given bipartite state acting on $C^d\\otimes C^d$ we have $f_{max}= {F_{max}d+1\\over d+1}$. We assume completely general teleportation scheme (trace preserving LQCC action over the pair and the third particle in unknown state). The proof involves the isomorphism between quantum channels and a class of bipartite states. We also exploit the technique of $U\\otimes U^*$ twirling states (random application of unitary transformation of the above form) and the introduced analogous twirling of channels. We illustrate the power of the theorem by showing that {\\it any} bound entangled state does not provide better fidelity of teleportation than for the purely classical channel. Subsequently, we apply our tools to the problem of the so-called conclusive teleportation, then reduced to the question of optimal conclusive increasing of singlet fraction. We provide an example of state for which Alice and Bob have no chance to obtain perfect singlet by LQCC action, but still singlet fraction arbitrarily close to unity can be obtained with nonzero probability. We show that a slight modification of the state has a threshold for singlet fraction which cannot be exceeded anymore.
Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance
Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.
Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess
Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction
Kowalczyk, Dennis C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bricklemyer, Bruce A. (Avonmore, PA); Svoboda, Joseph J. (Pittsburgh, PA)
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone (24) and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment.
Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction
Kowalczyk, D.C.; Bricklemyer, B.A.; Svoboda, J.J.
1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z
Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment. 2 figs.
Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel
Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu
2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila Sitindra S Accepted 7 September 2013 Available online 16 September 2013 a b s t r a c t Hydrogen isotope ratio values from recording the hydrogen isotope composition of ambient water, dD values of lipids also depend
The fractional Galois ideal for arbitrary order of vanishing
Buckingham, Paul
. The Stickelberger ideal can be seen as gathering information about those L-functions of the ex- tension which of prime-power conductor, though the behaviour of the fractional ideal J (L/K) was similar when K was made even more apparent in [2]. There, we took an inverse limit of the J (Ln/Q) in a cyclotomic tower L
Fractionation apparatus providing improved heat recovery from bottom stream
Farnham, R.A.
1981-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
An energy efficient design of fractionation column in which the liquid at the column bottom must be cooled to prevent thermal degradation, the column being provided with a perforated annular baffle through which liquid from the lowermost tray is channeled to the outlet of the column bottom, while a body of cooler recycled liquid is maintained in the column bottom outside of said baffle.
ORIGINAL PAPER Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in fresh
Hu, Qinhong "Max"
, such as coal-mining activities, and to understand the fate of arsenic following environmen- tal releaseORIGINAL PAPER Fractionation and speciation of arsenic in fresh and combusted coal wastes from, the content and speciation of arsenic in coal waste and gas condensates from coal waste fires were
CONTINUED FRACTIONS AND RSA WITH SMALL SECRET EXPONENT
Dujella, Andrej
CONTINUED FRACTIONS AND RSA WITH SMALL SECRET EXPONENT ANDREJ DUJELLA Abstract. Extending of Verheul and van Tilborg variant of Wiener's attack on RSA cryptosystem with small secret exponent. 1 of two large primes p and q. The public exponent e and the secret exponent d are related by ed 1 (mod (n
(Carbon isotope fractionation in plants): Annual technical progress report
O'Leary, M.H.
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Plants fractionate carbon isotopes during photosynthesis in ways which reflect photosynthetic pathway and environment. The fractionation is product of contributions from diffusion, carboxylation and other factors which can be understood using models which have been developed in our work. The object of our work is to use this fractionation to learn about the factors which control the efficiency of photosynthesis. Unlike previous studies, we do not rely principally on combustion methods, but instead develop more specific methods with substantially higher resolving power. We have recently developed a new short-term method for studying carbon isotope fractionation which promises to provide a level of detail about temperature, species, and light intensity effects on photosynthesis which has not been available until now. We are studying the isotopic compositions of metabolites (particularly aspartic acid) in C/sub 3/ plants in order to determine the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C/sub 3/ photosynthesis. We are studying the relative roles of diffusion and carboxylation in nocturnal CO/sub 2/ fixation in CAM plants. We are studying the use of isotopic content as an index of water-use efficiency in C/sub 3/ plants. We are developing new methods for studying carbon metabolism in plants. 3 refs
accident release fractions: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
accident release fractions First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The GALEX Arecibo SDSS...
EFFECTIVE WAVELET-BASED REGULARIZATION OF DIVERGENCE-FREE FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
EFFECTIVE WAVELET-BASED REGULARIZATION OF DIVERGENCE-FREE FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION P. H´EAS, S-free fractional Brownian Motion (fBm). The method is based on fractional Laplacian and divergence-free waveletBm priors, by simply sampling wavelet coefficients according to Gaussian white noise. Fractional Laplacians
Measurement of the Fractional Thermonuclear Neutron Yield during Deuterium Neutral-Beam Injection into Deuterium Plasmas
FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION
F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson
2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.
Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California
Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California
Changes in Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Palmitic Acid
Zasadzinski, Joseph A.
Changes in Model Lung Surfactant Monolayers Induced by Palmitic Acid Frank Bringezu, Junqi Ding of model lung surfactant lipid monolayers. Adding increasing fractions of palmitic acid (PA) to a 77/23 (wt to the rational design of replacement lung surfactants for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome
Coriat, P.; Mundler, O.; Bousseau, D.; Fauchet, M.; Rous, A.C.; Echter, E.; Viars, P.
1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin.
Branching Fraction Measurement of B to omega l nu decays
Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..
2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
We present a measurement of the B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu} branching fraction based on a sample of 467 million B{bar B} pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe 1041 {+-} 133 signal decays, corresponding to a branching fraction of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.15 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The dependence of the decay rate on q{sup 2}, the momentum transfer squared to the lepton system, is compared to QCD predictions of the form factors based on a quark model and light-cone sum rules.
Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions
Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.
1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction. 9 figs.
Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions
Jandrasits, Walter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kikta, Thomas J. (Upper St. Clair, PA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.
A supersymmetric holographic dual of a fractional topological insulator
Martin Ammon; Michael Gutperle
2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
We construct a supersymmetric generalization of the holographic dual of a fractional topological insulator found in \\cite{HoyosBadajoz:2010ac}. This is accomplished by introducing a nontrivial gauge field on the world volume of the probe D7 brane. The BPS equations are derived from the $\\kappa$-symmetry transformation of the probe brane. The BPS equations are shown to reduce to two first oder nonlinear partial differential equations. Solutions of the BPS equations correspond to a probe brane configuration which preserves four of the thirty-two supersymmetries of the $AdS_5\\times S^5$ background. Solutions of the BPS equations which correspond to a holographic fractional topological insulator are obtained numerically.
? b ? ? ? + ? ? form factors and differential branching fraction from lattice QCD
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Detmold, William; Lin, C.-J. David; Meinel, Stefan; Wingate, Matthew
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first lattice QCD determination of the ?b?? transition form factors that govern the rare baryonic decays ?b??l?l? at leading order in heavy-quark effective theory. Our calculations are performed with 2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermions, at two lattice spacings and with pion masses down to 227 MeV. Three-point functions with a wide range of source-sink separations are used to extract the ground-state contributions. The form factors are extrapolated to the physical values of the light-quark masses and to the continuum limit. We use our results to calculate the differential branching fractions for ?b??l?l? with l=e, ?, ? within the standard model. We find agreement with a recent CDF measurement of the ?b?????? differential branching fraction.
Mechanism governing separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation devices
Sumedh R. Risbud; German Drazer
2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z
We present a computational investigation of the mechanism governing size-based particle separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation. We study the behavior of particles moving through a pinching gap (i.e., a constriction in the aperture of a channel) in the Stokes regime as a function of particle size. The constriction aperture is created by a plane wall and spherical obstacle, and emulates the pinching segment in pinched flow fractionation devices. The simulation results show that the distance of closest approach between the particle and obstacle surfaces (along a trajectory) decreases with increasing particle size. We then use the distance of closest approach to investigate the effect of short-range repulsive non-hydrodynamic interactions (e.g., solid-solid contact). We define a critical trajectory as the one in which the minimum particle-obstacle separation is equal to the range of the non-hydrodynamic interactions. The results further show that the initial offset of the critical trajectory (defined as the critical offset) increases with particle size. We interpret the variation of the critical offset with particle size as the basis for size-based microfluidic separation in pinched flow fractionation. We also compare the effect of different driving fields on the particle trajectories; we simulate a constant force driving the particles in a quiescent fluid as well as a freely suspended particles in a pressure-driven flow. We observe that the particles driven by a constant force approach closer to the obstacle than those suspended in a flow (for the same initial offset). On the other hand, the increment in the critical offset (as a function of particle size) is larger in the pressure-driven case than in the force-driven case. Thus, pressure-driven particle separation using pinched flow fractionation would prove more effective than its force-driven counterpart.
Baytown Xylene Fractionation Energy Reduction using Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC)
Hokanson, D.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Outline • Baytown Chemical Complex • Xylene Fractionation Overview • Dynamic Matrix Control • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-33 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology... Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 3Baytown Chemical / Refining Complex ExxonMobil Baytown Refining & Chemical Complex • One of world’s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes, in operation since 1919...
Renormalized self-intersection local time for fractional Brownian motion
Hu, Yaozhong; Nualart, David
2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
University of Kansas and Universitat de Barcelona Let BHt be a d-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H ? (0,1). Assume d ? 2. We prove that the renormalized self- intersection local time #1; = ? T 0 ? t 0 ?(BHt ? B H s )ds dt ? E... ( ? T 0 ? t 0 ?(BHt ? B H s )ds dt ) exists in L2 if and only if H H ? 32d , r(?)#1...
Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction
Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes
2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations P_ABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution (P_ABE)^N, assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the 'quality' of the distilled secret bits is optimized, where the 'quality' is quantified by the secret-bit fraction of the result. The secret-bit fraction of a binary distribution is the proportion which constitutes a secret bit between Alice and Bob. With local operations and public communication the maximal extractable secret-bit fraction from a distribution P_ABE is found, and is denoted by Lambda[P_ABE]. This quantity is shown to be nonincreasing under local operations and public communication, and nondecreasing under eavesdropper's local operations: it is a secrecy monotone. It is shown that if Lambda[P_ABE]>1/2 then P_ABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple expression for Lambda[P_ABE] is found when the eavesdropper is decoupled, and when the honest parties' information is binary and the local operations are reversible. Intriguingly, for general distributions the (optimal) operation requires local degradation of the data.
Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of benign meningiomas
Candish, Charles [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: mmckenzi@bccancer.bc.edu; Clark, Brenda G. [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ma, Roy [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Lee, Richard [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vollans, Emily [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Robar, James [Department of Medical Physics, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Gete, Ermias [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Martin, Monty [Department of Radiology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To assess the use of stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) for the treatment of meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between April 1999 and October 2004, 38 patients underwent SRT. Of 34 patients (36 tumors) assessed, the median age was 53 years. The indication was primary treatment in 26 cases (no histology) and postoperative in 10 cases. The most common sites were cavernous sinus (17), optic nerve (6), and cerebellopontine angle (5). The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 8.9 cm{sup 3} and 18.9 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Stereotactic treatment was delivered with 6-MV photons with static conformal fields (custom-made blocks, 9 patients, and micromultileaf collimator, 25 patients). Median number of fields was six. The median dose prescribed was 50 Gy (range, 45-50.4 Gy) in 28 fractions. The median homogeneity and conformality indices were 1.1 and 1.79, respectively. Results: Treatment was well tolerated. Median follow-up was 26 months with 100% progression-free survival. One patient developed an area of possible radionecrosis related to previous radiotherapy, and 2 men developed mild hypogonadism necessitating testosterone replacement. The vision of 5 of 6 patients with optic pathway meningiomas improved or remained static. Conclusions: Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of meningiomas is practical, and with early follow-up, seems to be effective.
Environmental Change Institute Environmental Change Institute
Oxford, University of
Environmental Change Institute 2012/13 eci Environmental Change Institute #12;ii Environmental 06 Educating environmental leaders 08 Centre for interdisciplinary doctoral training 10 A thriving, Dumfriesshire (ECI) #12;1 The Environmental Change Institute has 21 years' experience in helping governments
Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing
Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials
John P. Selegue
2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.
Spagnolo, Filippo
1 CONTENTS 1. Fractions: conceptual and didactic aspects...........................................................................263 #12;2 #12;3 Fractions: conceptual and didactic aspects Martha Isabel FandiÃ±o Pinilla NRD Bologna
Isotopic Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with Carbonate Minerals. Isotopic Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with Carbonate Minerals. Abstract: Density...
Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.
Onufrock, Amy Mildred
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, coal, and oil shale vary widely in the amount and nature of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, potential carcinogenicity varies widely between representative PAH fractions derived from complex mixtures. PAH fractions...
Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants
Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars
Cowan, John
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars Ian U. Roederer*, James E isotopic fractions of europium (Eu), samarium (Sm), and neodymium (Nd) in two metal-poor giants
EUROPIUM, SAMARIUM, AND NEODYMIUM ISOTOPIC FRACTIONS IN METAL-POOR STARS Ian U. Roederer,1
Cowan, John
EUROPIUM, SAMARIUM, AND NEODYMIUM ISOTOPIC FRACTIONS IN METAL-POOR STARS Ian U. Roederer,1 James E Received 2007 August 15; accepted 2007 November 12 ABSTRACT We have derived isotopic fractions of europium
Isoscaling and Isospin Fractionation in the Lattice Gas Model
Ma, Y G; Wei, Y B; Ma, G L; Cai, X Z; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Guo, W; Shen, W Q; Tian, W D; Zhong, C
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The isoscaling behavior is investigated using the isotopic/isobaric yields from the equilibrated thermal source which is prepared by the lattice gas model for lighter systems with A = 36. The isoscaling parameters $\\alpha$ and -$\\beta$ are observed to drop with temperature. The difference of neutron and proton chemical potential shows a turning point around 5 MeV where the liquid gas phase transition occurs in the model. The relative free neutron or proton density shows a nearly linear relation with the N/Z (neutron to proton ratio) of system and the isospin fractionation is observed.
Evaluating guayule resin fractions for mutagenicity and toxicity
Avirett, Donald Baker
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
microorganism, Il. The system measures the inhibitory effects of test substances upon the normal light producing ability of the bacteria. The purpose of this investigation was to assess several fractions of guayule resin for mutagenicity using the Ames ~a... Salm~ test is a short ? term microbial test using a mutant form of ~(IB~ EEI1~~g bacteria for assaying mutagenic activity of chemicals. It is termed an in-vitro test versus an in-vivo test (using laboratory animals), which is more expensive and time...
Climate change cripples forests
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...
Climate change cripples forests
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural...
Modelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction
Feltham, Daniel
of their length by a particular fraction, the ice pack deformation is neglected and the wind stress is rotatedModelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction Alexander V. WILCHINSKY-1290, USA ABSTRACT. A discrete-element model of sea ice is used to study how a 908 change in wind direction
Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.
Kwok Sau Fa; E. K. Lenzi
2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, fractional derivatives have been employed to analyze various systems in engineering, physics, finance and hidrology. For instance, they have been used to investigate anomalous diffusion processes which are present in different physical systems like: amorphous semicondutors, polymers, composite heterogeneous films and porous media. They have also been used to calculate the heat load intensity change in blast furnace walls, to solve problems of control theory \\ and dynamic problems of linear and nonlinear hereditary mechanics of solids. In this work, we investigate the scaling properties related to the nonlinear fractional diffusion equations and indicate the possibilities to the applications of these equations to simulate the water transport in unsaturated soils. Usually, the water transport in soils with anomalous diffusion, the dependence of concentration on time and distance may be expressed in term of a single variable given by $\\lambda _{q}=x/t^{q}.$ In particular, for $q=1/2$ the systems obey Fick's law and Richards' equation for water transport. We show that a generalization of Richards' equation via fractional approach can incorporate the above property.
Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation
Skogestad, Sigurd
Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation · The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator (C1) and a main column (C21 and C22) N-7465 Trondheim, Norway Abstract This work shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one
Transformation Property of the Caputo Fractional Differential Operator in Two Dimensional Space
Ehab Malkawi
2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
The transformation property of the Caputo fractional derivative operator of a scalar function under rotation in two dimensional space is derived. The study of the transformation property is essential for the formulation of fractional calculus in multi-dimensional space. The inclusion of fractional calculus in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics relies on such transformation. An illustrative example is given.
Statistical comparison of two-phase flow, void fraction fluctuations in a microgravity environment
Chang, Jae Ho
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A two-phase flow experiment was flown aboard the NASA KC-135 zero gravity aircraft to test void fraction sensors and collect void fraction data under the unique conditions of microgravity. Void fraction measurements were made by two capacitance void...
. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its, HEAVY PETROLEUM FRACTIONS, AND ASPHALTENES Franco Cataldo1,2 , D. A. GarcíaHernández3,4 , Arturo of heavy petroleum fractions namely "Distillate Aromatic Extract" (DAE), "Residual Aromatic Extract" (RAE
HERTING DL
2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z
The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.
Statistical comparison of two-phase flow, void fraction fluctuations in a microgravity environment
Chang, Jae Ho
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A two-phase flow experiment was flown aboard the NASA KC-135 zero gravity aircraft to test void fraction sensors and collect void fraction data under the unique conditions of microgravity. Void fraction measurements were made by two capacitance void...
Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges Roger Raman meet., 8-10/10/03 CT Injection has the potential to meet future high bootstrap current fraction, steady-state discharge fueling needs · Future high bootstrap fraction plasmas require optimized profiles · During high
Lie group classifications and exact solutions for time-fractional Burgers equation
Guo-cheng Wu
2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z
Lie group method provides an efficient tool to solve nonlinear partial differential equations. This paper suggests a fractional Lie group method for fractional partial differential equations. A time-fractional Burgers equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the Lie group method and some classes of exact solutions are obtained.
Aqueous fractionation of biomass based on novel carbohydrate hydrolysis kinetics
Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising: a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about 185.degree. C.-205.degree. C. b) allowing the reaction to proceed to a point where about 60% of the hemicellulose has been hydrolyzed in the case of water or complete dissolution in case of acid; c) adding a dilute acid liquid at a pH below about 5 at a temperature of up to about 205.degree. C. for a period ranging from about 5 to about 10 minutes; to hydrolyze the remaining 40% of hemicellulose if water is used. d) quenching the reaction at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to quench all degradation and hydrolysis reactions; and e) introducing into said reaction chamber and simultaneously removing from said reaction chamber, a volumetric flow rate of dilute acid at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to wash out the majority of the solubilized biomass components, to obtain improved hemicellosic sugar yields.
THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS
Clark, Benjamin M. [Penn Manor High School, 100 East Cottage Avenue, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States); Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.
Mechanism governing separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation devices
Risbud, Sumedh R
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a computational investigation of the mechanism governing size-based particle separation in microfluidic pinched flow fractionation. We study the behavior of particles moving through a pinching gap (i.e., a constriction in the aperture of a channel) in the Stokes regime as a function of particle size. The constriction aperture is created by a plane wall and spherical obstacle, and emulates the pinching segment in pinched flow fractionation devices. The simulation results show that the distance of closest approach between the particle and obstacle surfaces (along a trajectory) decreases with increasing particle size. We then use the distance of closest approach to investigate the effect of short-range repulsive non-hydrodynamic interactions (e.g., solid-solid contact). We define a critical trajectory as the one in which the minimum particle-obstacle separation is equal to the range of the non-hydrodynamic interactions. The results further show that the initial offset of the critical trajectory (defin...
Kitakabu, Y.; Shibamoto, Y.; Sasai, K.; Ono, K.; Abe, M. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))
1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Variations of the hypoxic fraction (HF) after single dose (13 Gy or 4 Gy) and during fractionated (5 fractions of 4 Gy, 1 or 2 fractions per day) radiation therapy were studied in SCC VII tumors implanted subcutaneously in the hind legs of C3H/He/Jms mice using the paired survival curve method. Whole-body irradiation was delivered to tumor-bearing mice without anesthesia or physical restraint, because both are known to increase the HF artificially. The HF decreased after a single 13 Gy dose in a biphasic fashion: extremely rapidly within 1 hr and comparatively slowly during the following 12-72 hr. On the other hand, nearly no fall of HF was observed in 24 hr following a single 4 Gy dose. Also, reoxygenation was found to occur more rapidly in the interfraction period as the number of fractions of 4 Gy increased irrespective of differences of interfraction time. However, the HF just before each radiation fraction was significantly higher than the pretreatment level for both fractionated regimens. Thus, the reoxygenation patterns observed after single low and high doses of irradiation were different from each other, and reoxygenation in each interfraction period did not always proceed in a similar manner to that after single low dose irradiation. Reoxygenation was facilitated as fractionated radiation therapy proceeded, but it was not sufficient for the HF to remain at a level comparable to that before irradiation.
Data:8c741834-bbf3-414c-8aca-cc1449f47ffd | Open Energy Information
basis. DETERMINATION OF HORSEPOWER The horsepower for billing purposes shall be the motor manufacturer's nameplate rating of horsepower output, except that if the Cooperative...
Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...
Emergent Fermi surfaces, fractionalization and duality in supersymmetric QED
Anson Hook; Shamit Kachru; Gonzalo Torroba; Huajia Wang
2014-07-13T23:59:59.000Z
We study the physics of 3d supersymmetric abelian gauge theories (with small supersymmetry breaking perturbations) at finite density. Using mirror symmetry, which provides a natural generalization of the duality between the XY model and the abelian Higgs model but now including fermionic fields, we see many dynamical phenomena conjectured to be of relevance in condensed matter systems. In particular, we find examples of the emergence of a Fermi surface at low energies from hybridization of fermions localized at magnetic defects at high energies, as well as fractionalization of charged fermions into spinon-holon pairs with the concomitant appearance of emergent gauge fields. We also find dual descriptions for Fermi surfaces coupled to critical bosons, which give rise to non-Fermi liquids.
CORRELATING INFALL WITH DEUTERIUM FRACTIONATION IN DENSE CORES
Schnee, Scott; Brunetti, Nathan; Friesen, Rachel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Pon, Andy [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Caselli, Paola, E-mail: sschnee@nrao.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a survey of HCO{sup +} (3-2) observations pointed toward dense cores with previous measurements of N(N{sub 2}D{sup +})/N(N{sub 2}H{sup +}). Of the 26 cores in this survey, 5 show the spectroscopic signature of outward motion, 9 exhibit neither inward nor outward motion, 11 appear to be infalling, and 1 is not detected. We compare the degree of deuterium fractionation with infall velocities calculated from the HCO{sup +} spectra and find that those cores with [D]/[H] > 0.1 are more likely to have the signature of inward motions than cores with smaller [D]/[H] ratios. Infall motions are also much more common in cores with masses exceeding their thermal Jeans masses. The fastest infall velocity measured belongs to one of the two protostellar cores in our survey, L1521F, and the observed motions are typically on the order of the sound speed.
Measurement of the branching fractions of ?(+)(c)?pKn(?)
Baringer, Philip S.
1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
PHYSICAL REVIEW D 1 APRIL 1998VOLUME 57, NUMBER 7Measurement of the branching fractions of Lc1?pK¯ n?p? M. S. Alam,1 S. B. Athar,1 Z. Ling,1 A. H. Mahmood,1 H. Severini,1 S. Timm,1 F. Wappler,1 A. Anastassov,2 J. E. Duboscq,2 D. Fujino,2,* K. K. Gan...6 le Physics, Canada , Que´bec, Canada H3A 2T8 le Physics, Canada a, New York 14850 wrence, Kansas 66045 neapolis, Minnesota 55455 ublished 18 February 1998! SR, we report new measurements of the branching into pK2p1p0, pK¯ 0, pK¯ 0p1p2, and pK¯ 0p0...
Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development
Cole, Daniel H.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.
"Managing Department Climate Change"
Sheridan, Jennifer
"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate Ronda
Yin, Chien-Ni
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Change in historic buildings is inevitable. If these changes are not well-managed, the cityscape will be threatened because a city is composed of buildings. A good city should combine both growth and preservation. Controlling ...
Forest Research: Climate Change
Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes
existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change
Nebraska-Lincoln, University of
1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet
Assessing EC-4 preservice teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching fractions concepts
Wright, Kimberly Boddie
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
literature, with 20 years of NAEP data highlighting the fact that only about one-third of students up to the seventh grade have been successful in determining fraction equivalency since the 1970s (Kamii & Clark, 1995). With a significant body... tendency in elementary students to over generalize the meanings of symbolic whole number representations to fractions. In the area of fraction equivalency, Kamii and Clark (1995) interviewed 120 fifth and sixth-grade students, asking them to compare two...
General teleportation channel, singlet fraction and quasi-distillation
Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We prove a theorem on direct relation between the optimal fidelity $f_{max}$ of teleportation and the maximal singlet fraction $F_{max}$ attainable by means of trace-preserving LQCC action (local quantum and classical communication). For a given bipartite state acting on $C^d\\otimes C^d$ we have $f_{max}= {F_{max}d+1\\over d+1}$. We assume completely arbitrary teleportation schemes (trace preserving LQCC action over the pair and the third particle in unknown state). The proof involves the isomorphism between quantum channels and a class of bipartite states. We also exploit the technique of $U\\otimes U^*$ twirling states (random application of unitary transformation of the above form) and the introduced analogous twirling of channels. We illustrate the power of the theorem by showing that {\\it any} bound entangled state does not provide better fidelity of teleportation than for the purely classical channel. Subsequently, we apply our tools to the problem of the so-called conclusive teleportation, then reduced t...
Delayed feedback control of fractional-order chaotic systems
Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Trifce Sandev; Viktor Urumov
2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states and unstable periodic orbits in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method. By performing a linear stability analysis, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parametrizad by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. We demonstrate that the method can also stabilize unstable periodic orbits for a suitable choice of the feedback gain, providing that the time delay is chosen to coincide with the period of the target orbit. In addition, it is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a sinusoidally modulated time delay significantly enlarges the stability region of the steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.
What Fraction of Sun-like Stars have Planets?
Charles H. Lineweaver; Daniel Grether
2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
The radial velocities of ~1800 nearby Sun-like stars are currently being monitored by eight high-sensitivity Doppler exoplanet surveys. Approximately 90 of these stars have been found to host exoplanets massive enough to be detectable. Thus at least ~5% of target stars possess planets. If we limit our analysis to target stars that have been monitored the longest (~15 years), ~11% possess planets. If we limit our analysis to stars monitored the longest and whose low surface activity allow the most precise velocity measurements, ~25% possess planets. By identifying trends of the exoplanet mass and period distributions in a sub-sample of exoplanets less-biased by selection effects, and linearly extrapolating these trends into regions of parameter space that have not yet been completely sampled, we find at least ~9% of Sun-like stars have planets in the mass and orbital period ranges Msin(i) > 0.3 M_Jupiter and P 0.1 M_Jupiter and P < 60 years. Even this larger area of the mass-period plane is less than 20% of the area occupied by our planetary system, suggesting that this estimate is still a lower limit to the true fraction of Sun-like stars with planets, which may be as large as ~100%.
Well-posedness of the Space-Time Fractional Diffusion Problems ...
... and dynamics of a bead in polymer network, and so on. In this talk, we consider initial boundary value problems of the space-time fractional diffusion equation ...
Exploring Fractional Order Calculus as an Artificial Neural Network Augmentation Samuel Alan Gardner
Dyer, Bill
Exploring Fractional Order Calculus as an Artificial Neural Network Augmentation by Samuel Alan....................................................................................... 4 Artificial Neural Networks DESCRIPTION......................................................................... 22 Neural Network
Chakraborty, Subrata
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultravioletmeasurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition ofwavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in
Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles
Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radiocarbon evidence of fossil-carbon cycling in sediments1968), Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marineof particulate organic carbon using bomb 14 C, Nature,
Lyapunov exponents of a class of piecewise continuous systems of fractional order
Marius-F. Danca
2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we prove that a class of autonomous piecewise continuous systems of fractional order has well-defined Lyapunov exponents. For this purpose, based on some known results from differential inclusions of integer and fractional order and differential equations with discontinuous right-hand side, the associated discontinuous initial value problem is approximated with a continuous one of fractional order. Then, the Lyapunov exponents are numerically determined using, for example, the known Wolf's algorithm. Three examples of piecewise continuous chaotic systems of fractional order are simulated and analyzed: Sprott's system, Chen's system and Shimizu-Morioka's system.
CHANGING OUR WAYS SCOTLAND'S CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME
Introduction 15 Overview of emission trends at sector level 15 Energy sector 18 Transport sector 29 Agriculture, forestry and land use sector 37 Business sector 44 Residential sector 51 Public sector 56 Waste management in light of sound scientific evidence that Scotland's climate will change significantly over the coming
Characterization and fractionation by ultrafiltration of guayule resin
Daly, Monica Ann
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rubber Production. 2. Solute Flow Through GPC Column. 3. Comparison of UF, MF, and RO Processes. 4. Pressure Gradient in Tubular Membrane. 5. Flow Pattern for Hollow Tube Asymmetric UF Membranes. 6. Structure of an Asymmetric Tubular Membrane. 7... and the solution flowing across the membrane is referred to as the permeate (see Figure 5). Advantages of UF compared to other traditional separation processes are: 1) no phase change 2) fairly low pressure required for operation 3) operation at ambient...
Change Control Management Guide
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for managing project and contract changes through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. No cancellation.
Rottle, Nancy; Alberti, Marina
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ments and infrastructure; water shortages and higher tem-changes will also affect water availability and depriveof mil- lions of people of water. Food security will also be
Climate Change, Drought & Environment
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Climate Change, Drought, and Environment—Michael Champ, Executive Director, The Sustainable Water Challenge
Leadership Institutional Change Principle
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
For changing behavior among employees, leaders in Federal agencies should visibly communicate their own commitments to sustainability in the workplace. Such visible leadership will help achieve...
Albert, J B; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Jiang, X S; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Nelson, R; O'Sullivan, K; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Robinson, A; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wright, J D; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be propor...
J. B. Albert; D. J. Auty; P. S. Barbeau; D. Beck; V. Belov; M. Breidenbach; T. Brunner; A. Burenkov; G. F. Cao; C. Chambers; B. Cleveland; M. Coon; A. Craycraft; T. Daniels; M. Danilov; S. J. Daugherty; C. G. Davis; J. Davis; S. Delaquis; A. Der Mesrobian-Kabakian; R. DeVoe; T. Didberidze; A. Dolgolenko; M. J. Dolinski; M. Dunford; W. Fairbank Jr.; J. Farine; W. Feldmeier; P. Fierlinger; D. Fudenberg; R. Gornea; K. Graham; G. Gratta; C. Hall; M. Hughes; M. J. Jewell; X. S. Jiang; A. Johnson; T. N. Johnson; S. Johnston; A. Karelin; L. J. Kaufman; R. Killick; T. Koffas; S. Kravitz; A. Kuchenkov; K. S. Kumar; D. S. Leonard; C. Licciardi; Y. H. Lin; J. Ling; R. MacLellan; M. G. Marino; B. Mong; D. Moore; R. Nelson; K. O'Sullivan; A. Odian; I. Ostrovskiy; A. Piepke; A. Pocar; C. Y. Prescott; A. Robinson; P. C. Rowson; J. J. Russell; A. Schubert; D. Sinclair; E. Smith; V. Stekhanov; M. Tarka; T. Tolba; R. Tsang; K. Twelker; J. -L. Vuilleumier; A. Waite; J. Walton; T. Walton; M. Weber; L. J. Wen; U. Wichoski; J. D. Wright; J. Wood; L. Yang; Y. -R. Yen; O. Ya. Zeldovich
2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Alpha decays in the EXO-200 detector are used to measure the fraction of charged $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}$ daughters created from alpha and beta decays, respectively. $^{222}\\mathrm{Rn}$ alpha decays in liquid xenon (LXe) are found to produce $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions $50.3 \\pm 3.0\\%$ of the time, while the remainder of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ atoms are neutral. The fraction of $^{214}\\mathrm{Bi}^{+}$ from $^{214}\\mathrm{Pb}$ beta decays in LXe is found to be $76.4 \\pm 5.7\\%$, inferred from the relative rates of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ and $^{214}\\mathrm{Po}$ alpha decays in the LXe. The average velocity of $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}$ ions is observed to decrease for longer drift times. Initially the ions have a mobility of $0.390 \\pm 0.006~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$, and at long drift times the mobility is $0.219 \\pm 0.004~\\mathrm{cm}^2/(\\mathrm{kV}~\\mathrm{s})$. Time constants associated with the change in mobility during drift of the $^{218}\\mathrm{Po}^{+}$ ions are found to be proportional to the electron lifetime in the LXe.
Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites
Nemat-Nasser, Sia
Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites polyurea and the polyurea matrix for the composites based on IsonateÂ® 2143L (diisocyanate) and VersalinkÂ® P of the composites. Particle size and volume fraction were varied to study their effects on the tensile properties
Weak Solutions to a Fractional Fokker-Planck Equation via Splitting and Wasserstein Gradient Flow
Agueh, Martial
Malcolm Bowles , Martial Agueh Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, PO. BOX. 1700 STN CSC, Victoria B.C., V8W 2Y2, Canada. Abstract We study a linear fractional Fokker.math.uvic.ca/~agueh/ (Martial Agueh) Preprint submitted to Elsevier August 8, 2014 #12;according to the fractional heat equation
Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating
Skogestad, Sigurd
Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar Trondheim, Norway Keywords: Distillation, Petlyuk, Divided-wall, Minimum energy Abstract This paper shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may
Methanol Fractionation of Softwood Kraft Lignin: Impact on the Lignin Properties
Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Vautard, Frederic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tolnai, Balazs [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 C and a char yield of 47%, much higher than those of asreceived lignin (Tg 153 C, char yield 41%). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins.
Goddard III, William A.
Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights for oxygen- and carbon-isotope analysis of carbonate minerals since 1950, and was recently established of oxygen isotope acid digestion fractionations among different carbonate minerals. We suggest these results
How to Set the Fractional Power Control Compensation Factor in LTE ?
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
How to Set the Fractional Power Control Compensation Factor in LTE ? Marceau Coupechoux1, Jean-Les-Moulineaux, France jeanmarc.kelif@orange-ftgroup.com Abstract--The uplink power control procedure in Long Term focus on the former and study the compensation factor of the related Fractional Power Control (FPC
Oxide Electronic Conductivity and Hydrogen Pickup Fraction in Zr alloys Adrien Coueta
Motta, Arthur T.
and instantaneous hydrogen pickup fractions was measured using in-situ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS it with the observed hydrogen pickup fraction variations. In-Situ Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Impedance-up and oxide growth were precisely measured as a function of exposure time in an autoclave for a set
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Monthly variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of paragrass variation in crude protein, fibre fractions and mineral composition of forages collected in the pastures. The samples were dried, ground and analysed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid
A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy
Ashworth, Allison [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada) [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kong, Weidong [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Whelan, Timothy [Juravinski Cancer Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)] [Juravinski Cancer Center, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Mackillop, William J., E-mail: william.mackillop@krcc.on.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)
2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.
Mcdonough, William F.
Limited lithium isotopic fractionation during progressive metamorphic dehydration in metapelites-zone metamorphism far removed from the pluton to partially melted rocks adjacent to the pluton. Lithium on the aureole scale. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Lithium; Isotope fractionation; Metamorphic
A mechanical picture of fractional-order Darcy equation Luca Deseri a,b,c,d
Deseri, Luca
A mechanical picture of fractional-order Darcy equation Luca Deseri a,b,c,d , Massimiliano Zingales: Anomalous diffusion Porous media Darcy equation Fractional derivatives Anomalous scaling a b s t r a c of the particle flow. The transport equation, formally analogous to the Fick relation is the so-called Darcy
Self-similar solutions for a fractional thin film equation governing hydraulic fractures
Boyer, Edmond
Self-similar solutions for a fractional thin film equation governing hydraulic fractures C. Imbert equation governing hydraulic fractures are constructed. One of the boundary con- ditions, which accounts, 35R11, 35C06 Keywords: Hydraulic fractures, higher order equation, thin films, fractional Laplacian
Sachs, Julian P.
Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater and marine algae: II. Temperature and nitrogen limited isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and spe- cies. Organic Geochemistry. Two species of freshwater green algae, Eudorina unicocca and Volvox aureus, were grown in batch
Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction
Hogan, Robin
555 Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction between the ICESat lidar in extinction-to-backscatter ratio and effective radius affect the forward modeled mean cloud fraction by no more than 10%. 1. Introduction Clouds play a major role in the Earth's radiation budget and predictions
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.Sea Level. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.
Climate Change and National Security
Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
CLIMATE CHANGE Multiplying Threats to National Securityfor the impacts of climate change on national security. Pagea warming world. Page 11 “Climate change acts as a threat
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
net impact of climate change on agriculture in California,of Climate Change on California Agriculture. ” PresentationEffects of Climate Change on California Agriculture Positive
Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsidered
Fisher, Anthony
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
2009 Paper 1080 Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsideredby author(s). Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsideredimpact of climate change on agriculture, there still exists
Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management
Sheridan, Jennifer
Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy out Absorbed
Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Supercritical Fluid Fractionation – 2014 Final Report
Foster Agblevor; Lucia Petkovic; Edward Bennion; Jason Quinn; John Moses; Deborah Newby; Daniel Ginosar
2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this project is to use supercritical fluids to separate and fractionate algal-based bio-oils into stable products that can be subsequently upgraded to produce drop-in renewable fuels. To accomplish this objective, algae was grown and thermochemically converted to bio-oils using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), pyrolysis, and catalytic pyrolysis. The bio-oils were separated into an extract and a raffinate using near-critical propane or carbon dioxide. The fractions were then subjected to thermal aging studies to determine if the extraction process had stabilized the products. It was found that the propane extract fraction was twice as stable as the parent catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils as measured by the change in viscosity after two weeks of accelerated aging at 80°C. Further, in-situ NMR aging studies found that the propane extract was chemically more stable than the parent bio-oil. Thus the milestone of stabilizing the product was met. A preliminary design of the extraction plant was prepared. The design was based on a depot scale plant processing 20,000,000 gallons per year of bio-oil. It was estimated that the capital costs for such a plant would be $8,700,000 with an operating cost of $3,500,000 per year. On a per gallon of product cost and a 10% annual rate of return, capital costs would represent $0.06 per gallon and operating costs would amount to $0.20 per gallon. Further, it was found that the energy required to run the process represented 6.2% of the energy available in the bio-oil, meeting the milestone of less than 20%. Life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission analysis found that the energy for running the critical fluid separation process and the GHG emissions were minor compared to all the inputs to the overall well to pump system. For the well to pump system boundary, energetics in biofuel conversion are typically dominated by energy demands in the growth, dewater, and thermochemical process. Bio-oil stabilization by near critical propane extraction had minimal impact in the overall energetics of the process with NER contributions of 0.03. Based on the LCA, the overall conversion pathways were found to be energy intensive with a NER of about 2.3 and 1.2 for catalytic pyrolysis and HTL, respectively. GHG emissions for the catalytic pyrolysis process were greater than that of petroleum diesel at 210 g CO2 eq compared to 18.9 g CO2 eq. Microalgae bio-oil based diesel with thermochemical conversion through HTL meets renewable fuel standards with favorable emission reductions of -10.8 g CO2 eq. The importance of the outcomes is that the critical fluid extraction and stabilization process improved product stability and did so with minimal energy inputs and processing costs. The LCA and GHG emission calculations point toward the HTL pathway as the more favorable thermochemical route towards upgrading algae to bio-fuels. Since the quality of the HTL oil was significantly lower than that of the catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, the next steps point toward improving the quality of the HTL oils from algae biomass and focusing the critical fluid stabilization on that bio-oil product.
Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE
Attari, Shahzeen Z.
booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warming into the foundation of the world economy and into the everyday things we do (driving) and use (electricity). Thus
Configuration Change Management
Yoder, Nathaniel
2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
significant benefit to a company. Changes come at various stages in the lifecycle of a product. Understanding the impact at the specific stage in a product lifecycle will minimize the impact to the business. Change should be approached as a planned...
Co-coupled synchronization of fractional-order unified chaotic systems
Kehui Sun; Jian Ren; Shuisheng Qiu
2009-09-13T23:59:59.000Z
Synchronization of fractional-order chaotic systems is a hot topic in the field of nonlinear study. The co-coupled synchronization between two fractional-order chaotic systems with different initial conditions is investigated in this paper. Based on Lyapunov stability principle and Gerschgorin theorem, the co-coupled synchronization theorem of fractional-order chaotic systems is deduced, and the range of coupling coefficients is confirmed for synchronization of fractional-order unified chaotic systems. By building up the synchronization simulation model on Simulink, the co-coupled synchronization between two fractional-order unified chaotic systems with different initial value is carried out, and the synchronization performances are analyzed, and the simulation results show that this synchronization method is effective.
Overview Of The Unattached Fraction of Radon Prouenv and It's Significance To Luna Dosimetrv.
Dr. A. Singmin
The health risk arising from exposure to radon progeny is strongly related to the deposition of radon progeny in the lungs. It is believed that greater risk is related to the unattached fraction. Achievement of accurate estimations of the radiation dose to the lungs, requires knowledge of both the size and concentration of the unattached fraction. In spite of the capabilities available today to obtain this data, several fundamental issues still need to be resolved. Most notably: l)A clear and universally accepted clarification of precisely how the unattached fraction is to be defined, 2)Development of standardized measurement instrumentation for the detection of unattached fractions. Only then can meaningful scientific comparisons be made. The complex issues surrounding the unattached fraction and
Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California
Montana, University of
-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2, CH4) fluxes, and potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we report fractional open water (Fw) cover from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). The AMSR ) of regions above 49Â°N (Brown et al., 1998). Although permafrost is widespread at high latitudes due to low
zone and are responsible for a significant fraction of the biosphere's solar energy conversion.2 of Physics, Boston UniVersity, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, Department of Chemistry, Boston Uni. The protein changes we observe on a subpicosecond time scale may be involved in storage of the absorbed photon
Climate Change Adaptation Planning
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
EIA-914 Survey and HPDI. Figure 2 shows how this could change apparent production. The blue line shows the reported sample production as it would normally be reported under the...
Lights, Conformational Change... Action!
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
the flashes, they collected the x-ray scattering data. Analysis of the data revealed the build-up of large conformational changes between the two structures at the nanometer...
Hill, R.P.
1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ability of five nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (MET), misonidazole (MISO), desmethymisonidazole (DMM), SR 2508 and SR 2555, to sensitize the KHT sarcoma to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-1.5 g/Kg. Single radiation doses or two different daily fractionation schedules (4 fractions of 5 Gy each or 7 fraction of 3 Gy each) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using either an in vivo or in vitro colony assay. Each radiation (100 kVp X rays at 11 Gy/min) treatment was given locally, 60-70 min (MET) or 30-40 min (other drugs) after either intraperitoneal (MET, MISO, DMM) or intraveous (SR 2508, SR 2555) injection of the drugs; these times have been shown to be optimum for this tumor. For the single doses and both fractionation schedules the tumor cell survival, following the irradiation treatment, declined as the drug dose increased in the range 0 to 0.75 g/Kg for all the drugs, but above this dose level a plateau was reached and the amount of sensitization remained essentially constant. In this plateau region the reduction in survival achieved was similar for single doses and 5 Gy fraction but was less for 3 Gy fractions, indicating that sensitization was smaller for the smaller dose fractions. For the 4 x 5 Gy fractionation schedule the plateau level of survival was lowest for MISO, DMM and SR 2508, slightly higher for SR 2555 and much higher for MET. For the 3 Gy fractions SR 2508 appeared slightly less effective than MISO and DMM.
Changing gender role attitudes
Scott, Jacqueline
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, the Netherlands, Italy, Ireland and Spain). Third, the ISSP data pro- vides a sufficient time span (14 years, with surveys in 1988, 1994 and 2002) for the systematic investigation of the underlying causes of attitudinal change. Attitudinal Changes in Great Britain... and Spain. Unfortunately, in both Italy and Spain survey participation was only for two of the three waves, with Italy not participating in 2002 and Spain not participating in 1988. The per- centages reflect the combined attitudes of men and women, although...
Schreiber, Michael
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fractional scoring has been proposed to avoid inconsistencies in the attribution of publications to percentile rank classes. Uncertainties and ambiguities in the evaluation of percentile ranks can be demonstrated most easily with small datasets. But for larger datasets an often large number of papers with the same citation count leads to the same uncertainties and ambiguities which can be avoided by fractional scoring. This is demonstrated for four different empirical datasets with several thousand publications each which are assigned to 6 percentile rank classes. Only by utilizing fractional scoring the total score of all papers exactly reproduces the theoretical value in each case.
Nauchi, Y.; Kameyama, T. [Central Research Inst., Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
New method is proposed to estimate effective fraction of delayed neutrons radiated from precursors categorized into 6 groups of decay constant. Instead of adjoint flux {Phi}*, an expected number of fission neutrons in next generations, M, is applied as a weight function [1]. Introduction of M enables us to calculate the fraction based on continuous energy Monte Carlo method. For the calculation of the fraction, an algorithm is established and implemented into the MCNP-5 code. The method is verified using reactor period data obtained in reactivity measurements. (authors)
Fractional Euler-Bernoulli beams: theory, numerical study and experimental validation
Wojciech Sumelka; Tomasz Blaszczyk; Christian Liebold
2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam (CEBB) theory is reformulated utilising fractional calculus. Such generalisation is called fractional Euler-Bernoulli beams (FEBB) and results in non-local spatial description. The parameters of the model are identified based on AFM experiments concerning bending rigidities of micro-beams made of the polymer SU-8. In experiments both force as well as deflection data were recorded revealing significant size effect with respect to outer dimensions of the specimens. Special attention is also focused on the proper numerical solution of obtained fractional differential equation.
Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change
Hulme, Mike
Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change
SECPOP90: Sector population, land fraction, and economic estimation program
Humphreys, S.L.; Rollstin, J.A.; Ridgely, J.N.
1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In 1973 Mr. W. Athey of the Environmental Protection Agency wrote a computer program called SECPOP which calculated population estimates. Since that time, two things have changed which suggested the need for updating the original program - more recent population censuses and the widespread use of personal computers (PCs). The revised computer program uses the 1990 and 1992 Population Census information and runs on current PCs as {open_quotes}SECPOP90.{close_quotes} SECPOP90 consists of two parts: site and regional. The site provides population and economic data estimates for any location within the continental United States. Siting analysis is relatively fast running. The regional portion assesses site availability for different siting policy decisions; i.e., the impact of available sites given specific population density criteria within the continental United States. Regional analysis is slow. This report compares the SECPOP90 population estimates and the nuclear power reactor licensee-provided information. Although the source, and therefore the accuracy, of the licensee information is unknown, this comparison suggests SECPOP90 makes reasonable estimates. Given the total uncertainty in any current calculation of severe accidents, including the potential offsite consequences, the uncertainty within SECPOP90 population estimates is expected to be insignificant. 12 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.
Beck, William Cory
2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components ...
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Maslowski, B.; Pasik-Duncan, B.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A linear-quadratic control problem with a finite time horizon for some infinite-dimensional controlled stochastic differential equations driven by a fractional Gaussian noise is formulated and solved. The feedback form of the optimal control...
Smith, Stephanie 1990-
2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
(TN), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), fluorescence and absorption (optics), water isotopes (?18O and ?D), and lignin phenols. Results showed a clear fractionation effect for all parameters, where the ice samples contained much less of the dissolved...
Measurement of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction B(B?s?X-l+?l) at Belle
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Oswald, C.; Urquijo, P.; Dingfelder, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Belous, K.; et al
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report a measurement of the inclusive semileptonic B0s branching fraction in a 121 fb?¹ data sample collected near the ?(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e?e? collider. Events containing B?(*)sB¯¯¯?(*)s pairs are selected by reconstructing a tag side D?s and identifying a signal side lepton l? (l=e, ?) that is required to have the same-sign charge to ensure that both originate from different B?s mesons. The B?s?X?l??l branching fraction is extracted from the ratio of the measured yields of D?s mesons and D?sl? pairs and the known production and branching fractions. The inclusive semileptonicmore »branching fraction is measured to be [10.6±0.5(stat)±0.7(syst)]%.« less
Uncertainties analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments using DRAGON
X. B. Ma; L. Z. Wang; Y. X. Chen; W. L. Zhong; F. P. An
2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z
Rising interest in nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos for experiments motivates validated, fast, and accessible simulation to predict reactor rates. First, DRAGON was developed to calculate the fission rates of the four most important isotopes in fissions,235U,238U,239Pu and141Pu, and it was validated for PWRs using the Takahama benchmark. The fission fraction calculation function was validated through comparing our calculation results with MIT's results. we calculate the fission fraction of the Daya Bay reactor core, and compare its with those calculated by the commercial reactor simulation program SCIENCE, which is used by the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, and the results was consist with each other. The uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction was studied, and the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction simulation is 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.
A construction of the rough path above fractional Brownian motion using Volterra’s representation
Nualart, David; Tindel, Samy
2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This note is devoted to construct a rough path above a multidimensional fractional Brownian motion B with any Hurst parameter H?(0,?1), by means of its representation as a Volterra Gaussian process. This approach yields ...
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 NOVEMBER 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1462 Confinement of fractional quantum number
Loss, Daniel
, at the smallest distances this interaction obeys the Coulomb law, but at larger distances instead of decreasingARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 NOVEMBER 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1462 Confinement of fractional
Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species
Sachs, Julian P.
Hydrogen isotope fractionation in freshwater algae: I. Variations among lipids and species Zhaohui Abstract Five species of freshwater green algae, including three strains of Botryococcus braunii (two in the algae, including alkadienes, botryococcenes, heptadecenes, fatty acids, and phytadiene, were measured
New Results in Stability, Control, and Estimation of Fractional Order Systems
Koh, Bong Su
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
of control and estimation, even for systems where fractional order models do not arise “naturally”. This dissertation is aimed at further building of the base methodology with a focus on robust feedback control and state estimation. By setting...
Wen, Xiao-Gang
The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the ...
Search for the decay Bs0 ? ?? and a measurement of the branching fraction for Bs0 ? ??
Dutta, Deepanwita; Bhuyan, Bipul; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, David M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Aziz, T.; Bahinipati, S.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, Vikas; Bhardwaj, V.; Bobrov, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Bracko, Marko; Browder, Thomas E.; Cervenkov, D.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, David A.; Dalseno, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Drasal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, K.; Eidelman, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, James E.; Frost, O.; Gaur, Vipin; Ganguly, Sudeshna; Garmash, Alexey; Getzkow, D.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Hou, W. S.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, Igal; Joffe, D.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, Kay; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kodys, P.; Korpar, S.; Krizan, P.; Krokovny, Pavel; Kuhr, Thomas; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, I. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, Dmitri; Matvienko, D.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nayak, Minakshi; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, Galina; Pedlar, Todd K.; Pestotnik, Rok; Petric, Marko; Piilonen, Leo E.; Ribezl, Eva; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, Saurabh; Santelj, Luka; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, Vladimir; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Semmler, D.; Shebalin, V.; Shibata, T. A.; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Staric, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Unno, Yuji; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vossen, Anslem G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, Y.; Wehle, S.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We search for the decay B0s??? and measure the branching fraction for B0s??? using 121.4~fb-1 of data collected at the ?(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The B0s??? branching fraction is measured to be (3.6±0.5(stat.)±0.3(syst.)±0.6(fs))×10-5, where fs is the fraction of Bs(*)B¯s(*) in bb¯ events. Our result is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions as well as with a recent measurement from LHCb. We observe no statistically significant signal for the decay B0s??? and set a 90% confidence-level upper limit on its branching fraction at 3.1×10-6. This constitutes a significant improvement over the previous result.
Self-repelling fractional Brownian motion - a generalized Edwards model for chain polymers
Jinky Bornales; Maria João Oliveira; Ludwig Streit
2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an extension of the Edwards model for conformations of individual chain molecules in solvents in terms of fractional Brownian motion, and discuss the excluded volume effect on the end-to-end length of such trajectories or molecules.
Whitley, Evan Micah
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Research was conducted to assess the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to predict fractional protein utilization in cattle on forage based diets. Forage samples were obtained from esophageal and ruminal...
Measurement of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction B(Bs0?X-?+??) at Belle
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Oswald, C.; Urquijo, P.; Dingfelder, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Belous, K.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Chang, P.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Drutskoy, A.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Esen, S.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Ganguly, S.; Gillard, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Klucar, J.; Ko, B. R.; Korpar, S.; Kouzes, R. T.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Louvot, R.; Lutz, O.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nedelkovska, E.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Prim, M.; Prothmann, K.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Rozanska, M.; Ryu, S.; Sahoo, H.; Saito, T.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Shwartz, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stari?, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zupanc, A.
2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report a measurement of the inclusive semileptonic B0s branching fraction in a 121 fb?¹ data sample collected near the ?(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e?e? collider. Events containing B?(*)sB¯¯¯?(*)s pairs are selected by reconstructing a tag side D?s and identifying a signal side lepton ?? (?=e, ?) that is required to have the same-sign charge to ensure that both originate from different B?s mesons. The B?s?X????? branching fraction is extracted from the ratio of the measured yields of D?s mesons and D?s?? pairs and the known production and branching fractions. The inclusive semileptonic branching fraction is measured to be [10.6±0.5(stat)±0.7(syst)]%.
Development of Approach to Estimate Volume Fraction of Multiphase Material Using Dielectrics
Lee, Sang Ick
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
without any assumptions. Also, the system identification was used iteratively to solve for dielectric parameters and volume fraction at each step. As the validation performed to verify the viability of the new approach using soil mixture and portland...
Fractional factorial study of HCN removal over a 0.5% Pt/AlO...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
PtAlO catalyst: effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and reactant Abstract: Fractional factorial design was used to determine which factors have significant effects on the HCN...
assay-directed fractionation combined: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically. P. Merlatti; G. Sabella 2001-01-11 395 The Geometry of Fractional D1-branes HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We...
adipose-derived stromo-vascular fraction: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically. P. Merlatti; G. Sabella 2001-01-11 342 The Geometry of Fractional D1-branes HEP - Theory (arXiv) Summary: We...
Malone, Elizabeth L.
2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Gaustad, Krista; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally; McFarlane, Sally
Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.
Controlling the Internal-Transport-Barrier Oscillations in High-Performance Tokamak Plasmas with a Dominant Fraction of Bootstrap Current
Control and Synchronization of Chaotic Fractional-Order Coullet System via Active Controller
M. Shahiri T.; A. Ranjbar N.; R. Ghaderi; S. H. Hosseinnia; S. Momani
2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, fractional order Coullet system is studied. An active control technique is applied to control this chaotic system. This type of controller is also applied to synchronize chaotic fractional-order systems in master-slave structure. The synchronization procedure is shown via simulation. The boundary of stability is obtained by both of theoretical analysis and simulation result. The numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction
Sparks, Donald L.
Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction D A R R Y L R . R O B E R-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitate formation on a soil clay fraction was monitored using X in 0.1 M NaNO3. Initial Ni sorption kinetics on the soil clay were rapid at all pH values but differed
Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes by phosphoenopyruvate carboxylase from C4 plants
Reibach, Paul Howard
1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FRACTIONATION OP STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES BY PHOSPHOENOLPYRUYATE CARBOXYLASE FROM C& PLANTS A Thesis by PAUL HOWARD REIBACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Sub)cot: Piant Physiology FRACTIONATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPES BY PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE FROM CA PLANTS A Thesis by PAUL HOHARD REIBACH Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee) ead...
Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream
Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.
2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.
Steyn, Phillip Franswa
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC AND SCINTI GRAPHIC METHODS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR EJECTION FRACTION DETERMINATION IN DOGS; A COMPARATIVE STUDY A THESIS BY PHILLIP FRANSWA STEYN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas ARM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1989 Major subject: Veterinary Medical Sciences ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC AND SCINTIGRAPHIC METHODS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR EJECTION FRACTION DETERMINATION IN DOGS; A COMPARATIVE STUDY A THESIS...
Thomas Garrity
2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z
A new classification scheme for pairs of real numbers is given, generalizing earlier work of the author that used continued fraction, which in turn was motivated by ideas from statistical mechanics in general and work of Knauf and Fiala and Kleban in particular. Critical for this classification are the number theoretic and geometric properties of the triangle map, a type of multi-dimensional continued fraction.
Development of magnetic separation methods of analysis: magnetic field flow fractionation
Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
DEVELOPMENT OF MAGNETIC SEPARATION METHODS OF ANALYSIS: MAGNETIC FIELD FLOW FRACTIONATION A Thesis by JAIME GARCIA-RAMIREZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Chemistry DEVELOPMENT OF MAGNETIC SEPARATION METHODS OF ANALYSIS: MAGNETIC FIELD FLOW FRACTIONATION A Thesis by JAIME GARCIA-RAMIREZ Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) 1...
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars
Ian U. Roederer; James E. Lawler; Christopher Sneden; John J. Cowan; Jennifer S. Sobeck; Catherine A. Pilachowski
2007-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
We have derived isotopic fractions of europium, samarium, and neodymium in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new high resolution (R ~ 120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoude spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which reproduces s-process nucleosynthesis from the physical conditions expected in low-mass, thermally-pulsing stars on the AGB, and the classical method, which approximates s-process nucleosynthesis by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the classical method and is consistent with either an r- or an s-process origin by the stellar model. Our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 175305 suggests a predominantly r-process origin, and our Sm isotopic fraction in HD 196944 is consistent with an s-process origin. The Nd isotopic fractions, while consistent with either r-process or s-process origins, have very little ability to distinguish between any physical values for the isotopic fraction in either star. This study for the first time extends the n-capture origin of multiple rare earths in metal-poor stars from elemental abundances to the isotopic level, strengthening the r-process interpretation for HD 175305 and the s-process interpretation for HD196944.
Meier, M.F. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.
Climate Change Economics and Policy
Romano, Daniela
AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate
Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.
Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.
1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.
An Alternative Method for Solving a Certain Class of Fractional Kinetic Equations
R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold
2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative method for solving the fractional kinetic equations solved earlier by Haubold and Mathai (2000) and Saxena et al. (2002, 2004a, 2004b) is recently given by Saxena and Kalla (2007). This method can also be applied in solving more general fractional kinetic equations than the ones solved by the aforesaid authors. In view of the usefulness and importance of the kinetic equation in certain physical problems governing reaction-diffusion in complex systems and anomalous diffusion, the authors present an alternative simple method for deriving the solution of the generalized forms of the fractional kinetic equations solved by the aforesaid authors and Nonnenmacher and Metzler (1995). The method depends on the use of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus operators. It has been shown by the application of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral operator and its interesting properties, that the solution of the given fractional kinetic equation can be obtained in a straight-forward manner. This method does not make use of the Laplace transform.
Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.
1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.
North, G.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... • Who will Win, Who will Lose • What Needs to be Done ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 IPCC #5 • No great surprises - Sharper language • Uncertainties are still large • Essentially...
Levy, Mel, E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Anderson, James S. M.; Zadeh, Farnaz Heidar; Ayers, Paul W., E-mail: ayers@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: mlevy@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)
2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z
Properties of exact density functionals provide useful constraints for the development of new approximate functionals. This paper focuses on convex sums of ground-level densities. It is observed that the electronic kinetic energy of a convex sum of degenerate ground-level densities is equal to the convex sum of the kinetic energies of the individual degenerate densities. (The same type of relationship holds also for the electron-electron repulsion energy.) This extends a known property of the Levy-Valone Ensemble Constrained-Search and the Lieb Legendre-Transform refomulations of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional to the individual components of the functional. Moreover, we observe that the kinetic and electron-repulsion results also apply to densities with fractional electron number (even if there are no degeneracies), and we close with an analogous point-wise property involving the external potential. Examples where different degenerate states have different kinetic energy and electron-nuclear attraction energy are given; consequently, individual components of the ground state electronic energy can change abruptly when the molecular geometry changes. These discontinuities are predicted to be ubiquitous at conical intersections, complicating the development of universally applicable density-functional approximations.
Farming: A Climate Change Culprit
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Simulations run at NERSC show impact of land-use change on African monsoon precipitation June 7, 2014 | Tags:...
MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,
MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation
Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.
Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.
Tipple, Brett
Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL
Chen, Fang-Hsin; Fu, Sheng-Yung [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ying-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chi-Shiun, E-mail: cschiang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-LinKou, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)
2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT. Methods and Materials: Murine prostate TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in control mice or mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM), and irradiated with 60 Gy in 15 fractions. Mice were also treated with gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist) to examine the effects of combination treatment. The responses of tumor vasculatures to these treatments and changes of tumor microenvironment were assessed. Results: After F-RT, the tumor microvascular density (MVD) was reduced; however, the surviving vessels were dilated, incorporated with GFP-positive cells, tightly adhered to pericytes, and well perfused with Hoechst 33342, suggesting a more mature structure formed primarily via vasculogenesis. Although the gefitinib+F-RT combination affected the vascular structure by dissociating pericytes from the vascular wall, it did not further delay tumor growth. These tumors had higher MVD and better vascular perfusion function, leading to less hypoxia and tumor necrosis. By contrast, the AMD3100+F-RT combination significantly enhanced tumor growth delay more than F-RT alone, and these tumors had lower MVD and poorer vascular perfusion function, resulting in increased hypoxia. These tumor vessels were rarely covered by pericytes and free of GFP-positive cells. Conclusions: Vasculogenesis is a major mechanism for tumor vessel survival during F-RT. Complex interactions occur between vessel-targeting agents and F-RT, and a synergistic effect may not always exist. To enhance F-RT, using CXCR4 inhibitor to block BM cell influx and the vasculogenesis process is a better strategy than targeting pericytes by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor.
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Changeand Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.
Strategies for Achieving Institutional Change
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Many strategies—including those derived from Institutional Change Principles–may be used to effect institutional change in support of energy and sustainability objectives.
Kaprealian, Tania [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Speight, Joycelyn L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I.-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: This is a retrospective study comparing our experience with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer, using two different fractionation schemes, 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions (patient group 1) and 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions (patient group 2). Methods and Materials: A total of 165 patients were treated for prostate cancer using external beam radiation therapy up to a dose of 45 Gy, followed by an HDR brachytherapy prostate radiation boost. Between July 1997 and Nov 1999, 64 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 600 cGy Multiplication-Sign 3 fractions; and between June 2000 and Nov 2005, 101 patients were treated with an HDR boost of 950 cGy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions. All but 9 patients had at least one of the following risk features: pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >10, a Gleason score {>=}7, and/or clinical stage T3 disease. Results: Median follow-up was 105 months for group 1 and 43 months for group 2. Patients in group 2 had a greater number of high-risk features than group 1 (p = 0.02). Adjusted for comparable follow-up, there was no difference in biochemical no-evidence-of-disease (bNED) rate between the two fractionation scheme approaches, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 93.5% in group 1 and 87.3% in group 2 (p = 0.19). The 5-year estimates of progression-free survival were 86% for group 1 and 83% for group 2 (p = 0.53). Among high-risk patients, there were no differences in bNED or PFS rate due to fractionation. Conclusions: Results were excellent for both groups. Adjusted for comparable follow-up, no differences were found between groups.
Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions
Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.
2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.
I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin
2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.
Chromium Isotope Fractionation During Reduction of Cr(VI) Under Saturated Flow Conditions
Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Gibson, Blair D.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W. (Waterloo); (Kyungpook National University)
2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
Chromium isotopes are potentially useful indicators of Cr(VI) reduction reactions in groundwater flow systems; however, the influence of transport on Cr isotope fractionation has not been fully examined. Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate isotopic fractionation of Cr during Cr(VI) reduction under both static and controlled flow conditions. Organic carbon was used to reduce Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater containing 20 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI) in both batch and column experiments. Isotope measurements were performed on dissolved Cr on samples from the batch experiments, and on effluent and profile samples from the column experiment. Analysis of the residual solid-phase materials by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed association of Cr(III) with organic carbon in the column solids. Decreases in dissolved Cr(VI) concentrations were coupled with increases in {delta}{sup 53}Cr, indicating that Cr isotope enrichment occurred during reduction of Cr(VI). The {delta}{sup 53}Cr data from the column experiment was fit by linear regression yielding a fractionation factor ({alpha}) of 0.9979, whereas the batch experiments exhibited Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation ({alpha} = 0.9965). The linear characteristic of the column {delta}{sup 53}Cr data may reflect the contribution of transport on Cr isotope fractionation.
Bender, Edward T. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)
2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.
Identification of interactions in fractional-order systems with high dimensions
Ji, Xiaoxi; Wu, Yu; Sheng, Wenbo [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, Wei, E-mail: wlin@fudan.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) [School of Mathematical Sciences and Centre for Computational Systems Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Data Science, LMNS, and Shanghai Center for Mathematical Sciences, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
This article proposes an approach to identify fractional-order systems with sparse interaction structures and high dimensions when observation data are supposed to be experimentally available. This approach includes two steps: first, it is to estimate the value of the fractional order by taking into account the solution properties of fractional-order systems; second, it is to identify the interaction coefficients among the system variables by employing the compressed sensing technique. An error analysis is provided analytically for this approach and a further improved approach is also proposed. Moreover, the applicability of the proposed approach is fully illustrated by two examples: one is to estimate the mutual interactions in a complex dynamical network described by fractional-order systems, and the other is to identify a high fractional-order and homogeneous sequential differential equation, which is frequently used to describe viscoelastic phenomena. All the results demonstrate the feasibility of figuring out the system mechanisms behind the data experimentally observed in physical or biological systems with viscoelastic evolution characters.
Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Proto-galaxies forming in low-mass dark matter haloes are thought to provide the majority of ionising photons needed to reionise the Universe, due to their high escape fractions of ionising photons. We study how the escape fraction in high-redshift galaxies relates to the physical properties of the halo in which the galaxies form by computing escape fractions for 75801 haloes between redshifts 27 and 6 that were extracted from the FiBY project, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy formation. We find that the main constraint on the escape fraction is the presence of dense gas within 10 pc of the young sources that emit the majority of the ionising photons produced over the lifetime of the stellar population. This results in a strong mass dependence of the escape fraction. The lower potential well in haloes with virial mass below 10^8 solar mass results in lower column densities close to the sources that can be penetrated by the radiation from young, massive stars. In general only a ...
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation
Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.)
2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.
Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca
Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik
2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.
Sharp, Kim
between disciplines to create new solutions and promote social change. Masthead RICHARD J. GELLES, PH
Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises
Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Conservation and Global Climate Change
Landweber, Laura
V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan
Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change
Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International
Gvirtzman, Haim
climate and cultural changes are observed in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East [e.g., Bookman et1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes and Implications of Climatic Change ISSN 0165-0009 Volume 112 Combined 3-4 Climatic Change (2012) 112:769-789 DOI
A New Blackbody Radiation Law Based on Fractional Calculus and its Application to NASA COBE Data
Biyajima, Minoru; Suzuki, Naomichi
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
By applying fractional calculus to the equation proposed by M. Planck in 1900, we obtain a new blackbody radiation law described by a Mittag-Leffler (ML) function. We have analyzed NASA COBE data by means of a non-extensive formula with a parameter $(q-1)$, a formula proposed by Ertik et al. with a fractional parameter $(\\alpha-1)$, and our new formula including a parameter $(p-1)$, as well as the Bose-Einstein distribution with a dimensionless chemical potential $\\mu$. It can be said that one role of the fractional parameter $(p-1)$ is almost the same as that of chemical potential $(\\mu)$ as well as that of the parameter $(q-1)$ in the non-extensive approach.
Gauge/gravity duality and the interplay of various fractional branes
Argurio, Riccardo; Closset, Cyril [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Benini, Francesco; Bertolini, Matteo; Cremonesi, Stefano [SISSA/ISAS and INFN-Sezione di Trieste, Via Beirut 2, I 34014 Trieste (Italy)
2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider different types of fractional branes on a Z{sub 2} orbifold of the conifold and analyze in detail the corresponding gauge/gravity duality. The gauge theory possesses a rich and varied dynamics, both in the UV and in the IR. We find the dual supergravity solution, which contains both untwisted and twisted 3-form fluxes, related to what are known as deformation and N=2 fractional branes, respectively. We analyze the resulting renormalization group flow from the supergravity perspective, by developing an algorithm to easily extract it. We find hints of a generalization of the familiar cascade of Seiberg dualities due to a nontrivial interplay between the different types of fractional branes. We finally consider the IR behavior in several limits, where the dominant effective dynamics is either confining in a Coulomb phase or runaway, and discuss the resolution of singularities in the dual geometric background.
Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment
Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.
2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.
Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film
Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor [Gamma Knife Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 (India)] [Gamma Knife Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 (India)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film.
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A Continued Fraction Resummation Form of Bath Relaxation Effect in the Spin-Boson Model
Zhihao Gong; Zhoufei Tang; Shaul Mukamel; Jianshu Cao; Jianlan Wu
2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
In the spin-boson model, a continued fraction form is proposed to systematically resum high-order quantum kinetic expansion (QKE) rate kernels, accounting for the bath relaxation effect beyond the second-order perturbation. In particular, the analytical expression of the sixth-order QKE rate kernel is derived for resummation. With higher-order correction terms systematically extracted from higher-order rate kernels, the resummed quantum kinetic expansion (RQKE) approach in the continued fraction form extends the Pade approximation and can fully recover the exact quantum dynamics as the expansion order increases.
Mai, Junyu; Sommer, Gregory Jon; Hatch, Anson V.
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on advancements of our microscale isoelectric fractionation ({mu}IEFr) methodology for fast on-chip separation and concentration of proteins based on their isoelectric points (pI). We establish that proteins can be fractionated depending on posttranslational modifications into different pH specific bins, from where they can be efficiently transferred to downstream membranes for additional processing and analysis. This technology can enable on-chip multidimensional glycoproteomics analysis, as a new approach to expedite biomarker identification and verification.
Effects of bounded space in the solutions of time-space fractional diffusion equation
Allami, M. H. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
By using a recently proposed numerical method, the fractional diffusion equation with memory in a finite domain is solved for different asymmetry parameters and fractional orders. Some scaling laws are revisited in this condition, such as growth rate in a distance from pulse perturbation, the time when the perturbative peak reaches the other points, and advectionlike behavior as a result of asymmetry and memory. Conditions for negativity and instability of solutions are shown. Also up-hill transport and its time-space region are studied.
Apparatus for measuring the local void fraction in a flowing liquid containing a gas
Dunn, Patrick F. (Downers Grove, IL)
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The local void fraction in liquid containing a gas is measured by placing an impedance-variation probe in the liquid, applying a controlled voltage or current to the probe, and measuring the probe current or voltage. A circuit for applying the one electrical parameter and measuring the other includes a feedback amplifier that minimizes the effect of probe capacitance and a digitizer to provide a clean signal. Time integration of the signal provides a measure of the void fraction, and an oscilloscope display also shows bubble size and distribution.
A Continued Fraction Resummation Form of Bath Relaxation Effect in the Spin-Boson Model
Gong, Zhihao; Mukamel, Shaul; Cao, Jianshu; Wu, Jianlan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the spin-boson model, a continued fraction form is proposed to systematically resum high-order quantum kinetic expansion (QKE) rate kernels, accounting for the bath relaxation effect beyond the second-order perturbation. In particular, the analytical expression of the sixth-order QKE rate kernel is derived for resummation. With higher-order correction terms systematically extracted from higher-order rate kernels, the resummed quantum kinetic expansion (RQKE) approach in the continued fraction form extends the Pade approximation and can fully recover the exact quantum dynamics as the expansion order increases.
Systematics associated with positronium fractions as measured with variable-energy positron beams
Schultz, P.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Jorch, H.H.
1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Positronium fraction measurements using positron beams have been utilized to extract information about the diffusion properties of positrons as well as defect concentrations in the near surface region of materials under a variety of experimental conditions. Owing to this recent interest we have undertaken to study some of the systematics and uncertainties associated with measurements of the positronium fraction, f. We restrict our discussion to determinations of f based on the peak:total ratio of counting rates for a single detector, only briefly considering alternate ways of obtaining f. We conclude with several recommendations that should be of particular interest to practitioners in the field.
ROSSI-{alpha} measurement of the effective delayed-neutron fraction
Dulin, V.A.; Mikhailov, G.M.
1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Rossi-alpha method was used to measure the effective delayed neutron fraction in a fast critical assembly with a composition similar to that of the BN-600 (uranium dioxide fuel enriched to approximately 22% and a sodium volume fraction of approximately 35%). Measurements were also performed at the same time with the Cf-252 source method as described in Reference (1). The Rossi-alpha method yielded a value of 0.00751 +/- 0.0002, while the Cf-252 method yielded a result of 0.00766 +/- 0.00031.
William K. Terry; A. M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema; Michael Scott McKinley
2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The well-known spatial variation of packing fraction near the outer boundary of a pebble-bed reactor core is cited. The ramifications of this variation are explored with the MCNP computer code. It is found that the variation has negligible effects on the global reactor physics parameters extracted from the MCNP calculations for use in analysis by diffusion-theory codes, but for local reaction rates the effects of the variation are naturally important. Included is some preliminary work in using first-order perturbation theory for estimating the effect of the spatial variation of packing fraction on the core eigenvalue and the fision density distribution.
Simulated seismic event release fraction data: Progress report, April 1986-April 1987
Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.)
1987-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The object of this project is to obtain experimental data on the release of airborne particles during seismic events involving plutonium handling facilities. In particular, cans containing plutonium oxide powder may be involved and some of the powder may become airborne. No release fraction data for such scenarios are available and risk assessment calculations for such events lacked specificity describing the physical processes involved. This study has provided initial data based on wind tunnel tests simulating the impact of the debris on simulated cans of plutonium oxide powder. The release fractions are orders of magnitude smaller than previously available estimates. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Measurement of branching fractions and rate asymmetries in the rare decays B?K(*)l?l?
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va’vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.
2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a sample of 471×10? BB¯¯¯ events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e?e? collider we study the rare decays B?K(*)l?l?, where l?l? is either e?e? or ????. We report results on partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries in seven bins of dilepton mass-squared. We further present CP and lepton-flavor asymmetries for dilepton masses below and above the J/? resonance. We find no evidence for CP or lepton-flavor violation. The partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries are consistent with the Standard Model predictions and with results from other experiments.
Diot, Quentin, E-mail: quentin.diot@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Stuhr, Kelly; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)
2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To describe regional lung tissue density changes in normal lung tissue of patients with primary and metastatic lung tumors who received stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 179 post-SBRT follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 62 patients who received SBRT between 2003 and 2009 were studied. Median prescription dose was 54 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy) in 3 to 5 fractions. SBRT-induced lung density changes on post-SBRT follow-up CT were evaluated at approximately 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after treatment. Dose-response curves (DRC) were generated for SBRT-induced lung damage by averaging CT number (HU) changes for regions of the lungs receiving the same dose at 5-Gy intervals. Results: For all follow-up interval periods, CT numbers linearly increased with dose until 35 Gy and were constant thereafter. For 3, 18, 24, and 30 months, the rate of relative electron density increase with dose was approximately 0.24% per Gy. At 6 months, the rate was also similar below 20 Gy but then rose to 0.6% per Gy above this threshold. After 6 months, DRCs were mostly time-independent. When split between patients treated with 3 fractions of 12 to 20 Gy (median, 20 Gy; average tumor volume, 12 {+-} 16 cm{sup 3}) and with >3 fractions of 6 to 12.5 Gy (median, 9 Gy; average tumor volume, 30 {+-} 40 cm{sup 3}), DRCs differed significantly. In both cases, CT changes at 3, 18, 24, and 30 months were identical to those of the population DRC; however, patients who received >3 fractions showed 6-month CT changes that were more than twice those for the group that received 3 fractions. Conclusions: This analysis of SBRT-induced normal lung density changes indicates that lung normal tissue has more pronounced self-limited acute effects than late effects. Differences in acute CT changes following treatments in 3 fractions were considerably less than for treatments in >3 fractions.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN
Barron-Gafford, Greg
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re
Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change
Fischlin, Andreas
Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change Term paper in Biogeochemistry@ethz.ch] Tutor: Prof. Dr. Nicholas Gruber [nicholas.gruber@env.ethz.ch] Abstract The response of oceanic oxygen of climate change. Recent publications indicate that the oceanic oxygen outgassing is substaintially larger
Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?
Pan, Feifei
Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate
Determination of the effective delayed neutron fraction using MCNP4B
Werner, C.J.; Little, R.C.
1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z
The capability to calculate effective delayed neutron fractions has now been implemented into MCNP4B and is in the testing phase. This option should prove to be most useful for multiplying systems which are not easily modeled using deterministic codes.
CLNS 05/1914 Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of D
a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D 0 and six D + modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D 0 ! K \\Gamma Ã? + ) = (3:91 \\Sigma 0:08 \\Sigma 0:09)% and B(D + ! K \\Gamma Ã? + Ã? + ) = (9:5 \\Sigma 0:2 \\Sigma 0:3)%, where the uncertainties are stati
Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua
Kilpatrick, Peter K.
, the formation of stable emulsions and sludges in petroleum refineries comprised of water, crude oil, and solidComparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua Joseph D. Mc the stability of emulsions or sludges which are produced by these crudes in refinery processing. The resin
aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate hydrocarbons may label individuals in colonies according to the tasks they under- take and that the compounds
Goldfeder, A.; Brown, D.M.
1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
X/Gf mice bearing the MT2 mammary adenocarcinoma were subjected to 4000 rad of x rays given either as a single dose, or five daily fractions of 800 rad. Additional experimental groups were treated with either short term localized microwave hyperthermia (LMH), or the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO), or both hyperthermia plus MISO with x rays. The combined use of MISO plus 42.5/sup 0/C with x rays was superior to the other treatment regimens as assessed by tumor regrowth delay and mean survival time. However, for the five fraction schedule, the addition of MISO plus hyperthermia was not as effective as observed for the single dose treatment. This may be attributed to reoxygenation of the hypoxic tumor cells between treatment fractions. MISO retention in tumor tissue under ambient and hyperthermic conditions was studied. The application of heat locally to the tumors caused a significant increase in MISO tumor concentration. However, after four x ray fractions the influence on MISO concentration by hyperthermia in the tumors could not be demonstrated.
THE GENESIS SOLAR WIND CONCENTRATOR TARGET: MASS FRACTIONATION CHARACTERISED BY NE ISOTOPES
WIENS, ROGER C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; OLINGER, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HEBER, V.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; REISENFELD, D.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURNETT, D.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; ALLTON, J.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BAUR, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; WIECHERT, U. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; WIELER, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z
The concentrator on Genesis provides samples of increased fluences of solar wind ions for precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind. The concentration process caused mass fractionation as function of the radial target position. They measured the fractionation using Ne released by UV laser ablation along two arms of the gold cross from the concentrator target to compare measured Ne with modeled Ne. The latter is based on simulations using actual conditions of the solar wind during Genesis operation. Measured Ne abundances and isotopic composition of both arms agree within uncertainties indicating a radial symmetric concentration process. Ne data reveal a maximum concentration factor of {approx} 30% at the target center and a target-wide fractionation of Ne isotopes of 3.8%/amu with monotonously decreasing {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios towards the center. The experimentally determined data, in particular the isotopic fractionation, differ from the modeled data. They discuss potential reasons and propose future attempts to overcome these disagreements.
Continued Fraction Absorbing Boundary Conditions for Transient Elastic Wave Propagation Modeling
Guddati, Murthy N.
Continued Fraction Absorbing Boundary Conditions for Transient Elastic Wave Propagation Modeling Md of the truncated exterior. Development of an accurate ABC for transient elastic wave propagation problems are obtained by factoring the wave equation into outward and inward propagating operators and permitting only
Carbon isotope fractionation between diet, breath CO2, and bioapatite in different mammals
Ehleringer, Jim
, and cattle on controlled diets. The measured fractionation (expressed as isotope enrichment 3*) between of the isotopic enrichment between diet and bioapatite. To this end, we present the results of controlled feeding experiments where the isotopic enrichment between diet, breath CO2, and bioapatite was measured for several
Bindeman, Ilya N.
isotope redistribution by thermal diffusion leading to enrichment of light isotopes at the hot endStable isotope fractionation by thermal diffusion through partially molten wet and dry silicate 2012 Editor: T.M. Harrison Keywords: thermal diffusion hydrogen isotope separation oxygen isotopes
Modelling of stable isotope fractionation by methane oxidation and diffusion in landfill cover soils
Mahieu, Koenraad [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Koenraad.mahieu@lid.kviv.be; De Visscher, Alex [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Vanrolleghem, Peter A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control (BIOMATH), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Civil Engineering (modelEAU), Universite Laval, Pavillon Pouliot, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Van Cleemput, Oswald [Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry (ISOFYS), Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A technique to measure biological methane oxidation in landfill cover soils that is gaining increased interest is the measurement of stable isotope fractionation in the methane. Usually to quantify methane oxidation, only fractionation by oxidation is taken into account. Recently it was shown that neglecting the isotope fractionation by diffusion results in underestimation of the methane oxidation. In this study a simulation model was developed that describes gas transport and methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. The model distinguishes between {sup 12}CH{sub 4}, {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, and {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D explicitly, and includes isotope fractionation by diffusion and oxidation. To evaluate the model, the simulations were compared with column experiments from previous studies. The predicted concentration profiles and isotopic profiles match the measured ones very well, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.7 vol% in the concentration and a RMSD of 0.8 per mille in the {delta}{sup 13}C value, with {delta}{sup 13}C the relative {sup 13}C abundance as compared to an international standard. Overall, the comparison shows that a model-based isotope approach for the determination of methane oxidation efficiencies is feasible and superior to existing isotope methods.
Passive microwave soil moisture downscaling using evaporative fraction Olivier Merlin1
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
stations (METFLUX) and six flights of the L-band Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR). For each PBMR fraction (EF), which is the ratio of the evapotranspiration to the total energy available at the surface, especially for high soil moisture values. Those results illustrate the potential use of high
Coulomb Oscillations in Antidots in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes
A. Kou; C. M. Marcus; L. N. Pfeiffer; K. W. West
2012-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
We report measurements of resistance oscillations in micron-scale antidots in both the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. In the integer regime, we conclude that oscillations are of the Coulomb type from the scaling of magnetic field period with the number of edges bound to the antidot. Based on both gate-voltage and field periods, we find at filling factor {\
Coulomb Oscillations in Antidots in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes
Kou, A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report measurements of resistance oscillations in micron-scale antidots in both the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. In the integer regime, we conclude that oscillations are of the Coulomb type from the scaling of magnetic field period with the number of edges bound to the antidot. Based on both gate-voltage and field periods, we find at filling factor {\
Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation for Trend Contaminated Fractionally Differenced Processes
Washington at Seattle, University of
Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation for Trend Contaminated Fractionally Differenced Processes Peter to scientific problems in the environmental and ecological sciences. #12;#12;Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation of polynomial trend plus FD noise and apply the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to separate a time series
Nuclear Assembly with k DNA in Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts: An Unexpected Role for Glycogen in
Forbes, Douglass
Nuclear Assembly with k DNA in Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts: An Unexpected Role for Glycogen. Crude extracts of Xenopus eggs are capable of nuclear assembly around chromatin templates or even around protein-free, naked DNA templates. Here the requirements for nuclear assembly around a naked DNA template
Central and non-central limit theorems for weighted power variations of fractional Brownian motion
Nourdin, Ivan; Nualart, David; Tudor, Ciprian A.
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
n this paper, we prove some central and non-central limit theorems for renormalized weighted power variations of order q?2 of the fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter H?(0, 1), where q is an integer. The central limit holds for 1/2q
Dong Jianping
2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
The solution to the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation with infinite square well is obtained in this paper, by use of the L\\'evy path integral approach. We obtain the even and odd parity wave functions of this problem, which are in accordance with those given by Laskin in [Chaos 10 (2000), 780--790].
On the Distribution of Chemical Properties and Aggregation of Solubility Fractions in Asphaltenes
Kilpatrick, Peter K.
material was generally less aromatic than the remaining fractions. Coefficients of linear correlation were) into underground reserves to displace the oil. This practice may result in the formation of asphaltene deposits a delicate balance between solvency, aggregation, and interfacial activity in solution that must ultimately
General Solution of a Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation for Solar Cosmic-Ray Transport
M. C. Rocca; A. R. Plastino; A. Plastino; A. L. De Paoli
2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this effort we exactly solve the fractional diffusion-advection equation for solar cosmic-ray transport proposed in \\cite{LE2014} and give its {\\it general solution} in terms of hypergeometric distributions. Also, we regain all the results and approximations given in \\cite{LE2014} as {\\it particular cases} of our general solution.
Manning, Craig
Experimental determination of equilibrium nickel isotope fractionation between metal and silicate.04& between equilibrated bulk silicate Earth and chondrites, indicating that Ni isotopes are not likely- lation process involving a well-mixed silicate reservoir. Ã? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1
Menad, N.; Ayala, J.N.; Garcia-Carcedo, Fernando; Ruiz-Ayucar, E.; Hernandez, A
2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Carbothermal treatment tests of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD) using the Waelz kiln process were carried out in pilot-scale for the production of zinc oxide. The association of halides in the EAFD, and the recycled products, such as zinc oxide fumes and high-grade iron contents fractions were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. XRD reveals the presence of chlorine and fluorine in the dusts in the form of KCl, NaCl and CaF{sub 2}. An ultra-pure fraction of zinc was obtained after the Double Leaching Waelz Oxide (DLWO) process was performed on the zinc oxide fumes. The halide contents were reduced to approximately 100 ppm Cl and 700 ppm F. The rest of these elements are in the form of CaF{sub 2}. About 65% F is volatilised as lead and zinc fluorides, 15% is expected in the magnetic fractions and 20% in non-magnetic fractions as CaF{sub 2} and MnF{sub 2}, respectively.
Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity
Demouchy, Sylvie
Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule matrix complementarity Philip A and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD. Although volatile depletion was the most fundamental chemical process affecting the inner solar nebula
Separation, fractionation, concentration, and drying of food products: A technical case study
Not Available
1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Researchers have investigated a new approach that separates juice into pulp and serum (liquid) fractions. The fractions are then processed individually and more efficiently to reduce the water content. Finally, the fractions are recombined at the site of use to obtain conventional or new products. Efforts to date have included laboratory and on-site studies of several fractionation schemes using energy-efficient membrane-based microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and hyperfiltration processes. These processes are used in combination with more conventional separation, concentration, and recombination methods such as centrifugation, vacuum evaporation, and homogenization. This technical case study provides an overview of the entire DOE/NFPA R D project and highlights the on-site testing of an advanced processing scheme for tomato juice. This scheme involves separation (centrifugation), concentration (hyperfiltration and evaporation), and recombination (homogenization) processes. The document is aimed at making field test and data analysis results available to other researchers and to private industry in a timely manner. The case study discusses project status; summarizes field testing efforts; and reviews potential technology impacts in terms of applications, energy savings, and preliminary economics.
Minnesota, University of
investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric-portable mixing ratio generator and Rayleigh distillation device, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 1607 ratio generator. Incom- ing dry air passes through a molecular sieve and then a stainless steel frit (a
Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes
Edwards, Erika J.
Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes Li Gao1 States of America Abstract Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (dD) have been widely in leaf wax dD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering
Rudnick, Roberta L.
Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation during continental weathering revealed in saprolites from in revised form 6 July 2004 Abstract The lithium concentration and isotopic composition of two saprolites the behavior of lithium isotopes during continental weathering. Both saprolites show a general trend
Two Rossi-[alpha] techniques for measuring the effective delayed neutron fraction
Spriggs, G.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))
1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two techniques for measuring the effective delayed neutron fraction have been developed. The techniques are based on a combination of the Rossi-[alpha]technique and the source-multiplication technique. They require minimal knowledge of the assembly, use variables that can be measured, and are independent of the detector efficiency and the neutron lifetime.
Physical interpretation of fractional diffusion-wave equation via lossy media obeying frequency not been clearly explained in this regard. Here the attempt is made to interpret the FDWE via a new time, for example, in medical ultrasonic and seismic wave propagations ( )z eEE - = 0 7-9 . Here E represents
A Novel Scheme to Search for Fractional Charge Particles in Low Energy Accelerator Experiments
Jianguo Bian; Jiahui Wang
2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the quarks and anti-quarks have fractional charge equal to $\\pm1/3$ or $\\pm2/3$ of the electron's charge. There has been a large number of experiments searching for fractional charge, isolatable, elementary particles using a variety of methods, including $e^+e^-$ collisions using dE/dx ionization energy loss measurements, but no evidence has been found to confirm existence of free fractional charge particles, which leads to the quark confinement theory. In this paper, a proposal to search for this kind particles is presented, which is based on the conservation law of four-momentum. Thanks to the CLEOc and BESIII detectors' large coverage, good particle identification, precision measurements of tracks' momenta and their large recorded data samples, these features make the scheme feasible in practice. The advantage of the scheme is independent of any theoretical models and sensitive for a small fraction of the quarks transitioning to the unconfinement phase from the confinement phase.
Title: Electron-Hole Asymmetric Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Bilayer Graphene
Yacoby, Amir
Title: Electron-Hole Asymmetric Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Bilayer Graphene graphene is predicted to pro- duce novel and tunable FQH ground states. Here we present local electronic compressibility measurements of the FQH effect in the lowest Landau level of bilayer graphene. We observe
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
(FBEÂSM) N. Serafimovski, M. Di Renzo, S. SinanoviÂ´c, R. Y. Mesleh, and H. Haas Abstract--In this Letter, we introduce fractional bit encoded (FBE)Âspatial modulation (SM), which is a novel and more will show that FBEÂSM can offer design flexibility and the desired tradeÂoff in terms of attainable
Etude du marquage isotopique des fractions azotes du lait chez la chvre soumise une infusion
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Etude du marquage isotopique des fractions azotées du lait chez la chèvre soumise à une infusion afin de permettre d'une part l'infusion de L-(U-14C)-leucine (AMERSHAM) diluée dans 50 ml de soluté, puis à 24, 32, 48, 56, 72 et 96 heures après l'infusion). Lors d'une première expérience, une chèvre (2
ameliorates fractionated whole-brain: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
fractionated whole-brain First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The purification and...
$XMM-Newton$ $?$ project: III. Gas mass fraction shape in high redshift clusters
Rachida Sadat; Alain Blanchard; Sebastien C. Vauclair; David H. Lumb; James Bartlett; A. K. Romer; Jean-Philippe Bernard; Michel Boer; Philippe Marty; Jukka Nevalainen; Douglas J. Burke; C. A. Collins; Robert C. Nichol
2005-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
We study the gas mass fraction, $f\\_{\\rm gas},$ behavior in $XMM-Newton$ $\\Omega$ project. The typical $f\\_{\\rm gas}$ shape of high redshift galaxy clusters follows the global shape inferred at low redshift quite well. This result is consistent with the gravitational instability picture leading to self similar structures for both the dark and baryonic matter. However, the mean $f\\_{\\rm gas} in distant clusters shows some differences to local ones, indicating a departure from strict scaling. This result is consistent with the observed evolution in the luminosity-temperature relation. We quantitatively investigate this departure from scaling laws. Within the local sample we used, a moderate but clear variation of the amplitude of the gas mass fraction with temperature is found, a trend that weakens in the outer regions. These variations do not explain departure from scaling laws of our distant clusters. An important implication of our results is that the gas fraction evolution, a test of the cosmological parameters, can lead to biased values when applied at radii smaller than the virial radius. From our $XMM$ clusters, the apparent gas fraction at the virial radius is consistent with a non-evolving universal value in a high matter density model and not with a concordance.
Prediction of Shrinkage Pore Volume Fraction Using a Dimensionless Niyama Criterion
Beckermann, Christoph
Prediction of Shrinkage Pore Volume Fraction Using a Dimensionless Niyama Criterion KENT D. CARLSON to directly predict the amount of shrinkage porosity that forms during solidification of metal alloy castings is used in a general-purpose casting simulation software package to predict shrinkage porosity in three
Moore, John
and with the type of data that was expected to come from ice caps with seasonal melt. The objective of this paperIon fractionation and percolation in ice cores with seasonal melting John C. Moore*, Aslak Grinsted that suffer limited seasonal melting. We show that the impact in the case of at least one Svalbard ice core
Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two
Ghajar, Afshin J.
and simultaneous transportation of oil and natural gas from remote extraction locations to the processing units#12;Chapter 4 Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in gas-liquid two phase flow. The flow structure of different flow patterns observed in gas-liquid two
Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines
. INTRODUCTION AND COMPARISON WITH DIESEL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION To prevent the malicious knock phenomenon downsides. During tip-outs (defined as a transient mode during which the torque demand is suddenly decreased. Scheme of the intake burned gas fraction dynamics. In the seemingly similar context of automotive Diesel
Fractional advection-dispersion equations for1 modeling transport at the Earth surface2
Bäumer, Boris
Fractional advection-dispersion equations for1 modeling transport at the Earth surface2 Rina partial differential equations such as the advection-dispersion equation12 (ADE) begin with assumptions biomechanical transport and mixing29 by bioturbation, and the transport of sediment particles and sediment
Europium, Samarium, and Neodymium Isotopic Fractions in Metal-Poor Stars
Roederer, Ian U; Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Pilachowski, Catherine A
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have derived isotopic fractions of europium, samarium, and neodymium in two metal-poor giants with differing neutron-capture nucleosynthetic histories. These isotopic fractions were measured from new high resolution (R ~ 120,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ~ 160-1000) spectra obtained with the 2dCoude spectrograph of McDonald Observatory's 2.7m Smith telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated using recent high-precision laboratory measurements of hyperfine and isotopic subcomponents of several transitions of these elements and matched quantitatively to the observed spectra. We interpret our isotopic fractions by the nucleosynthesis predictions of the stellar model, which reproduces s-process nucleosynthesis from the physical conditions expected in low-mass, thermally-pulsing stars on the AGB, and the classical method, which approximates s-process nucleosynthesis by a steady neutron flux impinging upon Fe-peak seed nuclei. Our Eu isotopic fraction in HD 175305 is consistent with an r-process origin by the ...
CLOUD FRACTION: CAN IT BE DEFINED, CAN IT BE MEASURED, AND IF WE KNEW IT
Schwartz, Stephen E.
droplets and/or ice particles in the atmosphere above the earth's surface. Total cloud cover: Fraction, JGR (ERBE, 1988) Cloud cover is a loosely defined term. Potter Stewart (U.S. Supreme Court, 1964) I feedbacks. Accurate representation of cloud radiative effects is essential in climate models. Getting cloud
INTERANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD FRACTION AND LOWER
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
: ___________________________________________________________ #12;i Abstract Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a large effect on the global radiation budget cooling effect in the MBL. Thus, simulating MBL clouds in General Circulation Models (GCM) is crucialINTERANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD FRACTION AND LOWER TROPOSPHERIC
that have been used to quantify the effect of clouds on radiation budget in both modeling and observationalSURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-radiation
Saleem, Muhammad; /SUNY, Albany
2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation reports on a study of the relative branching fraction measurement of the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c} decaying to the Cabibbo-suppressed modes.
Climate Change | Department of Energy
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Climate Change Climate Change September 16, 2014 C3E Spotlights Women Leaders in Clean Energy Careers Women clean energy leaders convene in Boston for the Women in Clean Energy...
Climate Change and National Security
Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of climate change, energy security and economic stability.DoD is improving U.S. energy security and national security.www.greenpacks.org • Energy Security & Climate Change:
Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change
Knutson, Thomas R.
Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...
Climate Change Action Plan Report
Hansen, Andrew J.
Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS
4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
HESSD 4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible
Biological Impacts of Climate Change
McCarty, John P.
Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may
Why Range Forage Quality Changes
Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.
1999-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
, and the mostly indigestible substance lignin. These f_iber fractions are included in the neutral detergent f_iber (NDF) and acid detergent f_iber (ADF) frac- tions often used in forage analysis reports. Hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin are included in NDF... while cellulose and lignin are included in ADF. Because animals lack the enzymes or chem- icals necessary to break down hemicellulose and cellulose, they must depend on microbial fermen- tation (breakdown or digestion) to reduce these substances...
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab
2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The {Lambda}{sub b}(udb) baryon is observed in the decay {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda} using 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected with the D0 detector at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The production fraction multiplied by the branching fraction for this decay relative to that for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} is measured to be 0.345 {+-} 0.034 (stat.) {+-} 0.033 (syst.) {+-} 0.003 (PDG). Using the world average value of f(b {yields} B{sup 0}) {center_dot} {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}) = (1.74 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -5}, they obtain f(b {yields} {Lambda}{sub b}) {center_dot} {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}) = (6.01 {+-} 0.60 (stat.) {+-} 0.58 (syst.) {+-} 0.28 (PDG)) x 10{sup -5}. This measurement represents an improvement in precision by about a factor of three with respect to the current world average.
Beck, William Cory
2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components of the carbonic acid system...
Shawabkeh, Reyad A.
by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale
Grunwald, Sabine
. With the advent of visible/near-infrared-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR-DRS) to infer on soil C fractionsComparison and detection of total and available soil carbon fractions using visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy D.V. Sarkhot a,1,2 , S. Grunwald a, , Y. Ge b,3 , C.L.S. Morgan c,4
Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.
2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) co-metabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε ~2? aerobically and ~0.4? under denitrifying conditions).
C. H. Eab; S. C. Lim
2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z
This paper considers the Fokker-Planck equation and path integral formulation of the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process parametrized by two indices. The effective Fokker-Planck equation of this process is derived from the associated fractional Langevin equation. Path integral representation of the process is constructed and the basic quantities are evaluated.
Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.
Das, Saptarshi; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava; 10.1016/j.engappai.2011.10.004
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller has been proposed in this paper which works on the closed loop error and its fractional derivative as the input and has a fractional integrator in its output. The fractional order differ-integrations in the proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are kept as design variables along with the input-output scaling factors (SF) and are optimized with Genetic Algorithm (GA) while minimizing several integral error indices along with the control signal as the objective function. Simulations studies are carried out to control a delayed nonlinear process and an open loop unstable process with time delay. The closed loop performances and controller efforts in each case are compared with conventional PID, fuzzy PID and PI{\\lambda}D{\\mu} controller subjected to different integral performance indices. Simulation results show that the proposed fractional order fuzzy PID controller outperforms the others in most cases.
Fixed Points Structure & Effective Fractional Dimension for O(N) Models with Long-Range Interactions
Nicolo Defenu; Andrea Trombettoni; Alessandro Codello
2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
We study O(N) models with power-law interactions by using functional renormalization group methods: we show that both in Local Potential Approximation (LPA) and in LPA' their critical exponents can be computed from the ones of the corresponding short-range O(N) models at an effective fractional dimension. In LPA such effective dimension is given by $D_{eff}=2d/\\sigma$, where d is the spatial dimension and $d+\\sigma$ is the exponent of the power-law decay of the interactions. In LPA' the prediction by Sak [Phys. Rev. B 8, 1 (1973)] for the critical exponent $\\eta$ is retrieved and an effective fractional dimension $D_{eff}'$ is obtained. Using these results we determine the existence of multicritical universality classes of long-range O(N) models and we present analytical predictions for the critical exponent $\
Position-Momentum Duality and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Chern Insulators
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Claassen, Martin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lee, Ching-Hua [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Thomale, Ronny [Univ. of Wurzburg (Germany); Qi, Xiao-Liang [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Devereaux, Thomas P [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a first quantization description of fractional Chern insulators that is the dual of the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) problem, with the roles of position and momentum interchanged. In this picture, FQH states are described by anisotropic FQH liquids forming in momentum-space Landau levels in a fluctuating magnetic field. The fundamental quantum geometry of the problem emerges from the interplay of single-body and interaction metrics, both of which act as momentum-space duals of the geometrical picture of the anisotropic FQH effect. We then present a novel broad class of ideal Chern insulator lattice models that act as duals of the isotropic FQH effect. The interacting problem is well-captured by Haldane pseudopotentials and affords a detailed microscopic understanding of the interplay of interactions and non-trivial quantum geometry.
The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.
Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard
2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).
A new relation between pressure and fractional flow in two-phase flow in porous media
Henning Arendt Knudsen; Alex Hansen
2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
We study average flow properties in porous media using a two-dimensional network simulator. It models the dynamics of two-phase immiscible bulk flow where film flow can be neglected. The boundary conditions are biperiodic which provide a means of studying steady state flow where complex bubble dynamics dominate the flow picture. We find fractional flow curves and corresponding pressure curves for different capillary numbers. In particular, we study the case of the two phases having equal viscosity. In this case we find that the derivative of the fractional flow with respect to saturation is related to the global pressure drop. This result can also be expressed in terms of relative permeabilities or mobilities, resulting in an equation tying together the mobilities of the two phases.
Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction
Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)
1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.
Holographic fractional topological insulators in 2+1 and 1+1 dimensions
Andreas Karch; Joseph Maciejko; Tadashi Takayanagi
2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
We give field theory descriptions of the time-reversal invariant quantum spin Hall insulator in 2+1 dimensions and the particle-hole symmetric insulator in 1+1 dimensions in terms of massive Dirac fermions. Integrating out the massive fermions we obtain a low-energy description in terms of a topological field theory, which is entirely determined by anomaly considerations. This description allows us to easily construct low-energy effective actions for the corresponding `fractional' topological insulators, potentially corresponding to new states of matter. We give a holographic realization of these fractional states in terms of a probe brane system, verifying that the expected topologically protected transport properties are robust even at strong coupling.
First Measurement of the Fraction of Top Quark Pair Production Through Gluon-Gluon Fusion
CDF Collaboration; T. Aaltonen
2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use 0.96/fb of s**(1/2)=1.96 TeV p-pbar collision data recorded with the CDF II detector at Fermilab. We identify the candidate t-tbar events with a high-energy charged lepton, a neutrino candidate, and four or more jets. Using charged particles with low transverse momentum in t-tbar events, we find the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion to be 0.07+/-0.14(stat)+/-0.07(syst), corresponding to a 95% confidence level upper limit of 0.33, in agreement with the standard model NLO prediction of 0.15+/-0.05.
Longhi, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.longhi@fisi.polimi.it
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum recurrence and dynamic localization are investigated in a class of ac-driven tight-binding Hamiltonians, the Krawtchouk quantum chain, which in the undriven case provides a paradigmatic Hamiltonian model that realizes perfect quantum state transfer and mirror inversion. The equivalence between the ac-driven single-particle Krawtchouk Hamiltonian H{sup -hat} (t) and the non-interacting ac-driven bosonic junction Hamiltonian enables to determine in a closed form the quasi energy spectrum of H{sup -hat} (t) and the conditions for exact wave packet reconstruction (dynamic localization). In particular, we show that quantum recurrence, which is predicted by the general quantum recurrence theorem, is exact for the Krawtchouk quantum chain in a dense range of the driving amplitude. Exact quantum recurrence provides perfect wave packet reconstruction at a frequency which is fractional than the driving frequency, a phenomenon that can be referred to as fractional dynamic localization.
Measurement of the Branching Fraction of B0 Meson Decay to a_1^+(1260) pi-
Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San
2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
We present a preliminary measurement of the branching fraction of the B meson decay B{sup 0} {yields} a{sub 1}{sup +}(1260){pi}{sup -}with a{sub 1}{sup +}(1260) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The data sample corresponds to 218 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. We find the branching fraction (40.2 {+-} 3.9 {+-} 3.9) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. The fitted values of the a{sub 1}(1260) parameters are m{sub a{sub 1}} = 1.22 {+-} 0.02 GeV/c{sup 2} and {Lambda}{sub a{sub 1}} = 0.423 {+-} 0.050 GeV/c{sup 2}.
Branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries of charmless decay modes at the Tevatron
Morello, Michael; /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa
2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors present new CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pion or kaon). The data set for this update amounts to 1 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. They report the first observation of the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} mode and a measurement of its branching fraction and direct CP asymmetry. They also observe for the first time two charmless decays of b-baryon: {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}.
Branching fractions for transitions of {psi}(2S) to J/{psi}
Mendez, H. [University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, 00681 (Puerto Rico); Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Artuso, M.; Blusk, S. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)] (and others)
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report determination of branching fractions for the decays {psi}(2S){yields}h+J/{psi}, where h=any, {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, {pi}{sup 0}, and {gamma}{gamma} through {chi}{sub c0,1,2}. These measurements use 27M {psi}(2S) decays produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected with the CLEO detector. The resulting branching fractions and ratios thereof improve upon previously achieved precision in all cases, and in combination with other measurements permit determination of B({chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}J/{psi}) and B({psi}(2S){yields}light hadrons)
Method of increasing anhydrosugars, pyroligneous fractions and esterified bio-oil
Steele, Philip H; Yu, Fei; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian
2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.
Lyalpha RADIATIVE TRANSFER WITH DUST: ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM SIMULATED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES
Laursen, Peter; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Andersen, Anja C., E-mail: pela@dark-cosmology.d, E-mail: jslarsen@astro.ku.d [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)
2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Lyalpha emission line is an essential diagnostic tool for probing galaxy formation and evolution. Not only is it commonly the strongest observable line from high-redshift galaxies, but from its shape detailed information about its host galaxy can be revealed. However, due to the scattering nature of Lyalpha photons increasing their path length in a nontrivial way, if dust is present in the galaxy, the line may be severely suppressed and its shape altered. In order to interpret observations correctly, it is thus of crucial significance to know how much of the emitted light actually escapes the galaxy. In the present work, using a combination of high-resolution cosmological hydrosimulations and an adaptively refinable Monte Carlo Lyalpha radiative transfer code including an environment dependent model of dust, the escape fractions f {sub esc} of Lyalpha radiation from high-redshift (z = 3.6) galaxies are calculated. In addition to the average escape fraction, the variation of f {sub esc} in different directions and from different parts of the galaxies is investigated, as well as the effect on the emergent spectrum. Escape fractions from a sample of simulated galaxies of representative physical properties are found to decrease for increasing galaxy virial mass M {sub vir}, from f {sub esc} approaching unity for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 9} M {sub sun} to f {sub esc} less than 10% for M {sub vir} approx 10{sup 12} M {sub sun}. In spite of dust being almost gray, it is found that the emergent spectrum is affected nonuniformly, with the escape fraction of photons close to the line center being much higher than of those in the wings, thus effectively narrowing the Lyalpha line.
CLNS 07/2005 Measurement of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of D
. Among measurements for three D 0 and six D + modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D 0 ! K \\Gamma Ã? + ) = (3:891 \\Sigma 0:035 \\Sigma 0:059 \\Sigma 0:035)% and B(D + ! K \\Gamma Ã? + Ã? + ) = (9:14 \\Sigma 0:10 \\Sigma 0:16 \\Sigma 0:07)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is all
Fractional statistics and finite bosonic system: A one-dimensional case
Andrij Rovenchak
2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
The equivalence is established between the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-system with a finite number of particles and the system obeying the fractional (intermediate) Gentile statistics, in which the maximum occupation of single-particle energy levels is limited. The system of 1D harmonic oscillators is considered providing the model of harmonically trapped Bose-gas. The results are generalized for the system with power energy spectrum.
Upper limit on the primary photon fraction from the Pierre Auger Observatory
Risse, Markus; /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum
2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Auger Observatory, an upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction of 26% (at 95% confidence level) is derived for primary energies above 10{sup 19} eV. Additional observables recorded with the surface detector array, available for a sub-set of the data sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favoured.
Right ventricular ejection fraction from equilibrium and first pass scintigraphic cardiac images
Nakamura, Eiji
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Radioactive 2 x 10 years Fig. 6. Generation and transition of Tc 11 2. Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals or radioactive tracers generally consist of a radionuclide emit- ting 7-rays. They need to allow maximum information extraction... the contraction phase, is an important indicator of ventricular func- tion. Equilibrium images, in which the radiopharmaceutical is uniformly distributed throughout the blood pool, are routinely used to compute the left ventricular ejec- tion fraction...
Strain differences in the response of mouse testicular stem cells to fractionated radiation
Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Finch, M.; Lu, C.C.; de Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; de Rooij, D.G.; Davids, J.A.G.
1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The survival of spermatogonial stem cells in CBA and C3H mice after single and split-dose (24-hr interval) irradiation with fission neutrons and gamma rays was compared. The first doses of the fractionated regimes were either 150 rad (neutrons) or 600 rad (gamma). For both strains the neutron survival curves were exponential. The D/sub 0/ value of stem cells in CBA decreased from 83 to 25 rad upon fractionation; that of C3H stem cells decreased only from 54 to 36 rad. The survival curves for gamma irradiation, which all showed shoulders, indicated that C3H stem cells had larger repair capacities than CBA stem cells. However, the most striking difference between the two strains in response to gamma radiation was in the slopes of the second-dose curves. Whereas C3H stem cells showed a small increase of the D/sub 0/ upon fractionation (from 196 to 218 rad), CBA stem cells showed a marked decrease (from 243 to 148 rad). The decreases in D/sub 0/ upon fractionation, observed in both strains with neutron irradiation and also with gamma irradiation in CBA, are most likely the result of recruitment or progression of radioresistant survivors to a more sensitive state of proliferation or cell cycle phase. It may be that the survivng stem cells in C3H mice are recruited less rapidly and synchronously into active cycle than in CBA mice. Thus, it appears that the strain differences may be quantitative, rather than qualitative.
Measurement of the Branching Fraction for J/?-> p \\bar{p}?and p \\bar{p} ?^{'}
BES collaboration
2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
Using 58$\\times 10^{6}$ $\\jpsi$ events collected with the Beijing Spectrometer (BESII) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the branching fractions of $\\jpsi$ to $p\\bar{p}\\eta$ and $p\\bar{p}\\etap$ are determined. The ratio $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb\\eta)}{\\Gamma(\\jpsi\\rar\\ppb)}$ obtained by this analysis agrees with expectations based on soft-pion theorem calculations.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Hooper, Dan; Kelso, Chris
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, the CDF Collaboration reported the first nonzero measurement of the Bs????? branching fraction. The LHCb, CMS and ATLAS, collaborations have reported upper limits that are in tension with the CDF result. We consider the implications of these measurements for the specific case of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We also discuss the implications of these measurements for neutralino dark matter and the supersymmetric contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.
Fusion Rules for Affine sl(2|1;C) at Fractional Level k=-1/2
Gavin Johnstone
2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate fusion rules for the admissible representations of the affine superalgebra sl(2|1;C) at fractional level k=-1/2 in the Ramond sector. By representing 3-point correlation functions involving a singular vector as the action of differential operators on the sl(2|1;C) invariant 3-point function, we obtain conditions on permitted quantum numbers involved. We find that in this case the primary fields close under fusion.
Moen, Kabe
2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
James Miller Date approved: April 14, 2009 2 To Andrea and Mom 3 Contents Abstract 6 Acknowledgments 7 Introduction 9 1 Preliminaries 13 1.1 Lp spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.1.1 Operators on Lp spaces... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2 The main operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.2.1 Maximal operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.2.2 Fractional integral operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1.2.3 Calder...
Gas distribution, metal enrichment, and baryon fraction in Gaussian and non-Gaussian universes
Umberto Maio
2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
We study the cosmological evolution of baryons in universes with and without primordial non-Gaussianities via (large scale) N-body/hydrodynamical simulations, including gas cooling, star formation, stellar evolution, chemical enrichment from both population III and population II regimes, and feedback effects. We find that large fnl values for non-Gaussianities can alter the gas probability distribution functions, the metal pollution history, the halo baryon, gas and stellar fractions, mostly at early times. More precisely: (i) non-Gaussianities lead to an earlier evolution of primordial gas, structures, and star formation; (ii) metal enrichment starts earlier (with respect to the Gaussian scenario) in non-Gaussian models with larger fnl; (iii) gas fractions within the haloes are not significantly affected by the different values of fnl, with deviations of ~1-10%; (iv) the stellar fraction is quite sensitive to non-Gaussianities at early times, with discrepancies reaching up to a factor of ~10 at very high z, and rapidly converging at low z; (v) the trends at low redshift are independent from fnl: they are mostly led by the ongoing baryonic evolution and by the feedback mechanisms, which determine a ~25%-30% discrepancy in the baryon fraction of galaxy groups/clusters with respect to the cosmic values; (vi) non-Gaussianity impacts on the cluster X-ray emission or on the SZ effect(s) are expected to be not very large and dominated by feedback mechanisms, whereas some effects on the 21-cm emission can be expected at early times; (vii) in order to address non-Gaussianities in the cosmological structure contest, high-redshift (z~10) investigations are required: first stars, galaxies, quasars, and GRBs may be potential cosmological probes of non-Gaussianities.
Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction
MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.
1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.
Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction
MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); McLean, Joseph B. (Somerville, NJ)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600.degree.-750.degree. F. to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650.degree. F. and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft.sup.3 catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760.degree.-860.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600.degree.-750.degree. F..sup.+ fraction containing 0-20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials.
K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer
2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.
Effect of Fractionation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using the Linear Quadratic Model
Yang, Jun, E-mail: JunBME@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Lamond, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Fowler, Jack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Lanciano, Rachelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States); Feng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Brady, Luther [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania (United States)
2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To examine the fractionation effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy with a heterogeneous dose distribution. Methods: Derived from the linear quadratic formula with measurements from a hypothetical 2-cm radiosurgical tumor, the threshold percentage was defined as (?/?{sub tissue}/?/?{sub tumor}), the balance ?/? ratio was defined as (prescription dose/tissue tolerance*?/?{sub tumor}), and the balance dose was defined as (tissue tolerance/threshold percentage). Results: With increasing fractions and equivalent peripheral dose to the target, the biological equivalent dose of “hot spots” in a target decreases. The relative biological equivalent doses of serial organs decrease only when the relative percentage of its dose to the prescription dose is above the threshold percentage. The volume of parallel organs at risk decreases only when the tumor's ?/? ratio is above the balance ?/? ratio and the prescription dose is lower than balance dose. Conclusions: The potential benefits of fractionation in stereotactic body radiation therapy depend on the complex interplay between the total dose, ?/? ratios, and dose differences between the target and the surrounding normal tissues.
Measurement of branching fraction and first evidence of CP violation in B??a?±(1260)?? decays
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Dalseno, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bhuyan, B.; et al
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a measurement of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters in B??a±?(1260)?? decays. The results are obtained from the final data sample containing 772×10? BB¯¯¯ pairs collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e?e? collider. We obtain the product branching fraction B(B??a±?(1260)??)×B(a±?(1260)??±???±)=(11.1±1.0(stat)±1.4(syst))×10?? and an upper limit on the product branching fraction for a possible decay with the same final state B(B??a±?(1320)??)×B(a±?(1320)??±???±)more »respectively. Simultaneously, we also extract the CP-conserving parameters ?C=+0.54±0.11(stat)±0.07(syst), ?S=–0.09±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst), which, respectively, describe a rate difference and strong phase difference between the decay channels where the a±? does not contain the spectator quark and those where it does. We find first evidence of mixing-induced CP violation in B??a±?(1260)?? decays with 3.1? significance. The rate where the a±? does not contain the spectator quark from the B meson is found to dominate the rate where it does at the 4.1? level. However, there is no evidence for either time- and flavor-integrated direct CP violation or flavor-dependent direct CP violation.« less
K. -S. Park; H. Han
2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
Making use of index theorem and spin Chern Simons theory, we construct an effective topological field theory of strongly correlated topological insulators coupling to a nonabelian gauge field $ SU(N) $ with an interaction constant $ g $ in the absence of the time-reversal symmetry breaking. If $ N $ and $ g $ allow us to define a t'Hooft parameter $ \\lambda $ of effective coupling as $ \\lambda = N g^{2} $, then our construction leads to the fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance $ \\sigma_{H}^{s} = \\frac{1}{4\\lambda} \\frac{e^{2}}{h} $. For the magnetoelectric response described by a bulk axion angle $ \\theta $, we propose that the fractional magnetoelectric effect can be realized in gapped time reversal invariant topological insulators of strongly correlated bosons or fermions with an effective axion angle $ \\theta_{eff} = \\frac{\\pi}{2 \\lambda} $ if they can have fractional excitations and degenerate ground states on topologically nontrivial and oriented spaces. Provided that an effective charge is given by $ e_{eff} = \\frac{e}{\\sqrt{2 \\lambda}} $, it is shown that $ \\sigma_{H}^{s} = \\frac{e_{eff}^{2}}{2h} $, resulting in a surface Hall conductance of gapless fermions with $ e_{eff} $ and a pure axion angle $ \\theta = \\pi $.
Bound on Bell Inequalities by Fraction of Determinism and Reverse Triangle Inequality
P. Joshi; K. Horodecki; M. Horodecki; P. Horodecki; R. Horodecki; Ben Li; S. J. Szarek; T. Szarek
2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
It is an established fact that entanglement is a resource. Sharing an entangled state leads to non-local correlations and to violations of Bell inequalities. Such non-local correlations illustrate the advantage of quantum resources over classical resources. Here, we study quantitatively Bell inequalities with $2\\times n$ inputs. As found in [N. Gisin et al., Int. J. Q. Inf. 5, 525 (2007)] quantum mechanical correlations cannot reach the algebraic bound for such inequalities. In this paper, we uncover the heart of this effect which we call the {\\it fraction of determinism}. We show that any quantum statistics with two parties and $2 \\times n$ inputs exhibits nonzero fraction of determinism, and we supply a quantitative bound for it. We then apply it to provide an explicit {\\it universal upper bound} for Bell inequalities with $2\\times n$ inputs. As our main mathematical tool we introduce and prove a {\\it reverse triangle inequality}, stating in a quantitative way that if some states are far away from a given state, then their mixture is also. The inequality is crucial in deriving the lower bound for the fraction of determinism, but is also of interest on its own.
Measurement of branching fraction and first evidence of CP violation in B??a?±(1260)?? decays
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Dalseno, J.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Bay, A.; Belous, K.; Bhuyan, B.; Bozek, A.; Bra?ko, M.; Brovchenko, O.; Browder, T. E.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, P.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, I.-S.; Cho, K.; Choi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Eidelman, S.; Fast, J. E.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Goh, Y. M.; Hayashii, H.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Julius, T.; Kang, J. H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Koblitz, S.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kuhr, T.; Kumita, T.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, S.-H.; Li, J.; Libby, J.; Liu, C.; Liu, Z. Q.; Louvot, R.; MacNaughton, J.; Matvienko, D.; McOnie, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohapatra, D.; Moll, A.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakao, M.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nedelkovska, E.; Ng, C.; Nishida, S.; Nishimura, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Park, C. W.; Park, H. K.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Petri?, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Prim, M.; Prothmann, K.; Ritter, M.; Röhrken, M.; Sahoo, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sanuki, T.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shapkin, M.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Sibidanov, A.; Simon, F.; Smerkol, P.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Solovieva, E.; Stari?, M.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Williams, K. M.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a measurement of the branching fraction and time-dependent CP violation parameters in B??a±?(1260)?? decays. The results are obtained from the final data sample containing 772×10? BB¯¯¯ pairs collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e?e? collider. We obtain the product branching fraction B(B??a±?(1260)??)×B(a±?(1260)??±???±)=(11.1±1.0(stat)±1.4(syst))×10?? and an upper limit on the product branching fraction for a possible decay with the same final state B(B??a±?(1320)??)×B(a±?(1320)??±???±)±? does not contain the spectator quark and those where it does. We find first evidence of mixing-induced CP violation in B??a±?(1260)?? decays with 3.1? significance. The rate where the a±? does not contain the spectator quark from the B meson is found to dominate the rate where it does at the 4.1? level. However, there is no evidence for either time- and flavor-integrated direct CP violation or flavor-dependent direct CP violation.
Branching fractions and CP asymmetries in two-body nonleptonic charmless b-hadron decays
Warburton, Andreas; /McGill U.
2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relative branching fractions of B{sub d,s}{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h'{sup -} decays (where h,h' = K or {pi}) and the direct Cp asymmetry A{sub CP} in the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mode are measured with 179 {+-} 11 pb {sup -1} of data collected using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. The first branching-fraction measurement of a B{sub s}{sup 0} meson to two pseudoscalars, {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +} K{sup -}), and a search for the baryon mode {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{sup +} h{sup -} are also presented, in addition to branching-fraction limits on the rare channels B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}, B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}, and B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}.
In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction: Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-103
Shepard, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Terrones, G.; Chen, G. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wilkins, N.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)
1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-103. The two instruments were deployed through risers 17C and 22A in July and August 1995 to gather data on the gas content and rheology of the waste. The results indicate that the nonconvective sludge layer contains up to 12% void and an apparent viscosity of 104 to 105 cP with a yield strength less than 210 Pa. The convective layer measured zero void and had no measurable yield strength. Its average viscosity was about 45 cP, and the density was less than 1.5 g/cc. The average void fraction was 0.047 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 17C and 0.091 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 22A. The stored gas volume based on these void fraction measurements is 213 {plus_minus} 42 M{sup 3} at 1 atmosphere.
Simulation and measurement of the fractional particle number in one-dimensional optical lattices
Dan-Wei Zhang; Feng Mei; Zheng-Yuan Xue; Shi-Liang Zhu; Z. D. Wang
2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a scheme to mimic and directly measure the fractional particle number in a generalized Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with ultracold fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices. We show that the fractional particle number in this model can be simulated in the momentum-time parameter space in terms of Berry curvature without a spatial domain wall. In this simulation, a hopping modulation is adiabatically tuned to form a kink-type configuration and the induced current plays the role of an analogous soliton distributing in the time domain, such that the mimicked fractional particle number is expressed by the particle transport. Two feasible experimental setups of optical lattices for realizing the required Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and time-varying hopping modulation are presented. We also show practical methods for measuring the particle transport in the proposed cold atom systems by numerically calculating the shift of the Wannier center and the center of mass of an atomic cloud.
Determining the Lensing Fraction of SDSS Quasars Methods and Results from the EDR
Pindor, B; Lupton, R H; Brinkmann, J; Pindor, Bart; Turner, Edwin L.; Lupton, Robert H.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present an algorithm for selecting gravitational lens candidates from amongst Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars. In median Early Data Release (EDR) conditions, the algorithm allows for the recovery of pairs of equal flux point sources down to separations of $\\sim 0{\\farcs}7$ or with flux ratios up to $\\sim$ 10:1 at a separation of $1\\farcs5$. The algorithm also recovers a wide variety of plausible quad geometries. We also present a method for determining the selection function of this algorithm through the use of simulated SDSS images and introduce a method for calibrating our simulated images through truth-testing with real SDSS data. Finally, we apply our algorithm and selection function to SDSS quasars from the EDR to get an upper bound on the lensing fraction. We find 13 candidates among 5120 z $>$ 0.6 SDSS quasars, implying an observed lensing fraction of not more than 4 $\\times 10^{-3}$. There is one likely lens system in our final sample, implying an observed lensing fraction of not less than ...
Determining the Lensing Fraction of SDSS Quasars: Methods and Results from the EDR
Bart Pindor; Edwin L. Turner; Robert H. Lupton; J. Brinkmann
2003-01-23T23:59:59.000Z
We present an algorithm for selecting gravitational lens candidates from amongst Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars. In median Early Data Release (EDR) conditions, the algorithm allows for the recovery of pairs of equal flux point sources down to separations of $\\sim 0{\\farcs}7$ or with flux ratios up to $\\sim$ 10:1 at a separation of $1\\farcs5$. The algorithm also recovers a wide variety of plausible quad geometries. We also present a method for determining the selection function of this algorithm through the use of simulated SDSS images and introduce a method for calibrating our simulated images through truth-testing with real SDSS data. Finally, we apply our algorithm and selection function to SDSS quasars from the EDR to get an upper bound on the lensing fraction. We find 13 candidates among 5120 z $>$ 0.6 SDSS quasars, implying an observed lensing fraction of not more than 4 $\\times 10^{-3}$. There is one likely lens system in our final sample, implying an observed lensing fraction of not less than $3 \\times 10^{-5}$ (95% confidence levels).
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Impacts on California’s Water Supply Source Medellin-AzuaraClimate Change on Yields and Water use of Major Californiawith Less: Agricultural Water Conservation and Efficiency in
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
across California’s electricity sector, nor will changes inDWR, 2005). As in the electricity sector, financing andin California. The electricity sector itself is a small
Climate change risk and response
Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Potential Changes in Hydropower Production from Globalon high elevation hydropower generation in California’s7 reduction in the state’s hydropower resources, which last
Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development
Cole, Daniel H.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
climate change is coal gasification, which can make theworld leaders in coal gasification tech- nology, has beenexperimenting with "in situ" gasification, where the coal is
Social Empowerment Institutional Change Principle
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
By creating a context in which workers feel empowered to take action, Federal agencies can promote behaviors and behavior changes that support their sustainability goals. When individuals and...
Sandia National Laboratories: Climate change
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
research effort. Created to help resolve scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, ARM focuses on studying the role of clouds and aerosols in atmospheric and...
Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development
Cole, Daniel H.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
climate change is coal gasification, which can make thethe world leaders in coal gasification tech- nology, haswill not occur. If not coal gasification, then perhaps fuel
Changing times, changing places: AIDS orphans in Kisumu District, Kenya
Richner, Heinz
Changing times, changing places: AIDS orphans in Kisumu District, Kenya Prevalence of AIDS orphans in Kenya (2.6 million) had been orphaned by AIDS. In 1999, 46,732 children (17 years old care. Although Kenya has clear policies on prevention and management of HIV, it lacks a policy
Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change
Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O
2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.
Ruebush,S.; Icopini, G.; Brantley, S.; Tien, M.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study documents the first example of in vitro solid-phase mineral oxide reduction by enzyme-containing membrane fractions. Previous in vitro studies have only reported the reduction of aqueous ions. Total membrane (TM) fractions from iron-grown cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were isolated and shown to catalyze the reduction of goethite, hematite, birnessite, and ramsdellite/pyrolusite using formate. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and succinate cannot function as electron donors. The significant implications of observations related to this cell-free system are: (i) both iron and manganese mineral oxides are reduced by the TM fraction, but aqueous U(VI) is not; (ii) TM fractions from anaerobically grown, but not aerobically grown, cells can reduce the mineral oxides; (iii) electron shuttles and iron chelators are not needed for this in vitro reduction, documenting conclusively that reduction can occur by direct contact with the mineral oxide; (iv) electron shuttles and EDTA stimulate the in vitro Fe(III) reduction, documenting that exogenous molecules can enhance rates of enzymatic mineral reduction; and (v) multiple membrane components are involved in solid-phase oxide reduction. The membrane fractions, consisting of liposomes of cytoplasmic and outer membrane segments, contain at least 100 proteins including the enzyme that oxidizes formate, formate dehydrogenase. Mineral oxide reduction was inhibited by the addition of detergent Triton X-100, which solubilizes membranes and their associated proteins, consistent with the involvement of multiple electron carriers that are disrupted by detergent addition. In contrast, formate dehydrogenase activity was not inhibited by Triton X-100. The addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and menaquinone-4 was unable to restore activity; however, menadione (MD) restored 33% of the activity. The addition of AQDS and MD to reactions without added detergent increased the rate of goethite reduction. The Michaelis-Menten K{sub m} values of 71 {+-} 22 m{sup 2}/L for hematite and 50 {+-} 16 m{sup 2}/L for goethite were calculated as a function of surface area of the two insoluble minerals. V{sub max} was determined to be 123 {+-} 14 and 156 {+-} 13 nmol Fe(II)/min/mg of TM protein for hematite and goethite, respectively. These values are consistent with in vivo rates of reduction reported in the literature. These observations are consistent with our conclusion that the enzymatic reduction of mineral oxides is an effective probe that will allow elucidation of molecular chemistry of the membrane-mineral interface where electron transfer occurs.
Climate Change and National Security
Malone, Elizabeth L.
2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.
Global Environmental Change and Human Security
Kunnas, Jan
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
with human rights, human security or environmental change ifEnvironmental Change and Human Security By Matthew, RichardChange and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts &
Climate Change Science Institute | Clean Energy | ORNL
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Climate Change Science Institute SHARE Climate Change Science Institute To advance understanding of the Earth system, describe the consequences of climate change, and evaluate and...
Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Colucci, W.S.
1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The predictive value of radionuclide ventriculography was studied in 34 patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (less than 40%) and clinically evident congestive heart failure secondary to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In addition to left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular ejection fraction and extent of left ventricular paradox were obtained in an attempt to identify a subgroup at increased risk of mortality during the ensuing months. The 16 patients who were alive after a 2 year follow-up period had a higher right ventricular ejection fraction and less extensive left ventricular dyskinesia. When a right ventricular ejection fraction of less than 35% was used as a discriminant, mortality was significantly greater among the 21 patients with a depressed right ventricular ejection fraction (71 versus 23%), a finding confirmed by a life table analysis. It appears that the multiple factors contributing to the reduction in right ventricular ejection fraction make it a useful index not only for assessing biventricular function, but also for predicting patient outcome.
Haller, Gary L.
climate change awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and policy support in India. The results make very Change Communication in collaboration with GlobeScan Incorporated. Fieldwork in India was conducted by C and should inform stakeholders across India. Dr. Leiserowitz has asked the Indian public a series
Shyy, Wei
Proposal Management PI & Project Team PAF Changes Step-By-Step Procedures Last updated: 4/1/2013 1 of 10 http://eresearch.umich.edu PAF Changes This procedure details how the PI & Project Team can: Make. Page 9 Important Information Before a PAF is routed for approval, the PI & Project Team can make
Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International
Alvarez, Nadir
1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes that the most genetically diverse populations are the ones most at risk from climate change, so that global warming will erode the species' genetic variability faster than it curtails the species' geographic
Climate Change and Place Roundtable Discussion
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Urban Development and Climate Change,” 2007. The fullThink about what runaway climate change would mean where youWorld Changing Seattle, WA Climate change is global in scale
UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions
Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes
Allan, Richard P.
changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses